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Chapter 08 - DNA Structure and Chromosomal Organization

Chapter 08 DNA Structure and Chromosomal Organization


1. _______ first noted an acidic substance in the nuclei of cells from pus. A. Mendel B. Watson C. Miescher D. McCarty E. Franklin 2. In 1909, Archibald Garrod first linked inheritance to proteins when he noted that: A. Inherited metabolic disorders in humans are associated with missing enzymes B. Substances in cells could transform bacteria from nonvirulence to virulence C. Proteins are made up of amino acids D. The substance that transmits traits is in the cell nucleus E. An X-ray diffraction pattern occurs in DNA 3. Frederick Griffith was a microbiologist who observed that: A. DNA contains nitrogen and phosphorus B. Proteases disrupt transformation from nonvirulence to virulence C. DNA from heat-killed bacteria transforms nonvirulent bacteria D. Nonvirulent bacteria become virulent when mixed with heat-killed virulent bacteria E. An X-ray diffraction pattern occurs in DNA 4. Hershey and Chase demonstrated that DNA was the genetic material using: A. Humans B. Mice and a blender C. Frogs and a dishwasher D. Viruses and a blender E. X-rays and models 5. In experiments to show that DNA is the genetic material, Hershey and Chase labeled DNA with radioactive: A. Amino acids B. Sulfur C. Phosphorus D. Carbon E. Dopamine 6. Which researchers showed that DNA is the genetic material? A. Watson and Crick B. Hershey and Chase C. Garrod and Griffith D. Meselson and Stahl E. Linus Pauling 7. Watson and Crick based their conclusion that DNA is a double helix on results of physical experiments performed by: A. Chargaff, Wilkins and Franklin B. Avery, MacLeod and McCarty C. Hershey and Chase D. Charles Darwin E. Linus Pauling 8. Which substance is not part of DNA? A. Phosphate B. Ribose C. Cytosine D. Nitrogen E. All of these 9. The sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is held together by: A. Phosphate bonds B. Hydrogen bonds C. Disulfide bridges D. Phosphodiester linkages E. X-rays

Chapter 08 - DNA Structure and Chromosomal Organization

10. If DNA is compared to a spiral staircase, then steps of the staircase would correspond to: A. Sugars B. Hydrogen bonds C. Base pairs D. Nucleotides E. Phosphates 11. In a molecule of DNA, purine bases form _______ bonds with pyrimidine bases. A. Phosphate B. Hydrogen C. Disulfide D. Phosphodiester E. Covalent 12. The nitrogenous bases adenine and thymine are: A. Both purines B. A purine and a pyrimidine, respectively C. Both pyrimidines D. A pyrimidine and a purine, respectively E. Amino acids 13. In DNA, cytosine binds with: A. Uracil B. Adenine C. Thymine D. Guanine E. Amino acids 14. DNA replication is: A. Semi-conservative B. Dispersive C. Conservative D. Discontinuous on both strands 15. If the sequence of one strand of a DNA molecule is 5' ATGGCAT 3', the sequence of the complementary strand is: A. 5' ATGGCAT 3' B. 3' ATGGCAT 5' C. 5' TACCGTA 3' D. 3' TACCGTA 5'

16. In humans, DNA in the nucleus winds around proteins called: A. Histones B. Histosomes C. Karyosomes D. Ribosomes E. Barr bodies 17. DNA entwined around an octet of proteins is called a: A. Nucleotide B. Karyosome C. Nucleosome D. Ribosome E. Barr body 18. Meselson and Stahl performed experiments to show that DNA replication is: A. Semi-conservative B. Dispersive C. Antiparallel D. Discontinuous E. Lost in one generation 19. In eukaryotic chromosomes, replication starts at: A. A single origin of replication B. One replication fork on each chromosome C. A nucleosome D. Multiple sites along the length of the chromosome 20. The enzyme that inserts the correct bases in a growing nucleotide chain in a replicating DNA molecule is: A. RNA polymerase B. DNA ligase C. DNA polymerase D. Helicase E. RNA ligase 21. DNA strands are antiparallel, so replication proceeds: A. Continuously on both strands B. Continuously on one strand and discontinuously on the other C. Discontinuously on both strands D. Continuously on both strands for a time and then discontinuously E. Discontinuously using amino acids
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Chapter 08 - DNA Structure and Chromosomal Organization

