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The specifications are: cut off frequency of 2GHz, 3rd order, impedance of 50 , and a 3 dB equal ripple characteristics. For a 3rd order equal ripple filter, g1= g3=3.3487, g2=0.7117 After applying Richard transformation and Kuroda identity final structure can be drawn as follow:

GRAPH:-

MICROSTRIP LAYOUT :-

GRAPH:-

SONNET :-LAYOUT :

GRAPH:-

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:-When the structure was realized in sonnet, the cut off was obtained at 3.082 Ghz.

B)

STUB TYPE

GRAPH:-

SONNET:-

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realised in sonnet te cut off was obtained at 8.711 ghz

GRAPH :-

MICROSTRIP LAYOUT :-

GRAPH :-

SONNET LAYOUT :-

:-

B).USING STUBS

GRAPH :-

DESIGN

AIM:-TO STUDY AND DESIGN WILKINSON EQUAL POWER DIVIDER AND WILKINSON UNEQUAL POWER DIVIDER FOR A SYSTEM IMPEDENCE OF 50 AT FREQUENCY OF 5 GHz Er=10.2 ,H =1.58 mm .

THEORY:- The lossless T-junction suffers from the problem of not being matched at all ports and does not have any isolation between ports . T he resistive divider can be

matched at all ports but even though it is not lossless , isolation is not achieved. The Wilkinson power divider is lossless when the output ports are matched that is only reflected power is dissipated . The Wilkinson power divider can be made with arbitrary power division but we still we first consider the equal split 3 dB case . This division is often made in microstrip or strip line form.

The Wilkinson type unequal power can be made with unequal splits . It can be used for feeding an antenna as different output combinations can be made by wisely choosing the different power ratios.

GRAPH:-

SONNET LAYOUT :-

GRAPH:-

2)

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realized in sonnet the cut off frequency was Found to be g.1 ghz. The variation in frequency is not recommendable.

USING TLINE :-

GRAPH:-

SONNET:-

GRAPH:-

RESULT:1)Cut off frequency is 5 ghz 2)-13 db isolation at 5 ghz 3) return loss is -6 db 4)-2 db insertion loss.

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realised in sonnet the cut off frequency is found to be 5.2 ghz. The other parameters ere found practical. Hence the design is considered to be practical and realizable.

DESIGN-

AIM:- The objective of this experiment is to study characteristics of a microstrip branch line coupler. We feed power to one of the ports of the coupler and plot reflected power as well as power emerging out of the other three ports of the coupler. Determine centre frequency and 20dB isolation bandwidth of the coupler. THEORY:- A two-stub branch line coupler is a fundamental direct-coupled structure in which the main line is directly bridged to the secondary line by means of two-shunt branches. The length of each branch and their spacing are all quarter-wavelength /4 in the transmission medium at the centre frequency f. Za and Zb denote the characteristic impedances of the series and shunt branches respectively. All input and output lines have same characteristics impedance Z. DESIGN:- In the following, design of a 3-dB branch line coupler with the following specifications is illustrated: Center Frequency, f= 5GHz Mid band coupling, C=3dB

Zb = Z. To get the final layout in microstrip, we need to convert the impedances and electrical lengths into physical dimensions. The final dimensions of the branch line coupler for substrate parameters r=2.16, h=1.58 mm are:

Z0 50 35.35

W 5.1068 8.2960

H 10.808 10.631

DESIGN COUPLERS.

:- DESIGN OF MICROWAVE

GRAPH:-

SONNET LAYOUT:-

GRAPH:-

RESULT:1) Cut off frequency= 5 ghz 2)-3db coupling is obtained. 3) Maximum isolation= -60 db 4) Bandwidth = 12%

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:Hen the same design is realised in sonnet, the cut off frequency as found to be 4.2 ghz, the parameters were found to be realizible,the coupling can be increased using matching networks.

GRAPH:-

USING SONNET :-

GRAPH:-

USING TLINE

GRAPH:-

SONNET LAYOUT:-

Graph:-

USING MLINE:-

DESIGN

AIM:- The objective of this experiment is to study return loss characteristics of the transformer fed patch antenna.

