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Acknowledgement

This gives us immense pleasure in presenting the work based on our findings.

First and foremost we would like to thank our dean Sharma sir for giving us a great opportunity to pursue M.B.A from V.M. Patel Institute Management.

Our Sincere thanks must go to TOYOTA, EMBRALD HONDA, INTAS & SIS for granting us permission to undergo our assignment work. We would like to thanks all the H.R heads who warmly welcomed us and spared their valuable time to us so that we can make our assignment perfect and study it very well.

We are greatly thankful to Prof. Rachita mam, Faculty at V.M. Patel Institute of Management, Ganpat University, Kherva, for her invaluable guidance and kind support rendered to us during the assignment.

-Group Members

Context:

Particular 1) Introduction of the communication 2) Types of communication 3) Importance of communication 4) Barriers of the communication 5) Communication Process 6) Companies & ways of communication 7) Conclusion

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Introduction of Communication:
Definition:

Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. Meaning: In general, communication is a means of connecting people or places. In business, it is a key function of management--an organization cannot operate without communication between levels, departments and employees.

Types of Internal Communication: Communication within an organization is called Internal Communication.

Definition The sharing of information within an organization for business purposes. For example, internal communication within a company can take place via speech, telephone, radio, mail, paging, fax, closed circuit television, electronic mail, Internet connections and computer networks.

It includes all communication within an organization. It may be informal or a formal function or department providing communication in various forms to employees. is a vital mean of addressing organizational concerns. Good communication may help to increase job satisfaction, safety, productivity, and profits and decrease grievances and turnover.
Effective internal communication

Under Internal Business Communication types there come: a) Upward Communication b) Downward Communication c) Horizontal/Literal communication

a) Upward Communication Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management. Without upward communication, management works in a vacuum, not knowing if messages have been received properly, or if other problems exist in the organization. By definition, communication is a two-way affair. Yet for effective twoway organizational communication to occur, it must begin from the bottom. Upward Communication is a mean for staff to:

Exchange information Offer ideas Express enthusiasm Achieve job satisfaction Provide feedback

b) Downward Communication Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies). Downward communication generally provides enabling information which allows a subordinate to do something. e.g.: Instructions on how to do a task. Downward communication comes after upward communications have been successfully established. This type of communication is needed in an organization to:

Transmit vital information Give instructions Encourage 2-way discussion Announce decisions Seek cooperation Provide motivation Boost morale Increase efficiency Obtain feedback

Both Downward & Upward Communications are collectively called Vertical Communication

c) Horizontal/Literal communication Horizontal communication normally involves coordinating information, and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate. Communication among employees at the same level is crucial for the accomplishment of work. Horizontal Communication is essential for:

Solving problems Accomplishing tasks Improving teamwork Building goodwill Boosting efficiency

Importance of communication in an organization:

Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individuals attitudes, i.e., a well-informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in molding employees attitudes. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational members behavior in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.

Barriers of communication in an organization:


Sender related barriers
1) Communication Goals: There must be some or goal or objective of communication. This goal provides the sender with the basis for formulating the message. Lack of such a goal can lead the formulation of incoherent message. 2) Communication skills: Communication skills refer to the clarity of thoughts, correct word usage, grammatical accuracy, proper delivery of message, correct spelling of pronunciation, and proper organization of sentence or speech. Absence of these makes it difficult for the receiver to understand the message clearly. 3) Interpersonal sensitivity: Lack of interpersonal sensitivity is another reason why communication may fail to achieve its goal. The sender may convey the message clearly and correctly to the receiver but fail to get the intended result because the message does not motivate the receiver to respond positively. Insensitive individual often use the language which is offensive to the receiver. They are also indifferent to the needs and feelings of other. 4) Differing frames of reference: effective communication require that the encoding and decoding process be based upon a common field of experience. Lack of shared experience may result in miscommunication. 5) Inconsistent non-verbal signals: the tone of voice, facial expression and body postures can help all or hinder communication. For example, a quarrel at home may make the boss shout unnecessarily or speak in an angry voice to his/ her subordinate at work 6) Either or thinking: an individual behavior is often based on either or thinking earlier in ones life. A person love to use such so called polar term as near far, objective, subjective, black/white, that this ,and he or she thinks and speak in this way but most of the things do not confirm to this convenient extremists . By taking the position of either or a person is committed to opposition where compromising or correct viewing a situation is not possible. This place rigidity in communication 7) Fear: Fear is an another barrier to effective communication. A person under the influence of fear is likely to lose balance and is or her communication

barrier is affected adversely. On the other hand fear is likely to promote effective communication by making the sender more alert while transmitting a message.

