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International Seminar on Infrastucture Development in Cluster Island Eastern Part of Indonesia, Baubau, Indonesia

STUDY ANALYSIS THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF RIVER WATER PAMPANG MAKASSAR SOUTH SULAWESI H. Arfan 1, A. Asri 2 A.and A F. Mahmuda3
ABSTRAK: The population of the world increases every har i so need for pot bags and quantity of water increasing. Every day people need water for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing and so forth, and approximately 80% will be disposed of in a form that is filthy and polluted, known as waste water. Around the area of Makassar, there are several streams and rivers that flow into semuany a Makassar Strait. O ne of the river is located in Makassar yag Pampang River flanked by the river and watershed Jeneberang Tallo. Around the River Pampang there are several settlements, power plant, industrial alcohol, chocolate processing industry, and hospitals. Judging from the quality of water directly or indirectly, pollution will affect water quality. Study aims to determine the flow rate, the maximum rainfall, and water quality in the river Pampang. Used two methods, namely the current meter measurements and measurements using a buoy. From the measurement results obtained with the method of float greater than measurements using a current meter. Obtained rainfall intensity increases with return period (years) I 2, I 5, I 10, I 15. H acyl review of the parameters of physics, chemistry , and biologists concluded that the water in the river Pampang not eligible for standard quality class I, II, III, and IV. Keywords: water, river, Pampang, quality, discharge INTRODUCTION Water is a part of life on the surface of the earth, both ground water and surface water. Water as an essential material in the life look of the need for water for daily use in a domestic environment turned out to be different in every place, every level of life or any nation. The higher a person's standard of living is increasing as well the human need for water. Number the world's population increases every day, resulting in the need for quality and quantity of water also increases, while the availability of water resources in river world that can be used directly as clean water that has human consumption thresholds and where every day people need clean water for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing and so forth, and approximately 80% will be disposed of in a form that is filthy and polluted, known as waste water. Makassar surrounding areas there are several streams and rivers which all flow into the Makassar Strait, one of the rivers that are in Makassar the River Pampang the flanked by River Tallo (70 miles from long river main) in the north and DAS Jeneberang at the southern also borders urban areas in the west which is area drainage formed by panampu, Jongayayang and channel drainage sinrijala and connected to the DAS Pampang through sinrijala. Around the River Pampang there are some settlements, power plant, industrial alcohol, chocolate processing industry, and hospitals. Based on usefulness of course, it is expected that the existing river water quality is still within the limits of tolerance of water quality criteria, whether it was suitable to be used or not, is different from the quantity of water in which the level of people's needs for water can be met from the amount of discharge or the availability of water in a given time period. General water quality showed that water quality or conditions associated with a particular activity or purpose. While the quantity of water needed regarding the amount of people in a particular activity. Clean water is needed in meeting the needs of people to do all the activities. So we need to know how clean the water is said in terms of quality and can be used in sufficient

quantities in the daily activities of man.


The increase in population and demands a more viable livelihood has encouraged people to continue to strive to meet all your needs. But behind it there will be negative impacts on the environment, especially rivers. Industrial waste and household waste transported river waters continues to increase from year to year. Judging d ari s egi ualitas k (m utu) a ir s ecara direct or indirect pollution will affect water quality. In accordance with the considerations determining the quality of drinking water, the business management of

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H. Arfan, Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar 90245, INDONESIA A. Asri, Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar 90245, INDONESIA 3 A. F. Mahmuda, Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar 90245, INDONESIA

