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CHAPTEN2

Steam Power Plants

The Rankine CYcle

The Rankine cycle is the most widely used cycle for electricpower generation' Figure.2 1

of a Rankine cycie. Figure 2'2a, b shows the ideal

diagrams. cycle 1'-2-3-4-B-I is a saturated Rankine cycle

illustrates a simplified flow diagram

The cycles shown are internaily

prr*p ur" udiabatic reversible.

Rankine cycle on P-o and T-s

(saturated vapor enters the turbine). Cycle

i'-2'-3-4-B-f is a superheated Rankine cycie'

reversible. The processes through the turbine and

Hence, r,erticai on the T-s diagram. There are no pressure

iorru, ir-t the piping.

The reversible

Line 4-B-1-f is a constant-pressure line' Rankine cycle has the following processes:

Line 1,2 or 1',2',. Adiabatic reversible expansion through the ttLrbine ' The exhaust

at point 2 or point 2'is usually in the two-phase region'

vapor

Line

2-3 or 2,-3. Constant-temperature and, being a two-phase mixture ProceSS/

constant-pressure heat reiection in the condenser'

Line3.4.Adiabaticreversiblecompressionbytlrepumpofsaturatedliquidatthe

condenser pressure, point 3, to subcooled

point

liqr-rid

at the steam generator Pressure'

r-t diagrams because the iiquid is

4. Line 3-4 is vertical on both the P-a ut-ta

line'on

essentially incompressible and the pump is adiabatic reversible'

Line 4-1 or 4.1,. Constant-pressure

is a constant-pressure

heat ad.dition inthe steam generator, Line 4-B-1 1,

both diagrams. Portlon 4-B represents bringing the

B. Section 4-B in the steam heating the saturated liquid

a two-phase mixture)'

eaaporator' Portion 1-1"

subcooled tiqlia,

point 4, to saturated liquid at point

generator is

to saturated vapor at constant pressure and temperature fteing

and section B-1 in the steam generator

in the superheat cyc1e, repreints

culle.l ar', economizer. Portion Bl1 ."p."i"t-tts

is called tineboiler or

heating the saturated vaPor at point 1 to point 1''

Section 1-f in the steam generator is called a superheater'

Following is the thermodynamic anaiysis based on a unit mass of vapor in the cvcle:

Heat added

Turbine work

t1,,= hr-h, Btu/Ib,,, (or l/kg)

7L).,. = h, - 7r, Btu/1b,,, (or J/kg)

(21)

(2.2)

16 C h a p t e r

Iw o

f^,*. Z.f

Schematic flow diagram

of a Rankine cYcle.

Frcune 2'2

[uli". t'iti

ldeal Rantilne

t''-r34-BL' = superrreated cvcle CP =

ib)

critical point'

I-s diagrants' Line

(b)

t-ZS-q-e4 = saturated

Heat rejected

Pump work

Net work

lqol =h,- h. Btu/1b,, (or J/kg)

Aronn, = (h\ -

\tu,,\ =ltr- h.

h2) -

(hn- h.)

Btu/1b,,, (or J/kg)

Thermal efficiencY

A&/,,",

rlu' = lo

(h, hr\-i!;l'J

-'_1t1- n.l

For small units where Pn is not much larger than P"

h'= hn

(23)

(2,4)

(2.5)

(2.6)

\2.7)

Steam Power Plants

ll

The pump work is negligible compared vrith the turbine work, the thermal efficiency

(with little error) is

It.

I t,

Ilu, = 4rd

(2.8)

is not true for modern Power plants, where P4 is 1000 psi (70 bar) about 1 psi (0.07 bar').In this caie, the pump work may be o-btained

at P' from the'steam tables' One can

P, (assuming that T' = T')

This assumption

or higher, rvhile P. is

uy riiang

find

lr' as the saturatei enthalpl' of liquid

tables-at T., and

hnfr-', in" subcooled liquid

Ai appr.ximati'. for the

pr,'.,p,uu.k may be obiained from the change in flow work:

(2e)

Reheat

improves the cycle efficic-nc1'. Figures 2 3 and 2.4 illustrate the flor.t' and T-s dia-

an internalty reversibie tiu,-tt]." cycle

(i.e., the process through the turbine

there is no pressure drop in the cycle) The

Reheat

grams .f

and pump is adiabatic and reversible; alsc'r,

.l/ofe: Line nh-represer]ts the primary

primarV heat source is the combustion

The r.apor

sure

cycle superheats and reheats the vaPor.

