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ATOMS, ELEMENTS, MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Modern Atomic Theory and the Laws That Led to It Modern Atomic

c Theory comes from; i. The law of Conservation of Mass ii. The law of Definite Propotions iii. The law of Multiple Propotions Law of Conservation of Mass Total mass of the materials you have before the reaction must equal the total mass of the materials you have at the end total mass of reactants = total mass of products (Antoine Lavoisier, 1743-1794) Reaction of Sodium with Chlorine to Make Sodium Chloride

7.7 g Na + 11.9 g Cl2

19.6 g NaCl

Law of Definite Proportions All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements (Joseph Proust 1754-1826). Proportions in Sodium Chloride A 100.0 g sample of sodium chloride contains 39.3 g of sodium and 60.7 g of chlorine A 200.0 g sample of sodium chloride contains 78.6 g of sodium and 121.4 g of chlorine A 58.44 g sample of sodium chloride contains 22.99 g of sodium and 35.44 g of chlorine

Law of Multiple Proportions When two elements (call them A and B) form two different compounds, the masses of B that combine with 1 g of A can be expressed as a ratio of small, whole numbers (John Dalton 17661844). Oxides of Carbon Carbon combines with oxygen to form two different compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide contains 1.33 g of oxygen for every 1.00 g of carbon Carbon dioxide contains 2.67 g of oxygen for every 1.00 g of carbon Because there are twice as many oxygen atoms per carbon atom in carbon dioxide of in carbon monoxide, the oxygen mass ratio should be 2

Daltons Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from atoms of other elements 3. Atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form molecules of compounds 4. In a chemical reaction, atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element Practice Decide if each statement is correct according to Daltons model of the atom 1. Copper atoms can combine with zinc atoms to make gold atoms 2. Water is composed of many identical molecules that have one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms 3. Some carbon atoms weigh more than other carbon atoms 4. Because the mass ratio of Fe:O in wsite is 1.5 times larger than the Fe:O ratio in hematite, there must be 1.5 Fe atoms in a unit of wsite and 1 Fe atom in a unit of hematite Solution 1. Copper atoms can combine with zinc atoms to make gold atoms incorrect; according to Dalton, atoms of one element cannot turn into atoms of another element by a chemical reaction. He knew this because if atoms could change it would change the total mass and violate the Law of Conservation of Mass. 2. Water is composed of many identical molecules that have one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms correct; according to Dalton, atoms combine together in compounds in small wholenumber ratios, so that you could describe a compound by describing the number of atoms of each element in a molecule. He used this idea to explain why compounds obey the Law of Definite Proportion

3. Some carbon atoms weigh more than other carbon atoms incorrect; according to Dalton, all atoms of an element are identical. 4. Because the mass ratio of Fe:O in wsite is 1.5 times larger than the Fe:O ratio in hematite, there must be 1.5 Fe atoms in a unit of wsite and 1 Fe atom in a unit of hematite incorrect; according to Dalton, atoms must combine in small whole-number ratios. If you could combine fractions of atoms, that would mean the atom is breakable and Daltons first premise would be incorrect. Rutherfords Interpretation the Nuclear Model 1. The atom contains a tiny dense center called the nucleus 2. The nucleus has essentially the entire mass of the atom 3. The nucleus is positively charged 4. The electrons are dispersed in the empty space of the atom surrounding the nucleus Structure of the Nucleus Rutherford proposed that the nucleus had a particle that had the same amount of charge as an electron but opposite sign these particles are called protons based on measurements of the nuclear charge of the elements protons are subatomic particles found in the nucleus with a charge = +1.60 x 1019 C and a mass = 1.67262 x 1024 g Because protons and electrons have the same amount of charge, for the atom to be neutral there must be equal numbers of protons and electrons

Neon

Charged Atoms When atoms gain or lose electrons, they acquire a charge Charged atoms or groups of atoms are called ions When atoms gain electrons, they become negatively charged ions, called anions When atoms lose electrons, they become positively charged ions, called cations Ions and Compounds Ions behave much differently than the neutral atoms e.g., the metal sodium, made of neutral Na atoms, is highly reactive and quite unstable; however, the sodium cations, Na+, found in table salt are very nonreactive and stable Because materials such as table salt are neutral, there must be equal amounts of charge from cations and anions in them