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Study Analysis The Quality And Quantity Of River Water Pampang Makassar South Sulawesi

the water used by humans for drinking water quality standards based on the assessment of the product, especially in drinking water it produces, as well as in planning. Based on description of the location with the location of the river Pampang a lawyer Liran of waste products from surrounding locations and the length of the watershed (DAS) which crosses the township in the city of Makassar, sehin g ga can be bad from the use of river water Pampang LITERATURE REVIEW River The river is a natural waterway that flows next to the river, the lake, the sea or the ocean. The river contains water flow according to the properties of water, ie from a high to a low. Before reaching bodies of water, the first water seep into the ground. Rain drops began to fall to the ground, then flows through the river and brought up to the mouth of the river. The river starts from the spring that flows into several tributaries. Then n child - it's tributaries join to form the main river. The end of the journey is the river mouth of the river. So on so the river became part of the hydrologic cycle Based on water flow (water volume), the river is divided into four kinds of permanent rivers, streams periodic, episodic rivers and ephemeral streams. a. Permanent river, is a river whose water flow throughout the year is relatively fixed. b. Periodic River, was a river during the rainy season the water a lot, while in the dry season the water is small. Episodic River, is a river in the dry season the water dry and in the wet season lot of water. Ephemeral streams, rivers there is water only during the rainy season. At the bottom of the river type is similar to the kind of episodic, only during the rainy season the river this type of water is not necessarily much

METHODOLOGY What river Pampan g, flanked by River Tallo (70 miles from long river main) in the north and DAS Jeneberang at the southern also borders urban areas in the west which is area drainage formed by panampu channel, the channel Jongayayang and channel drainage sinrijala which connected to the DAS Pampang through sinrijala channel. Data speed and depth of the river obtained from current meter and measurement in order to obtain the profile directly into the river and flow velocity of each point. Sampling of river water is in intended to collect several volumes of water or a body of water that will be investigated in the laboratory, with the smallest possible amount but have properties - properties similar to water bodies. Sampling is done the 3 point, the distance of each - each point 100 m. Sampling Point 1 was conducted around 13:45 pm, point to 2 around 14:30, and point to 3 around at 15.15. Sampling using a Van Dorn water sample. First water sample to be used must be clean, have been rinsed with distilled water first, then with water samples to be taken. After that cover water sample tool that opens before the water flooded into the water sample tool with a depth of 1 m, and the weight dropped right on the device through the cord so that the cover closed. Then the water is put into the bottle until it is full and closed well to avoid contact with air. Preservation samples intended to avoid disturbances that can change the nature of the original state of the sample. This research used a special glass bottles with different treatment - depending on the parameters in the review. For COD and BOD testing samples using glass bottles should be filled and sealed with a bottle cap glass. There should be no bubbles, water bubbles in case the water sampling was repeated. As for the testing of chemical and physical parameters before entering the water samples, the mouth of the bottle in the fire first - apikan, then fill up the bottle full sample, then samples removed 3/4 sections, the bottle in the fire-apikan back, then covered with aluminum foil to avoid contact with air. After sampling, the bottle is stored in a special box so that the quality of water taken unchanged from its original nature. The analysis must be performed on a sample depends on the type of water body being examined, the usefulness of these water bodies to local communities for drinking water supply and fishing and the type of pollution that allegedly can occur. Several other elements are not lost from the water solution during the course of the river, such as Cl -, SO4 and various types of metals. Standard solution is made with care and should not be contaminated, such as old, not stored properly or part of the solution has been taken.

c. d.

Water discharge In advanced hydrology, river discharge is high water level measured by the gauge surface waters. The measurements were made every day, or in another sense discharge or flow is the flow rate of water (in the form of volume of water) that passes a stream cross section per unit time. In the SI unit system discharge magnitude is expressed in units of cubic meters per second (m3/sec).

H. Arfan, et al.

To check the results of a number of analysis there are some clues such as balance, relationships and comparisons between parameters - certain parameters, namely: 1. Physical Testing: a. Suspended Solids (TSS) b. Dissolved Solids (TDS) c. Temperature Or Temperature 2. Chemical Testing a. pH b. BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) c. COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) d. DO (Dissolved Oxygen) e. Nitrate (NO3N) and Nitrite (NO2N) d. Ammonia (NH3) e. Barium (Ba) f. Copper (Cu) g. Iron (Fe) h. Manganese (Mn) i. Zinc (Zn) j. Chloride (Cl) k. Fluoride (F) l. Sulfate (SO4) m. Chlorine free (Chlorine) 3. Microbiology a. Coliform MPN b. Fecal Coliform Method of Measurement by Current Meter Tool This method is done by measuring devices placed at a point that serves to calculate the speed of the river flow, flow velocity measurement by this method can produce an adequate estimate of the flow rate. Method of Measurement d ith buoy Discharge measurements made with the float of an object ie ping pong ball, with a predetermined distance, and counting time when the ping pong balls reached the predetermined distance. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Flow Speed Measurement by Current Meter Table 1. Flow velocity channel 1 Horizontal cross direction I 1.4 II III IV Advance High Water (h) 1.5 1.25 1.6

