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Chemistry 1A, Spring 2009


Midterm Exam III Practice Set and Solutions

Author’s Note:
This practice set for the third midterm is significantly shorter than the previous one in 
terms of the number of questions. Unfortunately, I had greater time restrictions this 
time around due to other midterms and other obligations. I spent the majority of my 
limited time writing up expanded solutions for not only my questions, but also all the 
multiple choice questions on the past midterms posted on bSpace. I felt that 
understanding how to approach problems would be more important than just 
memorizing the methods and equations for every type of problem, especially with the 
conceptually heavy chapters that were covered this time. It’s also a minor excuse on 
my part since writing decent problems actually take longer than writing solutions. 
Hopefully you’ll find this practice set helpful for the the midterm. And as always, I 
hope that you’ll all perform brilliantly Monday evening. ^_^
~Stephen Kok

Informal Student Review Sessions
If you haven’t been to any of the ones I held last midterm, these are basically Q&A driven reviews 
where I’ll basically  answer questions and problems to clear up concepts that may still be a bit 
fuzzy. For the 2nd review session, it is still tentative since apparently the buildings on campus will 
be locked down due to Easter Sunday. If I actually cannot get a classroom that day, it will be held in 
the Clark Kerr Campus “library” in Building 12, directions will be given if needed. 
#1 Saturday, April 11th 6:00pm‐9:00pm – 120 Latimer
*Tentative* # 2 Sunday, April 12th 2:00pm‐5:00pm – TBA  bSpace Chatroom  

Sections Pages
Practice Problems
2-6
Multiple choice and Free response
Expanded Solutions
7-13
Practice Problems
Expanded Solutions
14-27
Midterm III 2007
Expanded Solutions
28-33
Midterm III 2008
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*Any questions, complaints, etc.  regarding this practice set should sent to me.  stephenkok@berkeley.edu*

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche
 

Practice Prob
blems 
 
For probblems 1-3, usse the follow
wing informaation. 
Four ideentical flaskss are filled with
w one molle of each off the followinng gases at 25˚C
2 and seaaled:
2
Oxygen (O2), Nitrogen
N (N ), Krypton (Kr),
( and Chhlorine (Cl2)

1) In whiich flask do the particless have the leaast collisions per secondd with the glaass walls?
A Oxygen-fiilled
A) B) Nitrogen-fille
N ed
C Krypton-fi
C) filled D) Chlorine-fille
C ed
E All of them
E) m have the same collisioons per seconnd

2) Order the flasks by


y decreasingg relative kinnetic energy
A N2>O2>Cll2>Kr
A) B) Kr>Cl
K 2>O2>N
N2
B N2>Cl2>O
B) O2>Kr D) Kr>O
K 2>Cl2>N
> 2
E O2=N2=Krr=Cl2
E)

3) Calcullate the root mean square speed of eaach of the gaas samples.
N2 O2

Cl2 Kr

4) A flaskk of 3.25L of
o fluorine gaas at 34˚C annd 1.4 atm iss heated untiil its pressurre is at 12.6 atm.
How has the root meean squared velocity
v of thhe gas particcles changedd?
A Doubled
A) B) Tripled
T
C Quadrupleed
C) D) More
M than quuadrupled
E Not enoug
E) gh informatioon

Below is a Maxwell Distributionn of speeds of gaseous paarticles. Usinng this graphh, answer thee
next two questions.

A vrms
fracction B
C D
speeed
5) Given that Distribution A is Bromine
B gas (Br2) at 35°C
C, which of the distributtions would best
b
representt Argon (Ar)) at 35°C?
A Distributio
A) on A B) Distribution
D B
C Distributio
C) on C D) Distribution
D D
E None of th
E) he above

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemiistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioenginneering – Premedical Sprinng 2009 Professor Nitsche 2
 

6) Given that distribution D is Helium (He) at 255°C, which of the following temperatures would
best define distribution B, if the gas of interest is still Helium?
A) 16°C B) 63.8°C C) -240°C D) -141°C
E) None of the above

7) Which of the following ways would reduce the internal energy of an open system?
A) Add heat to the system B) Do work on the system
C) Add matter to the system D) Remove matter to the system
E) None of the above

8) Which of the following ways would reduce the internal energy of a closed system?
A) Do work on the system B) Add heat to the system
C) Have the system do work D) Add matter to the system
E) None of the above

9) Which of the following ways would reduce the internal energy of an isolated system?
A) Add heat to the system B) Do work on the system
C) Remove heat from the system D) Have the system do work
E) None of the above

10) A reaction occurs in a cylinder containing a pistol which is displaced 5.4L after the
expansion of gas at 0.2kPa. Find the work done by the system.
A) +1080J B) -1080J
C) +1.08J D) -1.08
E) 0

11) In another cylinder, the system does 238kJ of work on a piston while 57kJ of heat is added to
the system, following the reaction, 83kJ of work is done on the system to recompress the gas
while removing 35kJ of heat. What is the change in internal energy?
A) -299kJ B) +133kJ
C) -133kJ D) +343kJ
E) -343kJ

12) A gaseous mixture in a cylinder at 2.81 atm had an increase of 572J in its internal energy
following a procedure involving work. What was the procedure, and how much did its volume
change by?
A) Expansion, +203.6L B) Compression, -203.6L
C) Expansion, +2.01L D) Compression, -2.01L
E) Not enough information

13) Find the temperature change of 24.5g of Ar(g) at 1.21atm when 357J are added to the system
at constant pressure. Assume that chlorine behaves as an ideal gas.
A) +4735K B) +28.0K C) +2841K D) +46.7K

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 3
 

The following information is provided for the next question


6.01 40.7 4.184 2.03 2.03
Δ    Δ             
° ° °

14) 8.2kJ of heat is supplied to a sample of 21g of ice at -25°C, calculate the final temperature of
the sample. Show your work.

Consider the combustion of pentane as shown below for the next two questions
11 5 12               Δ ° 3537
15) Calculate the amount of heat released in the combustion of 2.76 mol in the presence of
excess oxygen. Show your work

16) In a particular combustion of pentane, the heat released was measured to be -537kJ. If the
combustion occurred with excess oxygen, what volume of pentane was combusted? Assume
standard temperature and pressure. (0°C and 1 atm) Show your work.

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 4
 

17) Determine the reaction enthalpy for the hydrogenation of ethyne to ethane (shown below)
from the following information. Show your work.
2
Δ ° , 1300 /
Δ ° , 150 /
Δ ° , 286 /

Use the following information regarding bond enthalpies to answer the next two questions
Bond Mean Bond Enthalpy Bond Mean Bond Enthalpy
C-H 412 kJ/mol H-Cl 431 kJ/mol
C-O 360 kJ/mol C≡C 837 kJ/mol
Cl-Cl 242 kJ/mol C=C 518 kJ/mol
C-Cl 338 kJ/mol C-C 348 kJ/mol

18) Using the bond enthalpies in the table above, estimate the enthalpy of reaction for the
following reaction:

19) Using the bond enthalpies in the table above, estimate the enthalpy of reaction for the
following reaction:
 

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 5
 

Info Table CaCl2(aq) C2H2(g) CaC2(s) HCl(aq)


Δ ° -877.1 +226.73 59.8 167.16

°  59.8 200.94 69.96 56.5

20) Using the information above, calculate Δ ° for the following reaction at 80°C
 2   

21) 6 2 3
The reaction above has Δ ° and Δ ° Find the range of temperature at
which the reaction would be spontaneous.

