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Corrosion The New Process Variable

2004 Users Group Americas Symposium Partners in Innovation

Corrosion is Part of the Bigger Problem

60% of plant engineers will retire by 20101 More compliance, regulation
Improve Process Performance

Personnel actions cause $20B/yr in avoidable costs in Petrochem Higher business volatility, faster decision making

Increase Asset Effectiveness

Production processes increasingly complex

Enhance Business Agility Improve People Effectiveness

50% of maintenance not needed, 10% harmful3

Supply chains more integrated

Must maintain safety, security

1. Source: Journal of Petroleum Technology 2. ASM Consortium

3. Honeywell Loopscout studies

Automation Extends Beyond Process Efficiency

Honeywells Holistic View of Automation

Improve Throughput Reduce Energy Costs Improve Quality, Reduce Waste Ensure Compliance Respond to Market Volatility Optimize What to Produce, Where, When, at What Price

Predict/Pre-empt Asset Failures Reduce Maintenance Costs Enhance Security

Reduce/Avoid unplanned incidents Implement best work practices Turn data into actionable knowledge

Increasingly a Software/Knowledge Driven Business

Corrosion Facts & Figures

$50B per year spent by the Global Process Industries on Corrosion increasing due to aging plants, sour crude stocks, higher thru-puts 90% of Corrosion damage caused in only 10% of the time conventional offline approaches cant identify root cause & arlabor intensive 70-90% of all failures due to local corrosion traditional approaches cant detect local or pitting corrosion Major cause of costly downtime .capacity loss 50% is planned but 50% is unplanned High inspection costs to try and find it after the damage has been caused; little info on root cause Major component of maintenance & turnaround costs could be significantly reduced with better real time data Safety & environmental risks a corrosion tachometer is needed for the operator Optimize chemical inhibitor regime via real time control vs offline methods today

Cyclohexane reactors explosion at Flixborough in 1974

Delaware City refinery Sulfuric Acid tank explosion in Jul. 2001 Pipeline Burst in Alberta Dec. 2004

What is Corrosion?
General Corrosion

Localized Corrosion
Corrosive attack can be localized in certain areas on the metal surface This is caused by the formation of local anodes and cathodes on the metal surface 70 to 90 percent of corrosion failures are due to localized corrosion (e.g. Pitting) Pitting tends to occur where materials are stressed or when their structure has changed (welding, Bends, clamps)

Corrosion is the loss of metal from an exposed surface in a corrosive environment. Corrosion rate expression:
mmpy = K x W DxAxT where: K = constant W = change in weight D = density A = area T = time

This formula works only when corrosion is uniform.

Localized Corrosion

What is Corrosion?
Corrosion tends to happen where: Water separates from oil Water and corrosives condense from the gas phase Corrosives concentrate due to evaporation Water is trapped or stagnant Fluid are highly turbulent, impinge or flash
Localized Corrosion

Localized Corrosion

Solution Selection Technology Alternatives

Indirect Methods
Analytical Data pH measurement Dissolved gas Measurement Metal ion counting Microbiological Analysis Operational Data Interpretation pH rate Flow rate Temperature Pressure

Direct Measurement
Passive Off-Line Non-Destructive Testing Weight loss coupons Ultrasonic Gauging Radiographic inspection (X-Ray and Gamma Ray) Eddy Current Active On-line

Strategic Strategic Focus Focus

ElectroChemical Noise (ECN) Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) Harmonic Distortion Analysis (HDA) Electrical Resistance Measurement (ER) Electrical Field Signature Method (EFSM)

Preference for a Proven Differentiated Technology

Corrosion Measurement technologies (1)

Corrosion Coupons: Corr rate = K X Wheight Loss/surface/time Ultrasonic testing (UT):
thickness and alterations Sound Waves echo profile give an image of structures

Electrical Resistance (ER):

Electrical resistance of an immersed electrode is measured and comparred to a reference electrode

Electrochemical Noise (ECN):

Measurement of small currents and voltages generated at the contact surface between the corrosive solution and the vessel. Good for Pitting corrosion detection

Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR):

Measurement of resistance to pulsed voltage between electrodes immersed in the corrosive solution. The resistance calculated is inversely related to general corrosion

Harmonic Distorsion Analysis (HDA):

Alternating voltages are applited to an arrangement of 3 electrodes and resultant currents, primary frequencies and harmonics are analyzed. This technique is used in combination with LPR.

Corrosion Measurement technologies (2)

Electrical Field Signature Method (EFSM)
Cumbersone technique that measures the distributed resistance via an array of pins distributed on the surface of a certain length of a pipe

Creation of small radioactive surface. Gamma radiation intensity over time is an image of the corrosion effect.

