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LABORATORY

  • 1.0 TITLE

GENERATION OF AM SIGNALS.

  • 2.0 OBJECTIVE

    • 1. To understand the characteristics of amplitude modulation (AM).

    • 2. To study AM modulation index and its effect on the system performance.

1

3.0 INTRODUCTION

For Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication. It’s more used for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent. For example, changes in signal strength may be used to specify the sounds to be reproduced by a loudspeaker, or the light intensity of television pixels. Contrast this with frequency modulation, in which the frequency is varied, and phase modulation, in which the phase is varied.

Modulation is a process of translating information signal from low band frequency to high band frequency that is suits the transmission medium. Information signal is usually of low frequency, so it cannot travel fat and needs a carrier signal of higher frequency for long distance destination. Carrier and information(modulating) are the input while the output is called the modulated signal.

3.0 INTRODUCTION For Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a technique used in electron ic communication. It’s more

Figure 1: Basic Block Diagram of A Modulator

There are several type of amplitude modulation such as Conventional Amplitude Modulation (AM), AM-Double Side Band (AM-DSB) or Suppressed Carrier AM (SCAM) and Single Side Band Modulation (SSB). Figure 2 show the different type of amplitude modulation (AM). The top diagrams show the conventional AM which the frequency spectrum is composed of the carrier frequency (fc), upper sideband (fc + fm), lower sideband (fc fm).

  • 3.1 Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) AM An amplitude modulation with suppressed carrier is generated if the carrier amplitude is influenced in a multiplier with a message signal without DC offset. This method used when for example as an intermediate form for single sideband amplitude modulation or for the stereo supplementary signal in FM broadcasting.

2

3.2

Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier AM (SSBSC)

Power and bandwidth can saved by filtering one sideband and suppressing the carrier when both sidebands contain the information. This method widely used for communications applications, particularly within the HF portion of the radio spectrum.

3.2 Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier AM (SSBSC) Power and bandwidth can saved by filtering one sideband

Remarks : LSB USB fc fm

= Lower Side Band = Upper Side Band = Carrier Frequency = Information Frequency

Figure 2: Spectrum and Waveforms of Conventional-AM, DSBSC-AM and SSBSC-AM Signals

3

3.3

Modulation Factor, m

The change in the carrier amplitude is proportional to the change in the modulation signal amplitude Modulation factor (m) is known as the ratio of the change to the unmodulated carrier amplitude. The highest value of m under ideal scenario is m = 1.

  • 3.4 AM Power Performance and Efficiency

    • 3.4.1 Full AM Total transmitted power for full AM signal is combine from all three frequency components such as carrier, upper and lower sideband. It’s efficiency, ɳ is equal to the ratio between the power to transmit useful information signal, P SB to the total transmitted power, P T .

3.3 Modulation Factor, m The change in the carrier amplitude is proportional to the change in

Figure 3: Equation for Total Power Transmitted,P T and Efficiency, ɳ

  • 3.4.2 DSBSC-AM and SSBSC-AM Power efficiency is equal to 100% where all the transmitted power used to carry the information signal. The SSBSC more improves AM bandwidth efficiency as both sidebands carry similar information signal where one sideband is just the mirror image of the other.

3.3 Modulation Factor, m The change in the carrier amplitude is proportional to the change in

Figure 4: Equation for Total Power Transmitted,P T DSBSC-AM and SSBSC-AM

4

4.0 METHOD

  • 4.1 INSTRUMENTS AND COMPONENTS

i.

Modulation Board Type 4280

ii.

Demodulation Board Type 4281

iii.

Pico Scope

iv.

Oscilloscope

v.