22) Write the equation for the equilibrium constant K for the previous reaction and then calculate
its value at 50°C. Determine the partial pressure of HF given that the pressure of BF3 is 3.54 bar
under the same conditions

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 6
 
Expanded Solutions 
Practice Problems
1) (C) “Collisions per second” is basically another way of asking about the average velocity of
the particles. Intuitively, the faster the particles are going, the more collisions there will be with
the flasks. Velocity is proportional to the temperature of the gas, but in this instance, all the gases
are at the same temperature. However, velocity is also inversely proportional to the molar mass
of the particles. Thus, the gas particles that are the smallest will have the highest average
velocity, while the largest gas particles will have the lowest average velocity, hence the least
collisions per second, which in this case would be the huge krypton atoms.

2) (E) Relative kinetic energy can be easily confused with the velocity of the particles since
many people directly relate kinetic energy with how fast the particles are moving. This is
partially correct, however, if you look at the formula for the kinetic energy per mole of gaseous
particles , where R is the gas constant in Joules per Kelvin per mole and T is the
temperature in Kelvin, there doesn’t seem to be a velocity variable! However, to those that are
also taking physics, you might also be wondering why there isn’t a variable for mass. The
beautiful part of this formula is that the mass and velocity essentially cancel each other out,
relating the kinetic energy only to the temperature of the gas (as long as it’s considered ideal).
This is because the velocity of the larger particles is slower, but their mass is larger, thus their
large mass essentially balances out the slower velocity. This holds true for the smaller particles
moving at higher velocities are well. I will not go over the derivation here, but understand that
although different gas particles may travel at different velocities, their average kinetic energy is
the same for the same temperature because of the mass-velocity relationship. Thus, the flasks
would all have the same relative kinetic energy because they’re all at the same temperature.

3)

8.31 8.31
3 298 3 298
· 515  / · 482  /
0.028 / 0.032 /

8.31 8.31
3 298 3 298
· 323  / · 297  /
0.071 / 0.084 /
Straight forward calculations, but you have to make sure your numbers are in the correct form.
First, make sure that your temperature is in Kelvin not Celsius, you generally don’t even want to
use temperatures in Celsius unless a specific heat is given in Celsius rather than Kelvin. Next,
make sure that your molar mass (M) is in kilograms/mol rather than grams/mol. This is a simple
but huge mistake that I generally encounter with others and myself sometimes. If you have a
ridiculously small velocity, use your best judgment to decide whether you have made a unit error
somewhere in the calculation.

4) A very simple problem that has a simple trap that could easily be missed. First off, we start
with the ideal gas formula . Since the volume and moles of gas isn’t changing, we’ll
simply ignore than along with the gas constant. Pressure is directly proportional to
temperature in this case, which would mean an increase by a factor of nine in the pressure would

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 7
 

result in an increase by the same factor of the temperature. Now we’re see how this affects the
root mean squared velocity. The molar mass isn’t going to change in this problem
just like the gas constant, so we’ll focus only on the temperature. If the temperature increases to
9x its original amount, the square root over the temperature means that the velocity only
increases by a factor of 3, tripled, not nine. Make sure that you check the formulas before
jumping to conclusions and problems like these will be free points.

5) (B) If you’re given a Maxwell distribution of speeds, most likely you’ll encounter problems
such as these. You’ll be comparing distributions by using the root-mean squares velocity formula
3

where R is the gas constant in J/mol, T is the temperature in Kelvin, and M is the molar mass in
kilograms. Looking at the formula, the only variables are T and M, so all distributions are
basically related to each other by a factor of . You’ll be using this relationship to solve this
problem. This first question asks about the distribution of bromine versus argon. Note that the
temperature does not change, but the molar mass of the compounds do. Bromine has a molar
mass of 160g/mol or 0.16kg/mol, while Argon has a molar mass of 40g/mol = 0.04kg/mol. If we
compare using the relationship , we notice that Argon would have twice as much velocity as
Bromine since its molar mass is only ¼ as large, which through the square root becomes ½.
Since it’s in the denominator, we take its reciprocal and see that the velocity is raised by a factor
of two. Comparing distribution A to the rest of the distributions, B is a vrms twice as fast
compared to A, so that’s the correct answer.

6) (C) In this problem, we encounter the relationship again, but this time the molar mass is
staying constant while the temperature is changing. Comparing distribution D to distribution B,
we find that B has a fourth of the vrms compared to D, so that means the new temperature would
be one sixteenth of the original due to the square root. Here is a key point, the equation has
temperature in terms of Kelvin (which is pretty much standard for all calculations with minor
exceptions such as calorimetry problems), so first convert 255°C into Kevlin and then perform
the operations.
255 273 528
528
33
16
33 273 240°

7) (D) An open system allows the system to do work and exchange heat and matter. In this case,
removing matter from this system would decrease the internal energy of the system, since matter
itself contains its own internal energy. Like removing money from your bank account, the
“internal energy” of your account has decrease in terms of monetary values ^^.

8) (C) A closed system allows the system to do work and exchange heat, but not matter, hence
“closed” system. The internal energy may be decreased by having the system do work, all the

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 8
 

others would increase the internal energy. This is similar to your own energy being consumed in
work in terms of exercising. (However, understand that the human body is an open system)

9) (E) An isolated system is simply an “isolated” system in which matter, heat nor work could be
exchanged or done. This means that the internal energy of the system stays constant because the
surrounding conditions cannot affect it. The closest example to an isolated system is a sealed
thermos, in which work cannot be done by or on it, matter cannot be added because it’s sealed,
and heat generally isn’t exchanged.

10) (B) Straight forward calculation of work, don’t mess up your signs!!
Δ
w-work in Joules, Pex-external pressure in Pascals, ∆V-change in volume
200 5.4
1080
In case you get atm instead of Pa, convert your final answer by multiplying by 101.325J/L*atm

11) (C) Keep track of your signs! Work done by the system decreases its internal energy
(negative), work done on the system increases its internal energy (positive), heat added to the
system increases its internal energy, and heat removed from the system decreases its internal
energy.
57 35 22  
238 83 155
Δ 22 155 133
12) Another straight forward calculation, make sure you take into account the units!
572
5.645 ·  
101.325 / ·
5.645 ·
Δ Δ
2.81
Δ 2.01 ,

13) (B) This is probably not a problem you’ll encounter on the midterm due to the difficulty of
the concept. However, since it appeared on the homework, it’s still considered fair game. In this
problem, you’ll be using the following formulas:
                   
Δ
You have , the heat provided to the system, but you’ll have to solve for the heat capacity first.
The heat capacity is defined as such, for every degree of motion possible for the particle, the heat
capacity increases by a factor of ½R. Translational motion, the motion of the particle in the
three-dimensional world gives the particles three degrees of motion. For molecules, you’ll also
have to consider the rotation of the particle which could provide an additional two to three extra
degrees of motion. Now we have a heat capacity of , however, this is only the heat capacity
for atoms at constant volume. Luckily, the heat capacity for constant pressure is related by the
equation , so the heat capacity for argon gas would be . Unfortunately, we’re not
completely done, as if you remember, heat capacity is varies according to the quantity of matter.