0.115 0.193 0.142 0.110 0.186 0.119 0.102 0.198 0.146 0.134 0.118 Source: Results of measurements in the River Pampang 0.150 0.139

Fig 1. Flow velocity channel 1, point 1

Table 2. Flow velocity channel 2 I 1.7 Horizontal cross direction II III IV Advance High Water (h) 2.5 2.1 1.8 1 V V average average (m / sec

The flow velocity (V) 0.192 0.126 0.114 0.187 0.11 3 0.092

0.141

0.131

V average - average (m / sec

0.184 0.123 0.105 0.191 0.124 0.135

The flow velocity (V) 0.194 0.129

0.139

0.141

0.108

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H. Arfan, et al.

0.197 0.179 0.168 0.168 Source: Results of measurements in the River Pampang

Fig 4. Average Flow Velocity Channel 2 With the integral method obtained velocity (V) average on channel 1 is 0.120 m / sec, and channel 2 is 0.131 m / sec. Fig 2. Flow velocity channel 2, point 1 After obtaining the average value V of each point then sought an average value of V on channels 1 and 2 with the integral method, first sought the equation V using regression, regression equation obtained from the chart below. Table 3. The results of flow channel 2 Advance Travel High Track Data Time (t) Water length (h) (L) (Second) (M) (M) 1 2 3 20th 20th 20th 71 84th 65th 1:40 1:50 1:25 Flow Speed Measurement with buoy.

Surface flow velocity (Vp) m / sec 0.2 81 0. 238 0. 307

The flow velocity (V) m / sec 0. 238 0. 202 0. 261 0. 233

Average 1.4 3 Source: Results of the research data processing Table 4. The results of flow channel 2 Advance Travel High Track Data Time (t) Water length (h) (L) (Second) (M) (M) 1 2 3 20th 20th 20th 63 70 73 1.70 2:50 1:00

Fig 3. Average Flow Velocity Channel 1

Surface flow velocity (Vp) m / sec 0. 317 0. 285 0. 273

The flow velocity (V) m / sec 0. 269 0. 242 0. 232 0. 247

Average 1.8 2 Source: Results of the research data processing

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International Seminar on Infrastucture Development in Cluster Island Eastern Part of Indonesia, Baubau, Indonesia

From the graph above speed flow seen on channel 1 and channel 2, with the water level (h) are different where the first line of 1.43 m and 1.82 m 2 for the channel, showed the flow velocity (v) Different namely 0, 23 3 m / s and 0, 247 m / sec. Flow velocity is smaller than channel 1 channel 2 flow. The difference in speed is also affected by the value of A (cross-sectional area) are different, where the channel 1 is 35.463 m / s while on channel 2 is 64.790 m / s.

From the graph above shows the water level (h) of the river, the higher the number of Q which in getting. Where height (h) of 1.43 m channel 1 and channel 2 at 1.82 m.