Spectrum Analyzer

  • 4.2 PROCEDURE

There are two procedures to perform in this laboratory. There are:

  • 4.2.1 Modulator

  • 4.2.2 Demodulator

4.0 METHOD 4.1 INSTRUMENTS AND COMPONENTS i. Modulation Board Type 4280 ii. Demodulation Board Type 4281

Figure 5: Circuit of modulator for amplitude-modulated signals

5

Figure 6: Circuit of a single sideband modulator (SSB) Figure 7: Circuit of demodulator by plugging

Figure 6: Circuit of a single sideband modulator (SSB)

Figure 6: Circuit of a single sideband modulator (SSB) Figure 7: Circuit of demodulator by plugging

Figure 7: Circuit of demodulator by plugging the 2mm connecting plug

6

4.2.1

MODULATOR

Modulator for amplitude-modulated signals already assemble by refers (see Figure 5). Modulation factor of an AM modulator will determine. After that, the line diagrams (scope), modulation trapezium and the frequency spectrum will appear in the software Pico scope

and then save the result in the computer. Make a folder to make sure it’s is easy to arrange

back for the result later. Change the V DC as shown in Table 1 for the following values, +1V and +0.5V. The results for the output were recorded.

Then change the V DC to zero. The waveform, trapezoid and spectrum will sketch and explain about the result. Compare the current findings to results for m=1. After that, assemble a single sideband modulator (SSB) according to the filter method (see Figure 6). Output signal with the oscilloscope at different information frequencies are examined and the frequency of the sidebands are measured and the results are shown in Table 2.

  • 4.2.2 DEMODULATOR Continue the experimental setup by plugging the 2mm connecting plug (see Figure 7) and the voltages asked are measured and draw the results in the Table 3.

7

5.0 RESULTS

Table 1

Vdc=+2V

Waveform

5.0 RESULTS Table 1 Vdc=+2V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 8

Spectrum

5.0 RESULTS Table 1 Vdc=+2V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 8

Trapezoid

5.0 RESULTS Table 1 Vdc=+2V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 8

8

Vdc=+1V

Waveform

Vdc=+1V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 9

Spectrum

Vdc=+1V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 9

Trapezoid

Vdc=+1V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 9

9

Vdc=+0.5V

Waveform

Vdc=+0.5V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 10

Spectrum

Vdc=+0.5V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 10

Trapezoid

Vdc=+0.5V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 10

10

Vdc=+0V

Waveform

Vdc=+0V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 11

Spectrum

Vdc=+0V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 11

Trapezoid

Vdc=+0V Waveform Spectrum Trapezoid 11

11

Table 2

fm=2kHz

Em=2V

Waveform

Table 2 fm=2kHz Em=2V Waveform Spectrum 12

Spectrum

Table 2 fm=2kHz Em=2V Waveform Spectrum 12

12

fm=1kHz

Em=2V

Waveform

fm=1kHz Em=2V Waveform Spectrum 13

Spectrum

fm=1kHz Em=2V Waveform Spectrum 13

13

fm=500Hz

Em=2V

Waveform

fm=500Hz Em=2V Waveform Spectrum 14

Spectrum

fm=500Hz Em=2V Waveform Spectrum 14

14

Table 3

Vam

Table 3 Vam V1 V2 15

V1

Table 3 Vam V1 V2 15

V2

Table 3 Vam V1 V2 15

15

Vdem

Vdem Vout 16

Vout

Vdem Vout 16

16

6.0 DISCUSSION

MODULATION

1.

On what variable does the shape envelope curve depends?

By refer to the modulation frequency V peak-peak voltage

 

2.

How are different amplitudes of the message signal represented in the output signal?

 

The change in the carrier amplitude is proportional to the change in the modulation signal

 
 

amplitude.

M=Em

 

Ec

By method measuring modulation factor, sine wave display voltage with constant amplitude

 

is very rarely transmitted.

 

3.

How can the modulation factor be determined from the frequency spectrum?

 

By calculate the bandwidth of the sideband to the carrier frequency.

4.

How great is the amplitude of the lower sideband oscillation when the modulation factor is 60% and the carrier has an amplitude of 10V?

 

0.6

=

6 +

= = 10 6

=

= 2.5V

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DEMODULATION

  • 1. Compare the waveform of V DEM and V OUT .