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 9
 

In this case, we’re using the gas constant R in J/mol, so the gas constant must be multiplied by
the moles of argon gas present in this reaction.
5 24.5
2 40

Now, finally using the initial formula:


5 24.5 357
2 40 Δ Δ
357
Δ 28
5 24.5
2 40

14) When doing calculations involving samples that could possibly undergo phase change, its
best to break the problem into parts. In this case, we’ll start by determining the amount of heat
necessary to heat the sample of ice to 0°C.
Δ
2.03
21 0 25°
°
1066
We have more than enough heat for such a process. Energy remaining: 8200 1066 7134
Now we’ll calculate the energy consumed for the sample to undergo fusion.
Δ
21 6.01
7.012 7012
18

The energy remaining now is 7134 7012 122 . It seems quite probable that the sample of
water will not be heated to the boiling temperature, so we’ll use the remaining heat directly to
calculate the final temperature.
Δ
4.184
122 21 0
122
1.39
4.184
21

15) This is a simple calculation given that you understand that the enthalpy of combustion is the
heat released for 1 mole of pentane and 11 moles of oxygen. Given that oxygen will not limit the
reaction, the heat released for a particular quantity of pentane is simply the enthalpy of
combustion multiplied by the quantity in moles.
3537
Δ 2.76 9762

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 10
 

16) In this problem, we’re basically going in reverse, solving for the amount of pentane that was
combusted. We start by taking the ratio of the heat released compared to the heat released by a
mole of pentane with excess oxygen.
537
0.152   
3537

Note that if you wanted to find the amount of carbon dioxide or water produced in this reaction,
you would simply multiply this ratio by their stoichiometric coefficient. Since this problem
wants this quantity in terms of volume, we’ll use the ideal gas formula.

0.152 8.06 10 0 273


1
3.34

17) This problem has Hess’ Law marked all over it. You should first start by writing the
balanced equations for the combustions of the gases. (Note that fractional coefficients are
allowed in order to preserve the enthalpy of combustion for 1 mole of the hydrocarbon)
5
2                  Δ ° 1300
2
7
2 3                Δ ° 1560
2
1
                                           Δ ° 286
2
Manipulating the equations to get the reaction:
5
2                    Δ ° 1300
2
7
2 3                  Δ ° 1560
2
2 2                                                  Δ ° 2 286
2
312
Δ ° 1300 1560 2 286

18) For bond enthalpy type problems, it may help you considerably to draw a rough sketch of the
molecule in order to help you decide which bonds are broken and which bonds are formed. In
this particular reaction, a C-H bond and a Cl-Cl bond are broken apart, while a C-Cl bond and a
H-Cl bond are formed. Remember that breaking bonds require energy while forming bonds
releases energy. Thus
Δ Δ Δ
Δ
Δ 412 242 338 431
Δ 115 /

19) Same as above, except with a different reaction.


Δ Δ Δ
Δ C C O H C C C O C H

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 11
 

Δ 612 463 348 360 412


Δ 45kJ/mol

20) These types of problems have a high chance of appearing on the midterm since they cover all
three calculations of state functions in one run. The problem itself is generally not difficult, just
make sure you don’t make any calculation mistakes.
Δ ° Δ ° , Δ ° , Δ ° , 2Δ ° ,
Δ ° 256.3 /
Δ ° ° , ° , ° , 2 ° ,
Δ ° 77.8 /
Important detail: Note that your calculated entropy is in Joules rather than kilojoules like your
enthalpy, make sure you convert your entropy into kilojoules before using the Gibb’s free energy
relation formula. Remember also to convert temperature to Kelvin.
Δ ° Δ ° Δ °
77.8
Δ ° 256.2 80 273
1000
Δ ° 283.7kJ/mol

21) If you recall from lecture, depending on the sign of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction, it
can be spontaneous or non-spontaneous at particular temperatures. In this case, we’ll be using the
Gibb’s free energy formula relating the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction:
Δ ° Δ ° Δ °
Note that for a reaction to be spontaneous, Δ ° 0. In this case of this reaction, we have a
negative enthalpy along with a negative entropy, which means that the reaction is only
spontaneous at certain temperatures. To find the boundary at which the reaction becomes
spontaneous or non-spontaneous, we set Δ ° 0 and solve for T, the temperature in Kelvin.
0 232 379
232
612
379
/
1000
If T<612K, Δ ° 0, hence the reaction is spontaneous for temperatures less than 612K.

22) The equilibrium constant equation is written as shown:

Note that and do not appear in the equation since pure solids and liquids have a
value of 1. The stoichiometric coefficients of the molecules determine how many times its partial
pressure value is multipled by itself rather than being a simple multiple as when determining the
other state functions such as enthalpy and entropy. To calculate the equilibrium constant with
this formula, we would require the partial pressure of BF3 and the partial pressure of HF, but
since we have neither piece of information, we’ll have to use a different equation. In the previous
problem, we were given information regarding the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction. With
those pieces of information, we can calculate Gibb’s free energy, which relates to the equilibrium
constant in the following way:
Δ °
First off, we’ll calculate Δ °

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 12
 

379
Δ ° Δ ° Δ ° 232 50 273 1000

Δ ° 110 110000
Rearranging the first equation to solve for K
°

6.14 10
Remember to convert your Gibb’s free energy in Joules in order to match the units of the gas
constant or else you’ll end up with the wrong K value.
Now that we have the calculated value of K, we can solve for the partial pressure of HF using the
equilibrium constant equation. 
3.54
6.14 10

3.54
0.00165 
6.14 10
This is an extremely small partial pressure, however, if you look at the K value, you see that its
extremely large. An extremely large K value generally indicates that that the reaction is product-
favored, and in this case, nearly no reactants would be left, hence explaining the tiny partial
pressure.

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 13
 

Expanded Solutions 
Midterm III 2007
1) A mixture of 1.00 g of H2 and 1.00 g of He exerts a pressure of 0.480 atm. What
is the partial pressure of each gas in the mixture?
A) PH2 = 0.240 atm PHe= 0.240 atm
B) PH2 = 0.320 atm PHe= 0.160 atm
C) PH2 = 0.160 atm PHe= 0.320 atm
D) PH2 = 0.384 atm PHe= 0.096 atm
E) PH2 = 0.096 atm PHe= 0.384 atm

(B) This is a question that actually should have appeared on the last midterm since this deals
with Dalton’s partial pressures. First calculate how many moles of gas you have
1 1
0.5                          0.25
2 4

Find the total amount of moles and then calculate the proportion of the gases in the mixture
      0.5 0.25 0.75 
0.5 2 0.25 1
%                      %
0.75 3 0.75 3
Now, since partial pressures is determined by the proportion of gas particles there are for each
compound, we multiply the proportions by the total pressure.
2 1
0.480 0.320                     0.160
3 3 0.480

2) Consider the balanced reaction for the combustion of octanol:


C8H18O (g) + 12 O2 (g) → 8 CO2 (g) + 9 H2O (g)
What volume of carbon dioxide gas will be produced from 5.00 g of octanol and a
stoichiometric amount of oxygen if the reaction is carried out at 28oC and 0.984
atm?

A) 0.308 L B) 6.89 L C) 7.72 L D) 8.69 L E) 0.966 L

(C) This is a limiting reaction-type problem. From the information, we know that by
“stoichiometric amount of oxygen”, they mean that we have just enough oxygen to bring the
reaction to completion given the amount of octanol. So… solving for the moles of octanol
5
0.0385   
130

If this reaction goes to completion, then for every one mole of C8H18O that reacts, 8 moles of
carbon dioxide is produced. However, we have less than 1 mol, so by proportion
8  
0.0385   0.3077    
1     
Converting the moles of CO2 into volume by using the ideal gas equation
0.3077 8.2057 10 28 273.15
7.72
0.984

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UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 14
 

3) Which change(s) in a sample of ideal gas would have the same effect on the
pressure as increasing the velocity of the particles? Mark all that apply.
A) Increase in temperature.
B) Increase in volume.
C) Decrease in pressure
D) Increase in the number of moles of gas.
E) None of these.

