You are on page 1of 31

Project Name

Made By
Team Leader
Nikhil Gupta
Team Member
Karan Singh
Kush Manhotra
Himanshu
Bhim Prakash
Deepak Rawat




series
Parallel
Electricity
Introduction Electric current
Electric Energy
And Power
Combination
Of Resistors
Ohm's Law



Circuit Diagram
Electric Potential
Direction Of Electronic Current -ve to +ve terminal Direction Of
Conventional Current +ve tove terminal

The rate of flow of charge across any cross-section of a conductor is
known as electric current.
It is a scalar quantity.
I=Q/t
1 Ampere=1 Coulomb/ 1 second
Electric Current
When 1 coulomb of charge flows through any cross-section
of a conductor in 1 second, the electric current flowing through
it is said to be 1 ampere.

1 coulomb
1 ampere=
1 second
or
1 C
1 A=
1 s
3
6
Smaller unitsof current :
1
1 milliampere= ampere
1000
1
1 mA= A=10 A
1000
1 A=10 A

Current is measured by an instrument called ammeter.


An ammeter should have very low resistance.
The electrostatic potential at any point is defined as the
work done in bringing a unit positive charge form infinity to
that point.
Symbol V, S.I. Unit volt
Work done
Potnetial difference=
Quantityof charge transferred
+q
0
+q
0
Given point
Electrostatic Potential
The potential difference between two points in an electric
field is defined as the amount of work done in moving a
unit positive charge from one point to another point.

+q
0
+q
0
Point A
Point B
Potential Difference
1
1Joule
1Volt = 1J C
1Coulomb

=
It is a scalar quantity.
It is measured by voltmeter and potentiometer.
W
V=
Q
At constant temperature, the current flowing
through a conductor is directly proportional to
the potential difference across its ends.
I V (at constant temperature)
V=IR
Ohms Law
Electron
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
The property of a conductor due to which it
opposes the flow of current through it is called
resistance.
Potnetial difference
Resistance =
Current
V 1Volt
R= ; 1Ohm=
I 1ampere
RESISTANCE
Conductance: The inverse of resistance is known as conductance of the
conductor. G=1/R ; S.I. unit of conductance is mho or (ohm)
-1
R of a conductor depends on :
The nature of the material of the conductor;
length of the conductor;
area of cross section of the conductor;
temperature of the conductor.
R ;
1
R
A

A
R= where resistivity
A


Factors effecting Resistance
It is a property of the material. It is numerically equal to
the resistance of a rod of that substance which is 1
meter long and 1square meter in cross section.
R=
A
RA
=

S.I. Unit of is ohm. m


2
if A = 1m , =1m
=R
RESISTIVITY
For metals and alloys of metals, the resistivity increases with
rise in temperature.
Hi! Can you tell me what will happen to the resistance of this wire whose
resistance is 446.5 ohm, if I stretch it by one-tenth of its original length.
I am giving you four options:

(a) 50 O (b) 54 O
(c) 12O (c) 20 O
LETS TRY THIS
New resistance=?
R=446.5 ohm.
As volume of the wire is constant. Thus





new length of wire become:


Let the new resistance be R
2
. Then

2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
2 2
1 2
1
A A r r [ ]
10
11
r r
10
= t = t +
(
t = t
(

11 /10
2
2 2
2 1
11
.
(11/ 10) 10
R
r (10 / 11) r
| |

|

\ .
= =
t t
2
1
(11/10)
(10/11)
r
(

=
(
t
(

2
11 11
R 446.5 54.026 54
10 10
= = = O
Combination of resistances
Resistances In Parallel
Resistances In Series
The combined resistance of any number of resistances connected
in series is equal to the sum of the individual resistance.

R
R
2R
Resistances In Series
=
as V=IR
s 1 2 3
IR =IR +IR +IR
( )
s 1 2 3
IR =I R + R + R
s 1 2 3
R = R + R + R
Let R
1
, R
2
, R
3
are three resistances connected in series with the battery
of pd. V.
Here
=
R/2
R
R
Resistances In Parallel
The reciprocal of the combined
resistance of a number of
resistances connected in parallel is
equal to the sum of the reciprocals
of all the individual resistances.
p 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
= + + +........
R R R R
Resistances In Parallel
Let R
1
, R
2
, R
3
are three resistances
connected in parallel with the battery of
pd. V.
p
As V = IR I = V/R (R resistances in palallel)
p 1 2 3
V V V V
= + +
R R R R
1 2 3
V 1 1 1
= V + +
Rp R R R
| |
|
\ .
p 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
= +
R R R R

1 2 3
I = I + I + I ;
Here
W = P x t
E = P x t
( )
6
6
J
1KWh 1 x 1000 x 60 x 60 s = 3.6 x 10 J
S
1KWh = 1 unit = 3.0 x 10 J

Electrical Energy
Electric energy is the potential
energy associated with the
conservative Coulomb forces
between charged particles
contained within a system.
Energy = Work done
The Rate at which electrical energy is
consumed is known as Electric power.
Work done
Power =
TimeTaken
w
P =
t
S.I. Unit of power is watt.
P = VI
2
P = I R
2
V
P=
R
Electric power
When an electric current is passed through a high resistance
wire , the resistance wire becomes very hot and produces
heat. This is called the heating effect of current.
Factors on which heat produced are
2
H I ; H R; H t
2
H = I Rt Or H = P x t
Heating Effects Of Current
It is utilized in the electrical
heating appliances such as
electric iron, room heaters,
water heaters etc.

It is utilized in electrical
bulbs for producing light.

An electric fuse is an
important application of the
heating effect of current.

Practical Applications
Q V
I
t R
= =
RA
=
Q
t
I
=
SYMBOLS TERMS UNIT FORMULA

Q Electrical charge Coulomb. Q = I x t
V Potential difference Volt V = IR

I Electrical current ampere

Resistivity Ohm m
t Time Sec.(s)

H Heat Energy Joule.(J) H = I
2
Rt
E Electrical energy Kilo watt hour E = P x t

GLOSSARY
P 1 2
1 1 1
= + +......
R R R
Joule
Watt =
Sec.
2
2
V
P=VI =I R=
R
R Resistance Ohm (O) R = V/I
R
s
Resistance in Series Ohm (O) R
s
= R
1
+ R
2
+.
R
p
Resistance in parallel Ohm (O)
P Power
Ammeter (measures current)
Voltmeter (measures potential difference)
Galvanometer (Sensitive to current also gives the direction of current)

Resistance (fixed)

Rheostat (Variable resistor)
Or ( ) Closed key
Or ( ) open key
Cell
Battery
Connecting wire
Wire joint
Wires crossing without contact
Electric bulb