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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System V100R001C01

Feature Description
Issue Date 02 2012-12-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

About This Document

About This Document


Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name OptiX RTN 310 iManager U2000 Version V100R001C01 V100R008C00

Intended Audience
This document describes the main features of the OptiX RTN 310 microwave transmission system. It provides readers a comprehensive knowledge of the functionality, principles, configuration, and maintenance of the product features. This document is intended for: l l l l Network planning engineers Installation and commissioning engineers Data configuration engineers System maintenance engineers

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

About This Document

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Description Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

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Change History
Changes between document issues are cumulative. The latest document issue contains all the changes made in earlier issues.

Issue 02 (2012-12-30)
This issue is the second release for the product version V100R001C01, and includes the following changes. Change 3.4.8 Planning Guidelines All documents Description Added the planning principles for the LACP packet timeout period. Resolved known issues.

Issue 01 (2012-10-30)
This issue is the first release for the product version V100R001C01.

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OptiX RTN 310 Radio Transmission System Feature Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii 1 Network Management Features..................................................................................................1
1.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................2 1.1.1 DCN...........................................................................................................................................................2 1.1.2 Huawei DCN Solutions.............................................................................................................................3 1.1.3 Transmitting NMS Messages as Ethernet Services...................................................................................4 1.2 HWECC Solution...............................................................................................................................................5 1.2.1 Introduction...............................................................................................................................................5 1.2.2 Basic Concepts..........................................................................................................................................6 1.2.2.1 HWECC Protocol Stack...................................................................................................................6 1.2.2.2 Access Control................................................................................................................................10 1.2.3 Specifications...........................................................................................................................................11 1.2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.........................................................................................................12 1.2.5 Availability..............................................................................................................................................12 1.2.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations....................................................................................................13 1.2.7 Principles.................................................................................................................................................14 1.2.7.1 Establishing ECC Routes................................................................................................................14 1.2.7.2 Transferring Packets.......................................................................................................................16 1.2.8 Planning Guidelines.................................................................................................................................17 1.2.9 Configuration Process..............................................................................................................................18 1.2.10 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................23 1.2.10.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................23 1.2.10.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................23 1.2.10.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................24 1.2.11 Task Collection......................................................................................................................................27 1.2.12 Related Alarms and Events....................................................................................................................27 1.2.13 FAQs......................................................................................................................................................28 1.3 IP DCN Solution...............................................................................................................................................29 1.3.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................29 1.3.2 Basic Concepts........................................................................................................................................30 1.3.2.1 IP DCN Protocol Stack...................................................................................................................30 1.3.2.2 OSPF...............................................................................................................................................33 1.3.2.3 Proxy ARP......................................................................................................................................41 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. v

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1.3.2.4 NMS Access Modes.......................................................................................................................42 1.3.2.5 Access Control................................................................................................................................43 1.3.3 Specifications...........................................................................................................................................45 1.3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.........................................................................................................48 1.3.5 Availability..............................................................................................................................................48 1.3.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations....................................................................................................49 1.3.7 Principles.................................................................................................................................................49 1.3.8 Planning Guidelines.................................................................................................................................51 1.3.8.1 General Planning Guidelines..........................................................................................................51 1.3.8.2 Planning Guidelines for NE IP Addresses and Routes in Typical Network Topologies................54 1.3.8.3 Planning Guidelines for NE IP Addresses and Routes in Special Network Topologies................58 1.3.9 Configuration Process..............................................................................................................................61 1.3.10 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................70 1.3.10.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................70 1.3.10.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................71 1.3.10.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................72 1.3.11 Task Collection......................................................................................................................................75 1.3.12 Related Alarms and Events....................................................................................................................75 1.3.13 FAQs......................................................................................................................................................76 1.4 RADIUS...........................................................................................................................................................76 1.4.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................76 1.4.2 Basic Concepts........................................................................................................................................77 1.4.2.1 NAS................................................................................................................................................78 1.4.2.2 Proxy NAS......................................................................................................................................78 1.4.3 Specifications...........................................................................................................................................80 1.4.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.........................................................................................................80 1.4.5 Availability..............................................................................................................................................80 1.4.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations....................................................................................................81 1.4.7 Principles.................................................................................................................................................81 1.4.8 Planning Guidelines.................................................................................................................................83 1.4.9 Configuration Process..............................................................................................................................83 1.4.10 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................86 1.4.10.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................86 1.4.10.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................87 1.4.10.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................88 1.4.11 Task Collection......................................................................................................................................89 1.4.12 Related Alarms and Events....................................................................................................................89 1.4.13 FAQs......................................................................................................................................................90 1.5 SNMP...............................................................................................................................................................90 1.5.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................90 1.5.2 Basic Concepts........................................................................................................................................91 1.5.2.1 SNMP Model..................................................................................................................................91 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. vi

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1.5.2.2 MIB.................................................................................................................................................92 1.5.2.3 Basic SNMP Operations.................................................................................................................94 1.5.2.4 Identity Authentication and Access Authorization.........................................................................96 1.5.3 Specifications...........................................................................................................................................96 1.5.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.........................................................................................................98 1.5.5 Availability..............................................................................................................................................98 1.5.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations....................................................................................................98 1.5.7 Principles.................................................................................................................................................98 1.5.8 Planning Guidelines.................................................................................................................................99 1.5.9 Configuration Process..............................................................................................................................99 1.5.10 Configuration Example........................................................................................................................100 1.5.10.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................100 1.5.10.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................101 1.5.10.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................102 1.5.11 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................102 1.5.12 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................102

2 Microwave Features..................................................................................................................103
2.1 1+1 HSB.........................................................................................................................................................104 2.1.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................104 2.1.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................104 2.1.2.1 System Configuration...................................................................................................................105 2.1.2.2 Protection Types...........................................................................................................................106 2.1.2.3 Switching Conditions...................................................................................................................106 2.1.2.4 Switching Impact..........................................................................................................................108 2.1.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................108 2.1.4 Availability............................................................................................................................................108 2.1.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................109 2.1.6 Principles...............................................................................................................................................110 2.1.7 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................112 2.1.8 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................112 2.1.9 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................117 2.1.9.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................117 2.1.9.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................117 2.1.9.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................120 2.1.10 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................122 2.1.11 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................122 2.1.12 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................122 2.2 1+1 FD............................................................................................................................................................123 2.2.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................123 2.2.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................124 2.2.2.1 System Configuration...................................................................................................................124 2.2.2.2 Protection Types...........................................................................................................................126 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. vii

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2.2.2.3 Switching Conditions...................................................................................................................126 2.2.2.4 Switching Impact..........................................................................................................................128 2.2.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................129 2.2.4 Availability............................................................................................................................................129 2.2.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................129 2.2.6 Principles...............................................................................................................................................130 2.2.7 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................134 2.2.8 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................134 2.2.9 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................138 2.2.9.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................138 2.2.9.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................138 2.2.9.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................141 2.2.10 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................143 2.2.11 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................143 2.2.12 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................143 2.3 1+1 SD............................................................................................................................................................144 2.3.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................144 2.3.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................145 2.3.2.1 System Configuration...................................................................................................................145 2.3.2.2 Protection Types...........................................................................................................................146 2.3.2.3 Switching Conditions...................................................................................................................147 2.3.2.4 Switching Impact..........................................................................................................................149 2.3.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................149 2.3.4 Availability............................................................................................................................................150 2.3.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................150 2.3.6 Principles...............................................................................................................................................151 2.3.7 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................155 2.3.8 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................155 2.3.9 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................160 2.3.9.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................160 2.3.9.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................160 2.3.9.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................163 2.3.10 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................165 2.3.11 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................165 2.3.12 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................165 2.4 PLA.................................................................................................................................................................166 2.4.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................166 2.4.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................167 2.4.2.1 System Configuration...................................................................................................................167 2.4.2.2 Switching Conditions...................................................................................................................169 2.4.2.3 Switching Impact..........................................................................................................................170 2.4.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................170 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei 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2.4.4 Availability............................................................................................................................................171 2.4.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................171 2.4.6 Principles...............................................................................................................................................172 2.4.7 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................175 2.4.8 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................175 2.4.9 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................177 2.4.9.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................177 2.4.9.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................178 2.4.9.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................179 2.4.10 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................180 2.4.11 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................180 2.4.12 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................181 2.5 Cross Polarization Interference Cancellation.................................................................................................181 2.5.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................181 2.5.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................183 2.5.2.1 CCDP and XPIC...........................................................................................................................183 2.5.2.2 System Configuration...................................................................................................................184 2.5.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................185 2.5.4 Availability............................................................................................................................................188 2.5.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................188 2.5.6 Principles...............................................................................................................................................188 2.5.7 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................189 2.5.8 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................190 2.5.9 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................191 2.5.9.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................192 2.5.9.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................192 2.5.9.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................194 2.5.10 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................195 2.5.11 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................196 2.5.12 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................196 2.6 Automatic Transmit Power Control...............................................................................................................197 2.6.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................197 2.6.2 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................198 2.6.3 Availability............................................................................................................................................198 2.6.4 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................199 2.6.5 Principles...............................................................................................................................................199 2.6.6 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................200 2.6.7 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................200 2.6.8 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................201 2.6.8.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................201 2.6.8.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................202 2.6.8.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................202 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ix

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2.6.9 Task Collection......................................................................................................................................203 2.6.10 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................203 2.6.11 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................203 2.7 Adaptive Modulation......................................................................................................................................204 2.7.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................204 2.7.2 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................205 2.7.3 Availability............................................................................................................................................206 2.7.4 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................207 2.7.5 Principles...............................................................................................................................................207 2.7.6 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................210 2.7.7 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................211 2.7.8 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................211 2.7.8.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................211 2.7.8.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................212 2.7.8.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................212 2.7.9 Task Collection......................................................................................................................................213 2.7.10 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................213 2.7.11 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................214

