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International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences (IJSRES), 1(6), pp. 101-106, 2013 Available online at http://www.ijsrpub.

com/ijsres ISSN: 2322-4983; 2013 IJSRPUB

Full Length Research Paper The Environmental Scrutiny of Land Use Changes and its Effects on Some Soil Physical and Nutrition Characteristics in Iran
Ali Gholami1*, Ali Reza Jafarnejadi2, Amin Mojiri3
Department of Soil Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran Soil and Water Research Department of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khouzestan, Iran 3 School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, University Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia * Corresponding Author Email:
2 1

Received 16 March 2013; Accepted 20 April 2013

Abstract. One of the most important issues that cause the threat of renewable natural resources and ultimately humans will be destroyed pasture vegetation and the waste of fertile. On the other hand population growth and the increasing need of food in recent century, have led the farmers in different countries around the world including Iran, benefiting from the pastures and forests for the cultivation. At present soil degradation is a serious issue and it has economic and social harmful effects in local, national and global levels. Today, the researcher is unanimous that change is one of main factor to degradation and change in soil characteristic. Considering issue, study land use change and affect these changes on some soil degradation index done in Friedan region of Esfahan province in about 2000 ha. Results of this research presented to increased bulk density, decreasing porosity, organic matter, going out macro nutrients follow of degradation in natural rangeland and converting them to abandon rain fed. Finally, use of these land according to capacity of use in right program and management can decrease of intensify degradation and loss of resources. Key words: Land Use Changes, Soil Degradation Indicators, Management Programming, Esfahan province

1. INTRODUCTION Soil is one of the most important natural resources of every country. Today, soil degradation and deterioration endangers Mans welfare and life. Land utilization increases as populations and demands increase. On the other hand, due to the shortage of arable lands farmers cultivate lands with proper vegetations and vulnerability to erosion. Continuation of this trend leads to degradation of renewable natural resources such that degradation of natural resources is considered as one of the twenty first century problems (Refahi, 2008). Land-use change is one of the factors that are caused by human activities. Soil degradation is always measured in relation to a reference level or a reference soil. By considering this relative condition and comparing it to the condition of original soils, it can be said that the most part of the earth (soil) is either eroded and under erosion or in danger of erosion or degradation (Jafari et al, 2009). On other hands, land use and soil degradation has close relationship if use be irrational caused amount of degradation sever increase. In Iran, amount of degradation along to amount of profiteering interference human have direct relation (Gholami, 2010). Evaluation land use changes and effect on soil degradation through soil subsequent land use change in rangeland and suggested some index about this issue by Khademi and Khayyer

(2004). The most of these indexes are comparing changes in some of selective soil characteristics such as organic carbon and nutrients. Land use Changes in short term result to change soil characteristics that led to decrease fertility of soil (Wange and Gong, 1998). Land use change of rangeland or grassland to farmland is worst change aspect of soil fertility and quality degradation and caused a healthy ecosystem without correct management in left condition is impossible because degradation are more important than pedogenesis. Knowledge of types of ground cover and Human activities has a particular importance in various areas and maps that display different levels of the ground in such activities is called land use plan or land use. In other words, these maps show the current situation and the geographical distribution of land use in activities such as agriculture, forestry, and range management (Zobairi and Majd, 1996). Unless management appropriate replace with soil situation, soil loss usefulness for long-term (Hajabbasi, 2002). 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. Study area The studied area was part of Aghcheh basin with 2000 ha on Esfahan province, that located on Friedan


Gholami et al. The Environmental Scrutiny of Land Use Changes and its Effects on Some Soil Physical and Nutrition Characteristics in Iran

county that from 50213 to 50556 eastern longitude and from 33334 to 33725 northern latitude. This area has natural capacity to be rangeland and in recent years is: rangeland, irrigation farming,

rain fed and land tillage earlier but now harvest exactly application (Abandon dry farming). Figure 1 show the study area in Isfahan province and Iran.

Fig. 1: The study area in Isfahan province and Iran

2.2. Sample determinations




land use and table of analysis variance (ANOVA) effect of land use on soil degradation were made by SPSS .Also, for drawing charts used Excel software. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As be for show in table 1 and 2, from the point of view statistical, there are significant different between bulk densities in different land uses. Process of land use change from rangeland to farmland and abandon land show increasing amount of index. Tillage after land use changes in this area, caused change in amount of soil bulk density in cropland that figure 2, show clearly this subject. Increasing soil bulk density follow land use change, it seems, can happen soil primary voids that influence of doing cultivation then irrigation or rainfall (Hajabbassi et al., 2008). Figure 3, related to soil porosity in different land use show relationship between porosity and bulk density that it confirms the index. The results from soil porosity are accordance to Lu et al. (2002) and Akbarzadeh et al., (2009) that they stated decreased in porosity follow rangeland change.