expanded in the high-pressule turbine to point

The vapor in the reheat cycle at point 1 is

2'

coolant in a counterflow steam generator (the gases from the steam generator furnace)'

is retumed back to the stearn generator where it is reheated at constant pres-

(ideallV) to a temperature near thaiat point 1' The reheated steam now enters the

low-pressuie turbine'"vhere it exparrds to the condenser Pressure'

point 3. It keeps

primary fluid

In a reheat cycle, i-reat is aclied h,r,ice: from point 6 to point I and from point 2 -to

ih"

boil"r-rrperheat-reheat

p.rtion from point 7 to point 3 close to the

line ac. Tl-ris increases the cycle efficienry

Reheat also produces drier steam at tire turbine

exhaust (poi.t 4 instead of point 4')'

Modernfossil'fueledpowerplantslraveatleastonestageofreheat.Ifmorethantwo

stages of reheat or" .r."d, cycie complication occurs doJs not justify the increase in capital cost'

and the improvement in efficiency

Ftcunr 2.3

Su Per-

heater

Boiler

Economizer

ffith

High-pressure

tu rbi ne

superheat and reheat'

18 Chapter Two

F"r* 2.4 Is diagram or

Rankine cYcle of F\9.2.3

lnsomeplants,thesteamisnotreheatedintheSteamgeneraior,Itisreheatedina

A portion of the steam at loint 1 is used to

is sent to the feed

reheat the

water heaters. The reheat

seDarate heat exchang er rehenter.

:,:#::;#;ffi;;i1o-

cycle involves two

.o,,,d",.,ses u,-,d

and two heat addition terms' (Refer to Fig' 2'4')

turbine work terms

lV, = (lr, -

hr) + (\-

lW,,l = ho- h,

AW"", = (h, -

hr) + (/r. -

h')

hr) - (ho- hr)

clo= (hr- /in) + th.- hr)

(210)

(2.11)

(2.12)

(2.13)

-

AW^''

tt,n = -,1

,

(2.14)

2'5 illustrates the variation

P, affects

cycl9 efficiency

l"n"lt

Figure

The reheat Pressure

!h9

pirr.,r" to initial pressure PrlP,'

is too close to the initial

in cycle efficiency

p, :2500 psia, T,

pressure, the

us a frictlon of the rartio of

= i000:;*""^i.

= iooo'l rr tr-r" **r"ui pressure

"iii.tency is minimul becarse

only a small portion of heat

"::

increase ,r., .y.r"

t' "11""0.T,[tff"ff:iil?iii"".,

Lowering

r"*

'

:i

the reheat;;;;;;;'

p,/p, isbetw"".":o and 25 p"i

',,eachedwhen

i',,f":th"l:u"s"t ih" efficiency to decrease agarn

o'o:::"T:':lili':Jr:3iill;l'i,,r.,heat-reheat power prant is desis-

ffi ' p.' i' ooo'

i:)i1,';"i

:l i1?;"1 l, ff TXi1n'[ffii:: :T: :Jl i'l

ou

".,5

1p,

::.,i

five plants. Nc'te

Ufr.i"".u

thc increase in elttctency

caused by using nonideal fluids'

;

Steam Power Plants l9

I 000

800

600

o

d

()

0J

Reheat pressure/initial

0.6

07

pressure' P2/P1

x 700

.:

d

a

I.C ld

l:

l.E

lf

lj

IF

.0

tr

o

o

F

t6

IF

Frcune 2.5 Effect ot r"n"Zfi6frtfiiE;Ite

temperature,

!"i$"l,lll

and

row-preslri"

15 iffiO:F,

i'j'ni'!

"';

rat'o on efficiency' high-pressur

i',q"3it

1000

)

*'tn initial steam at

c;91t1.gliiiX'"?.'l?3t

1ooo"

F ( 2

500/

1000/

;;.,eam ren eat to

:--*--- ' -'

in19_

Superheat 2500

Data

Turbine lnlet

i 25O0/1OOO : saturated

2500

r pressure,, p*s]u

Pressure,

Psia I

i*??oo ,; zs-oo

l-OO0

,

Turbine inlet temperature, 'F

6-6,?:11

Exhaust steam enthalPY'

Btu/lb-

Turbine work, Btu,zlb.

