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1 0 Rev

31.1.01 Doc. converted to MS-WORD 3.2.93 Date -Remarks

Sd/SS SS Prepared By:

Sd/KBB KBB Checked By:

Sd/AA AKB Approved By:

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GENERAL Low pressure bypass system enables to establish an alternative path for dumping the steam from reheater outlet directly into condenser at suitable steam parameters bypassing the IP and LP turbines. LP bypass controls are engineered to dump the excess steam present in the reheat circuit due to its large "time constant" during transient non-steady state. LP bypass valves get opened and dump steam to condenser to such an extent as to maintain the reheater pressure at a value derived from criteria representing the HP turbine flow conditions at any given instant during load changes. This control criteria ensures that only the requisite flow is maintained through the IP and LP turbines. The control of LP bypass system is hooked up by same control oil/ fluid which is envisaged for the turbine governing system. LP bypass system works in conjunction with HP bypass system as and when necessitated by system requirements such as warming up stage or dumping of large quantity of steam following a heavy load rejection. Under certain operating conditions such as start-up the variable derived pressure set point is replaced by a fixed set value. The controls for LP bypass system are essentially a combination of electrical and well proven hydraulic system. Electro-hydraulic converter provides the necessary link between hydraulic actuator and electrical system. The electronic controller acts as a maximum pressure controller and regulates the reheater pressure either to the fixed set value or suitable derived set value. If the reheater pressure exceeds this set value, the controller causes the electro-hydraulic converter to operate and initiate bypass operations. Emergency stop and control valves of the LP bypass are combined in a common body. The double shut off arrangement separates the condenser from the reheater during normal operations. The electro- hydraulic LP bypass control system includes the necessary safety devices for the protection of the condenser. These devices prevent the dumping of the steam into condenser if the water injection pressure is too low, if pressure in the condenser is too high or if flow of bypass steam is too large.

2.0 2.1


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The LP bypass control system comprises electrical and hydraulic controls. 2.1.1 Measured Value Acquisition Suitable pressure transducers are envisaged to acquire the reheat pressure (controlled variable ). 2.1.2 Set value Formation Two set values -fixed and variable are formed for the LP bypass control system and the one to be used is determined by a maximum value selector i.e. the higher value is used. For the formation of variable set point, a pressure transducer is used to measure the steam pressure in HP turbine. 2.1.3 Pressure Controller The continuously actuating electronic pressure controller consists of a linear amplifier, a feed back circuit and a power amplifier. The amplifier is of high accuracy and gain. The control deviation is formed at the inlet to the amplifier by comparing the actual value. The power amplifier controls the electro- hydraulic converter directly. The command from the electro- hydraulic converter actuates the follow up piston to cause opening of water injection valve only but the command to the steam dump valve remains blocked until flow in water injection system gets established. Similarly, hydraulic commands remain blocked in case the condenser pressure is too high. 2.1.4 Manual Control The LP bypass control system can be changed over from automatic control to manual control by means of a push button "Controller ON/ OFF". During manual control operation it is possible to operate valve manually by means of open and close push button. The condenser protection system continues to be operative through the hydraulic circuit even during manual control. 2.2 HYDRAULIC SECTION The hydraulic system comprises of components which have been described elsewhere and schematic arrangement indicated in governing scheme. 2.3 MODE OF OPERATION The controller controls the plunger coil which has been provided on the left hand side of the electro-hydraulic converter. With the increase in voltage the jet pipe is deflected to the right and the piston of the converter
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moves downwards. Through suitable linkages, the movement of the piston is transferred to the sleeves of the follow up piston. The first two follow up pistons actuate and open the first stage water injection valve. After the establishment of pressure downstream of the water injection valve and vacuum in condenser the other follow up pistons get detached and perform the duty to open emergency stop valve and control valves according to the requirement. The second stage water injection comes into operation when the quantity of steam flowing through the LP bypass valves increases more than 45%. A pressure switch tag no. MAN01CP001 downstream of LP bypass valve represents the flow of steam through LPBP and when it increases to more than 45% rated flow, the switch picks up and energises the solenoid valve tag no. MAX53AA051 which provides for second stage water injection to LP bypass. The steam pressure downstream of LP bypass automatically closes the LP bypass control valves proportionally in case it exceeds a preset value. As a measure of additional protections, protection devices causing the closure of bypass station in case of following eventualities have been envisaged : a) Condenser vacuum is low b) Spray water pressure is low c) Temperature of condenser body is high While a) and b) are achieved hydraulically c) is achieved electrically through binary control. The temperature on condenser body is sensed by thermocouples MAN11CT001 & MAN12CT001 and processed and operates on the condenser temperature protection valve tag no. MAX53AA021 and 22 when temperature increases to more than 90 degree C. 3.0 MONITORING The system is monitored for the following faults contacts are provided to initiate alarms. a) Manual control fault b) Automatic control fault c) Transducer fault d) Control fault 4.0 CONTROL AND DISPLAY The necessary indicating and control elements for the LP bypass system are provided. for which potential free

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