(A/D) In this problem, we’re relating pressure to different situations applied on the system.
Increasing the velocity of the particles will definitely increase the pressure of the system since
there will be more collisions. So we’re finding the situations that would also increase pressure.
Increasing the temperature would increase the velocity of the particles by the root mean square
velocity formula essentially giving the same effect. Increasing the volume would decrease the
pressure since the particles now have more space to occupy and would collide into the walls less
frequently. Decreasing pressure… would decrease pressure, no explanation needed there.
Increasing the number of moles of gas would mean there are now more particles occupying the
same space, which would also increase the pressure exerted on the walls. It’s like starting out
with a full lecture room and then doubling the number of students in there, which would increase
the pressure in the room, not to mention the tension o.O…

4) What is the pressure required to compress a 1.00 L sample of air at 1.00 atm to
0.400 L at 25°C?

A) 1.0 atm B) 1.5 atm C) 2.0 atm D) 2.5 atm E) 3.0 atm

(D) Extremely simple calculation using a derived formula from the combined gas law
         
1.00 1.00 0.400 2.5
Note that temperature isn’t used in this calculation because it doesn’t change.

For the next three questions, consider four flasks filled with 1.0 mol of different gasses:
Flask A: O2 at 760 torr and 10oC.
Flask B: N2 at 900 torr and 80oC.
Flask C: He at 800 torr and 10oC.
Flask D: He at 500 torr and 80oC.

5) Which flask(s) will have molecules with the greatest average kinetic energy?

(B/D) Whenever something refers to kinetic energy of gas particles, you should immediately
refer to the formula . Note that mass and pressure are not taken into account, only
temperature determines the average kinetic energy. Thus, gas particles at the same temperature
would have the same average kinetic energy, which in this case, flasks B and D both have the
highest temperature and thus the highest average kinetic energy.

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6) Which flask(s) will have molecules with the greatest root mean square velocity?
(D) The room mean square velocity formula is . There are two variables in this
equation, T, temperature in Kelvin, and M, the molar mass of the compound in kilograms.
Basically, the highest the temperature and the lower the molar mass, the higher the velocity. In
this case, we have both flasks B and D at the same high temperature, but since D contains helium
which has a smaller molar mass compared to nitrogen gas (4g vs. 28g), the particles in D would
have a highest velocity.

7) Which flask(s) will have the greatest number of collisions per second with the
walls of the container?

(B) Collisions per second is basically another way of asking which flask has the highest pressure.
From the pressure values, we see that flask B is at 900 Torr, which is the highest pressure value
thus it has the greatest number of collisions per second.

For the next four questions consider a system which releases 546 kJ of heat while its
internal energy drops by 125 kJ.

8) What can you infer about the process? Mark all that apply.
A) Work is involved.
B) The entropy of the system decreases.
C) It is spontaneous.
D) The first law of thermodynamics does not apply.

(A/B) From the information, we are told that heat is released and the internal energy of the
system decreases, but the numbers don’t match up. This means there’s a different factor, work,
that’s involved in this process. Since the internal energy drops, this also means that entropy
decreases since the loss of internal energy would mean that the particles are becoming less
chaotic and becoming more ordered. Almost like how you would feel after a sugar rush. ^_^

9) Based on the information given, which relationship(s) should be used to calculate


the amount of work involved? Mark all that apply.
A) w = -P ΔV
B) ΔE = q + w
C) qsystem = qsurroundings
D) w = -RTlnK
E) S = kBlnW

(B) Simple enough. Since work is involved, C is removed. Pressure and volume isn’t given so A
is removed. Temperature and the equilibrium constant are not given so D is removed along with
E. So the answer is B, clear enough.

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10) How much work is done (if any) in kJ?

A) -125 B) -421 C) +125 D) +421 E) 0


(D) Δ . In this case we have the values Δ 125 since the internal energy drops
and 546 since heat is released by the system. Solving for w, we get +421kJ.

11) What best characterizes the work done?


A) Work is done on the system.
B) Work is done by the system.
C) Work is done both on and by the system.
D) Cannot determine based on the information provided.

(A) Since work is positive, work is done on the system. If this is hard to remember, refer back to
the formula Δ . If work is done by the system, internal energy decreases since its
consumed in the work, which makes it negative. If work is done on the system, internal energy
increases since energy is being added by the work which makes it positive.

12) A system undergoes a change that can be broken down into two steps: 1) the system does 70
J of work while absorbing 62 J of heat, and 2) the system releases 29 J of heat while 94 J of work
is being done on it. What is the overall energy change of the system?

A) +57 J B) -57 J C) +9 J D) -9 J E) +255 J

(A) Basic adding and subtracting of heat and work, make sure your signs are correct
62 29 33
70 94 24
Δ 57

13) Consider the chemical reaction that occurs in a hydrogen fuel cell:
2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 H2O (l) ΔH = -572 kJ
What is the heat change (in kJ) when 186 g of oxygen reacts with excess hydrogen?

A) -572 0 B) +5720 C) +3320 D) -3320 E) -1660

(D) Limiting reaction by oxygen. First off, solve for the number of moles of oxygen
186
5.8125     
32 /
Since this reaction produces -572kJ for each mole of oxygen, we multiply the enthalpy of
reaction by the moles of oxygen we have (since the reaction goes to completion with excess
hydrogen)
572
5.8125   3325~ 3320
 

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14) Consider the following reactions carried out at a constant temperature and pressure. In which
of these will the amount of work done be positive? Hint: only the coefficients of the reactants are
given. All species are gas unless otherwise noted.

A) The synthesis reaction of 2 mol SO2 and 1 mol O2 to give SO3.


B) The synthesis reaction of 4 mol NO to give O2 and N2.
C) The decomposition reaction of 2 mol CCl2O to give CO and Cl2.
D) The combustion of 2 mol CH3OH.
E) The conversion of 2 mol of solid I2 to gaseous I2.

(A) This is a trickier problem. First off, we have to define when work is positive. If the value of
work is positive, this means that work is done on the system, which would increase its internal
energy. All the following reactions involve gaseous compounds, so to apply work to the systems
would mean that there is a compression of gas. To determine which reaction would decrease the
number of moles of gas particles, we’ll have to balance all of them.
2 2
2                

2 3 2 4

From balance reactions, we can see that all of the reactions except the first would produce more
moles of gas, since the moles of reactants is less than the moles of products. The first reaction
has 3 moles of gas going into 2 moles of gas, so this means that there is an overall compression
occurring which gives the positive work the question is asking about.

15) Consider the reaction for which ΔHo~200 kJ/mol and ΔSo~100 J/mol
CaO (s) + CO2 (g) → CaCO3 (g)
Under which condition(s) will this reaction be spontaneous?
A) At high temperatures.
B) At low temperatures.
C) The reaction will always be spontaneous.
D) The reaction will never be spontaneous.

(A) This problem deals with the formula relating Gibb’s free energy Δ and the entropy and
enthalpy of the system, which is Δ ° Δ ° Δ °, where T is the temperature in Kelvin. So in
this problem, we’re given information about the enthalpy Δ ° and the entropy ΔS°, so putting it
into the equation. Remember that entropy is given in Joules per mole rather than kiloJoules.
Δ ° 200 0.1
Now we discuss what Δ would imply when it is a positive value versus a negative value. A
positive Δ ° would mean that the reaction would not be spontaneous, while a negative Δ °
would imply a spontaneous reaction (though in later chapters we refined this definition to be
“reactant-favored” and “product-favored” respectively). So if we want the reaction to be
spontaneous, we would want Δ ° to be negative. This is the case only if the temperature, T, is
larger than 2000K. Hence, the condition that would make this reaction spontaneous would be at
high temperatures.