Pump work, Btu/lb.

Net work, Btu/lb-

Exhaust steam quality

cvcte eriiciencY, "z

: 852'52 i

,

i

604:98

688 36

7.46

397.48 ,

101-6.11

0 5971

39.r2

ffiormancecomParison

20 C h a p t e r

Tw o

Froune 2.6 Exlernal irreversibillty with Ranklne cycle.

Regeneration

irrtruersiltilittl is caused by the tetnpef ature differences between the prlmary

coolant) and the working

fl-uid' Temperature

Prlmary

ovorki'tj fiuid and ll:.lt"t sink

fluid (condenser cool-

cause external irreversibllity'

nt'; (line 4-B-1-2-:-+) in a Rankine cYcle' Line a b

and line c_d represents

is too ciose to line 4-B-1'

Externql

heat source (combustion gases or

differences between condensing

ir-tg *'ut", or cooling air) also

represents

the heat

Figure 2 6 ill;;;;^;;t th" ' 'otki'-'g

tlre prilnarv coolant

in a

counterflor,r, steam generator,

o*.hor-rger' Ifiine n-b

th;

'-r"oi

;;;"t;

tgoian|

sink fluid in a counterflo*

and the working fluid would

loss from the primary coolant)

differences between

would be smali and

irreversibilities would be

the temperat."u tiiii"t"ttes betn'een

be small. Therefore,

are small, but the

the irreversibilities tJaused by heat

steam generator rvould be large and costly'

If line n-b i, *.,.n

"i;i

nigter than line 4-B-1 (signlficant temperature

or,,i ,h" worklng fluid),1he

steam generator

iiff"."r-t.", Jnd

the primary

inexpensi'e,

btrt the overall temperature

H"r'r.e, the plant efficiency r"'ouid be reduced'

lu.gi.

to

An examina-tiior-, .* Eig

the point of boiling (i.e.,

2.6 ie'eals ihat a great

in the ecor,omizer lection

temperature .fifi"."n'."-, between iir-,o fr-n u"a tine

deal of irreversibilities occur p.or

of the steam generator where the

4-B are the grea[est of a1l during the

entire heat addition Process)'

Thethermaleffi.cienciesofalltypesofpowerpiantssu'.ferfromthisirreversibility,

if the

liquid is adied to the steam generator

tf-tts objective iy

^.ni"t"t

,r'].

-"-rp.es.ed fluid

at point B instead

exchanging heat between before heat addition'

4. f f-," pro."r, of rege,teraiior,

expanding tj;iJi;lh"iurbine o,-ra

which can be eliminated

of point

the

Feedwater Heating

Feedwaterheatingisaccomplishedb-vheatingthecompressedliquidatpoint4ina

number of finite steps

in heat

exchanglrr'i;*En""aers")

Fig.

2.b.1 Modertl steam

Stages. N;;; ;."

turbine at selected stages. (see

and eig}rt {""d;;;", h;ating

by steam

that is

bled from the

power plants use between five

built withbut feedwater heating,

Steam Power Plants n

In a regenerative cycle, the liquid enters the steam generator at a point below poini B

(Fig.2.6).Ar-re.o'-'o*i"ersection(thisisthepartofti-e-steamgeneratorthatheatsthe

Howei'ei,

it is much smaller than

fluid between points 4

and B) is stilineeded.

incoming

the one

that is needed for n.nregen"rulJ"

is the closest to the efficiency

cycles. The efficiency of a weli-designed

of a Carnot cycle'

Rankine cycle

The three

types of feedwater heaters include:

l. OPen or direct-cont'rct tYPe 2. Closed type with drains cascaded backward 3. Closed type with drains pumped forward

The lnternally lrreversible Rankine Cycle

Internalirreaersibilityisprimarilytheresuitoffluidfriction,tlrrottling,andmixing.The

in a cycle occur

in turbines and purnps' and pressure

and so on. In turbines and pumps/

most important irrl'ersibilities

losses occur ir., rr"ui

the

pipes, bends, r,alves,

assumption oi adiabatic"flow "*.r1ungers, is still 'alid (the

heat iosses per unit mass is negligible)'

tlowever,theflowisnotreversibie.Theentropyinbothp.o."rt"tincreases'Thisisiilus-

tt"t"firl,li?;lu7 potyrrnpn et't'iciettcyr, (sometimes cated atrinbntic or isentropic efficienul) rs

given bY

It -

n,=,-

'

tlt -

lt"

tr2,

(2.15)

