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# Creep

## Materials Engineering M4 (0DEX)

Topic 16: High temperature deformation of metals (creep)
B Bezensek Mech Eng Dept b.bezensek@eng.gla.ac.uk
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Primary Creep: slope (creep rate) decreases with time. Secondary Creep: steady-state i.e., constant slope. Tertiary Creep: slope (creep rate) increases with time, i.e. acceleration of rate.

Creep
Occurs at elevated temperature, T > 0.4 Tm

Deformation mechanisms
Continually changing interaction between strain hardening and softening (recovery) processes.
Strain hardening through subgrain formation; Recovery through slip and edge dislocation climb

tertiary

primary secondary

## Adapted from Figs. 8.29, Callister 7e.

Deformation mechanisms
Primary creep:
decrease in strain rate recovery dominant process

Creep testing
Weights suspended off a leverage system Used for engineering definition s of creep rate To determine stage I and II data

Secondary creep:
constant strain rate microstructure dynamically balanced

Tertiary creep:
increase in strain rate
weakening metallurgical instabilities dominate
(necking, corrosion, void formation, fracture,...)
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## Creep tests under constant stress

More elaborate study Load reduced with decrease in x-section Needed for new creep theories
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Key variables
Stress Temperature Time

## Creep rupture tests

To determine stage III and rupture life

Key parameters
Creep rate, Rupture life,

s
tR
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Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons

## Creep rupture data

Larson-Miller diagram:

Example
For a certain alloy failure occurred after 3500 hrs at 650 oC at a stress of 310 MPa. If the same stress was applied at 705 oC, how long would the sample last? Constant C=20. Ans: 166 hrs

H = T (C + log10 t) R
H ... activation energy R .. gas constant T ... temperature t ... time

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R Strain 2 1 0

I
t1 Log time
s

## s = f (T, , , metalurgical factors)

Creep strain:

II
t2

III
tR

s = B log t R + m log
m, B = constants

Q = t exp RT
Creep strain-rate:

s
Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons

s = f ()
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Q = exp RT

1 T

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## Temperature stress strain-rate relation

Experimental data shows: Q = f(T)
For 0.5Tm < T < Tm : self-diffusion a significant mechanism:
Self-diffusion activation energy

## Temperature stress strain-rate relation

Q D = D o exp SD RT
Diffusivity Constant Gas constant

s D

Absolute temperature
Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons

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T~Tm and low:

## Temperature stress strain-rate relation Current understanding:

0.5Tm < T < Tm and medium/high:

Deformation mechanism: atomic diffusion - migration of vacancies from tensile to compressive grain boundaries; - atomic diffusion along grain boundaries

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Deformation mechanisms:

## - diffusion-controlled movement of dislocations

(dislocations climb away from barriers)

## - grain boundary sliding

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Deformation-mechanism maps

Deformation-mechanism maps
Summarise the major variables
Stress Strain-rate Temperature

yield

By knowing two, the third and the major deformation mechanisms can be read off. Useful for identifying testing regime (tensile test or creep?) relative to --T domain.
T Tm
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Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons

## Creep fracture micromechanisms

Intergranular fracture
Grain boundary sliding
Diffusional creep, Dislocation creep

## Materials for high temperature use

High melting point High modulus of elasticity Low diffusivity Good creep strength, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion resistance

## Grain boundary cracks

(intergranular fracture)

Cavitation

Nickel and Cobalt based superalloys Casting, forming, power metallurgy, directional solidification, etc
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Summary
Creep easy in
Fine grained microstructures At high temperatures Under sustained load

Revision
What is creep? In a strain vs time plot identify the three stages of creep. What is Larsson-Miller diagram and when is it used? How can we determine a steady-state creep rate if we know rupture life? Why is steady-state creep important?

## To counteract creep minimise grain boundaries

(coarse grains, directionally solidified grains, single crystals)

Conversely, for easy flow use fine grained microstructures (superplasticity) Failure by intergranular fracture (GBS, cavitation) in creep regime
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