THEORY:- Microstrip patch antenna consists of a resonant patch of length L and width W printed on a substrate. The length L of the patch radiator is selected such that it satisfies the condition of resonance. It is usually chosen close to /2 such that the input impedance of patch is pure real at the desired frequency. Since the two ends of patch are open, an open ended correction factor is usually taken into account while calculating the physical length L of the patch. The patch width generally lies between 0.5 to 2 times the lengths. The width can be used to vary the input impedance of the patch. As we have to ultimately match the patch input impedance to some extend by changing the patch width W. If W is chosen very small, the antenna radiation efficiency will be reduced. So there is a trade off between input impedance and the radiation efficiency. Once W and L are selected, we can calculate the input impedance of the patch and then use a quarter-wave transformer of length in between to match this impedance to the 50- feed line as shown in figure. Design:- In the following, design of a transformer coupled patch antenna at fr=5 GHz is illustrated: For the substrate parameter r=3.2, h=0.762, calculate width of the 50-ohm feed line with transmission line software: w1= 1.834 mm, eff =2.584 For an efficient radiator, a practical width that leads to good radiation efficiencies is given as:

W=20.685 mm

eff=3.016

is given by

G1=0.002875 Rin=173.94 Design a quarter-wave transformer of length to match Rin to Z=50-ohms. Ztransformer=173.94 x 50 Ztransformer=93.36 Width of transformer=0.567 mm Length of transformer=9.704 mm This completes the design. Figure 1 shows the final layout of the transformer coupled patch antenna in microstrip at 5 GHZ

Feed Line l L

Figure 1

W

SONNET LAYOUT

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realised in Sonnet the cut off frequency as found to be the same and other parameters were found acceptable.

AIM:- The objective of this experiment is to study characteristics of a microstrip rat race hybrid coupler. Feed power to one of the ports of the coupler and plot reflected power as well as power emerging out of other three ports of the coupler. Determine centre frequency and 20 dBisolation bandwidth of the coupler.

THEORY:- The mean length of three branches is quarter wavelength /4 in the transmission medium at the center frequency f, whereas, one of the branches is 3 /4 long. All input and output lines have the same characteristic impedances Z. Design: In the following, design of a 3-db rat race hybrid coupler with the following specifications is illustrated: Center Frequency, f= 5GHz Mid band coupling, C=3dB Source and Load impedance= 50 For equal power division, branch line impedance is =70.71.

The final dimension of rat race coupler for the substrate parameter r=3.2, h=0.762 mm are:

For Z=50 line, w=1.834 mm, eff = 2.584 For =70.71 line, w=1.01 mm, eff = 2.697, = =

9.54 mm,

Z0 50 70.71

GRAPH:-

SONNET LAYOUT:-

GRAPH:-

RESULT:1)cut off frequency = 5 ghz 2)3 db coupling obtained at cut off frequency 3)isolation above -40 db.

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design is realised in sonnet the cut off frequency was shifted to 6 GHz. The parameters were found satisfactory and hence the design is realisable.

THEORY:-

Finally even and odd mode characteristic impedances are summarised in the following table:

n 1 2 3 4

SONNET LAYOUT:-

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:The design is realizible in sonnet and the parameters thus obtained are acceptable within the practical limits.

DESIGN-

AIM:- To study and design coupled band pass filter with coupled line. To plot the transmission and reflection characteristics of a band stop filter and determine its centre frequency, bandwidth, minimum and maximum insertion loss/return loss in the pass band.

THEORY:- A coupled section of transmission line of length of /4 transfer the power from the main line to the coupled line over a band of frequency .Thus a section of the coupled line is a potential candidate for the development of the bpf. Such filter has bandwidth limited to 20%. The larger the bandwidth requires very tight coupling i.e narrow separation between the two lines. If the cascaded section of coupled line sections form a band pass filter , then cascading of equivalent circuit with j-inverter also forms a bpf.The simplest form of an inverter is the quarter wave transformer.Such type ofcircuit componenets transform any load impedence to Z o2 ., ZO is the characteristic impedence of the section.This type of j inverter circuit has to be matched with the original network using two types of resonant circuit :series and parallel. This type of filters yield a narrow to moderate bandwidth.

AIM:-Design a coupled line band pass filter with N=5 and 0.5 dB equal-ripple response. The center frequency is 2.0 GHz, the bandwidth is 10%, and Z0=50.

THEORY:- The design equations for a BPF with N+1 coupled line sections are

The even and odd mode impedences are obtained using the formulaL:-

Ze = Z [1+ZJ+(ZJ)^2] Zo = Z [1-ZJ+(ZJ)^2]

Finally even and odd mode characteristic impedances are summarised in the following table (n+1 lines):-

n 1 2 3 4 5 6

Z OJ

ZOe

W(mm) L(mm) S(mm) 0.367 0.637 0.899 0.899 0.637 0.367 15.115 15.024 14.915 14.915 15.024 15.115 0.178 0.196 0.267 0.267 0.196 0.178

Using MLINE:-

GRAPH:-

Sonnet layout:-

Graph:-

RESULT:-

1) 2) 3) 4)

Cut off frequency =2 ghz. 3 db bandwidth=10% Max RL= -20 db Min RL= -5db

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the design was realised in sonnet , the cutoff frequency and the values of the parameters were found to be satisfactory, hence the circuit realisation in sonnet is practically realisible.