Nofe; t1, is different from the cycle thermal efficiency'

Well-designea tr,.Uir-r", ho,r" hlgh

efficiencies- They- are usually in the

polytropic.

o.a". oi go pe"rcent. The presence

of-moisture in the steam rednces q

Process2-3(Fig'2.7)lnthecorrdenseroccursatconstatrtpressureandconstarrt

temperature(atwo-phasecondensationprocess)-TlrepumpProcessisalsoadiabatic

F*,*Za

A T-s diagram of an irreversible superheat

internally

Rankine cYcle.

22 C h a p t e r

Tw o

and irre'u,ersible. The entropy in this Process increases' It is a liquid (single-phase)

process

iemp"'uit"" 1ld. :"-tn"fpy

(3-4) increases more than the

pump absorbs more "vork in an

(3-4). The

Process

adiabatic u,-,a ."u".Jii f.o r,

(3-a.). Therei.ie, the

irreversible Process.

The punry

potytropic efficiency lu (sometimes called adiabntic or isentroStic efficiency) is

given by

l, -

Ir, -lt.

lr- -1.

:{acr"ol

(ideal work)

*"*)

(2. i 6)

n ''

where is the rever>e of q,'

Th" actrral punrp rr ork is gir en by

U

,1,

np

(2.17)

the pump is at a higher Pressure

than the turbine inlet (due to fric-

steam generator at point 5 enters the

5 and 1 is the result

The liquid ieaving

tion throughout

turbine at point 1. (see Fig.2.7.)The

of the combined effects of friction

tie systern)l tne steam"leav'ing the

the steam generator

pressureirop betweenpoinis

and heat losie,' Point 5'

represents the frictional

and turbine, including the turbine

effects in the pipe connecting

throttle valve. Heat losses

frJm that pipe reduce the entropy to 1'

0pen or Direct'Gontact Feedwater Heaters

The extraction

open or

steam is mixed directly with the incoming

subcooled feedwater in the

direct-contact feedwater heaier. The mixture

beiomes saturated water at the

extraction steam Pressure'

Figure2,sn,bshowstheflowdiagramandcorrespondingT-sdiagramforaRankine

cycle using two feedwater heaters-one

ahigh-presstrrefeedwaterheater'(Thelow-pressure.feedwaterheaterisupstreamof

a low-pressure feedwater

heater and the other

plants use one open-

the high-prerr.t."

typ" f""d*oter

f""d*ater heater') Normilly' modern power

heater and betu'een four and seven other heaters'

Atypicalopen-typecleaeratingfeedwaterheaterisshowninFig.2.g.Theconden-

,,saturatua *utli" leaves the-condenser at point 5 (see^Fig' 2'8)' It is. pumped to

sate

poirrt6tothesamePlessureasextractionsteamatpoint3 Thesubcooledwaterat

point 6 ur-ra

*.,;i"ui1-ui poi.t 3 mix in the low-pressure

feedwater heater to produce

saturated water at Point 7'

Theamountnqlssufficienttosaturatethesub^coolellll".atpoint6.Iftheextrac-

l{

(where

nri > ri7),the

flow

at

point

r.rr.r." uif11"

7

would

be

a

two-phase

6-7 (constant) cannot be

tion steam at poini 3 were

mixture that wouid be difficult to pump. i1-9 t

higher than the wluld enter the

steam at poini g.

at Point 3'

"*iru.tio.

turbine

Otherouise, reverse flow of condensate water

AsecondpumpisneededtopressurizethesaturatedwaterfrompointTtoasub'

g, which ir ,l;;.;;;"re

";t

pt"::lll.1-leaerator

of extraction steam at point 2' The

is usualiy added

surface area and

cooled condition at point

steam at point 10 enters

to

the steam g""";;;t;

the open-typ; il;;;";-heateis. The

mixing Process increases the

FrcunE 2.8 (a) Schematic flow and (b) I-s diagrams of a nonideal superheat Rankine cycle with two open-type feedwater heaters'

Steam Power Plants

riberates noncondensable gases (".g.,

Hence, the ariangem"it

",*"rffl".".