Thin Layer Activation (TLA):

Zero Resitance Ammetry (ZRA): Accoustic Emission (AE):

Current measured between 2 corrosion sensors. Used mainly for Galvanic current monitoring strategicaly positionned microphones on a structure to listen the noise generated by stressed structures under corrosion

Inductive Resistance Probes (IRP): Mass changes in the sensor element are
detected by measuring changes in the inductive resistance (Inductance) of a coil, located inside the element.

Honeywells Corrosion solution Enabling Asset Effectiveness

Honeywell SmartCet Patented online measurement of corrosive activity by monitoring electrical properties of the corrosion process.

Enabling Corrosion root cause analysis Closed loop control of corrosion rate Plant/Unit optimization

Integrated into Experion PKS

Transform Data into High Value Information

SmartCET designed around SuperLPR technology

SmartCET provides on-line, real-time corrosion detection with evaluation of both general and localized corrosion Includes multiple techniques applied simultaneously in the same package For Pitting Factor and other parameters related to localized corrosion

Electrochemical Noise (ECN) Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) Harmonic Distortion Analysis (HDA)

For accurate Corrosion Rate and other parameters related to general corrosion

Features: automated data acquisition and analysis cycle (data update every 7 min.) low power requirements; can be applied in hazardous areas simple interface to SCADA, process control, process information management systems

Honeywell InterCorr Technology & Services




Materials Consulting Lab Testing Analytical Services Corrosion Diagnostics & Control

On-line Real time Sensing technology

Corrosion Prediction Risk Assessment Materials Selection Asset Management

HONEYWELL InterCorr also provide value added solutions along with online, real-time corrosion monitoring
Plant Corrosion Survey Review historical corrosion data, failure, maintenance record, replacements Determination of monitoring points / probe configurations Review and interpretation of monitoring data Process correlation Plant diagnostics Expert Consultation Material selection Failure Analysis Process Correlation Simulation Corrosion modeling Corrosion prediction Analysis of operating Conditions Sensitivity studies Process projections

SmartCET - Most Accurate Corrosion Rate & Pitting Detection

Corrosion Rate
(Smart Corrosion Evaluation Technology)

Pitting Factor and corrosion diagnostics data Configuration Options On-board data storage Hardwire or Wireless Digital or analog output Class I, Div 2 or non-IS

Accurate : Weight Loss Coupon = 2.965 mpy , SmartCET = 2.9 mpy*

* Results of BASF study over 1.5 year operation

SmartCET - Simple Data Trends Correlation with Process

Simple trend views Data logging Export to spreadsheets Online Data Options Direct to DCS or data historian via 4-20mA, HART, RS-485,RS-232, others

The SmartCET Differentiators - Corrosion/Pitting Detection & Asset Life Monitoring Accurate Corrosion Monitoring: Applicable to all conductive fluid environments Reliable real-time corrosion rates Distinguishes pitting Enabling proactive corrosion control

Process Control Improvement: Optimizing process, chemical treatment or unit operation Identifying the when & why of corrosion in the process Use the DCS to reduce corrosion damage/costs & increase profits

SmartCET SmartCET will will NOT NOT work: work: Non-conductive Non-conductive oil oil environments environments (naphthenic/sulfidic (naphthenic/sulfidic corrosion) corrosion)

SmartCET - in Petrochemical Industry

Oilfield Applications: Crude Oil Flow Lines Seawater Injection Systems (Biofouling/MIC) Produced Water Systems Offshore Gas Flow Lines Field Gas Gathering Systems Gas Transmission Pipelines Multi-Operator Gas Transmission Erosion-Corrosion During Sand Washing Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Pipelines Gas Processing Applications: Inlet Stabilization Amine Plant Compression Utilities Dehydration and Refrigeration Hydrogen Processing Operations

Refinery Applications: Distillation and Overhead Systems Sour Water & Amine Systems Sulfuric/Hydrofluoric Acid Alkylation Units Desalting Units Heat Exchangers FCCU Steam Cracker/Caustic Skid Flue/Tail Gas Systems Chemical Processing Applications: Corrosion in Sulfuric Acid Systems Pitting of Stainless Steel in an Ammonia Stripper Pitting of Welds in Process Liquor Process Modification Trials High/low Temperature Corrosion in Acid Regeneration Plant Corrosion in Gasification Processes

Probe Specifications - Standard or Custom

FACT! The best probe design gives the best data. Honeywell matches probe design to the specific process applications.

Flange Probe Design & Assembly

The flange probe design installed currently on chemical plant, gas pipelines, oil production pipelines is configurable to meet Customers materials specifications and engineering tolerances.

SmartCET online, real-time corrosion monitoring..


Red Line

* * mpy mpy -- mils mils per per year year mmpy mmpy -- millimeters millimeters per per year year

A Tachometer for the plant operator!