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16) A 46.2 g sample of Cu is heated to 95.4°C and then placed in a calorimeter with 75.0 g of
water at 19.6°C. The final temperature of the water is 21.8°C. What is the heat capacity of the Cu
in kJ/ °C·g if the calorimeter does not absorb any heat?

A) 0.203 B) -0.203 C) 0.0770 D) -0.0770 E) 4.18


(A) This is a basic calorimetry problem, easier too since we don’t have to take into account the
heat absorbed by the calorimeter as in the lab. Since heat must be conserved in an isolated
system, we’ll use the following equation:
Δ Δ
We know all the values except for the specific heat of copper , where we are solving for, so
rearranging the equation we get:
Δ
Δ
4.184
75 21.8° 19.6°
°
46.2 21.8° 95.4°
0.203 / °
Remember to check your units in these problems since sometimes the heat capacity is given in
kilojoules rather than Joules, but temperature is generally kept in Celsius instead of Kelvin. For
this problem, I think they meant Joules as their unit instead of kilojoules since the specific heat
of water is 4.184J/g° rather than 4.184kJ/g° as given on their equation list.

17) Along which isotherm(s) will a phase change be observed? Mark all that apply.

A) A B) B C) C D) D E) none of these

(A/C) With respect to the phase diagram, an isotherm is a line in which the temperature stays
constant throughout the particular line, hence the prefix of “iso” which basically means the same
or constant. Since the temperature increases as you move from left to right, there will be an
isotherm only when a line is pointed upward or downward since that would indicate only a
change in pressure and not temperature. D is disregarded in this case because there is no “phase
change” that occurs, which is visually represented as the intersection of a phase boundary with
the isotherm.

18) Along which line will there be a positive change in entropy? Mark all that apply.

A) A B) B C) C D) D E) none of these

(B) An increase in entropy, or simply put, an increase in chaos always occurs when moving from
any lower energy phase to a higher energy phase. Examples would include melting (solid to
liquid), vaporizing (liquid to gas), or subliming (solid to gas). The reverse phase changes would
indicate a negative change in entropy, moving towards a more ordered state. A represents
deposition (gas to solid), a negative entropy; B represents melting (solid to liquid), a positive
entropy; C represents condensation (gas to liquid), a negative entropy; and D doesn’t represent
any phase change, but there is still an increase in pressure. An increase in pressure generally

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means a negative entropy as well since pressure generally decreases the volume of the content
and would force it to become more ordered.

19) Which of the following represents a plot of the vapor pressure vs. T?

(A) This one is pretty much you know it or you don’t. Vapor pressure is directly proportional
with the vaporization and condensation of compounds, which occurs on the phase boundary
between the liquid and gas phases. Thus, the same line represents the vapor pressure, and hence
the answer is A.

For the next five questions, consider the gas phase reaction N2 + 3 H2 ↔ 2 NH3 with an
equilibrium constant of K = 0.278 at 800 K. The entropies of formation (in kJ/mol) are:
H2=130.6, N2=191.5, & NH3=192.3.

20) What is the standard entropy change associated with this reaction (J/mol)?

A) –198.7 B) –129.8 C) -99.4 D) 129.8 E) 198.7

(A) We’re given the standard entropies of formation for all the molecules so we can simply use
the formula:
Δ ° Σ ° Σ °
192.3 191.5 130.6
Δ ° 2 3
Δ ° 198.7 /
Remember to multiply by stoichoimetric coefficients if there are any in the balanced equation.

21) Which is the free energy change associated with this reaction in kJ/ mol?

A) –84.0 B) +84.0 C) -8.51 D) +8.51 E) +4.26

(D) First we look at what values we’re given for this problem which are K, the equilibrium
constant, T, the temperature at which the reaction occurs, and the recently calculated Δ °, the
standard entropy of reaction.
From the formula sheet, we find an equation that involves two of the three values for the
calculation of Gibb’s free energy, excluding the entropy of reaction (which is common, since it’ll
prevent students from getting both equations wrong due to the miscalculation of the first). The
formula is
Δ °
8.3145
Δ ° 800 ln  0.278
8514.94
Δ ° 8515 /
However, the problem wants the answer in kilojoules per mole, so convert by dividing by 1000.
8515
8.515 /
1000

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In this problem, keeping your signs straight is crucial in getting the correct answer since many
calculation type problems will have similar values with only a simple change in sign. Make sure
when using this formula that your temperature is in Kelvin, though it was already given in this
problem.

22) Analysis of a reaction mixture yielded the following partial pressures: N2 = 0.417 atm, H2=
0.524 atm and NH3= 0.122 atm. What is the reaction quotient for the reaction?

A) 0.116 B) 0.248 C) 2.90 D) 1.91 E) 0.881

(B) The reaction quotient, Q, is given by the following formula:

  

                .
Since this is specified as a “gas phase reaction” in the problem, we won’t have to worry about
partial pressures of pure solids and liquids (which would be set at 1). The partial pressure of each
molecule is taken to the power of its coefficient, rather than simply multiplied. So throwing in
the values of the partial pressures:
0.122
0.248  
0.417 0.524

23) Which best describes the condition of the reaction mixture in the previous question?

A) The reaction mixture is at equilibrium.


B) The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium – it will proceed toward reactants.
C) The reaction mixture is not at equilibrium – it will proceed toward products.
D) Can’t tell.

(C) This one is linked to the previous problem regarding the reaction quotient since we’ll be
comparing the equilibrium constant with the quotient value. From the problem we have K=0.278
and Q=0.248 and the formula for Q is:

  

Since Q≠K, the reaction is not at equilibrium, so now the question is which way the reaction
would proceed. Since Q<K and we would like Q=K, we would have to increase the partial
pressure of NH3. This means that the reaction would proceed towards the product side since the
partial pressure would increase if more products were formed from the reactants. Note that if
there is more products, there are also less reactants, so while increasing the partial pressure of the
products, we’re also decreasing the partial pressure of the reactants which increases Q overall.

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UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 21
 

24) If equilibrium is reached for this reaction, and the volume of the container is then reduced by
a factor of two. Which best describes how the reaction mixture will proceed?
A) Toward products.
B) Toward reactants.
C) No change.

(A) Now that equilibrium was reached, the volume is reduced by a half (factor of two), which
would mean the pressure of the system increases due to less space for the gas particles. Looking
at the formula for the reaction quotient to see if the system is at equilibrium:

We assume that since volume decreases by a half, partial pressures are doubled since pressure
and volume are inversely proportional. (Remember ?) So…changing the quotient
2 4 4
2 2 2 4 2 2

2
So the reaction is no longer at equilibrium since its value is different due to the decrease of
volume. Since the reactants’ partial pressure value (bottom) is now larger, the reaction quotient
would be smaller, and if the reaction quotient is smaller, than there must be an increase in
products to increase the partial pressure of the top of the quotient.

Another way to look at this is with le Chatelier principle in terms of the reaction equation:
N2 + 3 H2 ↔ 2 NH3
All the molecules are gases, so we can compare the moles and thus partial pressures of the gases.
On the reactant side, there are four moles of gas, while there are only two moles of gas on the
product side. If there is a decrease in volume, and thus an increase in pressure, the reaction
would move in the direction that would “save” more space. Since two moles worth of partial
pressure would take up less volume than four moles worth of partial pressures, the reaction
would move in the product direction.

