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Metallic Metallic and and Ionic Ionic Solids Solids

Section Section 13.4 13.4

Types Types of of Solids Solids


Table Table 13.6 13.6

Network Network Solids Solids


Diamond

TYPE TYPE Ionic Ionic

EXAMPLE EXAMPLE NaCl, , CaF NaCl NaCl, CaF2 , ZnS ZnS 2,

FORCE FORCE Ion-ion Ion-ion Metallic Metallic Dipole Dipole Ind. . dipole Ind Ind. Extended Extended covalent covalent

Metallic , Fe Na Metallic Na, Na, Fe Molecular Molecular Ice, Ice, II2 2 Network Network Diamond Diamond Graphite Graphite

Graphite

Network Solids

Properties Properties of of Solids Solids


1. 1. Molecules, Molecules, atoms atoms or or ions ions locked locked into into a a

Crystal Crystal Lattices Lattices


Regular Regular 3-D 3-D arrangements arrangements of of equivalent equivalent LATTICE LATTICE POINTS POINTS in in space. space. The The lattice lattice points points define define UNIT CELLS ,, the the smallest smallest repeating repeating internal internal unit unit that that has has the the symmetry symmetry characteristic characteristic of of the the solid. solid. There There are are 7 7 basic basic crystal crystal systems, systems, but but we we are are only only concerned concerned with with CUBIC ..

CRYSTAL LATTICE

2. 2. Particles Particles are are CLOSE CLOSE together together 3. 3. STRONG STRONG IM IM forces forces A comparison of diamond (pure carbon) with silicon. 4. 4. Highly Highly ordered, ordered, rigid, rigid, incompressible incompressible
ZnS, ZnS, zinc sulfide

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Cubic Cubic Unit Unit Cells Cells


All angles are 90 degrees

Cubic Cubic Unit Unit Cells Cells of of Metals Metals


Figure Figure 13.28 13.28

Simple Simple Cubic Cubic Unit Unit Cell Cell


Figure Figure 13.28 13.28

Simple cubic (SC)

Bodycentered cubic (BCC)

All sides equal length

Facecentered cubic (FCC) Simple cubic unit cell. Note that each atom is at a corner of a unit cell and is shared among 8 unit cells.

Body-Centered Body-Centered Cubic Cubic Unit Unit Cell Cell

Face Face Centered Centered Cubic Cubic Unit Unit Cell Cell
Atom Atom at at each each cube cube corner corner plus atom in each cube cube face. face.

Crystal Crystal Lattices Lattices Packing Packing of of Atoms Atoms or or Ions Ions
Assume Assume atoms atoms are are hard hard spheres spheres and and that that crystals crystals are are built built by by PACKING PACKING of of these these spheres spheres as as efficiently efficiently as as possible. possible. FCC FCC is is more more efficient efficient than than either either BC BC or or SC. SC.
See Closer Look, pp pp. . 622-623

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Crystal Crystal Lattices Lattices Packing Packing of of Atoms Atoms or or Ions Ions
Packing of C 60 molecules. They are arranged at the lattice points of a FCC lattice.

Number Number of of Atoms Atoms per per Unit Unit Cell Cell
Unit Unit Cell Cell Type Type SC SC BCC BCC FCC FCC Net Net Number Number Atoms Atoms 1 1 2 2 4 4

Simple Simple Ionic Ionic Compounds Compounds


Lattices of many simple ionic solids are built by taking a SC or FCC lattice of ions of one type and placing ions of opposite charge in the holes in the lattice. EXAMPLE: CsCl has a SC lattice of Cs + ions with Cl- in the center.

Simple Simple Ionic Ionic Compounds Compounds


CsCl has a SC lattice of Cs+ ions with Cl- in the center. 1 unit cell has 1 Cl- ion plus (8 corners)(1/8 Cs + per corner) = 1 net Cs + ion.

Simple Simple Ionic Ionic Compounds Compounds Salts with formula MX can have SC structure but not salts with formula MX 2 or M 2X

Construction Construction of of NaCl


We begin with a cube of Cl- ions. Add more Cl- ions in the cube faces, and then add Na+ ion in the octahedral holes.

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The The Sodium Sodium Chloride Chloride Lattice Lattice

The The Sodium Sodium Chloride Chloride Lattice Lattice


Many common salts have FCC arrangements of anions with cations in OCTAHEDRAL HOLES e.g., salts such as CA = NaCl FCC lattice of anions ----> 4 A -/unit cell C+ in octahedral holes ---> 1 C + at center + [12 edges 1/4 C + per edge] = 4 C+ per unit cell

Na+ ions are in OCTAHEDRAL holes in a face-centered cubic lattice of Clions.

Comparing Comparing NaCl NaCl and and CsCl CsCl

Common Common Ionic Ionic Solids Solids


Titanium dioxide, TiO2 There are 2 net Ti4+ ions and 4 net O 2- ions per unit cell.

Common Common Ionic Ionic Solids Solids


Zinc sulfide, ZnS The S2- ions are in TETRAHEDRAL holes in the Zn 2+ FCC lattice. This gives 4 net Zn2+ ions and 4 net S2- ions.

Even though their formulas have one cation and one anion, the lattices of CsCl and NaCl are different. The different lattices arise from the fact that a Cs+ ion is much larger than a Na + ion.

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Common Common Ionic Ionic Solids Solids


Fluorite or CaF2 FCC lattice of Ca 2+ ions This gives 4 net Ca2+ ions. F- ions in all 8 tetrahedral holes. This gives 8 net F ions.

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