V

DEM

V

OUT

-Combine with demodulation

  • - Only information signal

-V peak more than V out

  • - V peak less than V DEM

  • 2. In your opinion, can AM techniques in which the carrier is suppressed (DSBSC and SSBSC) being demodulated using the above technique. In my opinion, Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) is being demodulated because

in DSBSC, the signal is mirror. It is similar or same to the experiment that we done.

18

7.0 CONCLUSION

In a conclusion, the objective of this experiment were fulfilled. The amplitude modulation is reliable, important and popular used in the industry. Amplitude modulation(AM) also is one of the most straightforward ways of modulating a radio signal or carrier. The process of demodulation, where the audio signal is removed from the radio carrier in the receiver is also quite simple as well. The easiest method of achieving amplitude demodulation is to use a simple diode detector. This consists of just a handful of components such as a diode, resistor and a capacitor. The advantages of amplitude modulation (AM) are it is simple to implement, it can be demodulated using a circuit consisting of very few components and AM receivers are very cheap as no specialised components are needed.

The disadvantages are it is not efficient in terms of its power usage, not efficient in terms of its use of bandwidth, requiring a bandwidth equal to twice that of the highest audio frequency and is prone to high levels of noise because most noise is amplitude based and obviously AM detectors are sensitive to it. The important part of amplitude modulation (AM) is the measuring of the modulation depth, double sideband, single sideband, and the carrier signal. The trapezoid display is more exactly, it is because the modulation depth is directly readable from the

oscilloscope’s screen.

19

8.0 REFERENCES

8.0 REFERENCES 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude_modulation 2. http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/definition/amplitude-modulation <a href=3. http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/rf-technology-design/am-amplitude- modulation/single-sideband-suppressed-carrier-ssbsc.php Cart | Help Search Improve your ni.com experience. Login or Create a user profile. What is Developer Zone? Document Type : Tutorial NI Supported : Yes Publish Date : Mar 12, 2012 Malaysia More Sharing ServicesShare on faceboo kShare on twitterShare on linkedin Feedback Rate this document Select a Rating Answered Your Question? Yes No Related Links - Developer Zone  Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)  Phase-Locked Loops Related Links -Products and Services 20 " id="pdf-obj-19-11" src="pdf-obj-19-11.jpg">

|

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8.0 REFERENCES 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude_modulation 2. http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/definition/amplitude-modulation <a href=3. http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/rf-technology-design/am-amplitude- modulation/single-sideband-suppressed-carrier-ssbsc.php Cart | Help Search Improve your ni.com experience. Login or Create a user profile. What is Developer Zone? Document Type : Tutorial NI Supported : Yes Publish Date : Mar 12, 2012 Malaysia More Sharing ServicesShare on faceboo kShare on twitterShare on linkedin Feedback Rate this document Select a Rating Answered Your Question? Yes No Related Links - Developer Zone  Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)  Phase-Locked Loops Related Links -Products and Services 20 " id="pdf-obj-19-21" src="pdf-obj-19-21.jpg">

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8.0 REFERENCES 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude_modulation 2. http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/definition/amplitude-modulation <a href=3. http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/rf-technology-design/am-amplitude- modulation/single-sideband-suppressed-carrier-ssbsc.php Cart | Help Search Improve your ni.com experience. Login or Create a user profile. What is Developer Zone? Document Type : Tutorial NI Supported : Yes Publish Date : Mar 12, 2012 Malaysia More Sharing ServicesShare on faceboo kShare on twitterShare on linkedin Feedback Rate this document Select a Rating Answered Your Question? Yes No Related Links - Developer Zone  Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)  Phase-Locked Loops Related Links -Products and Services 20 " id="pdf-obj-19-28" src="pdf-obj-19-28.jpg">

