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1. (a) What is transport phenomena?

Write the Newtons law of viscosity, Fourierslaw of heat conduction and Ficks law of diffusivity and explain why these three laws can be considered analogous. (b) A flat plate 15 m long has an edge facing the flow direction. Air is flowing over the plate at 1000 cm/s. The air properties are ? = 1.32 gm/lit. and = 0.018 cp. Calculate the boundary layer thickness at 125 cm from the leading edge. [16] 2. (a) Write short notes on Boundary conditions, their significance, importance and selection (b) Write short notes on shell balances. [16] 3. A fluid is passing through a circular pipe. A constant heat flux is supplied through the wall and the fluid is heated. The fluid is flowing in laminar flow. Derive the relevant equation and obtain the velocity profile along the radius of the pipe. [16] 4. Two vertical plates are spaced 6mm apart. One is maintained at 1000C and the other at 200C. Air is flowing between plates at a pressure of 1atmosphere and you may assume that the volumetric flow of upward moving stream is same as that of downward moving stream. Evaluate average velocity of air if = 2 10-6 poise.[16] 5. Air at 298 K flows over a streamlined naphthalene body. Naphthalene sublimes into air and its vapor pressure is 20 mmHg. The heat transfer coefficient for the same shape and air velocity is 22W/m2 0C The concentration of naphthalene in the bulk of the air stream is negligibly small. The mean diffusivity of naphthalene in air is 0.02873 m2hr. Calculate the mass transfer coefficient and mass flux for the system. At 1000C the properties of air are ? = 0.946 kg/m3. Cp=1.0009 KJ/kg0C. K=3.2 10-2 W/m0C Kinematic viscosity = 23 10-6m2/s [16] 6. Derive the Navier -Stokes equation in rectangular co-ordinates. [16] 7. A Stormer viscosity consists essentially of two concentric cylinders, the inner of which rotates while the outer is held stationary. Viscosity is determined by measuring the rate of rotation of the inner cylinder under the application of a known torque. Develop an expression for the velocity distribution in this kind of apparatus, as a function of applied torque, for laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid. [16] 8. Explain the following theories: (a) Bonssinesqs eddy viscosity (b) Prandtls Mixing length (c) Von Karmans similarity Hypothesis. [6+6+4] .. 1. Predict the thermal conductivity of the following gas mixture at 1 atm. and 2930K from the given data on the pure components at 1 atm. and 2930K : [16] i Species Mole fraction Molecular Viscosity Thermal weight (gm/cm.s) conuctivity (cal/cm.. s.K) 1 CO2 0.133 44.0 1462 10-7 383 10-7 2 O2 0.037 32.0 2031 10-7 612 10-7 3 N2 0.828 28.0 1754 10-7 627 10-7 2. (a) Write short notes on Boundary conditions, their significance, importance and selection (b) Write short notes on shell balances. [16]

