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FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)

The instantaneous frequency fi(t) of carrier is varied linearly with the message signal m(t)

is varied linearly with the message signal m ( t ) Amplitude and phase of carrier

Amplitude and phase of carrier are constant Frequency-modulated waveform:

phase of carrier are constant Frequency-modulated waveform: where fc denotes the carrier frequency (i.e., frequency

where fc denotes the carrier frequency (i.e., frequency of unmodulated signal) kf is the frequency sensitivity of the FM modulator expressed in Hertz It is assumed that the angle of unmodulated carrier is zero at t = 0

Definition of frequency deviation and modulation index

Let m(t) = Am cos(2¼fmt) denote the single-tone message (modulating) signal.

Then the instantaneous frequency of FM signal becomes

Then the instantaneous frequency of FM signal becomes where ¢ f = kfAm [Hz] is the

where ¢f = kfAm [Hz] is the frequency deviation, representing the maximum departure of instantaneous frequency of FM signal from the carrier frequency fc. Angle of FM signal is

from the carrier frequency fc. Angle of FM signal is [rad] is the modulation index, where

[rad] is the modulation index,

where

representing the maximum departure of angle of FM signal

from angle 2¼fct of unmodulated carrier.

of FM signal from angle 2 ¼fct of unmodulated carrier. SPECTRUM OF AN FM WAVE Frequency

SPECTRUM OF AN FM WAVE

Frequency modulation is a nonlinear modulation process Consequently, spectrum of FM signal may not be determined in the frequencydomain using Fourier transform. Analysis must be done in the time domain and an empirical approach is required

, two cases

Depending on the modulation index are distinguished

in the time domain and an empirical approach is required , two cases Depending on the

1.Narrow-band FM:

1.Narrow-band FM: identity For which Trigonometric approximation and 2. Wide-band FM: For which Bessel functions of

identity

For which Trigonometric approximation

and

2. Wide-band FM:

For which Trigonometric approximation and 2. Wide-band FM: For which Bessel functions of the first kind.

For which Bessel functions of the first kind.

Taylor

series

SPECTRUM OF A NARROW-BAND FM SIGNAL

Narrow-band FM in the frequency domain:

FM SIGNAL Narrow-band FM in the frequency domain: Note: In case of narrow-band FM, only one

Note: In case of narrow-band FM, only one lower side and one upper side frequency components appear, the higher side frequency components may be disregarded

SPECTRUM OF WIDE-BAND FM SIGNAL

m(t): Frequency fixed, amplitude increased

FM SIGNAL m ( t ) : Frequency fixed, amplitude increased m ( t ) :

m(t): Amplitude fixed, frequency decreased

increased m ( t ) : Amplitude fixed, frequency decreased Conditions: Spectra are normalized with respect

Conditions:

Spectra are normalized with respect to the carrier amplitude Magnitude of spectra is shown only for positive frequencies.

Odd-order lower side frequency components are reversed in phase (Not shown to get a compact figure)

TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH OF FM SIGNAL:

In theory, an FM signal contains an infinite number of side frequencies → Bandwidth required for distortion- free transmission is infinite in extent whether or not the message is band-limited.

Amplitude of side frequencies decays if we move away from the carrier frequency. Sufficiently far away from the carrier the spectral components becomes negligible.

Experiments showed that if the amplitude of side frequency components is equal to or less than 1 % then a distortion may not be noticed

By definition: The transmission bandwidth of an FM signal is the separation between the two frequencies beyond which none of the side frequencies is greater than 1 % of carrier amplitude obtained when the modulation is removed.

TRANSMISSION

BANDWIDTH

OF

A

SINGLE-TONE FM SIGNAL

In practice, the frequency deviation

Carson’s rule

SIGNAL In practice, the frequency deviation Carson’s rule is fixed Easy to use, but Carson’s rule

is fixed

practice, the frequency deviation Carson’s rule is fixed Easy to use, but Carson’s rule somewhat underestimates

Easy to use, but Carson’s rule somewhat underestimates the bandwidth requirement of an FM system.

rule is fixed Easy to use, but Carson’s rule somewhat underestimates the bandwidth requirement of an

TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH OF FM SIGNAL IN CASE OF ARBITRARY MODULATING SIGNAL

Let W denote the highest frequency component of the spectrum of message signal m(t). In case of a low-pass modulating signal, W is equal to the bandwidth of m(t). Let D denote the deviation ratio that is defined as the ratio of maximum possible frequency deviation to W. Recall, in built FM systems the frequency deviation is fixed Then the bandwidth of FM signal may be estimated by the Carson’s rule changed according to the parameters of the arbitrary message signal.

of FM signal may be estimated by the Carson’s rule changed according to the parameters of
of FM signal may be estimated by the Carson’s rule changed according to the parameters of