Consider the following three reactions for the next two questions:
1) N2 (g) + O2 (g)→2 NO (g) K1
2) N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) → 2 NO2 (g) K2
3) 2 NO (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO2 (g) K3

25) What is an expression for the reaction quotient for reaction 1?

(E) Simple enough, since all the reactions are in the gas phase, it’s the sum of the partial
pressures of the products divided by the sum of the partial pressures of the reactants, all taken to
the power of their stoichiometric coefficient.

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UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 22
 

26) What is an expression for K3?

(A) This problem involves the manipulation of the reactions that may remind you of Hess’ law.
In this case, you’ll be manipulating the first and second reactions in order to determine the
third’s equilibrium constant in terms of the first and second’s.
  2      
 2 2           
2   2             
We want NO on the left side of the equation so we “flip” it, but instead of making the
equilibrium constant negative (not possible), we’ll use its reciprocal.
1
2    
 2 2           
Cancelling out compounds that appear on both sides we get the third reaction.
2   2             
Now the other difference is instead of adding the equilibrium constants, we would multiply them
to get

The mathematical proof of what went on:


“Flipping the equation”
2  
  2
1

“Multiplying the constants”

27) What is the effect on reaction 3 if the partial pressure of NO is increased at equilibrium?
A) an decrease in the partial pressure of O2
B) a shift toward reactants
C) a shift toward products
D) a change in the K1
E) none of these

(A/C) This problem can be solved by observing the reaction quotient of the third reaction:

If the partial pressure of NO is increased from equilibrium, then the quotient would become
smaller due to the larger figure on the denominator. To return to equilibrium, the partial pressure
of NO2 must increase, which explains the reaction shift towards products. Also, another way to
return to equilibrium is to decrease the partial pressure of O2 which would help counteract the

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effects the increased partial pressure of NO. Both of these work simultaneously to return the
reaction back to dynamic equilibrium. This problem may also be partially solved by le
Chatelier’s principle, but you’ll only be able to see the shift towards the reactants and might miss
the decrease in partial pressure that can also occur. By the way, how does a change in the third
reaction affect the equilibrium constant in the first? It doesn’t. ^_^

28) Given that the reaction is endothermic, what is the effect of increasing the temperature of
reaction 1 at equilibrium? Mark all that apply.
A) An decrease in the partial pressure of O2.
B) A shift toward reactants.
C) A shift toward products.
D) A change in K1.
E) None of these.

(A/C/D) In this problem, we’re going to look at the chemical equation for the reaction.
    2  
Since the reaction is endothermic, it means that it requires energy to occur, thus heat is a reactant
in this process. Through le Chatelier’s principle, if we increase the temperature of the reaction,
thus increasing the heat, the reaction would move to the product side. A easier way to think of le
Chatelier’s principle is a balanced see-saw where the reactants are on one side while the products
are on the other side at equilibrium. If we add heat, which “increases the weight” on the reactant
side, then to rebalance the see-saw, we would need more products, which means the reaction
would shift towards the products. ^^ The equilibrium constant K, is dependent on the
temperature at which the reaction takes place. If the temperature increases for an endothermic
reaction, then the equilibrium constant is also increased to the temperature. Thus there is a
change in K1. Now to determine whether there are changes in partial pressure, we’ll look at the
reaction quotient

Since K1 increases, then there is an increase in the partial pressure in NO, which was stated
before by le Chatelier’s principle, but there can also be a drop in partial pressure of the reactants
N2 and O2 in order to compensate for the increase of K1.

29) What is the reaction quotient after the volume is halved for reaction 1 at equilibrium?

A) Q = K1 B) Q = 2K1 C) Q = ½ K1 D) Q = ¼ K1 E) Q = 4K1

(A) This is a particular interesting problem that shows that changing the conditions of a reaction
might not affect its dynamic equilibrium. The reaction quotient for the first reaction:

If the volume is halved, the pressure of the overall system would double in response. (By
) Thus all the partial pressures would also double.
2 4
2 2 4

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The multiples cancelled each other out which means that the equilibrium is not disturbed when
the volume is reduced by a half. Thus

30) Which of the following is the correct plot of ΔG° vs. T for the evaporation of water?

(C) This problem can be looked at in several ways. You could use the simpler definition of
Gibb’s free energy which is that if Δ ° 0 then the reaction is spontaneous and if Δ ° 0 then
it’s not spontaneous. We know that water evaporates as temperature increases, which means that
it is “spontaneous” for high temperatures. If it is spontaneous, then Δ ° 0 at those
temperature, which is the case for graph C, where Gibb’s free energy becomes negative after a
particular temperature (boiling temperature). The first graph is incorrect because if the free
energy is always negative, then water evaporates spontaneously at all temperatures; the second is
incorrect because it is the exact reverse; and the last graph is incorrect because it implies that
water never evaporates since the free energy is never negative.

31) The equilibrium position is quantified by the equilibrium constant, K. Which of the
following generalized statements regarding K is false? Mark all that apply.

A) When K is larger than 1, the equilibrium position favors the formation of products.
B) When K is larger than 1, the value of ΔGo for the reaction is always negative.
C) When K is equal to 1, the number of moles of reactants is always equal to the number of
moles of product.
D) When K is larger than 1, the forward reaction is always occurring faster than the reverse
reaction is.
E) When K is smaller than 1, the value of ΔH for the reaction is always negative.

(C/D/E) This problem involves exploring the relationships between the equilibrium constant K,
Gibb’s free energy, enthalpy, and entropy. In the statement A, it is referring the refined definition
of Gibb’s free energy where a positive would imply a reactant-favored reaction while a negative
value would imply a product-favored reaction. The relationship between K and Gibb’s free
energy is given by the formula:
Δ °
If K is bigger than 1, then ln(K)>0, which would make the value of free energy negative due to
the negative sign in front. If it’s negative, then the equilibrium position does favor the products,
which also answer B. Statement C only applies to some reactions and generally doesn’t work for
most reaction as like the following
                     
For instance, if K=1 in this reaction, then [C]=[B]=[A]=1. So there are 2 moles of reactants, but
only 1 mole of product. This is a very common reaction structure and would contradict the
statement.

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UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 25
 

32) In order to determine the identity of a compound with a molecular formula of CxHy you carry
out an experiment with a Dumas bulb. In a bath of boiling water, you determine that a 2.0 L
Dumas bulb will hold exactly 1.829 g of gaseous unknown. If the atmospheric pressure is 1.0
atm, what is the identity of your unknown?
A) CH4 B) C2H2 C) C2H4 D) C2H6 E) C3H6

(C) Simple enough, using the ideal gas formula, we solve for the number of moles that are held
by the Dumas bulb. Note that temperature is 100°C or 373.15K since it is in boiling water.
8.206 10
1.0 2.0 100 273
0.06534 
1.829 28
  ~
0.06534
The only compound with a molar mass of 28g/mol is C2H4.

33) Recall the experiment that you did in lab to determine ΔH for the reaction between
magnesium oxide and hydrochloric acid. Which of the following would result in ΔH value that
is more exothermic than the actual value?
A) The top of the calorimeter is not on tightly.
B) The student accidentally put some ice into the calorimeter when determining
the calorimeter constant, Kcal.
C) The heat capacity of the solution is actually smaller than the heat capacity of
pure water.
D) None of the above will result in a low enthalpy of reaction.