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3. Using a shell balance technique derive an equation for mass transfer when a liquid is evaporating into stagnant gas film at steady state. [16] 4. Two vertical plates are spaced 6mm apart. One is maintained at 1000C and the other at 200C. Air is flowing between plates at a pressure of 1atmosphere and you may assume that the volumetric flow of upward moving stream is same as that of downward moving stream. Evaluate average velocity of air if = 2 10-6 poise.[16] 5. Consider the problem of drying of droplets. Derive the equation for diffusion through a spherical shell of raidus r1. The shell is surrounded by a spherical film of radius r2. Obtain the molar flux for the evaporating component A. 6. Explain the following: (a) The partial time derivative (b) Total time derivative (c) Substantial time derivative (d) Navier-stokes equation [44=16] 7. Consider an isothermal incompressible fluid flowing radially between two concentric spherical shells. Assume steady state laminar flow. Velocity is a function of the radius of the sphere only. Note that the velocity is not zero at he solid surfaces. (a) Obtain a differential equation using the equation of motion.6 (b) Solve the above equation and find the raidal pressure distribution along the radius of the pipe. 10 8. A fluid with viscosity of 18.3 CP and density 1320 Kg/m3 is flowing in a horizontal tube of radius 0.5 cm. For what pressure gradient will the flow become turbulent. . 1. (a) Describe the diffusion phenomenon with an example. Define the terms mass concentration, molar concentration, mass fraction and mole fraction with symbols. (b) A gas mixture contains 50% of H2 and 50% of O2 by volume. The absolute velocity of the species are -10 m/s and 12 m/s, respectively. What is the mass average velocity if total concentration of gas is 0.6 kmol/m3. [8+8] 2. Derive an expression for the average velocity of flow between parallel plates. Let the channel height be H, length L and Width W. The channel can be assumed to be much wider than its height so that edge effects can be neglected. [16] 3. Derive an expression for the temperature distribution in a viscous fluid in steady laminar flow between large flat parallel plates. Both plates are maintained at constant temperature. Neglect the temperature dependence of viscosity and thermal conductivity.[16] 4. Air at 270C flows normal to a 730C, 30mm o.d. water pipe. The air moves at 1m/s. Estimate the rate of heat transfer per unit length kinematic viscosity=1.624m2/s,Thermal conductivity = 0.0261 W/mk, Npr for air=0.702 [16] 5. Consider the problem of drying of droplets. Derive the equation for diffusion through a spherical shell of raidus r1. The shell is surrounded by a spherical film of radius r2. Obtain the molar flux for the evaporating component A. 6. Explain the following: (a) The partial time derivative (b) Total time derivative (c) Substantial time derivative (d) Navier-stokes equation [44=16] 7. Consider the flow of a liquid along an inclined flat surface. Viscosity and density of the fluid are constant. Velocity in the direction of flow is constant. It varies along the y-

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direction only(perpendicular to the flow direction). Using equations of change obtain a relation between the thickness of the film and the velocity. [16] 8. Explain the following theories: (a) Bonssinesqs eddy viscosity (b) Prandtls Mixing length (c) Von Karmans similarity Hypothesis. [6+6+4 1. Write the equations for the prediction of thermal conductivity of a monoatomic gas, mixture of gases and liquids and explain in detail. [16] 2. (a) Write short notes on Boundary conditions, their significance, importance and selection (b) Write short notes on shell balances. [16]

3. Consider a spherical porous catalyst. A gas stream in contact with the catalyst contains reactant A which diffuses into the catalyst pellet and reacts at the internal surface of the catalyst to form product B. The gas film surrounding the catalyst does not offer any resistance. Find out the effectiveness factor of the catalyst [16] 4. An oil acts as lubricant between two cylindrical surfaces. The outer cylinder has a radius of 0.05m and rotates at 9000rpm.The clearance between the two cylinders is 0.025cm. Find out the maximum temperature in the oil bath if the both wall temperature are kept at 70C. The properties of oil may be taken as follows.=0.95poise, K=0.023J/s cm0 C, ?=1220Kg/m3 [16] 5. Through the accidental opening of a valve, water has been spilled on the floor of an industrial plant in a remote difficult to reach area. The water layer is 0.1 cm thick and may be assumed to remain at a constant temperature of 250C. The air is also at 250C and 1 atmospheric pressure with an absolute humidity of 0.002 kg of water per kg of dry air. The evaporation is assumed to take place by molecular diffusion through a gas film of 0.51 cm thick. Find the time required to evaporate the water into the surrounding quiescent air. Diffusivity of water vapor in air at 250C = 0.259 cm2/s. Saturated humidity at 250C = 0.189 KgH2O Kg of dry air [16] 6. Consider a long circular tube. An incompressible fluid is flowing axially. Considering the zcomponent of the equation of motion, obtain the velocity profile along the radial direction. [16] 7. Two immiscible incompressible fluids are flowing in the z-direction in a horizontal slit of length L and width W under the influence of pressure gradient. The fluid flow rates are so adjusted that the slit is half filled with fluid I and half filled with fluid II. Find out the distribution of velocity using the equation of motion. [16] 8. Explain the following theories: (a) Bonssinesqs eddy viscosity (b) Prandtls Mixing length (c) Von Karmans similarity Hypothesis. [6+6+4]

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