Atomic Structures of Ions Nonmetals form anions For each negative charge, the ion has one more electron than the neutral atom F = 9 p+ and 9 e, F = 9 p+ and 10 e P = 15 p+ and 15 e, P3 = 15 p+ and 18 e Anions are named by changing the ending of the name to -ide fluorine F + 1e F fluoride ion 2 oxygen O + 2e O oxide ion Metals form cations For each positive charge, the ion has one less electron than the neutral atom Na atom = 11 p+ and 11 e, Na+ ion = 11 p+ and 10 e Ca atom = 20 p+ and 20 e, Ca2+ ion = 20 p+ and 18 e Cations are named the same as the metal sodium Na Na+ + 1e sodium ion calcium Ca Ca2+ + 2e calcium ion

Practice Complete the table

The Modern Periodic Table Elements with similar chemical and physical properties are in the same column Columns are called Groups or Families designated by a number and letter at top Rows are called Periods Each period shows the pattern of properties repeated in the next period

Practice What is the charge on each of the following ions? potassium cation sulfide anion calcium cation bromide anion aluminum cation

Mass Spectrum A mass spectrum is a graph that gives the relative mass and relative abundance of each particle Relative mass of the particle is plotted in the x-axis Relative abundance of the particle is plotted in the y-axis

Practice Ga-69 with mass 68.9256 amu and abundance of 60.11% and Ga-71 with mass 70.9247 amu and abundance of 39.89%. Calculate the atomic mass of gallium. Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds are forces of attraction between atoms The bonding attraction comes from attractions between protons and electrons Bond Types Two general types: ionic and covalent Ionic bonds result when electrons have been transferred between atoms, resulting in oppositely charged ions that attract each other generally found when metal atoms bond to nonmetal atoms Covalent bonds result when two atoms share some of their electrons generally found when nonmetal atoms bond together Chemical Formula To represent the compounds

Types of Formula:Empirical Formula An empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound The empirical formula for the ionic compound fluorspar is CaCl2. 8

This means that there is 1 Ca2+ ion for every 2 Cl ions in the compound.

Types of Formula:Molecular Formula A molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound The molecular formula is C2H2O4. This does not tell you that the carbon atoms are attached together in the center of the molecule, and that each is attached to two oxygen atoms. Types of Formula:Structural Formula A structural formula uses lines to represent covalent bonds and shows how atoms in a molecule are connected or bonded to each other single line = two shared electrons, a single covalent bond double line = four shared electrons, a double covalent bond triple line = six shared electrons, a triple covalent bond Structural Formula of Oxalic Acid

O H O C

O C O H

Classifying Elements & Compounds Atomic elements = elements whose particles are single atoms Molecular elements = elements whose particles are multi-atom molecules Molecular compounds = compounds whose particles are molecules made of only nonmetals Ionic compounds = compounds whose particles are cations and anions Classify Each of the Following as Either an Atomic Element, Molecular Element, Molecular Compound, or Ionic Compound Aluminum, Al Aluminum chloride, AlCl3 Chlorine, Cl2 Acetone, C3H6O Carbon monoxide, CO

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Cobalt, Co Ionic Compounds Compounds of metals with nonmetals are made of ions Have a 3-dimensional array of cations and anions made of formula units Many contain polyatomic ions several atoms attached together by covalent bonds into one ion

Practice What are the formulas for compounds made from the following ions? Potassium ion with a nitride ion Calcium ion with a bromide ion Aluminum ion with a sulfide ion Naming Metal Cations Metals with variable Charges metals whose ions can have more than one possible charge

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Naming Metal Cations Metals with invariant charge metals whose ions can only have one possible charge

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Naming Monatomic Nonmetal Anion To name anion, change ending on the element name to ide 1. 2. 3. KCl MgBr2 Al2S3 potassium chloride magnesium bromide aluminum sulfide

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Practice Find the charge on the cation 1. 2. 3. TiCl4 CrO3 Fe3N2 4 Cl = 4, 3 O = 6, 2 N = 6, Ti = 4+ Cr = 6+ 3 Fe = 6+, Fe = 2+