Receiver related barriers


1) Selective and poor listening: selective listening refer to peoples tendency to hear only what they want we are likely to listen to what we like to listen to, disregard information that creates cognitive dissonance or this threatening to our self estimate. We try to ignore information that conflicts with established belief or valve. 2) Evaluating the source: the receiver has a tendency to evaluate the sender and not the message. 3) Lack of response feedback: Non response or inappropriate response discourages the sender of the message. A non response means that the receiver is not interested in the message and it is difficult to message with such a person. An inappropriate response hurts the senders ego and feelings.

Situation-related barriers
1) Jargon: Jargon means unintelligible or meaningless talk or writing, familiar only to a group or profession. Each profession has its own jargon or special vocabulary. When it is used outside the group, its become unintelligible. 2) Information overload: when receiver are bombarded with more message than they possibly handle they experience communication overload. Because of this information overload, the receiver cannot accommodate a heavy load of message from the sender. Poor communication or miscommunication will be the result. 3) Time pressure: time pressure can cause poor communication by preventing the sender from providing adequate information to the receiver. As a result communication may become relatively superficial and this superficiality can adversely affect effective communication.

4) Communication climate: the climate in which communication takes place influences its effectiveness. If communication take place in an atmosphere of trust and confidence, it is likely to produce a positive response. If a message is incomplete the receiver is likely to fill in the missing part with favorable interpretations. Conversely if communication takes place in a climate where distrust prevails even a well intended message can be distorted to give a negative meaning. 5) Noise : Noise affects communication adversely noise will disturb distort or interface with the receivers ability to receive the message accurately 6) Distance: There will be delay in communication if the distance between the sender and the receiver is long. This is particularly true. If the mode of communication is letter writing. Communication delays is communication denied. 7) Mechanical failure: The failure of mechanical equipment in disruption of communication is too clear to necessitate any elaboration.

Communication Process
The communication model comprises seven parts 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The sender Encoding The message The channel Decoding The receiver Feedback

Encoding

Sender Noise

Channel

Receiver

Decoding

1) The communication process begins with the sender of the source. The sender has an intended message to communicate. 2) The sender encodes the information to be transmitted by translating it into a series of symbols or gestures. Encoding is necessary, because information can only be transferred from one person to another through representations or symbols. 3) The message is the physical form which the sender encodes the information. When we speak the speech is the message. 4) The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The primary channel for interpersonal communication involves a face to face exchange between two individuals. 5) The channel choice depends on the purpose of communication. Face to face conversation, for example, is used when the communicator wants to discuss informal, private and confidential matters. 6) The receiver is the person who receives the message and has the responsibility of decoding it. 7) Decoding is the process by which the symbols are interpreted by the receiver.

Companies and their ways of INTERNAL COMMUNICATION:

Toyota:

In 1957, when Toyota first came to America, Elvis was king of rock n' roll, big cars with tailfins were "in" and postage stamps were just 3 cents. After a poor start with a car called the "Toyopet," Toyota came back strong in 1965 with the popular 90-horsepower Corona sedan. Then there was the Corolla, Camry, Toyota trucks, the Lexus luxury brand, Scion, and the world's first gas/electric hybrid Prius...a car we built for the 21st century. Along the way, we've learned a lot and enjoyed the support of American consumers who have embraced the quality, dependability and reliability of our vehicles. Today, Toyota is one of the top-selling brands in America and we are committed to continuous improvement in everything we do, along with breakthrough products for the future. We're proud to share some highlights of our 50 years of progress and history here. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, Sakichi Toyoda invented Japan's first power loom, revolutionising the country's textile industry. January 1918 saw him create the Toyoda Spinning and Weaving Company, and with the help of his son, Kiichiro Toyoda, Sakichi fulfilled his lifelong dream of building an automatic loom in 1924. The establishment of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works followed in 1926. Kiichiro was also an innovator, and visits he made to Europe and the USA in the 1920s introduced him to the automotive industry. With the 100,000 that Sakichi Toyoda received for selling the patent rights of his automatic loom, Kiichiro laid the foundations of Toyota Motor Corporation, which was established in 1937. One of the greatest legacies left by Kiichiro Toyoda, apart from TMC itself, is the Toyota Production System. Kiichiro's "just- in-time" philosophy -