(C) We can pretty look just look at the situations and determine if they would result in a more
exothermic value. The first statement would imply that heat leaked out of the system during the
reaction, this would probably decrease the calculated value since there was heat that was not
accounted for, unless heat leaked “into” the calorimeter which would only be possible if the
room was at a higher temperature than the reaction. The second state in regarding the Kcal would
probably result in a lower calculated value as well. If you remember, the equation used to solve
for the reaction was:

Δ Δ Δ
If ice was accidently put into the calorimeter when determining the calorimeter constant, then the
temperature drop would have been more than expected. Calculation of the constant:

Δ Δ Δ
1
Δ Δ
Δ
Looking at the final calculation, if the change in temperature was larger, than the Kcal would be
smaller and in the original enthalpy calculation, a smaller Kcal would give a smaller enthalpy,
hence less exothermic. Statement C deals with the assumption regarding hydrochloric acid in
which we used the specific heat of water as an estimation. Looking at the formula again:
Δ Δ Δ

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UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 26
 

If is smaller than we had assumed, then the enthalpy we calculated would have been
more negative than it was supposed to be, hence more exothermic than the actual value.

34) Potassium thiocynate (KSCN) is a very soluble salt. Iron thiocyanate is a red complex ion
that forms from the combination of iron (III) which is yellow and thiocynate ions which are
transparent:
Fe3+ + SCN- ↔ FeSCN2+
The equilibrium constant for the formation of iron thiocynate is moderate. What
will happen to the color of the solution as potassium thiocynate is introduced into a
test tube containing equal amounts of iron and thiocyanate?
A) The color will not change.
B) The solution will become redder.
C) The solution will become more transparent.
D) The solution will become more yellow.
E) Cannot determine the color change based on the information provided

(B) A very simple problem as long as you can apply le Chatelier’s principle. The potassium
thiocynate (KSCN) would disassociate in solution creating K+ and SCN- ions. Due to the
addition of SCN- ions, the concentration of the reactants is now higher than the concentration of
the products. Assuming that it was in dynamic equilibrium before KSCN was added, the reaction
would be tipped in the direction the product side to counterbalance the increase of reactants. If
more FeSCN2+ is created, then the solution would become more red.

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UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 27
 

Expanded Solutions 
Midterm III 2008
1) Which of the following gases would you expect to behave least like an ideal gas?
A) He
B) CO2
C) H2O
D) Xe
E) Br2
(C) Simple enough, all the molecules are in gaseous form at standard temperature and pressure
except water. Water also has extensive hydrogen bonding that also affects gaseous behavior.

2) Using the diagram below, which of these is a plot of the vapor pressure of water vs.
temperature?

(B) Vapor pressure is present only on the phase boundary between liquid and gas, and since its
directly proportional as well, it is the same shape as the boundary line.

3) A system absorbs 716 kJ of heat and does 598 kJ of work on the surroundings. What is the
change in internal energy of the system?
A) 1314 kJ B) 118 kJ C) -118 kJ D) -1314 kJ E) 598 kJ

(B) Make sure your signs are correct!


q 716
598
 Δ 716 598 118

4) When breathing, the average human lung expands by 0.50 L. If this expansion occurs against
an external pressure of 1.0 atm, how much work is done by the system?

(A) The formula that relates expansion with work is Δ where P is the external
pressure. So for this problem:
1.0 0.5 0.5
However, you have to make sure and convert to Joules
101.3
0.5   51

5) For which of the following is ΔS° expected to be positive?


A) H2O(g) → H2O(l)
B) C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) → 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
C) 2CH3OH (g) + 3O2(g) → 2CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
D) 2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)
E) 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l)

(B) Δ ° is a measure of entropy, or simply chaos. A positive value indicates that the reaction is
heading towards disorder while a negative value indicates that the reaction is becoming more
ordered. In terms of phase change, the most ordered phase is the solid state, and the most

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UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 28
 

disordered phase is the gaseous phase. So any reaction that goes from a lower state of matter to a
higher state of matter will have a positive entropy. All the reactions are becoming more ordered
except the second reaction where a solid and gaseous mixture combusts into a gaseous and liquid
compound. Overall, you’ll be observing whether the ending phase is more or less disordered
from the original phase.

6) Which phases are present at point ‘a’?


A) Supercritical Fluid
B) Solid and Liquid
C) Liquid and Gas
D) Solid and Gas
E) Solid, Liquid and Gas

(B) Since the point is on the boundary between the solid and liquid phases, then the phases
present at that point is as stated. The boundary indicates where both phases coexist. Just as a
note, a supercritical fluid is simply a compound that is beyond the critical point, which means
that it is a “gas” that is so dense that it literally acts as a fluid.

7) At sea level, what is the approximate temperature at which CO2 sublimes (solid
to gas phase change)?
A) 0°C B) 30°C C) -78°C D) -55°C E) -115°C

(C) At sea level, the atmosphere is approximately 1 atmosphere. Sublimation is the term used to
describe the phase change from the solid state directly into the gaseous phase, which is indicated
on the diagram by the boundary between the solid and gas phase. At intersection of the 1
atmosphere level with that specific boundary line occurs at (1,-78°C)

8) What does point ‘b’ represent in the phase diagram?


A) Triple Point
B) Condensation
C) Vaporization
D) Critical Point
E) Sublimation

(D) The only “points” that would exist on a phase diagram is the triple point and the critical
point. In this case, point B is on the critical point in which the characteristics of the substance can
no longer be defined solely as gaseous or fluid, it takes on characteristic of both phases
becoming a supercritical fluid (technically a gas). The other point, the triple point is when all the
phases coexist, and this is defined as the intersection of the phase boundary lines.

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 29
 

9) The decomposition of H2O2 is exothermic:


H2O2(g) → H2O + ½ O2
Average Bond
Enthalpies (kJ mol-1)
O-H 463
O-O 146
O=O 497
Using the bond energy data above, what is the molecular structure of H2O2?

(C) To start out with, break all the bonds on the product side. You have 2 (O-H) bonds from
water and ½ (O=O) bond from oxygen gas. This gives you a total of
2 463  ½ 497 1174.5  
Since the formation of bonds is exothermic and the breaking of bonds is endothermic, to have an
overall exothermic reaction would require that the energy put into breaking the bonds is less than
the energy that’s released in forming the bonds.
Δ q
  2 497 2 463 1423
  497 2 463 1423  
  146 2 463 1072
Only the third structure requires less energy than is formed and thus the correct answer. The
enthalpy of reaction in this case would be
Δ 1072 1174.5 102.5
(Note that (B) doesn’t even exist in terms of Lewis structure ^_^)

10) Which of the following cannot occur at the same time?


A) ΔSsys > 0 and ΔSsurr < 0
B) ΔSsys < 0 and ΔSsurr < 0
C) ΔSsys > 0 and ΔSsurr > 0
D) ΔSsys < 0 and ΔSsurr > 0
E) All of these can occur at the same time.

(B) This basically tests whether you understand what entropy is and what rules apply to it. The
universe is constantly heading towards chaos (sound familiar?), that means the universe’s
entropy is always either zero or positive. The “universe” that we have to take into account is sum
of the change of entropy of the surroundings and the system. That means, Δ Δ 0.
So if the system’s entropy is negative (becoming more ordered), the surrounding’s entropy must
make up for the decrease in entropy by becoming more chaotic (positive entropy) to balance out
the universe; an example is ice forming over a lake if the temperature is low enough, the phase
change from a liquid to a solid signifies a negative entropy since the water is becoming more
ordered, the surroundings respond by absorbing the heat that’s released from the water due to the
phase change and has a positive entropy since there is more thermal disorder. This also works the
other way around where the system becomes more disordered, while the surroundings become
more ordered. However, one situation that can never occur is the system and surroundings

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 30
 

having negative entropy, which means they are both becoming more ordered, thus having a
negative sum and that’s answer B.