Example: Naming binary ionic with variable charge metal CuF2 1. Identify cation and anion F = F because it is Group 7 Cu = Cu2+ to balance the two () charges from 2 F 2. Name the cation Cu2+ = copper(II) 3. Name the anion F = fluoride 5. Write the cation name first, then the anion name copper(II) fluoride Name the following compounds 1. 2. 3. TiCl4 CrO3 Fe3N2

Practice What are the formulas for compounds made from the following ions? copper(II) ion with a nitride ion iron(III) ion with a bromide ion Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are single ions that contain more than one atom Often identified by parentheses around ion in formula Name and charge of polyatomic ion do not change Name any ionic compound by naming cation first and then anion

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Periodic Pattern of Polyatomic Ions -ate groups

Name the Following Compounds 1. NH4Cl 2. 3. Ca(C2H3O2)2 Cu(NO3)2

Example Writing formula for ionic compounds containing polyatomic ion Iron(III) phosphate 1. Write the symbol for the cation and its charge Fe3+ 2. 3. 4. 5. Write the symbol for the anion and its charge Charge (without sign) becomes subscript for other ion Reduce subscripts to smallest whole number ratio Check that the total charge of the cations cancels the total charge of the anions PO43 Fe3+ PO43 Fe3(PO4)3 Fe = (1)(3+) = +3 PO4 = (1)(3) = 3 Practice What are the formulas for compounds made from the following ions? aluminum ion with a sulfate ion chromium(II) with hydrogen carbonate Hydrates are ionic compounds containing a specific number of waters for each formula unit o CoCl26H2O = cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate o CaSO4H2O = calcium sulfate hemihydrate o MgSO47H2O = magnesium sulfate heptahydrate o NiCl26H2O = nickel (II) chloride hexahydrate FePO4

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Example: Naming binary molecular BF3 1. Name the first element 2. 3. 4. a) Name the second element with an ide Add a prefix to each name to indicate the subscript Write the first element with prefix, then the second element with prefix drop prefix mono from first element

boron fluorine fluoride

monoboron, trifluoride

boron trifluoride

Name the Following NO2 PCl5 I2F7 Example: Binary Molecular dinitrogen pentoxide Identify the symbols of the elements Write the formula using prefix number for subscript N2O5 Write Formulas for the Following dinitrogen tetroxide sulfur hexafluoride diarsenic trisulfide Example: Naming binary acids HCl(aq) 1. Identify the anion 2. Name the anion with an ic suffix 3. Add a hydro- prefix to the anion name 4. Add the word acid to the end

nitrogen = N,

oxide = oxygen = O

di = 2, penta = 5

Cl = Cl, chloride because Group 7A Cl = chloride Hydrochloric hydrochloric acid 17 chloric

Example: Naming oxyacids H2SO4(aq) 1. Identify the anion 2. If the anion has ate suffix, change it to ic. If the anion has ite suffix, change it to -ous 3. Write the name of the anion followed by the word acid

SO4 = SO42 = sulfate SO42 = sulfate sulfuric

sulfuric acid (kind of an exception, to make it sound nicer!)

Example: Naming oxyacids H2SO3(aq) 1. Identify the anion 2. If the anion has ate suffix, change it to ic. If the anion has ite suffix, change it to -ous 3. Write the name of the anion followed by the word acid

SO3 = SO32 = sulfite SO32 = sulfite sulfurous

sulfurous acid

Name the Following H2S HClO3 HNO2 Writing Formulas for Acids When name ends in acid, formulas starts with H Write formulas as if ionic, even though it is molecular Hydro prefix means it is binary acid, no prefix means it is an oxyacid For oxyacid, if ending is ic, polyatomic ion ends in ate; if ending is ous, polyatomic ion ends in ous

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Example: Oxyacids - sulfurous acid 1. Write the symbol for the cation and its charge 2. Write the symbol for the anion and its charge 3. Charge (without sign) becomes subscript for other ion 4. Add (aq) to indicate dissolved in water 5. Check that the total charge of the cations cancels the total charge of the anions Practice What are the formulas for the following acids? chlorous acid phosphoric acid hydrobromic acid

H+ SO32 H+ SO32 H2SO3(aq) H = (2)(1+) = +2 SO3 = (1)(2) = 2 H2SO3

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