producing only precise quantities of already ordered items with the absolute minimum of waste - was a key factor in the system's development. Progressively, the Toyota Production System began to be adopted by the automotive industry across the world. Rising from the ashes of industrial upheaval in post-war Japan, Toyota has become the largest vehicle manufacturer in Japan with over 40% market share. Toyota began to make inroads into foreign markets in the late 1950s. The first Crown models arrived in the USA in 1957, and by 1965, with models such as the Corolla, Toyota began to build its reputation and sales to rival those of domestic producers. The first Toyota imported into Europe was via Denmark in 1963. Toyota has continued to grow in Europe's sophisticated and complex market, and in 2000 the company delivered its ten millionth car to a customer in Germany. In fact, growth is currently one of the main words in Toyota's European vocabulary, and the company plans to reach annual sales of 800,000 in Europe by 2005. Toyota is number one for customer satisfaction in the majority of European countries and has built an excellent reputation across Europe for reliability and customer service. This enviable reputation, along with the support of a network of more than 25 distributors and 3,500 sales outlets, are important factors in supporting Toyota's European sales growth in the coming years.

Internal communication in TOYOTA:


We visited the office and searched how the employees of TOYOTA communicate within the organization or we can say internal organization, here are some of the ways they used in their day-to-day communications.

E-mail Phone call Video conference Meeting Notice/Circular

Generally they use the e-mail system for any work in the organization. If there is emergency then the fast way to communicate is phone call When there is communication with top management as this is foreign company the top management might not available in same country and email and phone call may not in use so they use video conference at that time. Meeting is generally done when the message is given to all the employees of the organization it is very short and best way to tell all of them at a time. Notice/circular is used when the message is of particular department.

Honda:
The HMSI factory is spread over 52 acres, with a covered area of about 85, 815 square meters at Manesar, Gurgaon district of Haryana. The foundation stone for the factory was laid on 14th December 1999 and the factory was completed in January 2001. The initial installed capacity was 100,000 scooters per year, which has reached 6,00,000 scooters by the year by 2007 and motorcycle capacity shall be 4,00,000 per annum. The total investment outlay for the initial capacity was Rs. 215 crores and now the accumulated investment is 800 crores. The second plant at the Tapukara Industrial Area of Rajasthan, which is approximately 90km from the center of Delhi, has become operational from July 2011 with annual production capacity of 0.6 million units. HMSI aims to double the annual production capacity of this plant to 1.2 million units in March 2012.

Internal communication in Honda:


When we visited the office of HONDA we found how the employees of HONDA communicate within the office or internally, here are some of the ways they used in their day-to-day communications.

E-mail Phone call Meeting

Generally they use the e-mail system for any work in the organization e.g to order the parts from the home branch, or any difficulties etc. They mostly use phone calls within the branch just to get work done quickly. Meeting is generally done when the message is given to all the employees of the branch it is very short and best way to tell all of them at a time. Notice/circular is used when the message is of particular department.

INTAS Pharmaceutical:
Intas is a leading, vertically integrated global pharmaceutical formulation development, manufacturing and marketing company headquartered in India. Intas's success and incessant growth lies in clinical execution of successful and strategic moves made in the areas of manufacturing, R & D, Biotechnology and global operations over three decades. As of 31st of March 2012, Intas has grown to be a ~$525 million organization with a revenue growth of ~30% CAGR over the last 5 years and a profit growth of over 50% CAGR over the same period. Intas is now ranked as the 12th largest pharmaceutical company in the domestic market. In the domestic market, Intas is one of the leading players in chronic therapy areas, also having presence in central nervous system (CNS), cardiovascular system (CVS), diabetology, gastroenterology and pain management. Recently, Intas has extended its presence into other therapy areas such as gynecology, infertility and respiratory care. Besides rapidly growing domestic prominence, Intas is also present in more than 50 countries worldwide with robust sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure in markets like North America, Europe, Latin America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand etc. Intas's global strategy includes alliances with leading Global Pharma Companies for development and distribution of products as well as direct product distribution. Its subsidiary, Intas Biopharmaceuticals Limited, has made substantial investments in the development, manufacturing and marketing of products based on biotechnology (biosimilars) in chronic therapy areas including oncology and nephrology. Continual R & D initiatives have strengthened niche and complex product offerings in India and International markets. Commercialized in India, three pharmaceutical formulations are based on the novel lipid based drug delivery system with studies ongoing to extend these products to International markets. Intas has made strategic investments in ten manufacturing facilities, globally. Between them, these facilities have received approvals from various prominent international regulatory bodies, including U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Internal communication in INTAS Pharmaceutical:


We visited the office and asked how the employees of INTAS Pharmaceutical communicate within the organization or internally, here are some of the ways they used in their day-to-day communications.

E-mail Intercom Phone call Video conference Notice/Circular

As it is very big organization the employees generally use E-mail for any kind of work in the organization to any department. If there is emergency they have their own intercom facility in the organization so the communication can be done easily. When there is communication with top management as they have research centers in foreign country also so the e-mail and phone call may not convey the message properly so at that time they use video conference. Meeting is generally done when the message is given to all the employees of the organization it is very short and best way to tell all of them at a time. Notice/circular is used when the message is of particular department.

SIS( Sai InfoSystem (India) Ltd):

SIS( Sai InfoSystem (India) Ltd) is one of the fastest growing end-to-end ICT (Information and Communication Technology) solution providers and leading System Integrators of India. Founded in 1992, by Mr. Sunil Kakkad, Electronics and Communication Engineer and a first generation entrepreneur, to offer IT solutions to SOHO segment, today, SIS has spread its wings to Hardware Manufacturing, Software Development, System Integration and Telecom Services. He recognized the need to offer all required solutions under one roof early on, and today Cyber Media a leading IT publication Group has recognized SIS as the Largest Total Solution Provider in the country. Their approach and focus is customer centric which has helped us in achieving new milestones every year. This approach has helped us to remain focused on a selected clientele, to know their requirement in depth and offer tailor made solutions to cater to their needs. We prefer to be known as ICT partners for a few selected clients than to be known as ICT vendor to a large number of clients. Breadth and depth of our solutions and quality of products and services is customer satisfaction centric, which has helped us in retaining our customer base from the very beginning. They firmly believe today that "Convergence is Future." And hence decided to embrace convergence early on like we did in past when we decided to offer total solutions to a selected few and became their partner instead of their vendor. With this view, they have entered into Telecom and Infrastructure Space and have partnered with BSNL, the largest Integrated Telecom Service Provider in the country to offer Video Telephony and Data Center Services. They plan to offer many value added services and products on similar platforms to offer a unique but comprehensive user experience to our customers. We also plan to take these

offerings on a global platform so that our customers can realize full potential of our offerings without geographical boundaries. With direct operations in 17 states and more than 100 support centers, we try to cater our customers in best possible time frame. More than 1000 associates help us in this endeavor to fulfill our commitments and aspirations.

Internal communication in SIS:


We visited the office and asked how the employees of SIS communicate within the organization or internally, the ways they used in their day-to-day communications are as follows.

E-mail Intercom Phone call Chat on Skype SMS Video chat

As it is IT company the employees generally use all the electronic services for the communication the E-mail is for general purpose If the decision is taken quick and communication is needed to take fast the intercom facility is there and also CUG sim cards are also allotted to them. They use to do Chat on Skype, Google hangout and other internet chat services as the continuously work with the computers.

Conclusion:

After visiting offices and approaching the HR persons and other employees we found out that now a days all the companies are adopting the electronic services which is faster in widely available to all. Many companies use different ways for different uses as for example as we seen in above companies the auto companies are mainly using mail services as they have to order parts and other information so the error part will be less as the parts contain serial number and codes, while a pharmaceutical company is using video conference just because the research methods and to get the knowledge from the foreign partners and associates and other research institutes, for the IT company they wholly dependent on internet based services to communicate internally as the deal in the IT products. We can conclude that all the companies are now days concern for reducing the cost on paper and its usage so that both cost and social cause can be done at a time, secondly we can say that as the economy is globalized and all the major big organizations are deal in the foreign transaction so they generally prefer the latest technology for communication.