11) A reaction will occur spontaneously at standard conditions if:


A) ΔH > 0 B) ΔS > 0 C) ΔG > 0 D) K > 1 E) ΔH < 0

(D) Let’s go through all the answers. For (A), a positive enthalpy means that the reaction is
absorbing heat, which in some cases can be spontaneous, though with enthalpy alone, you cannot
predict reactivity. For (B), you have a positive entropy for your system, that means it’s becoming
more disordered like the universe wants, however, it’s not enough to information. For those of
you who actually read the book, you’ll might remember at some point there was a section that
said a positive entropy indicates that a reaction is spontaneous, however this positive entropy
refers to the total entropy Δ , which is the sum of the entropy of the system and the entropy of
the surroundings. Δ alone generally means the entropy of the system, and since you don’t know
how the entropy of the surroundings will respond, you don’t know if the reaction is spontaneous.
Answer (C) deals with Gibb’s free energy, which if you remember, a negative value would
indicate that the reaction is spontaneous while a positive value would indicate that it’s not. So
since the Gibb’s free energy is positive, the reaction is not spontaneous. Jumping to answer (E), a
negative enthalpy means that the reaction is exothermic, but that isn’t enough to prove that a
reaction is spontaneous; you can base such assumptions only on Gibb’s free energy values or the
equilibrium constant K. Now for answer (D) which has K>1. If you can’t remember that a
positive K indicates a spontaneous reaction, then you can look at the relationship between Gibb’s
free energy Δ and the equilibrium constant Δ in the equation:
Δ °
If K=1, ln(1)=0 and hence Δ 0, which indicates equilibrium. If K>1, then lnK>1 and Δ
1, which indicates a spontaneous reaction. And the last condition if K<1, then lnK<1 and
Δ 0, which indicates a non-spontaneous reaction. Keep in mind that both values are directly
linked and should give the same information regarding the direction of a reaction.

12) Consider the following exothermic reaction at equilibrium in a sealed container:


N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g)
Which of the following conditions will result in the reaction favoring products?
A) High temperature
B) Low Pressure
C) Thermal Insulation
D) High Pressure
E) None of these

(D) First off, this is an exothermic reaction, which means that heat is released from this reaction,
hence heat is a product. By le Chatelier’s principle, if we increase the temperature of an
exothermic reaction, the reaction would proceed in the reactant’s direction. An easy way to
remember this is the see-saw example again, where if we increase the temperature and thus heat,
we would increase the “load” on the product side, and thus to balance out the see-saw, we’ll have
to have more reactants, thus reactant favored. Thermal insulation will pretty much produce the
same result since this is an exothermic reaction, the heat released will stay isolated within the
system, and since there’s an increase in heat, the reaction will be pushed to the reactant side

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 31
 

again. Now let’s explore how pressure affects this reaction. Generally reactions will involve only
gaseous compounds, but if there are solids and liquids around, you can generally ignore them
since pressure has little to no effect on their volume. In this reaction, we have four moles worth
of gas on the reactant side and two moles worth of gas on the product side. Now if we decide to
decrease the pressure, the reaction would like to proceed in the direction where the gas can have
the greater expansion since they’re under less pressure. Thus a lower pressure would push the
reaction towards the reactant side which has four moles of gas versus two moles of gas on the
product side. Now if we decide to increase the pressure, the reaction would proceed in the
direction that would reduce the stress of the extra pressure, which in other words, would proceed
in the direction that would decrease the number of particles floating around in order to decrease
pressure. This would force the reaction to the product side in this case since the products only
have 2 moles worth of gas which would take reduce the number of particles in the system and
thus reduce the overall pressure.

13) Which of the following correctly represents the Ksp expression for this reaction:
K2CO3(s) 2K+(aq) + CO32-(aq)
A) [K+] [CO32-]/[K2CO3]
B) [K2CO3]/ [K+] [CO32-]
C) [K+]2 [CO32-]/[K2CO3]
D) [K2CO3]/ [K+]2 [CO32-]
E) [K+]2 [CO32-]

(E) When writing the formula for the equilibrium constant K, or more commonly the reaction
quotient Q, you have to make sure that you’re not including the concentrations or partial
pressures of pure solids or liquids. The only ones that appear in the quotient are those in the
gaseous form or the aqueous form. Also, a common mistake carried over from finding a
reaction’s enthalpy, entropy, or free energy is that the coefficient isn’t multiplied, but rather, the
concentration or partial pressure is taken the power of that coefficient. For example a particular
compound in a reaction is 3X, the corresponding value in the quotient would be not 3 .
The similar factor that carries over though is that the products “go first” which in this case, they
appear in the numerator, and the reactants are in the denominator. So for this reaction:

Note that was left out of the quotient because it was a pure solid (s).

14) A 30.0 g bar of iron (Fe) is heated to 106.0°C and then placed in a calorimeter with 100.0 g
of 20.8°C water. The final temperature of the water is 23.4°C. What is the heat capacity of the Fe
in J g-1 K-1?
A) 439 B) -439 C) -0.439 D) 0.439 E) -39.9

(D) A simple calculation, but make sure you don’t end up with a negative heat capacity, because
that’s impossible ^_^. The heat that’s released from the iron is absorbed by the water, so
following the rules regarding enthalpies, q is negative for iron and positive for water.

Δ Δ
Solving for

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 32
 

Δ
Δ
4.184
100 23.4° 20.8°
°
30 23.4°C 106.0°C
0.439
°

15) In the presence an acid solution, chromate and dichromate exists in equilibrium with a
moderate equilibrium constant.
2  2
The chromate ion ( ) is yellow in color, while the dichromate ( ) anion is orange. If
we add potassium chromate (K2CrO4), a very soluble salt, what would happen to the color of the
solution as it regains equilibrium?
A) The color will not change.
B) The solution will become more orange.
C) The solution will become more yellow.
D) The solution will become transparent.
E) The color change cannot be determined from the data given.

(B) This problem involves a reaction in dynamic equilibrium. This means that in response to a
change that affects its equilibrium, the reaction would proceed in the direction that opposes the
changes until it reaches equilibrium again. In this case, we have the addition of potassium
chromate, which is stated to be very soluble. This means that in the presence of a solution, the
compound would disassociate into its ions, K+ and CrO42-. The potassium ion does not play a
role in this reaction so we can ignore that one, but the chromate ion is a reactant in the chromate-
dichromate reaction complex. With the addition of more CrO42-, the concentration of the reactant
side becomes higher, and would thus push the reaction towards the product side as expected with
le Chatelier’s principle (the see-saw principle). If the reaction becomes product-favored, then the
quantity of dichromate ions and water will increase while the quantity of hydrogen ions and
chromate ions decreases since they’re used up in the reaction. This would decrease the yellow
color produced by the chromate ions and increase the orange color produced by the dichromate
ions. Thus, the reaction will become more orange. Be careful though, not all conditions will
affect an equilibrium, sometimes there is no change.

©2009 Stephen Kok College of Engineering General Chemistry 1A


UC Berkeley Undergraduate Bioengineering – Premedical Spring 2009 Professor Nitsche 33