Document Type: Tutorial NI Supported: Yes Publish Date: Mar 12, 2012

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Answered Your Question? Yes No Related Links - Developer Zone  Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) 
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Related Links - Developer Zone
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Phase-Locked Loops
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20

 <a href=6.6 GHz RF Instrumentation for PXI  NI PXI-5690 Amplitude Modulation 17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5 English Read in | Print | PDF Overview This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Measurement Fundamentals series. Each tutorial in this series teaches you a specific topic of common measurement applications by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. This tutorial covers an introduction to RF, wireless, and high-frequency signals and systems. For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page , or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage . For more information about National Instruments RF products, visit www.ni.com/rf . Table of Contents 1. Amplitude Modulation 2. Mathematical Back g round 3. T y pes of AM Modulation 4. Realit y Check 5. Related Products 6. Conclusion Amplitude Modulation Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it, it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave." Higher frequency waves require smaller antennas, use the available bandwidth more efficiently, and are flexible enough to carry different types of data. AM radio stations transmit audio signals, which range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, using carrier waves that range from 500 kHz to 1.7 MHz. If we were to transmit audio signals directly we would need an antenna that is around 10,000 km! Modulation techniques can be broadly divided into analog modulation and digital modulation. Amplitude modulation (AM) is one form of analog modulation. 21 " id="pdf-obj-20-9" src="pdf-obj-20-9.jpg">
 NI PXI-5690
NI PXI-5690
 <a href=6.6 GHz RF Instrumentation for PXI  NI PXI-5690 Amplitude Modulation 17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5 English Read in | Print | PDF Overview This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Measurement Fundamentals series. Each tutorial in this series teaches you a specific topic of common measurement applications by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. This tutorial covers an introduction to RF, wireless, and high-frequency signals and systems. For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page , or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage . For more information about National Instruments RF products, visit www.ni.com/rf . Table of Contents 1. Amplitude Modulation 2. Mathematical Back g round 3. T y pes of AM Modulation 4. Realit y Check 5. Related Products 6. Conclusion Amplitude Modulation Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it, it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave." Higher frequency waves require smaller antennas, use the available bandwidth more efficiently, and are flexible enough to carry different types of data. AM radio stations transmit audio signals, which range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, using carrier waves that range from 500 kHz to 1.7 MHz. If we were to transmit audio signals directly we would need an antenna that is around 10,000 km! Modulation techniques can be broadly divided into analog modulation and digital modulation. Amplitude modulation (AM) is one form of analog modulation. 21 " id="pdf-obj-20-13" src="pdf-obj-20-13.jpg">
Amplitude Modulation 17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5 English Read in | Print |
Amplitude Modulation
17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5
English
Read in
|
Print |

PDF

Overview
Overview

This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Measurement Fundamentals series. Each tutorial in this series teaches you a specific topic of common measurement applications by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. This tutorial covers an introduction to RF, wireless, and high-frequency signals and systems.

For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page, or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage. For more information about National Instruments RF products, visit www.ni.com/rf.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents

Amplitude Modulation

Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it, it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave." Higher frequency waves require smaller antennas, use the available bandwidth more efficiently, and are flexible enough to carry different types of data. AM radio stations transmit audio signals, which range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, using carrier waves that range from 500 kHz to 1.7 MHz. If we were to transmit audio signals directly we would need an antenna that is around 10,000 km! Modulation techniques can be broadly divided into analog modulation and digital modulation. Amplitude modulation (AM) is one form of analog modulation.