3 Ethernet Features.......................................................................................................................216
3.1 Virtual Local Area Network...........................................................................................................................217 3.1.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................217 3.1.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................218 3.1.2.1 VLAN Frame Format...................................................................................................................218 3.1.2.2 Tag Attributes...............................................................................................................................219 3.1.2.3 VLAN-based E-Line Service........................................................................................................221 3.1.2.4 VLAN Forwarding Tables for E-Line Services............................................................................222 3.1.2.5 IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Services...............................................................................223 3.1.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................224 3.1.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................225 3.1.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................225 3.1.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................225 3.1.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................225 3.1.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................226 3.1.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................226 3.1.9.1 Configuration Procedure (VLAN-based E-Line Services)...........................................................226 3.1.9.2 Configuration Procedure (IEEE 802.1q Bridge-Based E-LAN Services)....................................234 3.1.10 Configuration Example........................................................................................................................242 3.1.11 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................242 3.1.12 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................242 3.1.13 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................243 3.2 Layer 2 Switching...........................................................................................................................................243 3.2.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................243 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. x

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3.2.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................244 3.2.2.1 Bridges..........................................................................................................................................244 3.2.2.2 IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Services...............................................................................246 3.2.2.3 8021Q Bridge-based E-LAN Services.........................................................................................247 3.2.2.4 Split Horizon Groups....................................................................................................................248 3.2.2.5 MAC Address Table Management...............................................................................................249 3.2.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................250 3.2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................251 3.2.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................251 3.2.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................251 3.2.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................251 3.2.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................252 3.2.9 Configuration Procedure........................................................................................................................252 3.2.9.1 Configuration Procedure (IEEE 802.1d Bridge-Based E-LAN Services)....................................253 3.2.9.2 Configuration Procedure (IEEE 802.1q Bridge-Based E-LAN Services)....................................261 3.2.10 Configuration Example........................................................................................................................269 3.2.11 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................269 3.2.12 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................270 3.2.13 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................270 3.3 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching...............................................................................................................270 3.3.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................270 3.3.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................271 3.3.2.1 Protection Instance.......................................................................................................................271 3.3.2.2 Protection Type.............................................................................................................................272 3.3.2.3 R-APS Messages..........................................................................................................................273 3.3.2.4 R-APS Timers...............................................................................................................................274 3.3.2.5 Switching Conditions...................................................................................................................275 3.3.2.6 Switching Impacts........................................................................................................................275 3.3.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................275 3.3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................276 3.3.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................276 3.3.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................277 3.3.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................277 3.3.7.1 Non-RPL Failure..........................................................................................................................277 3.3.7.2 RPL Failure...................................................................................................................................282 3.3.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................286 3.3.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................287 3.3.10 Configuration Example........................................................................................................................287 3.3.10.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................287 3.3.10.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................288 3.3.10.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................289 3.3.11 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................290 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xi

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3.3.12 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................290 3.3.13 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................291 3.4 Link Aggregation Group................................................................................................................................291 3.4.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................291 3.4.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................292 3.4.2.1 LAG Types...................................................................................................................................292 3.4.2.2 Port Types.....................................................................................................................................293 3.4.2.3 LACP Packet Transparent Transmission......................................................................................294 3.4.2.4 E-LAG..........................................................................................................................................296 3.4.2.5 Switching Conditions...................................................................................................................299 3.4.2.6 Switching Impact..........................................................................................................................300 3.4.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................300 3.4.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................301 3.4.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................301 3.4.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................302 3.4.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................302 3.4.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................305 3.4.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................306 3.4.10 Configuration Example........................................................................................................................309 3.4.10.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................309 3.4.10.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................310 3.4.10.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................312 3.4.11 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................313 3.4.12 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................313 3.4.13 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................314 3.5 Link State Pass Through.................................................................................................................................314 3.5.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................314 3.5.2 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................315 3.5.3 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................315 3.5.4 Availability............................................................................................................................................316 3.5.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................316 3.5.6 Principles...............................................................................................................................................316 3.5.7 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................317 3.5.8 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................317 3.5.9 Configuration Example..........................................................................................................................318 3.5.9.1 Networking Diagram....................................................................................................................318 3.5.9.2 Service Planning...........................................................................................................................319 3.5.9.3 Configuration Procedure...............................................................................................................319 3.5.10 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................320 3.5.11 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................320 3.5.12 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................320 3.6 QoS.................................................................................................................................................................320 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei 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3.6.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................320 3.6.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................321 3.6.2.1 DiffServ........................................................................................................................................322 3.6.2.2 Congestion Avoidance..................................................................................................................323 3.6.2.3 Queue Scheduling.........................................................................................................................324 3.6.2.4 Traffic Shaping.............................................................................................................................326 3.6.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................327 3.6.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................329 3.6.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................329 3.6.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................329 3.6.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................331 3.6.7.1 Traffic Shaping.............................................................................................................................331 3.6.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................331 3.6.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................334 3.6.10 Configuration Example........................................................................................................................335 3.6.10.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................335 3.6.10.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................336 3.6.10.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................338 3.6.11 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................341 3.6.12 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................341 3.6.13 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................342 3.7 ETH OAM......................................................................................................................................................342 3.7.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................342 3.7.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................343 3.7.2.1 Ethernet Service OAM Management...........................................................................................343 3.7.2.2 Ethernet Service OAM Operations...............................................................................................345 3.7.2.3 Ethernet Port OAM Operations....................................................................................................347 3.7.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................349 3.7.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................350 3.7.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................350 3.7.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................351 3.7.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................351 3.7.7.1 Ethernet Service OAM.................................................................................................................352 3.7.7.2 Ethernet Port OAM.......................................................................................................................358 3.7.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................360 3.7.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................361 3.7.9.1 Ethernet Service OAM.................................................................................................................361 3.7.9.2 Ethernet Port OAM.......................................................................................................................363 3.7.10 Configuration Example (Ethernet Service OAM)...............................................................................364 3.7.10.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................364 3.7.10.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................365 3.7.10.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................367 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xiii

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3.7.11 Configuration Example (Ethernet Port OAM)....................................................................................370 3.7.11.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................370 3.7.11.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................370 3.7.11.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................371 3.7.12 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................371 3.7.12.1 Task Collection(Ethernet Service OAM)...................................................................................371 3.7.12.2 Task Collection (Ethernet Port OAM)........................................................................................372 3.7.13 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................372 3.7.14 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................373 3.8 RMON............................................................................................................................................................373 3.8.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................373 3.8.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................374 3.8.2.1 SNMP...........................................................................................................................................374 3.8.2.2 RMON Management Groups........................................................................................................375 3.8.2.3 List of RMON Alarm Entries.......................................................................................................376 3.8.2.4 List of RMON Performance Entries.............................................................................................377 3.8.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................381 3.8.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................383 3.8.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................383 3.8.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................383 3.8.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................383 3.8.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................384 3.8.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................385 3.8.9.1 Configuration Example 1..............................................................................................................386 3.8.9.2 Configuration Example 2..............................................................................................................387 3.8.10 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................389 3.8.11 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................389 3.8.12 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................390

4 Clock Features............................................................................................................................392
4.1 Basics..............................................................................................................................................................393 4.1.1 Definitions of Clock Synchronization...................................................................................................393 4.1.2 Counters for Clock Synchronization.....................................................................................................394 4.1.3 Synchronization Requirements of Transport Networks........................................................................395 4.1.4 Synchronization Requirements of Service Networks............................................................................396 4.2 Physical Layer Clock Synchronization...........................................................................................................397 4.2.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................397 4.2.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................397 4.2.2.1 Clock Levels.................................................................................................................................397 4.2.2.2 Clock Modes.................................................................................................................................400 4.2.2.3 Clock Sources...............................................................................................................................400 4.2.2.4 Clock Protection Modes...............................................................................................................400 4.2.2.5 Compensation for a Long Clock Chain........................................................................................406 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xiv

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4.2.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................406 4.2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................407 4.2.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................407 4.2.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................408 4.2.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................408 4.2.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................409 4.2.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................410 4.2.10 Configuration Example........................................................................................................................412 4.2.11 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................413 4.2.12 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................413 4.2.13 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................413 4.3 IEEE 1588v2...................................................................................................................................................413 4.3.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................413 4.3.2 Basic Concepts......................................................................................................................................414 4.3.2.1 IEEE 1588v2 Clock Architecture.................................................................................................414 4.3.2.2 Clock Domain and Clock ID in IEEE 1588v2.............................................................................417 4.3.2.3 External Time Interface................................................................................................................417 4.3.2.4 Delay Compensation of IEEE 1588v2..........................................................................................418 4.3.2.5 IEEE 1588v2 Message Types.......................................................................................................418 4.3.2.6 Methods of IEEE 1588v2 Message Encapsulation ......................................................................420 4.3.2.7 Network-wide IEEE 1588v2 Time Synchronization....................................................................421 4.3.2.8 Time Transparent Transmission of IEEE 1588v2........................................................................422 4.3.3 Specifications.........................................................................................................................................425 4.3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols.......................................................................................................426 4.3.5 Availability............................................................................................................................................426 4.3.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations..................................................................................................427 4.3.7 Principles...............................................................................................................................................428 4.3.7.1 Determining the Master-Slave Clock Hierarchy..........................................................................428 4.3.7.2 Delay Measurement (Delay Method)...........................................................................................430 4.3.7.3 Delay Measurement (Pdelay Method)..........................................................................................433 4.3.7.4 Computing Time Offset and Synchronizing Time.......................................................................437 4.3.7.5 Correcting Propagation Asymmetry.............................................................................................438 4.3.8 Planning Guidelines...............................................................................................................................439 4.3.9 Configuration Process............................................................................................................................440 4.3.10 Configuration Example (Networkwide Time Synchronization)..........................................................443 4.3.10.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................443 4.3.10.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................444 4.3.10.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................447 4.3.11 Configuration Example (Transparent Transmission of Time Signals)................................................450 4.3.11.1 Networking Diagram..................................................................................................................450 4.3.11.2 Service Planning.........................................................................................................................451 4.3.11.3 Configuration Procedure.............................................................................................................453 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xv