The

mass balance is as follows:

N' o' and Co"). These gur:r,.u^ be vented to

it iun"a deaeratittg heaters or DA'

Mass flow between Points 1 and 2 = 1' Mass flow between Points 2 and9 = mz'

Mass flow between points 2 and 3 =1' - mr'

Mass flow between points 3 and7 = mz' Mass flow between points 3 and 7 -- L - mr- ritt'

Mass flow between points 7 and9 =1- i1z'

Mass flow between Points 9 and 1 = 1'

Theenergybalancesforthehigh-arrdlow-pressurefeedrt,aterheaters,respectir'elv, are as follows

n5ft,-hr) = (1- t4) (hr- hs)

fr\(h,- hr) = (1 - nt-

n\) (h" -

h6)

(2.18)

(2.7e)

23

24 Chapter Two

Tray detail A

Distributing

pans

Sprav hood

Deaerating

tray banks

see detail A

Relief valve

Tray loading door

Equalizer

Spray nozzles see delail B

Spray nozzle detail B

Condensate inlel

Atmospherlc venls

Stearn batfle

Bleed steam inlet

High pressure

heater drains inlet

FreunE 2.9

Heater, lnc.)

Manhole

Level gauge

atei heater' \CourtesY of Chicago

Heat added

 

q ^= (ht -

h'o)

Turbine work

Pump work

u., = (lr,- lr,) + (1- nt) (h?- \)

+ (1 -

nt- ry1 (h.- hr)

I lru, I = Q - ri5- n\) (hu- ft.) + (1 - ry) (h8- h?)

+ (r,J- h") = (1 - ttr'1) +f

-\r r

(l _

m) ur(Pu .Pr\ r u"(P,o . Po)

'It|t

l,

/

1,,/

(2.20)

(2.21.)

e.2Zl

where 1,, is the pump efficiency and I =778'16 ft ' lb,/Btu'

Steam Power Plants 25

Heat rejected

Net cycle work

lq,. | = (1 - ,t-

r\) (h^- ho)

Aun"t = tur- lu,,l

(2.23)

(2.21\

Cycle thermal efficiencY

L.tu

Iltr. - = -

nPt

.t . A

t) )\\

Work ratict

WR -

20.",

711t.

(2.26)

Note that tire turbine rt,ork has decreased

for the same mass.flort' rate because

bieeding. The pump work has also

of reduced turbine mass-flolv rate after

increased.

Notealsothedecreaseinheataddedwhichmakesupmorethanthelossonnet

in cycle efficiency'

The improvement in

r,r,ork. This results in signifi.cant improvement

efficiency

increases *,iti tne t-tur,.ber

feedwater heaters used is eight. Any

of

ciencv and adds complications to

justify the increase in efficiency'

maximum number of

increase beyond eight causes little increase in effi-

in capitai cost woLlid not

feedwater heaters' The

"ur"

the system. ihu ir-t

Heater with Drains cascaded Backward

""tl".gy

closed-Type Feedwater

This is the most

and-tube lreat exchanger.

bled steam trunftrs

ver,v

cornmonly used type of feedwater heaters in power plants' It rs a.shell-

The feedrt,ater pu,,"' through

to the feedwater as it

the tubes, on tlre slrell side, the

c-onclenses. Feedwater heaters are

Figure 2'10 illustrates

similar to condensers, but they operate at higher Pressures'

A boiter f"";;;;tir

usually pliced

after iire deaerater.

to""'po'-'Ji'-tg f-s diagram of a nonideal superheat

the flon' diagram and' the

o""{i:".;lii"Lo. t'"o feedwater heaters.of

lht'y.ry ?ilv,:fi.fii:;;*:f*;1"

Then' it is fed back to the next lorver-

to l.wer-pressurer heaters)'

to high-pressure subcoolecl

bled steam condenses in each feedwater heater'

pressure f""d*;;;;;aier

Wet steam u, p,rir-r, : o

(it cascades. from higher-pr€rssur{-r

admitted and transfers its energy

wateratpoint6.ure.lengthdiagramofthisheater.Thetempera-

26 C h a p t e r

Tw o

Frcune 2.1O

closed-tyPe

ie

\

\

\

t2

l")

S"h"m"b" fl"- and (b) T-s diagrams of a nonideal

feedwater heaters with drains cascaded backward'

superheat Rankine cycle with tvvo

A difference called the terminal temperature difference (TTD, sometimes simply TD) is

defined for all closed feedwater heaters as

TTD = saturation temperature of bled steam - exit water temperature (227)

Usuaily, the TTD is in the order of 2'78'C (5'F)' Aclosedfeedwaterheaterthatfeceivessaturatedorwetsteamcanhaveadraincooler

Thus,itiscomposedofacondensingsectionandadraincoolersection(Fig.2.11).