Soil sampling was done according to Transect method from 0-30 Cm depth (Zhao et al., 2005) and location of sampling register by Global Position System (GPS). According to researcher such as (Jafari et al., 2009; Wang and Jung, 1988) physical parameters such Bulk density, porosity and also parameters related to fertility and loss of nutrient of soil contains organic matter and macro nutrients (nitrogen, phosphor, Potassium) for evaluation soil degradation condition in different land uses, were measurement in soil Laboratory . 2.3. Data Analysis Analysis of results was done through SPSS software and repeated means of characteristics in different uses through Duncan range test in %5 levels and compare of probabilities. So table of descriptive statistical for soil degradation index on each land use, table of abundant cumulative data for each test, for each land use with histogram related to each index, table of compare soil degradation index means in different

Table 1: The result of variance analysis of different land uses effect on soil degradation indexes Mean of Squares Df K (ppm) 24997.448* P (ppm) 1726.966* Nt (%) 0.002* O.M


Porosity )%( 0.005*

BD )gr/cm3( 0.047* 3

Variability Land Use

*: Significant in 5% of Duncan test.


International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences (IJSRES), 1(6), pp. 101-106, 2013

Table 2: The comparison of soil degradation indexes mean in different land uses in study area Index Mean Land Use K P Nt O.M Porosity pb (ppm) (ppm) (%) )%( )%( )gr/cm3) 116.59 d 12.04 c 0.085 b 0.87 c 46.10 a 1.41 c* Rangeland 197.14 b 235.72 a 195.30 c 39.47 a 39.40 a 35.17 b 0.087 b 0.117 a 0.057 c 0.92 b 0.96 a 0.83 d 40.80 c 41.70 b 42.50 b 1.57 a 1.55 b 1.51 d Irrigation Farming Rain Fed Abandon Rain Fed

*: The similar data is non-significant in 5% of Duncan test.

Fig. 2: The comparison of bulk density in different land uses in study area
(*: The similar data is non-significant in 5% of Duncan test)

Fig. 3: The comparison of porosity in different land uses in study area

(*: The similar data is non-significant in 5% of Duncan test)

In figure 4 seen change land use from rangeland to cropland, caused increasing soil organic matter and in abandon rain fed caused decreasing amount of it. Vegetative cover condition (density and type) , how to use of land after land use change, intensity and alternation of tillage, manure, kind of crop after land use change, time of sampling effect on amount of decreasing and increasing soil organic matter accordance of how to land use change in the area studied. Rangeland in this area mostly had vegetative cover less till medium, and usually after land use change was under irrigation and had manure relatively suitable, caused crop had good yield and return organic matter to soil was relatively suitable, even

amount of soil organic matter in land use change to cropland was more than pristine rangeland. Results of analysis statistics show amount of soil nitrogen that non different significant between rangeland and irrigation farming. Bolandnazr (2009) pointed of this matter in his researches, besides this research show nitrogen increased in rain fed compare to irrigation farming, that caused by use of today use of nitrogen manure, fixation of nitrogen by root, and non-existing leaching factor because of non-irrigation in dry farming. Also, results analysis show significant different between amount of soil nitrogen in natural rangeland compare to abandon dry farming.


Gholami et al. The Environmental Scrutiny of Land Use Changes and its Effects on Some Soil Physical and Nutrition Characteristics in Iran

Fig. 4: The comparison of organic matter in different land uses in study area
(*: The similar data is non-significant in 5% of Duncan test)

Fig. 5: The comparison of total nitrogen in different land uses in study area
(*: The similar data is non-significant in 5% of Duncan test)

In figure 5 seen it significant different and can consider that degradation in natural rangeland and change to abandon dry farming caused loss of nitrogen. Probability, be caused of non vegetative

cover and didnt nitrogen fixation through roots of plants and didnt manure caused went out nitrogen from topsoil.