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4.3.12 Task Collection....................................................................................................................................455 4.3.13 Related Alarms and Events..................................................................................................................455 4.3.14 FAQs....................................................................................................................................................455

A Task Collection.........................................................................................................................457
A.1 U2000 Quick Start.........................................................................................................................................458 A.1.1 Logging In to a U2000 Client...............................................................................................................458 A.1.2 Shutting Down a U2000 Client.............................................................................................................458 A.1.3 Using the Help......................................................................................................................................459 A.1.4 Navigating to Common Views.............................................................................................................460 A.1.4.1 Navigating to Main Topology.....................................................................................................460 A.1.4.2 Navigating to NE Explorer..........................................................................................................461 A.1.4.3 Navigating to the NE Panel.........................................................................................................462 A.2 Web LCT Quick Start....................................................................................................................................463 A.2.1 Connecting the Web LCT to the Equipment........................................................................................463 A.2.2 Using the Help......................................................................................................................................466 A.2.3 Navigating to NE Explorer...................................................................................................................467 A.3 Network Management...................................................................................................................................468 A.3.1 Managing NEs......................................................................................................................................468 A.3.1.1 Creating an NE by Using the Search Method..............................................................................468 A.3.1.2 Creating an NE Manually............................................................................................................470 A.3.1.3 Logging In to an NE....................................................................................................................471 A.3.1.4 Changing an NE ID.....................................................................................................................472 A.3.1.5 Changing an NE Name................................................................................................................473 A.3.1.6 Synchronizing the NE Time........................................................................................................474 A.3.1.7 Localizing the NE Time...............................................................................................................476 A.3.1.8 Configuring a Standard NTP Key................................................................................................477 A.3.2 Configuring NE Data............................................................................................................................478 A.3.2.1 Uploading NE Data......................................................................................................................479 A.3.2.2 Synchronizing NE Data...............................................................................................................480 A.3.3 Setting the Performance Monitoring Status for an NE.........................................................................481 A.3.4 Creating a Fiber/Cable..........................................................................................................................482 A.3.4.1 Creating a Fiber/Cable by Using the Search Method..................................................................482 A.3.4.2 Creating a Fiber/Cable Manually.................................................................................................483 A.3.4.3 Creating an Extended ECC Connection......................................................................................484 A.3.4.4 Creating a Back-to-back Radio Connection................................................................................485 A.3.5 Managing Subnets................................................................................................................................486 A.3.5.1 Creating a Subnet.........................................................................................................................486 A.3.5.2 Copying a Topology Object.........................................................................................................487 A.3.5.3 Moving a Topology Object..........................................................................................................488 A.3.6 Managing Communication...................................................................................................................489 A.3.6.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters......................................................................................489 A.3.6.2 Configuring DCCs.......................................................................................................................490 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xvi

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A.3.6.3 Setting the VLAN ID and Bandwidth for an Inband DCN.........................................................491 A.3.6.4 Configuring the Priorities of Inband DCN Packets.....................................................................492 A.3.6.5 Setting a Port for an Inband DCN................................................................................................493 A.3.6.6 Configuring Access Control........................................................................................................495 A.3.6.7 Configuring Extended ECCs.......................................................................................................496 A.3.6.8 Creating a Static IP Route............................................................................................................498 A.3.6.9 Setting OSPF Protocol Parameters..............................................................................................499 A.3.6.10 Creating an OSPF Area.............................................................................................................500 A.3.6.11 Configuring the Network Information of an ABR....................................................................501 A.3.6.12 Creating a Manual Route Aggregation Group...........................................................................503 A.3.6.13 Configuring Port IP Addresses for an ABR..............................................................................504 A.3.6.14 Configuring the OSPF Authentication Type.............................................................................505 A.3.6.15 Enabling the Proxy ARP............................................................................................................507 A.3.6.16 Querying ECC Routes...............................................................................................................508 A.3.6.17 Querying IP Routes....................................................................................................................509 A.3.6.18 Verifying Connectivity of an ECC Network.............................................................................510 A.3.6.19 Verifying Connectivity of an IP DCN Network........................................................................511 A.3.6.20 Setting SNMP Communication Parameters...............................................................................513 A.3.6.21 Configuring the Active and Standby Gateway NEs..................................................................514 A.3.7 Configuring the NMS Port on an NE...................................................................................................515 A.4 Security Management....................................................................................................................................516 A.4.1 Configuring an NE User.......................................................................................................................516 A.4.1.1 Creating an NE User....................................................................................................................516 A.4.1.2 Changing the Password of an NE User........................................................................................518 A.4.1.3 Setting the Warning Screen Parameters.......................................................................................518 A.4.1.4 Switching NE Users.....................................................................................................................519 A.4.2 Configuring Web LCT Access to an NE..............................................................................................520 A.4.3 Configuring an Access Control List for an NE....................................................................................521 A.4.3.1 Creating Basic ACL Rules...........................................................................................................521 A.4.3.2 Creating Advanced ACL Rules...................................................................................................522 A.4.4 Querying NE Operation Logs...............................................................................................................523 A.4.5 Querying Operation Logs Sent to Syslog Servers................................................................................524 A.4.6 Configuring Syslog...............................................................................................................................525 A.4.6.1 Enabling the Syslog Service........................................................................................................525 A.4.6.2 Setting Types and Severities of Logs to Be Sent to Syslog Servers............................................525 A.4.6.3 Configuring Syslog Servers.........................................................................................................526 A.4.6.4 Configuring Gateway NEs for Communication Between NEs and Syslog Servers....................527 A.4.7 Configuring File Transfer Protocols.....................................................................................................528 A.4.8 Configuring SSL Protocol Communication..........................................................................................529 A.4.8.1 Configuring SSL Protocol Communication Between a U2000 Server and Its Clients...............529 A.4.8.2 Configuring the Connection Mode Between the U2000 and Its Gateway NE............................530 A.4.9 Configuring RADIUS Authentication..................................................................................................531 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xvii

