Made By
Team Leader
Nikhil Gupta
Team Member
Karan Singh
Kush Manhotra
Himanshu
Bhim Prakash
Deepak Rawat
series
Parallel
Electricity
Introduction Electric current
Electric Energy
And Power
Combination
Of Resistors
Ohm's Law
Circuit Diagram
Electric Potential
Direction Of Electronic Current ve to +ve terminal Direction Of
Conventional Current +ve tove terminal
The rate of flow of charge across any crosssection of a conductor is
known as electric current.
It is a scalar quantity.
I=Q/t
1 Ampere=1 Coulomb/ 1 second
Electric Current
When 1 coulomb of charge flows through any crosssection
of a conductor in 1 second, the electric current flowing through
it is said to be 1 ampere.
1 coulomb
1 ampere=
1 second
or
1 C
1 A=
1 s
3
6
Smaller unitsof current :
1
1 milliampere= ampere
1000
1
1 mA= A=10 A
1000
1 A=10 A
Factors effecting Resistance
It is a property of the material. It is numerically equal to
the resistance of a rod of that substance which is 1
meter long and 1square meter in cross section.
R=
A
RA
=
2
if A = 1m , =1m
=R
RESISTIVITY
For metals and alloys of metals, the resistivity increases with
rise in temperature.
Hi! Can you tell me what will happen to the resistance of this wire whose
resistance is 446.5 ohm, if I stretch it by onetenth of its original length.
I am giving you four options:
(a) 50 O (b) 54 O
(c) 12O (c) 20 O
LETS TRY THIS
New resistance=?
R=446.5 ohm.
As volume of the wire is constant. Thus
new length of wire become:
Let the new resistance be R
2
. Then
2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
2 2
1 2
1
A A r r [ ]
10
11
r r
10
= t = t +
(
t = t
(
11 /10
2
2 2
2 1
11
.
(11/ 10) 10
R
r (10 / 11) r
 

\ .
= =
t t
2
1
(11/10)
(10/11)
r
(
=
(
t
(
2
11 11
R 446.5 54.026 54
10 10
= = = O
Combination of resistances
Resistances In Parallel
Resistances In Series
The combined resistance of any number of resistances connected
in series is equal to the sum of the individual resistance.
R
R
2R
Resistances In Series
=
as V=IR
s 1 2 3
IR =IR +IR +IR
( )
s 1 2 3
IR =I R + R + R
s 1 2 3
R = R + R + R
Let R
1
, R
2
, R
3
are three resistances connected in series with the battery
of pd. V.
Here
=
R/2
R
R
Resistances In Parallel
The reciprocal of the combined
resistance of a number of
resistances connected in parallel is
equal to the sum of the reciprocals
of all the individual resistances.
p 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
= + + +........
R R R R
Resistances In Parallel
Let R
1
, R
2
, R
3
are three resistances
connected in parallel with the battery of
pd. V.
p
As V = IR I = V/R (R resistances in palallel)
p 1 2 3
V V V V
= + +
R R R R
1 2 3
V 1 1 1
= V + +
Rp R R R
 

\ .
p 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
= +
R R R R
1 2 3
I = I + I + I ;
Here
W = P x t
E = P x t
( )
6
6
J
1KWh 1 x 1000 x 60 x 60 s = 3.6 x 10 J
S
1KWh = 1 unit = 3.0 x 10 J
Electrical Energy
Electric energy is the potential
energy associated with the
conservative Coulomb forces
between charged particles
contained within a system.
Energy = Work done
The Rate at which electrical energy is
consumed is known as Electric power.
Work done
Power =
TimeTaken
w
P =
t
S.I. Unit of power is watt.
P = VI
2
P = I R
2
V
P=
R
Electric power
When an electric current is passed through a high resistance
wire , the resistance wire becomes very hot and produces
heat. This is called the heating effect of current.
Factors on which heat produced are
2
H I ; H R; H t
2
H = I Rt Or H = P x t
Heating Effects Of Current
It is utilized in the electrical
heating appliances such as
electric iron, room heaters,
water heaters etc.
It is utilized in electrical
bulbs for producing light.
An electric fuse is an
important application of the
heating effect of current.
Practical Applications
Q V
I
t R
= =
RA
=
Q
t
I
=
SYMBOLS TERMS UNIT FORMULA
Q Electrical charge Coulomb. Q = I x t
V Potential difference Volt V = IR
I Electrical current ampere
Resistivity Ohm m
t Time Sec.(s)
H Heat Energy Joule.(J) H = I
2
Rt
E Electrical energy Kilo watt hour E = P x t
GLOSSARY
P 1 2
1 1 1
= + +......
R R R
Joule
Watt =
Sec.
2
2
V
P=VI =I R=
R
R Resistance Ohm (O) R = V/I
R
s
Resistance in Series Ohm (O) R
s
= R
1
+ R
2
+.
R
p
Resistance in parallel Ohm (O)
P Power
Ammeter (measures current)
Voltmeter (measures potential difference)
Galvanometer (Sensitive to current also gives the direction of current)
Resistance (fixed)
Rheostat (Variable resistor)
Or ( ) Closed key
Or ( ) open key
Cell
Battery
Connecting wire
Wire joint
Wires crossing without contact
Electric bulb