Fig. 7. Debit Relationship Graph (Q) and Speed Flow (V) From the graph above shows the higher flow velocity (V), the higher the number of Q which in getting. Where the flow velocity (V) the average obtained by the method of current meter on channel 1 at 0.120 m / s and the channel 2 at 0.131 m / s. While the method of float on channel 1 at 0.233 m / s and the channel 2 at 0.247 m / s. Rainfall Intensity Based from monthly rainfall data over the last 10 years Climatology Meteorology and Geophysics, the maximum rainfall obtained using Hasper, Iwai, and Log Person III. So the intensity of rainfall can be determined using Mononobe. Rainfall intensity (I) for a maximum period of 2 years, with a time of 5 minutes is 1 344.634 mm / hour. From the intensity of rainfall and river broad area of 45.40 km , it can be obtained discharge storm water into the river at 61046.38 Pampang km3 / hr. Fig. 6. Debit Relationship Graph (Q) and High Water Front (h)

Fig. 5. Comparison Chart Debits With 2 Methods From the picture above shows the greater crosssectional area (A), the greater the value of discharge (Q). Where extensive on channel 1 of 35.463 m, while channel 2 of 64.790 m.

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H. Arfan, et al.

Fig 8. Rainfall Intensity Graph Against Time 20

International Seminar on Infrastucture Development in Cluster Island Eastern Part of Indonesia, Baubau, Indonesia

Result of Sample Quality Table 5. Examination broad River Water Agency Water
No A. 1 2 3 B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 C. Parameter Fisika Temperatur* Residu Terlarut (TDS) Residu Tersuspensi (TSS) Kimia pH BOD COD DO Nitrat (NO3-N) Nitrit (NO2-N) NH3-N Barium (Ba) Tembaga (Cu) Mangan (Mn) Besi (Fe) Klorin Bebas (C12) Klorida (Cl) Flourida (F) Sulfat Seng (Zn) Biologi > 16.000.0 00 > 16.000.0 00 > 16.000.0 00 > 16.000.0 00 mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L 7,35 72,52 102,4 0 0,7 0,009 9 0,0934 < 0,0144 0,2068 0,1825 0,49 3384,91 < 0,032 538,74 0,0494 7,19 16,66 61,44 0 0,6 0,002 7 0,0995 < 0,0144 0,3569 0,2008 0,56 3291,75 < 0,032 334,4 0,0501 7,31 28,22 64 0 0,4 0,008 10 0,0895 < 0,0144 0,07 0,2316 0,43 2473,98 < 0,032 223,6 0,123 6 - 8,5 6 50 3(+) 20 0,06 (-) (-) 0,02 (-) (-) 0,03 (-) 1,5 (-) 0,05 SNI 06-6989.11-2004 SNI 06-2503.1991 SNI 06-2504.1991 SNI 06-6989.14-2004 SNI 06-2480-1991 SNI 06-6989.9-2004 Fotometrik IKM/5.4.19/BTKL-MKS IKM/5.4.8/BTKL-MKS IKM/5.4.6/BTKL-MKS IKM/5.4.5/BTKL-MKS Colorimetrik SNI 06-6989.19-2004 Colorimetrik IKM/5.4.54/BTKL-MKS IKM/5.4.9/BTKL-MKS C mg/L mg/L -1 5130 116 -1 4930 52 -1 3930 68 deviasi 3 1.000 400 SNI 06-6989.23-2005 Kolometrik Kolometrik Satuan Titik 1 Hasil Pengujian Titik Titik 2 3 Batas Maksimu m Spesifikasi Metode

Total Coliform

Jml/100 ml Jml/100 ml

10.000

IKM/5.4.9/BTKL-MKS

Fecal Coliform

250.000

470.000

2.000

IKM/5.4.10/BTKL-MKS

(Source: The results of Environmental Health Engineering Laboratory Center Makassar)

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Description: (-): Not set in South Sulawesi Governor Regulation No. 69 Year 2010 (Class III) (+): Minimum limit allowed *: PH and temperature examined in the lab : Not fill : Fill From the results of the broad river water bodies then obtained some parameters that meet or do not meet the water class for class 1, 2, 3 and 4. Taken one parameter, namely Chloride (Cl) to compare the relationship between the flow rate (Q) of the broad river water quality, then generate the chart below:

3. Determining the value of maximum precipitation method Hasper, Iwai, and Log Person III, the known value of the intensity of rainfall using Mononobe. RESULTS rainfall intensity increased with the return period (years) I2, I5, I10, I15. 4. Of the three samples in terms of three parameters such as: Physical parameters: Suspended Solids (TSS), Dissolved Solids (TDS), temperature Or Temp. Chemistry: pH, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), DO (Dissolved Oxygen), Nitrate (NO3N) and Nitrite (NO2N), Ammonia (NH3), Barium (Ba), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), chloride (Cl), fluoride (F), sulphate (SO4), Free Chlorine (Chlorine). Biological: Coliform and Fecal Coliform MPN that the water that is in the Pampang not eligible for standard quality class I, II, III, and IV. It can be seen from the results of the samples, which are parameters that do not meet the standards of provision in South Sulawesi Governor Regulation No. 69 of 2010. ADVICE By looking at the results of research and data analysis in this study, it points to note are: 1. Need Her dissemination of public awareness to care and be responsible for the environment, for example by: Do not pee in the river Feces is the best medium for the development of germs from mild to severe. Do not throw garbage in the river Carelessly discarded trash in the river will cause the river water flow is inhibited. Moreover, it can trigger a flood of the rainy season 2. Domestic wastewater (domestic) should be treated before disposal to channel disposal moving towards the river / water bodies for the purpose of lowering nitrogen and inorganic substances suspended. REFERENCES

Fig. 9 Graph Relations Debit (Q) and Water Quality Chloride (Cl) From the graph above shows the higher flow rate (Q), the lower the value of Chloride (Cl) contained in the water. The content of chloride on channel 1 for 3384, and on channel 2 for 2473. The high value of chloride in a water body can affect the taste of salt in the water. It is influenced by sea water into the river. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION

Artikel Based on the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. A greater cross-sectional area (A), the greater the flow rate (Q) of a cross. 2. Obtained values of flow (Q) of the two methods of measuring the current meter that measures the flow below the surface, and the method of buoys that measure surface flow (Vp) to obtain the value of the flow velocity (V). From the results of both methods can be compared to the measurements obtained by the method of float greater results than using current meter measurements.

Non-Personal. 2012. Pencemaran Sungai (Pengertian, Penyebab, Dampak Dan Cara Mengatasinya). http://weblogask.blogspot.com/2012/05/ pencemaran-sungai-pengertian-penyebab.html. 4 Agustus 2012. CTI Engineering Co, LTD. 1993. Detailed Design Of Pampang River Improvement Project. Makassar: PT. Indra Karya, PT. Exsa International. Denis Rica. 2010. Kualitas Dan Kuantitas Air Bersih Untuk Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Manusia. http://uripsantoso.wordpress.com/2010/01/18/kua litas-dan-kuantitas-air-bersih-untuk-pemenuhankebutuhan-manusia-2/. 10 Juli 2012.

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International Seminar on Infrastucture Development in Cluster Island Eastern Part of Indonesia, Baubau, Indonesia

Ihsan Addinul. 2011. Analisa Kimia Sampel Air Sungai : Penentuan Zat Padat Tersuspensi (TSS) dan Zat Padat Terlarut (TDS). http://chemistryismyworld.blogspot.com/2011/05/ analisa-kimia-sampel-air-sungai_07.html. 13 Juli 2012. Oehadijono, Prof. 1993. Dasar Dasar Teknik Sungai (Principles Of River Engineering). Makassar: Universitas Hasanuddin. Pratiwi, ST. 2012. Studi Potensi Ketersediaan Air Pada Danau Unhas Dan Prospek Pengembangannya. Makassar: Teknik Sipil Unhas.

Raharja Bayu. 2011. Pengukuran Debit Dan Pengambilan Sampel. http://raharjabayu.wordpress.com/page/2/. 13 Juli 2012. Thaha A. M. Arsyad, Dr. Ir. MT. 2011. Penuntun Pratikum Hidrolika, Makassar: Laboratorium Hidrolika. Wahid Nur. 2011. Limnologi, Debit Air. http://noerwahide.blogspot.com/2011/11/limnol ogi-debit-air.html

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