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A.4.9.1 Enabling/Disabling the RADIUS Authentication Function........................................................532 A.4.9.2 Creating a RADIUS Server or a RADIUS Proxy Server............................................................532 A.4.9.3 Configuring RADIUS Server Parameters....................................................................................534 A.5 Managing Microwave Links..........................................................................................................................536 A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link.....................................................................................536 A.5.2 Browsing the Performance of a Hop of Microwave Link....................................................................538 A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group.......................................................................................539 A.5.4 Microwave 1+1 Protection Switching..................................................................................................541 A.5.5 Querying the Microwave 1+1 Protection Status...................................................................................542 A.5.6 Creating a PLA Group..........................................................................................................................542 A.5.7 Querying the Status of a PLA Group....................................................................................................544 A.5.8 Configuring Ethernet Frame Header Compression and Errored Frame Discarding Over Air Interfaces ........................................................................................................................................................................544 A.5.9 Enabling the Notification of Radio Bandwidth....................................................................................545 A.5.10 Setting the Maximum Transmit Power and the Power Thresholds....................................................546 A.5.11 Querying the AM Status.....................................................................................................................547 A.5.12 Querying ATPC Adjustment Records................................................................................................548 A.5.13 Querying Historical Transmit Power and Receive Power..................................................................549 A.5.14 Querying the SNR Value of a Microwave Link.................................................................................550 A.6 Managing Ports..............................................................................................................................................551 A.6.1 Setting Parameters for an Ethernet Port................................................................................................551 A.6.1.1 Setting the Basic Attributes for an Ethernet Port.........................................................................551 A.6.1.2 Configuring the Traffic Control Function for an Ethernet Port...................................................552 A.6.1.3 Setting the Layer 2 Attributes for an Ethernet Port.....................................................................553 A.6.1.4 Setting the Advanced Attributes for an Ethernet Port.................................................................555 A.6.1.5 Querying the Running Status of a Microwave Port.....................................................................556 A.6.2 Setting Parameters for a Microwave Port.............................................................................................557 A.6.2.1 Setting Basic Attributes for a Microwave Port............................................................................557 A.6.2.2 Setting Layer 2 Attributes for a Microwave Port........................................................................558 A.6.2.3 Setting Advanced Attributes for a Microwave Port....................................................................559 A.6.2.4 Querying the Running Status of an Ethernet Port.......................................................................560 A.7 Managing Ethernet Services and Features.....................................................................................................561 A.7.1 Managing ERPS....................................................................................................................................561 A.7.1.1 Creating an ERP Instance............................................................................................................561 A.7.1.2 Setting ERPS Protocol Parameters..............................................................................................563 A.7.1.3 Querying the ERPS Status...........................................................................................................564 A.7.2 Managing LAGs...................................................................................................................................564 A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG............................................................................................................................564 A.7.2.2 Setting Parameters for a LAG......................................................................................................567 A.7.2.3 Querying the Protocol Information About a LAG.......................................................................568 A.7.3 Configuring Ethernet Services..............................................................................................................569 A.7.3.1 Creating a Point-to-Point Transparently Transmitted E-Line Service.........................................569 A.7.3.2 Creating a VLAN-based E-Line Service.....................................................................................570 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary 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A.7.3.3 Creating an E-Line Service for Transmitting Layer 2 Protocol Packets.....................................571 A.7.3.4 Creating VLAN Forwarding Table Entries.................................................................................573 A.7.3.5 Creating an IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Service............................................................574 A.7.3.6 Creating an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Service............................................................575 A.7.3.7 Creating an E-LAN Service for Transmitting Layer 2 Protocol Packets....................................576 A.7.3.8 Configuring a Split Horizon Group.............................................................................................578 A.7.3.9 Changing Logical Ports Mounted to a Bridge.............................................................................579 A.7.3.10 Deleting an E-Line Service........................................................................................................579 A.7.3.11 Deleting an E-LAN Service.......................................................................................................580 A.7.4 Managing MAC Address Tables..........................................................................................................581 A.7.4.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry.........................................................................................581 A.7.4.2 Creating a Blacklist MAC Address Entry...................................................................................582 A.7.4.3 Managing a Dynamic MAC Address Table................................................................................583 A.7.5 Setting the Mode for Processing an Unknown Frame of an E-LAN Service.......................................584 A.7.6 Managing QoS......................................................................................................................................585 A.7.6.1 Modifying the Mapping for a DS Domain..................................................................................585 A.7.6.2 Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port..............................................................................587 A.7.6.3 Configuring Port Shaping............................................................................................................588 A.7.6.4 Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies..................................................................................589 A.7.6.5 Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues.................................................................................590 A.7.6.6 Setting the Congestion Management Mode for Egress Queues..................................................591 A.7.7 Using Ethernet Service OAM...............................................................................................................593 A.7.7.1 Creating an MD...........................................................................................................................593 A.7.7.2 Creating an MA...........................................................................................................................594 A.7.7.3 Creating an MEP..........................................................................................................................595 A.7.7.4 Creating a Remote MEP in an MA..............................................................................................596 A.7.7.5 Creating an MIP...........................................................................................................................597 A.7.7.6 Performing a CC Test..................................................................................................................598 A.7.7.7 Performing an LB Test................................................................................................................599 A.7.7.8 Performing an LT Test.................................................................................................................601 A.7.7.9 Activating the AIS.......................................................................................................................602 A.7.7.10 Monitoring Packet Loss Ratio, Delay, or Delay Variation of Ethernet Services......................603 A.7.7.11 Performing E-LAN Service Loopback Detection......................................................................605 A.7.7.12 Reactivating an E-LAN Service................................................................................................606 A.7.8 Using Ethernet Port OAM....................................................................................................................607 A.7.8.1 Enabling OAM Auto-discovery...................................................................................................607 A.7.8.2 Enabling the Link Event Notification..........................................................................................608 A.7.8.3 Changing the OAM Errored Frame Monitoring Threshold.........................................................609 A.7.8.4 Performing a Remote Loopback..................................................................................................610 A.7.8.5 Enabling Self-loop Detection......................................................................................................612 A.7.9 Configuring LPT...................................................................................................................................613 A.8 Managing Clocks...........................................................................................................................................614 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) 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A.8.1 Managing Clocks at the Physical Layer...............................................................................................614 A.8.1.1 Changing the Clock Control Mode..............................................................................................614 A.8.1.2 Configuring Clock Sources..........................................................................................................615 A.8.1.3 Configuring Protection for Clock Sources..................................................................................616 A.8.1.4 Customizing the Clock Quality...................................................................................................618 A.8.1.5 Enabling/Disabling SSM Transmission.......................................................................................619 A.8.1.6 Enabling/Disabling the Output of Clock Source IDs..................................................................620 A.8.1.7 Modifying Clock Source Reversion Parameters..........................................................................620 A.8.1.8 Querying the Clock Synchronization Status................................................................................621 A.8.2 Managing the IEEE 1588v2 Clock.......................................................................................................622 A.8.2.1 Enabling/Disabling the IEEE-1588 Timeslot for a Microwave Port...........................................622 A.8.2.2 Querying or Modifying the PTP System Time............................................................................623 A.8.2.3 Setting the PTP NE Attributes.....................................................................................................624 A.8.2.4 Creating a PTP Clock Port...........................................................................................................625 A.8.2.5 Setting PTP Clock Port Attributes...............................................................................................626 A.8.2.6 Setting Parameters for IEEE 1588v2 Clock Packets...................................................................628 A.8.2.7 Configuring the Delay Offset for Asymmetric Transmission Between NEs...............................630 A.8.2.8 Configuring the Cascade Fiber Length for a 1+1 Protection Group...........................................631 A.8.2.9 Configuring a PTP Clock Subnet................................................................................................632 A.8.2.10 Modifying the BMC Algorithm Parameters for an NE Clock...................................................633 A.9 Using RMON.................................................................................................................................................634 A.9.1 Browsing Current Performance Events of Ethernet.............................................................................634 A.9.2 Setting the Ethernet Performance Threshold-Crossing Parameter.......................................................635 A.9.3 Configuring the Parameters for Ethernet Historical Performance Monitoring.....................................636 A.9.4 Browsing Ethernet Historical Performance Data..................................................................................637 A.10 Configuring a Native Ethernet Service (in End-to-End Mode)...................................................................638 A.10.1 Searching for Native Ethernet Services..............................................................................................638 A.10.2 Creating a Point-to-Point Transparently Transmitted E-Line Service................................................639 A.10.3 Creating a VLAN-based E-Line Service............................................................................................640 A.10.4 Creating an IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Service...................................................................641 A.10.5 Creating an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Service...................................................................643 A.10.6 Verifying a Native Ethernet Service...................................................................................................645 A.10.7 Managing Native Ethernet Services...................................................................................................647 A.10.8 Managing Discrete Native Ethernet Services ....................................................................................648 A.10.9 Adjusting an E-LAN Service Network...............................................................................................649 A.11 Verifying Services and Features..................................................................................................................650 A.11.1 Testing Ethernet Services...................................................................................................................650 A.11.1.1 Testing Ethernet Services Configured on a Per NE Basis.........................................................650 A.11.1.2 Testing Ethernet Services Configured in End-to-End Mode.....................................................652 A.11.2 Testing AM Shifting...........................................................................................................................653 A.11.3 Testing Protection Switching..............................................................................................................654 A.11.3.1 Testing ERPS Switching............................................................................................................654 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei 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A.11.3.2 Testing 1+1 Protection Switching.............................................................................................657 A.11.3.3 Testing PLA Protection Switching............................................................................................659

B Parameters Description............................................................................................................662
B.1 Parameters for Network Management...........................................................................................................663 B.1.1 Parameters for NE Management...........................................................................................................663 B.1.1.1 Parameter Description: NE Searching.........................................................................................663 B.1.1.2 Parameter Description: NE Creation...........................................................................................666 B.1.1.3 Parameter Description: NE Time Synchronization (U2000).......................................................668 B.1.1.4 Parameter Description: Standard NTP Key Management...........................................................671 B.1.1.5 Parameter Description: Localization Management of the NE Time............................................672 B.1.2 Parameters for Communications Management.....................................................................................673 B.1.2.1 Parameter Description: NE Communication Parameter Setting..................................................673 B.1.2.2 Parameter Description: ECC Management_Ethernet Port Extended ECC..................................675 B.1.2.3 Parameter Description: NE ECC Link Management...................................................................676 B.1.2.4 Parameter Description: ECC Link Management_Availability Test............................................677 B.1.2.5 Parameter Description: Access Control.......................................................................................678 B.1.2.6 Parameter Description: DCC Management_DCC Rate Configuration........................................680 B.1.2.7 Parameter Description: IP Protocol Stack Management_IP Route Management........................681 B.1.2.8 Parameter Description: IP Protocol Stack Management_Availability Test.................................682 B.1.2.9 Parameter Description: IP Protocol Stack Management_OSPF Parameter Settings...................683 B.1.2.10 Parameter Description: IP Protocol Stack_Proxy ARP.............................................................688 B.1.2.11 Parameter Description: Management of Multiple OSPF Areas.................................................689 B.1.2.12 Parameter Description: Management of Multiple OSPF Areas_Adding OSPF Areas..............690 B.1.2.13 Parameter Description: Management of Multiple OSPF Areas_Adding Routes to Be Manually Aggregated................................................................................................................................................692 B.1.2.14 Parameter Description: Port OSPF Setting................................................................................692 B.1.2.15 Parameter Description: DCN Management_Bandwidth Management......................................692 B.1.2.16 Parameter Description: DCN Management_Port Setting..........................................................693 B.1.2.17 Parameter Description: DCN Management_Access Control.....................................................694 B.1.2.18 Parameter Description: DCN Management_Packet Control.....................................................695 B.1.2.19 Parameter Description: SNMP Communications Parameters Setting.......................................696 B.1.3 Parameters for RADIUS.......................................................................................................................696 B.1.3.1 Parameter Description: RADIUS Configuration_Creation.........................................................697 B.1.3.2 Parameter Description: Enabling/Disabling the RADIUS Function...........................................698 B.2 Radio Link Parameters...................................................................................................................................698 B.2.1 Parameter Description: IF 1+1 Protection Group.................................................................................698 B.2.2 Parameter Description: PLA Group Creation.......................................................................................702 B.2.3 Parameters Description: Radio Link Configuration.............................................................................703 B.3 Parameters for Board Interfaces.....................................................................................................................709 B.3.1 Parameters for the Ports on Ethernet Boards........................................................................................709 B.3.1.1 Parameter Description: Ethernet Interface_Basic Attributes.......................................................709 B.3.1.2 Parameter 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B.3.1.3 Parameter Description: Ethernet Interface_Layer 2 Attributes....................................................714 B.3.1.4 Parameter Description: Ethernet Interface_Advanced Attributes................................................716 B.3.2 Microwave Interface Parameters..........................................................................................................719 B.3.2.1 Parameter Description: Microwave Interface_Basic Attributes..................................................719 B.3.2.2 Parameter Description: Microwave Interface_Layer 2 Attributes...............................................720 B.3.2.3 Parameter Description: Microwave Interface_Advanced Attributes...........................................721 B.4 Parameters for Ethernet Services and Ethernet Features...............................................................................723 B.4.1 Parameters for Ethernet Services..........................................................................................................723 B.4.1.1 Parameter Description: E-Line Service........................................................................................723 B.4.1.2 Parameter Description: E-LAN Service.......................................................................................728 B.4.2 Parameters for Ethernet Protocols........................................................................................................739 B.4.2.1 Parameter Description: ERPS Management................................................................................739 B.4.2.2 Parameter Description: Ethernet Link Aggregation Management...............................................745 B.4.2.3 Parameter Description: Ethernet Link Aggregation_Link Aggregation......................................752 B.4.2.4 Parameter Description: Simplified LPT Creation........................................................................753 B.4.3 Parameters for the Ethernet OAM........................................................................................................754 B.4.3.1 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM Management_Maintenance Domain Creation ..................................................................................................................................................................754 B.4.3.2 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM Management_Maintenance Association Creation ..................................................................................................................................................................755 B.4.3.3 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM Management_MEP Creation............................756 B.4.3.4 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM Management_Remote MEP Creation..............757 B.4.3.5 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM Management_MIP Creation.............................758 B.4.3.6 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM Management_LB Enabling..............................759 B.4.3.7 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM Management_LT Enabling...............................760 B.4.3.8 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Enabling Service Loopback Detection............761 B.4.3.9 Parameter Description: Ethernet Port OAM Management_OAM Parameter..............................762 B.4.3.10 Parameter Description: Ethernet Port OAM Management_OAM Error Frame Monitoring ..................................................................................................................................................................764 B.4.4 Parameter Description: QoS Management............................................................................................766 B.5 RMON Parameters.........................................................................................................................................774 B.5.1 Parameter Description: RMON Performance_Statistics Group............................................................774 B.5.2 Parameter Description: RMON Performance_History Group..............................................................775 B.5.3 Parameter Description: RMON Performance_RMON Setting.............................................................776 B.6 Clock Parameters...........................................................................................................................................777 B.6.1 Physical-Layer Clock Parameters.........................................................................................................777 B.6.1.1 Parameter Description: Clock Synchronization Status................................................................778 B.6.1.2 Parameter Description: Clock Source Priority Table...................................................................779 B.6.1.3 Parameter Description: Clock Source Switching_Clock Source Switching................................780 B.6.1.4 Parameter Description: Clock Source Switching_Clock Source Restoration Parameters...........781 B.6.1.5 Parameter Description: Clock Subnet Setting_Clock Subnet......................................................783 B.6.1.6 Parameter Description: Clock Subnet Setting_Clock Quality.....................................................786 B.6.1.7 Parameter Description: Clock Subset Setting_SSM Output Control...........................................789 Issue 02 (2012-12-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xxii