Fig. 6: The comparison of available phosphorus in different land uses in study area
(*: The similar data is non-significant in 5% of Duncan test)

Fig. 7: The comparison of available potassium in different land uses in study area
(*: The similar data is non-significant in 5% of Duncan test)


International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences (IJSRES), 1(6), pp. 101-106, 2013

Results from analysis statistical amount of phosphorus and potassium soil show in table 1, 2 and figure 6, 7. Based on, there wasnt significant different between amount of plant available phosphorus in irrigation farming and rain fed, but there are significant different in other land uses. As regards available potassium, there is significant different between land use of this area. In both of them, land use change from rangeland to cropland caused amounts of potassium and phosphorus are increasing, that result from manure these land and immobilization these elements in soil. 4. CONCLUSION Results of research showed making any mistake in land use change and exploitation of land caused intensify soil degradation and irreparable damages. So, use of natural resources must be harmony with working potential in long-term or/and use of this resources must compatible with phenomenon and natural rules. Dont observation rules, soil quality decrease gradually, and if appropriate management doesnt replace with soil situation, soil may be loss its exploitation in long-term. Land Sustainable management with aim of prevention of soil and land degradation is solution for natural resources degradation for future generation. REFERENCES Akbarzadeh AA, Khalilirad K (2009). Land use change forest and rangeland effect on farmland and effect on grains distribution and some properties soil. Proceeding of 11th Iranian Soil Science Congress, Gorgan, Iran, PP.185318558. Bolandnzar S (2009). Evaluation land use changes and it roles on land degradation (Case Study: Zavareh Ardastan area). thesis of Watershed Management. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, p.104. Gholami A (2010). The Study of Land Use Changes Process and its Effect on Variability of

Hydrological Behavior. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 5(4): 218-225. HajAbbasi M (2002). Study effect on changing pasture to farmland some physical characteristic, fertility and soil farming index in Borojen. Journal of science and technology agriculture and natural resources, 6:149-161. Hajabassi M (2008). Effect on change of rangeland to crop land in some physical and chemical characteristics in south and western south Esfahan. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies and Natural Resources, 11(42): 525-534. Jafari M (2009). Soil and land degradation. Tehran University. pp165 (in Persian). Jafari M, Nasri M, Tavili E (2009). Degradation of soil and lands. University of Tehran Press. pp 294 (in Persian). Khademi H, Khayyer H (2004). Changeable some soil quality characteristics of topsoil in scale land view in rangeland surround Semirum County. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies and Natural Resources, 8(2): 5974. Kiani F (2004). Effect of deforestation on selected soil quality attributes in loess-derived landforms of Golestan province, northern Iran. Proceedings of the Fourth International Iran & Russia Conference, pp. 546-550. Lu D (2002). Linking Amazonian secondary succession forest growth to soil properties. Land Degrade, Dev. 13: 331343. Refahi H (2008). Water erosion and management. University of Tehran Press. Third Edition. pp 551 (in Persian). Wang XJ, Gong ZT (1998). Assessment and analysis of soil quality changes after eleven years of reclamation in subtropical China. Geoderma, 81: 339-355. Zhao WZ (2005). Soil degradation and restoration as affected by land use change in the semiarid Bashang area, northern China. Catena, 59: 173186. Zobairi M, Majd H (1996). Introduction to Remote Sensing Technology and its application in Natural Resources, Tehran University Press, pp 316 (in Persian).


Gholami et al. The Environmental Scrutiny of Land Use Changes and its Effects on Some Soil Physical and Nutrition Characteristics in Iran

Dr. Ali Gholami is an assistant professor in soil science. He is the editor and reviewer of some international journals. He has studied 15 university research design, and 50 printed papers in national and international conferences and journals. Mr. Ali Gholami has graduated with first grade in M.Sc. degree and PhD coarse book. He was selected as head of department of soil science and manager of research office in Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch in 2009 and it now. Also he was selected as superior researcher in 2011 and 2012 in Khuzestan province, Iran.

Dr. Ali Reza Jafarnejadi is an Assistant Professor in soil and water Department at Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Center. He received his B.Sc. degree in soil science from Isfahan Technology University. He received M.Sc and Ph.D in soil science from Tarbiet Modares University. He has published many refereed articles in professional journals/proceedings. Dr. Jafarnejadi research has focused on wastewater treatment, solid and hazardous waste management, environmental sustainability and modeling.

Amin Mojiri is a PhD candidate in environmental engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang. He is fellowship holder and research assistant at the School of Civil Engineering (USM). He is a member of Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Iran. He is editor and reviewer of some international journals. His area of specialization is waste management, waste recycling, wastewater treatment, wastewater recycling, and soil pollutions.