 <a href=6.6 GHz RF Instrumentation for PXI  NI PXI-5690 Amplitude Modulation 17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5 English Read in | Print | PDF Overview This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Measurement Fundamentals series. Each tutorial in this series teaches you a specific topic of common measurement applications by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. This tutorial covers an introduction to RF, wireless, and high-frequency signals and systems. For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page , or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage . For more information about National Instruments RF products, visit www.ni.com/rf . Table of Contents 1. Amplitude Modulation 2. Mathematical Back g round 3. T y pes of AM Modulation 4. Realit y Check 5. Related Products 6. Conclusion Amplitude Modulation Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it, it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave." Higher frequency waves require smaller antennas, use the available bandwidth more efficiently, and are flexible enough to carry different types of data. AM radio stations transmit audio signals, which range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz, using carrier waves that range from 500 kHz to 1.7 MHz. If we were to transmit audio signals directly we would need an antenna that is around 10,000 km! Modulation techniques can be broadly divided into analog modulation and digital modulation. Amplitude modulation (AM) is one form of analog modulation. 21 " id="pdf-obj-20-66" src="pdf-obj-20-66.jpg">

21

Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine

Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM

Mathematical Background

The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine wave. There are three parameters of a sine wave that can

be varied: amplitude, frequency, and phase. Any of these can be modulated, or varied, to transmit information. A sine wave can be mathematically described by a sine or cosine function with amplitude A c , frequency f c , and phase φ.

Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine
Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine

Figure 2. Carrier Wave

The carrier signal is modulated by varying its amplitude in proportion to the message, or baseband, signal. The message signal can be represented by

Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine

and the carrier signal can be represented by

Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine

To make the equations simpler, assume that there is no phase difference between the carrier signal and the

message signal and thus φ = 0.

The modulated signal can be represented by multiplying the carrier signal and the summation of 1 and the message signal, as shown below.

Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine

With some basic trigonometric manipulation, the above waveform can be written as

Figure 1. Basic Stages of AM Mathematical Background The carrier signal is generally a high-frequency sine

As described in the previous section, the modulated signal has waves at three frequencies: f c , f c f b and f c + f b . Transmitting at all three frequencies wastes power and bandwidth. To avoid that problem use a filter to remove one of the sidebands (usually the lower sideband, f c f b ). Use a highpass filter to remove the lower sideband signal; this process is single sideband (SSB) modulation.

However, by removing one of the sidebands we lose some of the original power of the modulated signal. To maximize the power transmitted, transmit both the lower and the upper sideband. This process is double sideband (DSB) modulation. The following figure illustrates DSB.

As described in the previous section, the modulated signal has waves at three frequencies: f ,Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) uses four predetermined amplitude levels to determine digital bits. Reality Check Although understanding AM is helpful to understand modulation, it is not the most efficient or useful way to modulate a signal. Simple AM is slow and requires too much power. Because most communication today is digital, far more complex methods are used. Generally, phase shift keying (PSK) — a type of phase modulation — is used to transmit digital data. Related Products NI PXIe-5663 6.6 GHz RF Vector Signal Analyzer The National Instruments PXIe-5663 is a modular 6.6 GHz RF vector signal analyzer with 50 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth optimized for automated test. NI PXIe-5673 6.6 GHz RF Vector Signal Generator The National Instruments PXIe-5673 is a 4-slot 6.6 GHz RF vector signal generator that delivers signal generation from 85 MHz to 6.6 GHz, 100 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth, and up to 512 MB of memory. NI PXI-5660 2.7 GHz RF Vector Signal Analyzer The National Instruments PXI-5660 is a modular 2.7 GHz RF vector signal analyzer with 20 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth optimized for automated test. NI PXI-5671 2.7 GHz RF Vector Signal Generator The National Instruments PXI-5671 module is a 3-slot RF vector signal generator that delivers signal generation from 250 kHz to 2.7 GHz, 20 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth, and up to 512 MB of memory. 23 " id="pdf-obj-22-26" src="pdf-obj-22-26.jpg">

Figure 3. Frequency Domain View of Double Sideband Full Carrier

One of the components of the modulated signal is the pure carrier wave. Because the carrier wave does not have any information, we can remove the carrier wave component from the signal before we transmit it. This process is called single sideband/double sideband suppressed carrier (SSB-SC, DSB-SC) modulation. However, we need the carrier when demodulating the signal. Special circuits can extract information about the carrier from one of the sidebands; these circuits are used when demodulating SSB-SC or DSB-SC signals.