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B.6.1.8 Parameter Description: Clock Subset Setting_Clock ID Enabling Status...................................790 B.7 PTP Clock Parameters...................................................................................................................................791 B.7.1 Parameter Description: Clock Synchronization Attribute....................................................................791 B.7.2 Parameter Description: Setting of a PTP Clock Subnet_Clock Subnet................................................802 B.7.3 Parameter Description: Setting of a PTP Clock Subnet_Port_BMC....................................................802

C Glossary......................................................................................................................................805

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1
About This Chapter

Network Management Features

This part describes data communication networks (DCNs) and various DCN solutions supported by OptiX RTN 310. 1.1 Introduction A network management system (NMS) communicates with transport NEs through a data communication network (DCN) to manage and maintain the NEs. 1.2 HWECC Solution This chapter describes the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) solution. In HWECC, NEs use unified data communications channels (DCCs) or inband data communication networks (DCNs) to transmit HWECC protocol data, which enables a network management system (NMS) to manage the NEs. 1.3 IP DCN Solution This chapter describes the IP data communication network (DCN) solution. In IP DCN, NEs use unified DCN channels to transmit TCP/IP protocol data, which enables a network management system (NMS) to manage the NEs. IP DCN applies to networks that have only OptiX transmission equipment or a combination of OptiX transmission equipment and thirdparty equipment supporting IP DCN. This solution also applies when equipment at the center of a network must provide IP-based paths to transmit NMS messages for equipment at the edge of the network. 1.4 RADIUS This chapter describes Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS). RADIUS is a networking protocol that provides centralized rights management for users of different vendors. 1.5 SNMP This chapter describes the SNMP feature.

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1.1 Introduction
A network management system (NMS) communicates with transport NEs through a data communication network (DCN) to manage and maintain the NEs.

1.1.1 DCN
On a data communication network (DCN), the network management system (NMS) and all NEs are nodes of the DCN. The DCN between the NMS and the NEs is called an external DCN, and the DCN between the NEs is called an internal DCN. Figure 1-1 DCN

NMS

External DCN

Internal DCN

Router

LAN switch

OptiX optical transmission equipment

Other types of OptiX radio transmission equipment


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External DCN
An NMS and the NEs it manages may be located on different floors of a building, in different buildings, or even in different cities. An external DCN provides the connection between the NMS and NEs using data communication devices, such as LAN switches and routers, for the NMS to communicate with the NEs. This document uses "DCN" to refer to internal DCNs, except where external DCNs are specified.

Internal DCN
Table 1-1 lists OptiX RTN 310 ports and channels that can transmit network management messages on an internal DCN. Table 1-1 OptiX RTN 310 ports and channels that can transmit network management messages on an internal DCN Port Type Microwave port Transmission Channel l Three Huawei-defined data communications channel (DCC) bytes in a microwave frame l Ethernet service bandwidth in a microwave frame NMS port GE port Hitless switch mode (HSM) port All bandwidths at the NMS port Ethernet service bandwidth at the GE port D1 to D3 bytes

NOTE

l Inband DCN is a DCN networking mode that uses a portion of service bandwidth for data communication. For example, an OptiX RTN 310 uses a portion of the Ethernet service bandwidth at either the microwave port or GE port to transmit network management messages. l Outband DCN is a DCN networking mode that does not use service bandwidth for data communication. For example, an OptiX RTN 310 uses DCC bytes in microwave frames or the NMS port to transmit network management messages.

Gateway NEs and Non-Gateway NEs


Generally, a gateway NE connects to an NMS through a LAN/WAN. The application layer of the NMS directly communicates with the application layer of the gateway NE. One NMS must connect to one or more gateway NEs. A non-gateway NE communicates with its gateway NE through DCN channels.

1.1.2 Huawei DCN Solutions


OptiX RTN 310 provides multiple data communication network (DCN) solutions to meet the requirements of different application scenarios.
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Soluti on 1.3 IP DCN Solutio n

Application Scenario If a network has only OptiX RTN 310s or both OptiX RTN 310s and third-party equipment that supports the IP protocol stack, IP DCN is recommended.
NOTE If the following conditions are met, IP DCN also applies to equipment at the edge of a network: l The equipment in the center of the network supports IP DCN. l Third-party equipment at the edge of the network supports the transmission of network management system (NMS) messages over Ethernet.

Description IP DCN enables NEs to transmit data that supports TCP/IP protocols over DCN channels.

Remarks l Because TCP/IP protocols are standard protocols, IP DCN applies to networks that have both OptiX RTN 310s and third-party equipment. l Configuration of the IP DCN solution is more complicated than that of the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) solution.

1.2 HWEC C Solutio n

If a network has both OptiX RTN 310s and OptiX transmission equipment that supports the HWECC protocol stack, HWECC is recommended. This solution also applies to a network that has only OptiX RTN 310s. When devices allow, OptiX RTN 310 transmits the NMS messages of third-party equipment as Ethernet services.

HWECC enables NEs to transmit data that supports the HWECC protocol over DCN channels.

l This solution features easy configuration and convenient application. l The HWECC protocol is proprietary and so does not apply to networks that have both OptiX and third-party equipment. NMS messages of thirdparty equipment must be assigned service VLAN IDs, so that the messages can be transmitted over transport networks.

1.1.3 Trans mitting NMS Messag es as Ethern et Service s

In this solution, OptiX RTN 310 resides in the center of a network and transmits Ethernet services.

1.1.3 Transmitting NMS Messages as Ethernet Services


To transmit network management system (NMS) messages as Ethernet services, the central node on a network must support Ethernet services. Figure 1-2 illustrates a typical scenario of transmitting NMS messages as Ethernet services. After the Ethernet services and NMS messages from NE A (third-party NE) converge at the LAN switch, NE 1 (an OptiX RTN 310) transmits the messages to the transport network through its GE port and configures the corresponding services on the transport network. The packet
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switched network (PSN) transmits the NMS messages to the third-party NMS while transmitting the Ethernet services. When the NMS messages enter the transport network, they are added with a unique service VLAN ID (for example, 4092). When they leave the PSN, the VLAN ID is stripped off. Figure 1-2 Transmitting NMS messages as Ethernet services
Third-party NMS

NMS port

GE port

GE port

NMS messages

PSN NE A GE port LAN switch NE 1 Transport network NE 2 Ethernet services

LAN switch

IPv6 Router

Third-party equipment NMS messages Ethernet services NMS messages and Ethernet services

1.2 HWECC Solution


This chapter describes the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) solution. In HWECC, NEs use unified data communications channels (DCCs) or inband data communication networks (DCNs) to transmit HWECC protocol data, which enables a network management system (NMS) to manage the NEs.

1.2.1 Introduction
This section defines Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) and describes its purpose. In HWECC, the proprietary HWECC protocol stack encapsulates network management messages for transmission. Therefore, HWECC applies to networks that have only OptiX equipment supporting the HWECC protocol stack.

Definition
HWECC is a data communication network (DCN) solution provided by Huawei. In this solution, a network management system (NMS) uses NMS messages that are encapsulated in the HWECC protocol stack to manage NEs. Figure 1-3 illustrates how NMS messages are transmitted using HWECC. NMS messages encapsulated in compliance with the HWECC protocol stack can be transmitted over the following DCN channels: l
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Data communications channels (DCCs) carried by microwave links


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l l

Ethernet service channels carried by microwave or GE links DCCs carried over hitless switch mode (HSM) ports

Figure 1-3 Networking diagram for HWECC


Message HWECC DCC Message HWECC Inband DCN

Message HWECC DCC

Message HWECC Inband DCN

NMS
Message HWECC DCC Message HWECC DCC

Message HWECC DCC

OptiX optical transmission equipment Microwave link Fiber

OptiX radio transmission equipment Ethernet link

Purpose
If a network has both OptiX RTN 310s and OptiX transmission equipment that supports the HWECC protocol stack, HWECC is recommended. This solution also applies to a network that has only OptiX RTN 310s.