F-c--{

'/

-'

/-"-1

(a)

trt)

(b)

Steam Power Plants

(c)

27

of (a' b) low-pressure-and (c) high-pressure

feedwaterheatersofFrs'2.10.c=con"denser,DC=draincooler,DS=desuperheater,TTD=

terminal temPerature dif ference

Cycle ; Particulars

A , No suPerheat;

s

p

E

,Sgogrheatlno

lAw*,

1473,72

,?7?,n

.519,3

no fwh+

fw-h one oPen fwfr

I guqerh?at;

, Superheat; one closed fwh, drains I 520 31 cascaded: DC{'

, Superheat;

i Pumpedi

one closed fwh; drains 529'85

DC

l

F Superheat: one closed fwh: drains 520 59

G

H

I fwh; drains cascaded

I Supercritical; double reheat; no

I t,vtr ; SSOO/r OOO / IO25 / 1'O5O

qa

rr20.19

1!32 9?_

1203.95

L2L2.C4

', 1245.63

,42.54

l

143.0L

:

1-447 :44

;44.33

;

1351.0 AF

4 A

4 aa1

a')

47.O5

*DC = drain cooler, flvh = feedwatcr heater

ffi

lations for ldeal Rankine CYcles

Tabie

2.2 shorvs the results of example calculations

r. general, comparison

"fi.i"r-rJi", ur"u result of

for ideal Rankine cycles' By

but the improvement of r1tl' ilr

between the Various cycles

comparing cycles C and B, note the reduction of work

cycle C due to zu"arrntlr"n"uii^g.

sh.rt,s large ir-rcreas", ,r-.'

feedwater heater.

Figure 2.12

superheat, reheat, a'd the use of one

shows a flow diagram of an actual 5l2-MW power plant with superheat'

reheat, and sel'en feedwater heaters'

28

!

'I

!

! {

a6

io 5PJ

a

6

ir

TI

3,41 3,6 t 9#

30s.0t2#

 

4

1309.6h

I

I

 

o

,l

1438.8h

t

l59,l03#

.J

1289.4h

-r

I 203.8h

-

"n %,609#

q 1159.?h

CJ

-r

o

I ?6.609#

t t 19.6h

'o

L

194,160#

o

o

a

!r

io )g

v

a ilJ

6

6

!L

:O

258.1 P

_ l 387.9h

r65.9 P

3'782#

1388h

r 70.535 #

:-

F:

@

5

t2.l6P

62.9P r

3

22.8P

5.76 P

^

a:

6c b

:;

7*>

N!

@

.)

i

D

A

o o o

"n

6

o

39'73#

6uX

a i.L

J-

O

b

E

C
(g

a

c,)

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30 Chapter Two

Etficiency and Heat Rate

The actual thermal efficiency the analvsis did not include

of por,,r,er plants is less than those computed earlier because

the various auxiliaries used in a Po\\'er plant and the vari-

ous irreversibilities associated with thern'

The gross efficiency is calculated using the gross Powel of the lurbine generator' This is

megawatts (MW)] that is produced before supplying the intemal equipment ptant (e.g., pumps, compressors, fuel-handling equipment, computers, etc.).

iaiculated based on the net power of the plant (the gross Power

the powlr [in of the po*"l.

Tie net ,fiirirnrylt

minus the power

needed for the- internal equipment of the plant)'

Supercritical Plants

Figure 2.13 illustrates the T-s diagram

3560 psi/1000'F/r02s'F/

of an ideal supercritical, double-reheat

1050'F power

plant. The-v usualll' ha'e higher ihermal effi-

ciencies than subcritical

plants. Their capital cost is higher than subcritical plants due to

the need for suitable maleria] and sealing devices that can withstand high temperature

and pressure for long periods of time'

Co-generation

Co generation is the simultaneous generation piant. Co-generation is recommencied for

of electricity and stean-r (or heat) in a po\ver industries and municipaiities because it can

Frcunr 2.13 I-s diagram of an ideal

supercritical, double-reheat 3500,/

]-.OOO / tO25