We can also use amplitude modulation to send digital data. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) uses four predetermined amplitude levels to determine digital bits.

Reality Check
Reality Check

Although understanding AM is helpful to understand modulation, it is not the most efficient or useful way to modulate a signal. Simple AM is slow and requires too much power. Because most communication today is digital, far more complex methods are used. Generally, phase shift keying (PSK)a type of phase modulationis used to transmit digital data.

Related Products
Related Products

The National Instruments PXIe-5663 is a modular 6.6 GHz RF vector signal analyzer with 50 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth optimized for automated test.

The National Instruments PXIe-5673 is a 4-slot 6.6 GHz RF vector signal generator that delivers signal generation from 85 MHz to 6.6 GHz, 100 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth, and up to 512 MB of memory.

The National Instruments PXI-5660 is a modular 2.7 GHz RF vector signal analyzer with 20 MHz of

instantaneous bandwidth optimized for automated test.

The National Instruments PXI-5671 module is a 3-slot RF vector signal generator that delivers signal generation from 250 kHz to 2.7 GHz, 20 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth, and up to 512 MB of memory.

23

The National Instruments PXI-5652 6.6 GHz RF and microwave signal generator is continuous-wave with modulation capability. It is excellent for setting up stimulus response applications with RF signal analyzers.

The National Instruments RF switch modules are ideal for expanding the channel count or increasing the flexibility of systems with signal bandwidths greater than 10 MHz to bandwidths as high as 26.5 GHz.

National Instruments LabVIEW is an industry-leading graphical software tool for designing test, measurement,

and automation systems.

The National Instruments Modulation Toolkit extends the built-in analysis capability of LabVIEW with functions and tools for signal generation, analysis, visualization, and processing of standard and custom digital and analog modulation formats.

Conclusion
Conclusion

For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page, or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage. For more information about National Instruments RF products, visit www.ni.com/rf.

17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5 English Read in |
17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5
English
Read in
|
<a href=NI PXI-5652 6.6 GHz RF and Microwave Signal Generator The National Instruments PXI-5652 6.6 GHz RF and microwave signal generator is continuous-wave with modulation capability. It is excellent for setting up stimulus response applications with RF signal analyzers. NI RF Switches The National Instruments RF switch modules are ideal for expanding the channel count or increasing the flexibility of systems with signal bandwidths greater than 10 MHz to bandwidths as high as 26.5 GHz. NI LabVIEW National Instruments LabVIEW is an industry-leading graphical software tool for designing test, measurement, and automation systems. NI Modulation Toolkit The National Instruments Modulation Toolkit extends the built-in analysis capability of LabVIEW with functions and tools for signal generation, analysis, visualization, and processing of standard and custom digital and analog modulation formats. Conclusion For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page , or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage . For more information about National Instruments RF products, visi t www.ni.com/rf . 17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5 English Read in | Print | PDF Reader Comments | Submit a comment » In the amplitude modulation section, the time parameter has been omitted. Please correct it - manohjsv@gmail.com - Oct 28, 2010 Great Nice revision to communication systems theory for any Engineer who would want some quick learning for his/her project needs. - Apr 04, 2010 Recognition Excellent brief introduction. NI taking care of the students, as always. - Carlos Cristiano Nunes, Ph.D.,Microserv. anon14215267 - Mar 05, 2010 BASIC VIEW VERY NICE INTRODUCTION - SHANMUGAM,STUDENT. SHANARAYANA@YAHOO.CO.IN - Jan 16, 2009 Legal This tutorial (this "tutorial") was developed by National Instruments ("NI"). Although technical support of this tutorial may be made available by National Instruments, the content in this tutorial may not be completely tested and verified, and NI does not guarantee its quality in any way or that NI will continue to support this content with each new revision of related products and drivers. THIS TUTORIAL IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND AND SUBJECT TO CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS AS MORE SPECIFICALLY SET FORTH IN NI.COM'S TERMS OF USE ( http://ni.com/legal/termsofuse/unitedstates/us/ ) . My Profile | RSS | Privacy | Legal | Contact NI © 2012 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved. | E-Mail this Page 24 " id="pdf-obj-23-38" src="pdf-obj-23-38.jpg">

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Reader Comments | Submit a comment »

In the amplitude modulation section, the time parameter has been omitted. Please correct it

-

manohjsv@gmail.com - Oct 28, 2010

Great

Nice revision to communication systems theory for any Engineer who would want some quick learning for his/her project needs.