1.2.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC).

1.2.2.1 HWECC Protocol Stack


The development of the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) protocol stack was based on the embedded control channel (ECC) protocol stack, proposed by ITU-T G.784 with reference to the open systems interconnection (OSI) Reference Model.

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Protocol Stack Architecture


Figure 1-4 HWECC protocol stack architecture

Transport layer Network layer MAC Extended channel NMS port

L4 NET PPP PPPoE DCC Outband DCN GE/Microwave (Inband) Inband DCN

Data link layer Physical layer

Physical Layer
The main function of the protocol stack's physical layer is to control physical channels. The physical layer performs the following functions: l Maintains the status of physical channels. The physical layer maintains status information about the data communications channel (DCC) that corresponds to each line port, including: Port state (enabled or disabled) Used overhead bytes Link status l Provides data communication services. Receives data from physical channels and transfers the data to the upper layer. Receives data frames from the upper layer and sends them to physical channels. Table 1-2 lists the ports and channels that can transmit data communication network (DCN) data. Table 1-2 Ports and channels that can transmit DCN data Channel Type DCC Port Type Microwave port Description Three Huawei-defined DCC bytes in a microwave frame
7

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Channel Type

Port Type Hitless switch mode (HSM) port

Description D1 to D3 bytes A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth in a microwave frame A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth All bandwidths at the NMS port

Inband DCN

Microwave port GE port

Extended channel

Network management system (NMS) port

Data Link Layer (When DCCs Are Used)


When DCCs are used, the data link layer is also called the MAC layer. The main function of the MAC layer is to establish or terminate physical DCCs between the physical and network layer. The data link layer performs the following functions: l Establishes and maintains MAC connections between adjacent NEs. If there is a reachable physical channel between two adjacent NEs, the MAC layer establishes a MAC connection between them. Each MAC connection includes the following information: address of the peer NE, ID of the physical channel, and the connection timer. A MAC connection has the following characteristics: A MAC connection is established between any two adjacent NEs that communicate through ECCs. A MAC connection is bidirectional. There is only one MAC connection between any two adjacent NEs that communicate through ECCs, even if the two NEs interconnect through many ports that support DCCs. The physical channel of the current MAC connection is also the current ECC route. l Provides data communication services. Receives data frames from the physical layer. If the destination address of a data frame is the address of the local NE, the MAC layer forwards the data frame to the network layer. If the destination address of the data frame is not the address of the local NE, the MAC layer discards the data frame. Receives data frames from the network layer. If there is a MAC connection to the destination address of a data frame, the MAC layer forwards the data frame to the physical layer through the MAC connection. If there is no MAC connection to the destination address of the data frame, the MAC layer discards the data frame.

Data Link Layer (Using Inband DCNs)


Using inband DCNs, the data link layer ensures reliable data transmission across physical links using PPPoE and PPP protocols. l PPPoE implements the following functions: Establishes point-to-point connections. Establishes PPP interfaces.
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Encapsulates PPP packets into MAC frames for transmission to peer NEs. l PPP implements the following functions: Controls link establishment, termination, and monitoring. Coordinates the formats and types of network layer data packets. Uses the handshake mechanism to ensure packet transmission. To distinguish inband DCN packets from service packets and to control the bandwidth of inband DCN packets, the data link layer also performs the following functions: l l Adds a VLAN ID to inband DCN packets. The VLAN ID, also called the management VLAN ID, distinguishes inband DCN packets from service packets. Uses a buffering queue to control the bandwidth of inband DCN packets in the transmit direction of an Ethernet port. By default, the bandwidth value is 512 kbit/s, but can be changed as required. Transmits higher-priority inband DCN packets first.

Network Layer
The main function of the network layer (Layer 3) is to address routes for data frames and manage routes for DCC communication networks. The network layer performs the following functions: l Establishes and maintains ECC routes. The network layer establishes and maintains a network layer routing table. Each routing entry includes the following information: Address of the destination NE Address of the transit NE Transit hop count, in number of transit NEs passed Route priority, ranging from 1 to 7. The priority of an automatically established route is 4 by default. The system always selects the route with the highest priority. Mode: 0 represents automatic routing, and 1 represents manual routing. l Provides data communication services. The network layer receives packets from the MAC layer. If the destination address of a packet is the address of the local NE, the network layer transfers the packet to the transport layer. If the destination address of the packet is not the address of the local NE, the network layer requests the MAC layer to transfer the packet to a transit NE based on the routing entry that maps to the packet's destination address. Routing entries are stored in the network layer routing table. The network layer passes packets from the transport layer. The network layer requests the MAC layer to transfer each packet to a transit NE based on the routing entry that maps to the packet's destination address.

Transport Layer
The main function of the transport layer (Layer 4) is to provide end-to-end communication services for its upper layer. Communication between OptiX equipment and an NMS is controlled by end-to-end connection-oriented services at the application layer. Therefore, Layer 4 provides only end-to-end connectionless communication services. These are transparent data transfer services.
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NOTE

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In the HWECC protocol stack, the NE address used by each layer is the ID of the NE. The NE ID has 24 bits. The most significant eight bits represent the subnet ID (or the extended ID), and the least significant 16 bits represent the basic ID. For example, if the ID of an NE is 0x090001, the subnet ID of the NE is 9, and the basic ID is 1.

1.2.2.2 Access Control


The access control function enables an OptiX RTN 310 to connect to a network management system (NMS) through its GE port.

Connecting to an NMS Through a Third-Party Service Network


Figure 1-5 illustrates a typical scenario in which an OptiX RTN 310 connects to an NMS through a third-party service network. When transmitting Ethernet services, the packet switched network (PSN) also transmits data communication network (DCN) packets between the NMS and the gateway NE. In this instance, the access control function can be enabled on the GE port of the gateway NE. Figure 1-5 Access control (OptiX RTN 310 connecting to an NMS through a third-party service network)
NMS DCN packets

LAN switch

PSN GE port Access control enabled

Router

Ethernet services

After you enable the access control function on the GE port: l l l The GE port functions as an NMS port on the gateway NE. You can specify the IP address of the GE port according to the requirements of the PSN. This IP address cannot be on the same segment as the IP address of the local NE. The DCN packets transmitted/received at the GE port carry a VLAN ID used for inband DCN. Before a DCN packet arrives at the NMS, its VLAN ID needs to be stripped off by an NE such as the LAN switch in Figure 1-5. The NMS can communicate with the gateway NE based on the IP address of the GE port on which the access control function is enabled.

Connecting to a Web LCT Through a GE Port


Figure 1-6 illustrates a typical scenario in which an OptiX RTN 310 connects to a Web LCT through its GE port. Generally, a Web LCT is used for OptiX RTN 310 onsite maintenance. At
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sites that do not have power injectors (PIs) installed, maintenance personnel must climb towers to connect OptiX RTN 310s to Web LCTs. To avoid climbing towers, maintenance personnel can instead disconnect the Ethernet service cable between an OptiX RTN 310 and a NodeB, connect the Ethernet service cable to a Web LCT, and then enable access control on the GE port on the OptiX RTN 310. Figure 1-6 Access control (OptiX RTN 310 connecting to a Web LCT through its GE port)

NodeB 1 GE port Access control enabled

Web LCT GE port

NOTE

l An OptiX RTN 310 can connect to a Web LCT through its GE port only if its GE port functions as an electrical port. l A VLAN ID can be added to and stripped from DCN packets only after you install a drive and specify the VLAN ID on the computer on which the Web LCT is installed.

1.2.3 Specifications
This section lists the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 1-3 Specifications of HWECC Item Data communicatio n network (DCN) channel type
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Specifications Microwave port Hitless switch mode (HSM) port 3 bytes (D1-D3) 3 bytes (D1-D3)

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Item Inband DCN channel type Microwave port GE port Number of data communications channel (DCC) bytes that a microwave port supports Extended embedded control channel (ECC) Extension mode

Specifications A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth in a microwave frame A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth 3 bytes (D1-D3)

l Automatic mode l Specified mode

Number of connected NEs (total of one server plus its clients)

l 4 (automatic mode) l 8 (specified mode)


NOTE In specified mode, a server can connect to a maximum of seven clients. If there are more than seven clients, configure multi-level extended ECC.

Inband DCN

Range of used VLAN IDs Bandwidth range

2 to 4094, with the default value of 4094 64 kbit/s to 1000 kbit/s. This parameter is set based on the channel type. Gateway access mode (an NMS can access a nongateway NE only through the gateway NE) Supported A maximum of 150 NEs are supported.

Network management system (NMS) access mode Access control DCN subnet scale

1.2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC). l l ITU-T G.784: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) management IETF RFC 1661: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

1.2.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) feature. Table 1-4 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name HWECC solution supported by data
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Port Microwave port

Hardware Version Any version

Product Version V100R001C00 or later


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Feature Name communications channels (DCCs) HWECC solution supported by inband data communication network (DCN) HWECC solution supported by extended embedded control channels (ECCs) Access control

Port Hitless switch mode (HSM) port Microwave port GE port Network management system (NMS) port

Hardware Version Any version Any version Any version Any version

Product Version V100R001C01 or later V100R001C00 or later V100R001C00 or later V100R001C00 or later

GE port

Any version

V100R001C00 or later

1.2.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC). Table 1-5 Dependencies and limitations of HWECC Item Self-limitations Description To ensure network stability, the extended embedded control channel (ECC) function on the gateway NE that communicates with a network management system (NMS) through its NMS port needs to be disabled. The inband DCN function and access control function must both be disabled for a GE electrical port when: l The GE electrical port is involved in DCN division. l The GE electrical port is configured with DCN passthrough. Dependencie s and limitations between HWECC and other features IP data communicati on network (DCN) The HWECC protocol stack of NEs can communicate with the IP protocol stack.