22. Okazaki fragments are small pieces of: A. RNA B. Protein C. DNA D. Enzymes E. Amino acids 23. Which of the following would lend support to the hypothesis that DNA is the hereditary molecule? A. If live type R bacteria and heat killed type S bacteria are injected into mice, the mice die and live type S bacteria are recovered B. Bacteria infected with virus labeled with radioactive phosphorus contain radioactive label C. DNA is found in the nucleus of pus cells and cells from a variety of other sources D. DNA isolated from type S bacteria, which had been killed by heating, transforms type R bacteria E. All of these 24. Which of the following are true based on the experiments of Frederick Griffith? A. When mice are injected with type R bacteria, they do not develop pneumonia B. When mice are injected with type S bacteria, they develop pneumonia C. Heating type S bacteria kills them, but does not destroy their DNA D. When live type R bacteria and heat killed type S bacteria are injected into mice, the mice die and live type S bacteria are recovered E. All of these 25. Which of the following were part of the experiments of Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase? A. Mice were injected with type R bacteria and developed pneumonia B. Mice were injected with type S bacteria and developed pneumonia C. DNA isolated from type S bacteria killed by heating transformed type R bacteria D. E. Coli bacteria were infected with virus labeled with radioactive phosphorus E. All of these
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26. DNA is considered the hereditary molecule. A. True B. False 27. Erwin Chargaff found that the amount of adenine equaled thymine and the amount of guanine equaled cytosine in the species he investigated. A. True B. False 28. Chargaff showed that if human DNA contained 30% adenine, then the percentage of thymine would be: A. 20% B. 30% C. 60% D. 40% E. Cannot be determined 29. Chargaff showed that if human DNA contained 60% adenine and thymine, then the percentage of guanine and cytosine would be: A. 20% B. 30% C. 60% D. 40% E. Cannot be determined 30. Chargaff showed that if human DNA contained 30% adenine, then the percentage of cytosine would be: A. 20% B. 30% C. 60% D. 40% E. Cannot be determined 31. _______ used X-ray diffraction to deduce the helical shape of DNA. A. Linus Pauling B. James Watson and Francis Crick C. Martha Chase D. Maclyn McCarty E. Rosalind Franklin

Chapter 08 - DNA Structure and Chromosomal Organization

32. _______ suggested DNA had a triple helix structure. A. Linus Pauling B. James Watson and Francis Crick C. Martha Chase D. Maclyn McCarty E. Rosalind Franklin 33. _______ used models to deduce the double helical shape of DNA. A. Linus Pauling B. James Watson and Francis Crick C. Martha Chase D. Maclyn McCarty E. Rosalind Franklin 34. All of the following are complimentary except: A. Adenine and thymine B. Cytosine and guanine C. Thymine and adenine D. Adenine and guanine E. Purine and pyrimidine 35. Which of the following is most correct regarding genes, DNA and protein? A. A gene is a section of DNA whose sequence encodes a particular protein which is composed of amino acids B. A gene is a section of a chromosomal DNA which is composed of many proteins C. DNA is composed of many genes which are formed from amino acid sequences D. A gene is composed of amino acids whose sequence encodes a particular protein which is composed of DNA E. DNA is composed of amino acids which encode the protein and genotype 36. Some genes code for RNAs that do not specify a protein. A. True B. False

37. A scientist is conducting an experiment on an unusual DNA strand from a virus. She finds the following percentage of bases: A = 23%, T = 12%, G = 30% and C = 35%. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation for her results? A. The bases are not purines and pyrimidines B. Chargaff was wrong C. Linus Pauling's model of DNA was correct D. The DNA in this virus is single stranded E. The labeling with radioactive sulfur was wrong 38. Rosalind Franklin's X-ray photographs provided a pivotal clue to the structure of DNA. A. True B. False 39. The structure of DNA: A. Is symmetrical B. Pairs purines with pyrimidines C. Is antiparallel D. Turns to form a helix E. All of these 40. Which statement is correct? A. DNA polymerase unwinds the DNA at the replication forks B. Primase removes short RNA primers and replaces them with DNA C. Ligase breaks the hydrogen bonds between complimentary DNA strands D. DNA polymerase proofreads DNA, correcting mismatched nucleotides E. Replication forks form as the sugar phosphate backbone is sealed