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Time dependent high temperature deformation under load.

Materials Engineering M4 (0DEX)

Topic 16: High temperature deformation of metals (creep)
B Bezensek Mech Eng Dept

Primary Creep: slope (creep rate) decreases with time. Secondary Creep: steady-state i.e., constant slope. Tertiary Creep: slope (creep rate) increases with time, i.e. acceleration of rate.

Occurs at elevated temperature, T > 0.4 Tm

Deformation mechanisms
Continually changing interaction between strain hardening and softening (recovery) processes.
Strain hardening through subgrain formation; Recovery through slip and edge dislocation climb


primary secondary

Adapted from Figs. 8.29, Callister 7e.

Deformation mechanisms
Primary creep:
decrease in strain rate recovery dominant process

Creep testing
Creep tests under constant load
Weights suspended off a leverage system Used for engineering definition s of creep rate To determine stage I and II data

Secondary creep:
constant strain rate microstructure dynamically balanced

Tertiary creep:
increase in strain rate
weakening metallurgical instabilities dominate
(necking, corrosion, void formation, fracture,...)

Creep tests under constant stress

More elaborate study Load reduced with decrease in x-section Needed for new creep theories

Key variables
Stress Temperature Time

Creep rupture tests

To determine stage III and rupture life

Key parameters
Creep rate, Rupture life,

Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons

Creep rupture data

Larson-Miller diagram:

For a certain alloy failure occurred after 3500 hrs at 650 oC at a stress of 310 MPa. If the same stress was applied at 705 oC, how long would the sample last? Constant C=20. Ans: 166 hrs

H = T (C + log10 t) R
H ... activation energy R .. gas constant T ... temperature t ... time

T(20 + log10 t ) [K - hr]


Steady state creep

R Strain 2 1 0

Temperature stress strain-rate relation

Steady-state creep strain-rate:

Creep rate, Rupture life, .

t1 Log time

s = f (T, , , metalurgical factors)

Creep strain:



s = B log t R + m log
m, B = constants

Q = t exp RT
Creep strain-rate:

Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons

s = f ()

Q = exp RT

1 T


Temperature stress strain-rate relation

Experimental data shows: Q = f(T)
For 0.5Tm < T < Tm : self-diffusion a significant mechanism:
Self-diffusion activation energy

Temperature stress strain-rate relation

Q D = D o exp SD RT
Diffusivity Constant Gas constant

s D

Absolute temperature
Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons



Temperature stress strain-rate relation Current understanding:

T~Tm and low:

Temperature stress strain-rate relation Current understanding:

0.5Tm < T < Tm and medium/high:

Deformation mechanism: atomic diffusion - migration of vacancies from tensile to compressive grain boundaries; - atomic diffusion along grain boundaries

s 4 5
Deformation mechanisms:

(power law creep)

- diffusion-controlled movement of dislocations

(dislocations climb away from barriers)

- grain boundary sliding

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Deformation-mechanism maps

Deformation-mechanism maps
Summarise the major variables
Stress Strain-rate Temperature


By knowing two, the third and the major deformation mechanisms can be read off. Useful for identifying testing regime (tensile test or creep?) relative to --T domain.
T Tm
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Hertzberg: Deformation and fracture mechanics of engineering materials 4th Ed. John Wiley and Sons

Creep fracture micromechanisms

Intergranular fracture
Grain boundary sliding
Diffusional creep, Dislocation creep

Materials for high temperature use

High melting point High modulus of elasticity Low diffusivity Good creep strength, thermal fatigue and hot corrosion resistance

Grain boundary cracks

(intergranular fracture)


Nickel and Cobalt based superalloys Casting, forming, power metallurgy, directional solidification, etc
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Creep easy in
Fine grained microstructures At high temperatures Under sustained load

What is creep? In a strain vs time plot identify the three stages of creep. What is Larsson-Miller diagram and when is it used? How can we determine a steady-state creep rate if we know rupture life? Why is steady-state creep important?

To counteract creep minimise grain boundaries

(coarse grains, directionally solidified grains, single crystals)

Conversely, for easy flow use fine grained microstructures (superplasticity) Failure by intergranular fracture (GBS, cavitation) in creep regime
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