Link LAG protection can be implemented on ports with access aggregation control enabled. Access control must be enabled for the group (LAG) master and slave ports in a LAG group, and only the IP address of the master port is effective.

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1.2.7 Principles
This section describes the principles of Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC).

1.2.7.1 Establishing ECC Routes


Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) uses the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to establish embedded control channel (ECC) routes. The shortest path is the path with the fewest sites. The following steps describe how an NE establishes ECC routes: 1. 2. The physical layer of the NE maintains status information about the data communications channels (DCCs) that correspond to each line port. The MAC layer of the NE establishes MAC connections with its adjacent NEs. a. b. c. 3. The NE periodically broadcasts connection request frames (MAC_REQs) to its adjacent NEs. Upon receiving a MAC_REQ frame, each adjacent NE returns a connection response frame (MAC_RSP). If it receives a MAC_RSP frame from an adjacent NE within a preset time, the NE establishes a MAC connection with the adjacent NE. The NE establishes an initial network layer routing table based on the established MAC connections. The NE periodically broadcasts its network layer routing table to its adjacent NEs in routing response messages. The adjacent NEs update their network layer routing tables according to the routing response messages received and the SPF algorithm. The NE broadcasts its updated network layer routing table to its adjacent NEs.

The network layer of the NE establishes a network layer routing table. a. b. c. d.

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Figure 1-7 Networking example for establishing ECC routes

NE 2

NE 1

NE 8

NE 7

NE 3

NE 6

NE 4 Microwave link

NE 5 Ethernet link

The following steps describe how the NEs shown in Figure 1-7 establish ECC routes: 1. The physical layer of each NE maintains status information about the DCCs that correspond to each line port. The physical layer of each NE detects two available DCCs. 2. The MAC layer of each NE establishes MAC connections with its adjacent NEs. a. In this example, NE 1 periodically broadcasts MAC_REQ frames to NE 2 and NE 8 through its DCCs or inband data communication network (DCN). The MAC_REQ frames contain the ID of NE 1. Upon receiving the MAC_REQ frames, NE 2 and NE 8 return MAC_RSP frames that contain their respective IDs. Upon receiving the MAC_RSP frames, NE 1 establishes a MAC connection with NE 2 and a MAC connection with NE 8 according to information in the frames (such as NE ID and DCC). In this example, NE 1 establishes an initial network layer routing table based on the established MAC connections. There are two routes in the routing table, one to NE 2 and the other to NE 8. NE 1 periodically broadcasts its network layer routing table to its adjacent NEs in routing response messages. Upon receiving the routing response messages from NE 1, NE 2 and NE 8 update their respective network layer routing tables. In NE 2's updated network layer routing table, there is a route to NE 8 and the transit NE is NE 1; in NE 8's updated network Layer routing table, there is also a route to NE 2 and the transit NE is also NE 1. According to the routing response messages from NE 2 and NE 8, NE 1 also adds the routes to
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b. c.

3.

The network layer of each NE establishes a network layer routing table. a.

b. c.

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NE 3, NE 4, NE 5, NE 6, and NE 7 to its network layer routing table. There are two routes between NE 1 and NE 3. The route for which NE 2 is the transit NE has one hop, and the route for which NE 8 is the transit NE has five hops. Therefore, according to the SPF algorithm, only the route for which NE 2 is the transit NE is retained in NE 1's network layer routing table. The routes to the other NEs are processed in the same manner as the routes to NE 3 from NE 1. d. When the DCC between NE 1 and NE 2 becomes faulty, the MAC connection between NE 1 and NE 2 fails. NE 1 updates the routes to NE 2 and NE 3 in its network layer routing table according to the routing response message from NE 8. Consequently, the routes to NE 2 and NE 3 are re-established. This process protects the ECC routes against faults.

1.2.7.2 Transferring Packets


In Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC), packets between NEs are transferred at the NE network layers. Figure 1-8 illustrates the process of packets being transferred from a network management system (NMS) to a destination NE. Figure 1-8 Process of transferring packets (using HWECC)
Application TCP IP Application TCP IP L4 NET MAC Ethernet Ethernet DCC NMS Gateway NE DCC Transit NE DCC Destination NE NET MAC Application L4 NET MAC

NOTE

Figure 1-8 shows the process of transferring data communication network (DCN) packets using data communications channel (DCC) bytes. The process for transferring DCN packets over inband DCN channels is similar, except for the processing methods at the physical and link layers.

The working principles of HWECC are as follows: 1. 2. 3. The NMS transfers application layer packets to the gateway NE through the TCP connection. The gateway NE extracts packets from the TCP/IP protocol stack and delivers them to its application layer. The application layer of the gateway NE queries the destination NE address of the packets. If the address does not belong to the gateway NE, the gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer. The gateway NE obtains the route to the destination NE and the communication protocol stack of the transit NE according to the destination NE address.
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Because the transit NE in Figure 1-8 uses the HWECC protocol stack, the gateway NE transfers the packets to the transit NE through the HWECC protocol stack. 4. The network layer of the transit NE queries the destination NE address of the packets. If the address does not belong to the transit NE, the transit NE queries its network layer routing table to obtain the route to the destination NE and then transfers the packets. The network layer of the destination NE passes the packets to its application layer through the transport layer because the destination NE address of the packets is the same as the address of the destination NE. The application layer then processes the packets.
NOTE

5.

The core routing table synthesizes the transport layer routing tables of all communication protocol stacks. Each route item includes the following: l ID of the destination NE l Address of the transit NE l Communication protocol stack of the transit NE l Transit hop count

1.2.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC).

Planning Guidelines for DCN Channels


l If NEs on a network connect through microwave links, use the default data communications channel (DCC) bytes in microwave frames as data communication network (DCN) channels. If higher DCN channel bandwidth is required, ensure that the NEs use inband DCN channels. When inband DCN channels are used, DCC channels must be disabled. If NEs on a network connect through GE links, ensure that the NEs use inband DCN channels. If an NE connects to third-party equipment, ensure that the NE does not use inband DCN channels. When inband DCN channels are used, plan DCN channels as follows: Ensure that all the NEs use the same management VLAN ID and that the management VLAN ID is different from Ethernet service VLAN IDs. The default management VLAN ID 4094 is recommended. Generally, the inband DCN bandwidth is 512 kbit/s (default value). When the DCN channels over a convergence GE link are used as inband DCN channels, you can increase the inband DCN bandwidth to 1 Mbit/s. Generally, inband DCN packets use their default priority. If required, you can change the VLAN priority or differentiated services code point (DSCP) value of inband DCN packets according to the network plan.

Planning Guidelines for External DCNs


l l l Do not use an office LAN or the Internet as the transmission channels of an external DCN. Such channels may compromise stability and security. The bandwidth of an external DCN should be equal to or higher than the DCN bandwidth on the network. An external DCN should provide active and standby DCN routes or gateway NEs if possible.
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Planning Guidelines for NE IDs


l l l Each NE on a DCN must have a unique ID. If you can allocate a unique basic ID to each NE on one DCN, do not use extended IDs. When allocating NE IDs on a newly-built network: Allocate NE IDs in the counterclockwise direction on a ring network. Allocate NE IDs from the core to the edges on a chain or tree network. l Allocate unused IDs to the NEs that you add to an existing network.

Planning Guidelines for NE IP Addresses


l l The IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway of a gateway NE must meet the requirements for planning external DCNs. Set IP addresses for non-gateway NEs based on their NE IDs.
NOTE

l The IP address of a non-gateway NE is 0x81000000 + NE ID. For example, if an NE ID is 0x090001, set the IP address of the NE to 129.9.0.1. l By default, the subnet mask is 255.255.0.0.

Planning Guidelines for DCN Subnets


NOTE

A DCN subnet has NEs that communicate with each other over DCN channels. NEs on different DCN subnets do not communicate with each other over DCN channels. NEs on a DCN subnet communicate with a network management system (NMS) through an external DCN. A DCN subnet is also called an ECC subnet because NEs on a DCN subnet communicate with each other over ECC channels.

CPU resource usage increases as the number of NEs on a DCN subnet increases, and the ECC routes may become unstable or flap. On a poor-quality network with complex topology, this situation is more likely to occur. Plan the number of NEs in a DCN subnet based on network conditions. A DCN subnet should ideally have 120 or fewer NEs, but no more than 150 NEs. The selected gateway NE should either be the central node of a star network or the NE that connects to the most DCCs. If a DCN subnet has more than 150 NEs, increase the number of gateway NEs to divide the subnet into multiple DCN subnets. Disable the DCN channels between DCN subnets. Maintain the existing ECC route protection when you divide a DCN network. Set active and standby gateway NEs for a DCN subnet.

l l l l l l

1.2.9 Configuration Process


Configuring Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) includes configuring communication data on NEs and creating NEs on a network management system (NMS).

Flowchart
Figure 1-9 shows the flowchart for configuring HWECC.
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Figure 1-9 Flowchart for configuring HWECC


Required Optional Set basic NE attributes. Start

Configure DCCs.

Configure inband DCN.

Disable extended ECC that works in Auto mode.

Query ECC routes.

Configure the NMS port on an NE.

Create NEs on a centralized NMS.

End

Process
Table 1-6 Process of configuring HWECC Ste p 1 Operation Setting basic NE attributes A.3.1.4 Changing an NE ID Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set ID according to the data communication network (DCN) plan. l If a special extended ID is required for an NE according to the DCN plan, change the default Extended ID to the required one.