DESIGN-

AIM:- The objective of this experiment is to study characteristics of a microstrip band pass filter. THEORY:- Microstrip line band pass filter makes use of a series of half-wavelength long resonant conducting strips. This is popularly used band pass filter configuration in applications requiring narrow to moderate bandwidths (up to 20%). The adjacent resonators are parallel coupled along half of their length.

Design: In the following, design of a 3 rd order Chebyshev band pass filter with the following specifications is illustrated: Center Frequency, f= 4GHz Bandwidth, f= 0.5GHz Pass band ripple, La= 0.3 dB Source and Load impedance= 50

From the band pass filter specifications, the number of elements in the low pass prototype are determined as n=3. Use reverse mapping to find out low pass w at f, f + and f - . The expression used in the process of reverse mapping is given below.

w=w-w ZON =ZO/4g1 Now determine the even- and- odd- mode impedances of each pair of coupled lines and synthesize the filter layout. The substrate properties are r=3.2, h=0.762 mm; After calculations, the values of width and length obtained as :are

USING MLINE:-

GRAPH

USING SONNET:-

GRAPH

RESULT:1)Cut off frequency- 4 ghz 2)3 db bandwidth= 0.50 3) 0.3 db ripple observed in the passband from the graph.

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realised in sonnet then the cut off frequency was shifted to 4.5 ghz.The design was optimised to obtain the desie=red parameters.

DESIGN-

AIM:- The objective of this experiment is to study characteristics of a microstrip band stop filter. To plot the transmission and reflection characteristics of a band stop filter and determine its center frequency, bandwidth, minimum and maximum insertion loss/return loss in the pass band. THEORY:- The stub impedances are directly related to the low pass prototype element values. The lengths of stubs and the transmission line unit elements in between the stubs are /4 at the centre frequency. DESIGN:- In the following, design of a 5th order Chebyshev band stop filter with the following specifications is illustrated: Center Frequency, f= 5GHz Bandwidth, f= 0.5GHz Pass band ripple, La= 0.3 dB Source and Load impedance= 50

For the substrate with r=4.2, h=1.58 mm, calculate the line widths and lengths for each impedance line:

USING TLINE:-

USING MLINE

GRAPH

SONNET

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realised in sonnet the cut off frequency was found to be the same.The insertion loss was varying from -35 db to -4db.

DESIGN AIM:-Design a band stop filter for fabrication using microstrip lines. The specifications are: cut off frequency of 4GHz, 3rd order, impedance of 50 , and a 3 dB equal ripple characteristics. For a 3rd order equal ripple filter, g1= g3=3.3487, g2=0.7117 After applying Richard transformation and Kuroda identity final structure can be drawn as follow:

TLINE SCHEMATIC:-

MLINE SCHEMATIC:-

MLINE PLOT:-

SONNET SCHEMATIC:-

SONNET PLOT:-

COMPARISON WITH SONNET;When the same design was realised in sonnet the cut off frequency was found to be 4.8 ghz . The design was highly optimised . The parameters were not found to be satisfactory .Hence the design was not found to be practically realisible.

AIM:-Design a 3rd order equiripple band stop filter using stub , with 0.05 ripple, fractional bandwidth 1.0 , cut off frequency 2.5 ghz, Er=2.16, h=1.27 mm. T=0.05mm.

ZO (in ) mm) Z1=108.6 Z2=44.96 Z3=108.65 Z12=50 Z23=50 0.23 2.26 0.23 0.38 0.38

W(in

LAYOUT:-

GRAPH:-

SONNET LAYOUT

:-

GRAPH:-

RESULT:1) 2) 3) Cut off frequency is 2.5 ghz At 1.6 ghz the return loss is -3 db At 3.5 ghz the return loss is -3db

When the design was realised in sonnet the cut off frequency was found to be 2.5 GHz. All the parameters were found to be satisfactory. The design is practically realizable.

DESIGNAIM:-Design a 5TH order low pass filter at 3 GHz , 0.5 db .The filter should give a rejection of 40 db at 5 GHz.

After applying the kuroda identity we get the values as:Z(in ) Z1=129.6 W(in mm) 0.4803 H(in mm) 8.1998

GRAPH:-

SONNET :-

RESULT:1)cut off frequency = 3 ghz 2)insertion loss at 5 ghz is -40db. 3)maximum return loss is -30 db

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the design was simulated in sonnet the cut off occurs at 3.5 gghz. The return loss is acceptable and other parameters are within acceptable limits.