-

Apr 04, 2010

Recognition

Excellent brief introduction. NI taking care of the students, as always.

-

Carlos Cristiano Nunes, Ph.D.,Microserv. anon14215267 - Mar 05, 2010

BASIC VIEW

VERY NICE INTRODUCTION

-

SHANMUGAM,STUDENT. SHANARAYANA@YAHOO.CO.IN - Jan 16, 2009

Legal This tutorial (this "tutorial") was developed by National Instruments ("NI"). Although technical support of this tutorial may be made available by National Instruments, the content in this tutorial may not be completely tested and verified, and NI does not guarantee its quality in any way or that NI will continue to support this content with each new revision of related products and drivers. THIS TUTORIAL IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND AND SUBJECT TO CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS AS MORE SPECIFICALLY SET FORTH IN NI.COM'S TERMS OF USE (http://ni.com/legal/termsofuse/unitedstates/us/).

My Profile | RSS | Privacy | Legal | Contact NI © 2012 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved.

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<a href=NI PXI-5652 6.6 GHz RF and Microwave Signal Generator The National Instruments PXI-5652 6.6 GHz RF and microwave signal generator is continuous-wave with modulation capability. It is excellent for setting up stimulus response applications with RF signal analyzers. NI RF Switches The National Instruments RF switch modules are ideal for expanding the channel count or increasing the flexibility of systems with signal bandwidths greater than 10 MHz to bandwidths as high as 26.5 GHz. NI LabVIEW National Instruments LabVIEW is an industry-leading graphical software tool for designing test, measurement, and automation systems. NI Modulation Toolkit The National Instruments Modulation Toolkit extends the built-in analysis capability of LabVIEW with functions and tools for signal generation, analysis, visualization, and processing of standard and custom digital and analog modulation formats. Conclusion For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page , or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage . For more information about National Instruments RF products, visi t www.ni.com/rf . 17 Ratings | 4.00 out of 5 English Read in | Print | PDF Reader Comments | Submit a comment » In the amplitude modulation section, the time parameter has been omitted. Please correct it - manohjsv@gmail.com - Oct 28, 2010 Great Nice revision to communication systems theory for any Engineer who would want some quick learning for his/her project needs. - Apr 04, 2010 Recognition Excellent brief introduction. NI taking care of the students, as always. - Carlos Cristiano Nunes, Ph.D.,Microserv. anon14215267 - Mar 05, 2010 BASIC VIEW VERY NICE INTRODUCTION - SHANMUGAM,STUDENT. SHANARAYANA@YAHOO.CO.IN - Jan 16, 2009 Legal This tutorial (this "tutorial") was developed by National Instruments ("NI"). Although technical support of this tutorial may be made available by National Instruments, the content in this tutorial may not be completely tested and verified, and NI does not guarantee its quality in any way or that NI will continue to support this content with each new revision of related products and drivers. THIS TUTORIAL IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND AND SUBJECT TO CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS AS MORE SPECIFICALLY SET FORTH IN NI.COM'S TERMS OF USE ( http://ni.com/legal/termsofuse/unitedstates/us/ ) . My Profile | RSS | Privacy | Legal | Contact NI © 2012 National Instruments Corporation. All rights reserved. | E-Mail this Page 24 " id="pdf-obj-23-120" src="pdf-obj-23-120.jpg">

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Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it, it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave."

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