DESIGN AIM:- Design a 5th order low pass filter hilo type at 3 GHz, consider, ZL=15, ZH=120, Er=3.2, using 0.5 db equiripple low pass filter prototype.

1

=1.2296,

=29.3 , Bl2=29.4

, Bl

THEORY - Using Hilo filters in micro strip line involves using alternative sections of high and low characteristic impedances. These filters are easy to implement and take less space than a similar low pass filter using stubs. Because of the approximations involved, their electrical performances is not good, these are limited to applications where sharp cut off is not required. We replace series inductance with high impedence sections and shunt capacitances with low impedance sections in case of a low pass filter prototype. The ratio of zh / zl should be as high as possible so that it can be easily fabricated.

MLINE:-

GRAPH:-

SONNET LAYOUT:-

RESULT:1)The cut off frequency is 3 ghz 2)return loss at cut off frequency is 3 db. 3) cut off is sharp as seen from graph.

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realised in sonnet the cutoff frequency was obtained at 2.2 ghz. The design is not optimum for practical design.

DESIGN

AIM: - Design a hi-lo impedance low pass filter having a maximally flat response and a cut off frequency of 2.5 GHz. It is necessary to have more than 10 dB insertion loss at 4 GHz. The filter impedance is 50 ; the highest practical line impedance is 120 , and the lowest is 20 . Consider the effect of losses when this filter is implemented with a microstrip substrate having h=0.158 cm, r=4.2, tan =0.02, and copper conductor of 0.5 mil thickness. THEORY: Series inductor can be replaced by high impedance line. Shunt capacitor can be replaced by low impedance line. For fc=2.5 GHz and above 10 dB insertion loss at 4 GHz the filter will be a 3rd order filter. electrical length is given by Bl =LZo/Zh ................... for inductor

where L and C are normalised element values and Z0 is filter impedance. For a 3rd order filter; g1= 1.0=L1, g2=2.0=C2, g3=1.0=L3

The required electrical length, physical microstrip line width, and length are given below:-

Section 1 2 3

TLINE LAYOUT:-

GRAPH:-

SONNET LAYOUT:-

SONNET GRAPH:-

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:Cut off frequency was same as in microwave office . The insertion loss measured was within allowable limits.

DESIGN

Aim:-

Theory:- Microstrip patch antenna consists of a resonant patch of length L and width W printed on a substrate. The length L of the patch radiator is selected such that it satisfies the condition of resonance. It is usually chosen close to /2 such that the input impedance of patch is pure real at the desired frequency. Since the two ends of patch are open, an open ended correction factor is usually taken into account while calculating the physical length L of the patch. The patch width generally lies between 0.5 to 2 times the lengths. The width can be used to vary the input impedance of the patch. As we have to ultimately match the patch input impedance to some extend by changing the patch width W. If W is chosen very small, the antenna radiation efficiency will be reduced. So there is a trade off between input impedance and the radiation efficiency. Once W and L are selected, we can calculate the input impedance of the patch and then use a quarter-wave transformer of length in between to match this impedance to the 50- feed line as shown in figure.

f=5ghz,

ER=3.2,

h =0.762mm

For an efficient radiator, a practical width that leads to good radiation efficiencies is given as:

W=20.685 mm

eff=3.016

is given by

G1=0.002875 Rin=173.94 To calculate length lof inset to match the impedence to 50 we use the formula: ZO = RIN cos ( l /L) Therefore, l =5.45 mm

Now we measure return loss of the transformer or coupled pach antenna and determine its resonance frequency and calculate its 10 db return loss bandwidth.

GRAPH:-

CONCLUSION:The transformer fed antenna thus designed shows a measured return loss of -14.97 db .This is not desirable. Hence the antenna designed above is not an optimum one for practical use.

DESIGN-

AIM:-To design a 10 db single section coupled line coupler. Dielectric consant of 9.8, a characteristic impedence of 50, centre frequency of 10 ghz and h=1.58mm.

THEORY:-When two unshielded transmission line are close together power can be coupled between the lines due to interaction of electromagnetic field of each line.Such lines are referred to as coupled lines. Here voltage coupling factor is C =10exp(-10/20)=0.316 Zoe= Zo(1+c/1-c)=69.35

TLINE SCHEMATIC:-

GRAPH:-

SONNET:-

GRAPH:-

COMPARISON WITH SONNET:When the same design was realised in sonnet , the cutoff frequency was shitted to 11ghz. The response thus obtained was spurious and not a ood one. The design is not satisfactory.

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