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Ste p

Operation A.3.6.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l For a gateway NE, set IP Address and Subnet Mask according to the external DCN plan. l For a gateway NE, set Gateway IP Address if the external DCN requires that a default gateway be configured for the gateway NE. l For a non-gateway NE, set IP Address to 0x81000000 + NE ID. For example, if the NE ID is 0x090001, set IP Address to 129.9.0.1. Set Subnet Mask to 255.255.0.0. l Set Connection Mode to the default value Common + Security SSL. If the NMS must connect to a gateway NE in Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection mode, set Connection Mode to Security SSL.

A.3.6.2 Configuring DCCs

Required. Set parameters as follows: l For a microwave port that uses data communications channels (DCCs) to transmit HWECC protocol packets, set Enabled/Disabled to Enabled and Protocol Type to HWECC. l For a microwave port that uses inband DCN to transmit HWECC protocol packets, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. l For a microwave port that uses DCCs to connect to another embedded control channel (ECC) subnet, set Enabled/ Disabled to Disabled.

Configurin g inband DCN

A.3.6.3 Setting the VLAN ID and Bandwidth for an Inband DCN

For the OptiX RTN 310 that interconnects with packet equipment using inband DCN, set the VLAN ID and bandwidth for an inband DCN, if the VLAN ID and bandwidth of the inband DCN planned for the packet equipment are not the default values of the OptiX RTN 310 (the default VLAN ID is 4094, and the default bandwidth is 512 kbit/s).
NOTE Use the same VLAN ID for inband DCN communication over the entire network.

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Ste p

Operation A.3.6.5 Setting a Port for an Inband DCN

Remarks Required. l For Ethernet and microwave ports with inband DCN enabled, set Enabled/ Disabled to Enabled and Protocol Type to HWECC. l For other ports, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled. A.3.6.6 Configuring Access Control Required when a gateway NE must communicate with the NMS through a GE port. Set parameters as follows: l For the GE port, set Enabled/Disabled to Enabled and set IP Address and Subnet Mask according to the network plan. l The IP address configured for the GE port and the IP address of the gateway NE must belong to different network segments. A.3.6.4 Configuring the Priorities of Inband DCN Packets Required when DCN packets must be prioritized.

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Ste p 4

Operation A.3.6.7 Configuring Extended ECCs

Remarks l Required for a gateway NE. Set parameters as follows: Click Stop to disable extended ECC that works in Auto mode. l Required for a non-gateway NE that connects to more than four other nongateway NEs (including the server and all its clients) using extended ECCs. Set parameters as follows: Set ECC Extended Mode to Specified Mode. Set IP Address for the NE that is planned as the server. Set Port of this NE to a value from 1601 to 1699. Set Opposite IP of the NEs that are planned as clients to the IP address of the server. Set Port of these NEs to the port ID of the server. l In all other cases, retain default values for parameters.
NOTE If a non-gateway NE connects to more than eight other non-gateway NEs (the sum of the server and its clients) using extended ECCs, configure multiplelevel extended ECC.

A.3.6.16 Querying ECC Routes

Required only for a gateway NE and when: l There is an ECC route between a gateway NE and each of its managed non-gateway NEs. l There is no ECC route between a gateway NE and NEs on other ECC subnets. l ECC routes are the shortest paths.
NOTE You can check route status by testing route connectivity in addition to querying IP routes.

A.3.7 Configuring the NMS Port on an NE

Required when an NE connects to external equipment using its NMS port and when the working mode of the external equipment is not set to auto-negotiate. Recommended when one or more NEs must be added to a large-scale network. Recommended in all other cases.

Creating NEs on a centralized NMS

A.3.1.1 Creating an NE by Using the Search Method A.3.1.2 Creating an NE Manually

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1.2.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) based on network conditions.

1.2.10.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. In Figure 1-10, the OptiX RTN 310 ring network interconnects with the OptiX RTN 900 to form a microwave transmission network. All OptiX RTN NEs on the microwave transmission network must be managed using a network management system (NMS). Figure 1-10 Networking diagram for HWECC

NodeB 1 P&E GE NE 31 GE NE 36 P&E GE GE NE 32 GE P&E NodeB 2

NMS

LAN switch

NE 35

NE 40

RNC

GE

NE 33

NE 34 OptiX RTN 900

Microwave link

Ethernet link

1.2.10.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC). In this example, HWECC is recommended because both the OptiX RTN 310s and OptiX RTN 900 support the HWECC protocol stack. l Select NE 40 (OptiX RTN 900), which connects to the OptiX RTN 310 ring network, as the gateway NE.
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To prevent impact on the NodeBs, disable inband data communication network (DCN) on the P&E ports of the NEs (NE 33 and NE 36) that transmit/receive services to/from the NodeBs and on the service port of NE 40 (OptiX RTN 900), which connects to the RNC. Ensure that the OptiX RTN NEs use D1D3 bytes for DCN communication if the links between them are microwave links. DCN communication is implemented using HWECC. Ensure that the OptiX RTN NEs use inband DCN for DCN communication if the links between them are Ethernet links. DCN communication is implemented using HWECC. Retain the default value 4094 for the management VLAN ID. The default management VLAN ID is different from the VLAN IDs of service packets. Retain the default value 512 kbit/s for the inband DCN bandwidth.

l l

Allocate IDs and IP addresses for the NEs according to the DCN plan. For details, see Figure 1-11.

Figure 1-11 Allocation of IDs and IP addresses for the NEs


NMS

NE 31 9-31 129.9.0.31 0.0.0.0

NE 36 9-36 129.9.0.36 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1/16 LAN switch 11.0.0.1/16 10.0.0.100

9-32 129.9.0.32 0.0.0.0 NE 32

9-35 129.9.0.35 0.0.0.0 NE 35

9-40 11.0.0.40 11.0.0.1 NE 40 RNC

9-33 129.9.0.33 0.0.0.0 NE 33 Microwave link

9-34 129.9.0.34 0.0.0.0 NE 34 Ethernet link Extended ID-Basic ID IP address Gateway

Disable the extended embedded control channel (ECC) function that works in Auto mode on NE 40, because NE 40 functions as the gateway NE.

1.2.10.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC).

Context
NOTE

This example describes only the settings on OptiX RTN 310 NEs.

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Procedure
Step 1 Change NE IDs. For details, see A.3.1.4 Changing an NE ID. This table provides parameter values for changing NE IDs. Paramete r New ID New Extended ID Value NE 31 31 9 (default) NE 32 32 9 (default) NE 33 33 9 (default) NE 34 34 9 (default) NE 35 35 9 (default) NE 36 36 9 (default)

Step 2 Set NE communication parameters. For details, see A.3.6.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters. This table provides values for setting NE communication parameters. Paramete r IP Address Gateway IP Address Subnet Mask Extended ID Connectio n Mode Value NE 31 129.9.0.31 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0. 0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 32 129.9.0.32 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0. 0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 33 129.9.0.33 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0. 0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 34 129.9.0.34 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0. 0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 35 129.9.0.35 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0. 0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 36 129.9.0.36 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0. 0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL

Step 3 Configure data communications channels (DCCs). For details, see A.3.6.2 Configuring DCCs. This table provides parameter values for configuring DCCs.

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Paramete r

Value NE 31 (microwa ve port) Enabled D1D3 HWECC NE 32 (microwa ve port) Enabled D1D3 HWECC NE 33 (microwa ve port) Enabled D1D3 HWECC NE 34 (microwa ve port) Enabled D1D3 HWECC NE 35 (microwa ve port) Enabled D1D3 HWECC NE 36 (microwa ve port) Enabled D1D3 HWECC

Enabled/ Disabled Channel Protocol Type

Step 4 Set the VLAN ID and bandwidth for an inband data communication network (DCN). For details, see A.3.6.3 Setting the VLAN ID and Bandwidth for an Inband DCN. This table provides parameter values for setting the VLAN ID and bandwidth for an inband DCN. Paramete r Ethernet Board VLAN ID Bandwidt h (Kbit/s) Value NE 31 4094 NE 32 4094 NE 33 4094 NE 34 4094 NE 35 4094 NE 36 4094

512

512

512

512

512

512

Step 5 Set a port for an inband DCN. For details, see A.3.6.5 Setting a Port for an Inband DCN. This table provides parameter values for setting a port for an inband DCN. Para meter Value NE 31 GE port Enabl ed/ Disabl ed Proto col Type Enabl ed NE 32 GE port Enabl ed NE 33 GE port Enabl ed P&E port Disabl ed NE 34 GE port Enabl ed NE 35 GE port Enabl ed P&E port Enabl ed NE 36 GE port Enabl ed P&E port Disabl ed

HWE CC

HWE CC

HWE CC

HWE CC

HWE CC

HWE CC

HWE CC

----End
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Follow-up Procedure
1. After successfully configuring NE 40 (OptiX RTN 900), the gateway NE, you can view the routes of all non-gateway NEs (NE 31, NE 32, NE 33, NE 34, NE 35, and NE 36) on the OptiX RTN 310 ring network. On a network management system (NMS), set IP Address of GNE to 11.0.0.40 and search for NEs. Typically, the gateway NE and all connected non-gateway NEs can be displayed and created on the NMS.
NOTE

2.

The IP address of NE 40 (11.0.0.40) and the IP address of the NMS (10.0.0.100) belong to different network segments. Configure static routes on the NMS and the corresponding switch to ensure normal TCP/IP communication between the NMS and NE 40, and then create NEs.

1.2.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC).

Related Tasks
A.3.1.1 Creating an NE by Using the Search Method A.3.1.2 Creating an NE Manually A.3.1.4 Changing an NE ID A.3.6.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters A.3.6.2 Configuring DCCs A.3.6.7 Configuring Extended ECCs A.3.6.16 Querying ECC Routes A.3.6.18 Verifying Connectivity of an ECC Network A.3.6.3 Setting the VLAN ID and Bandwidth for an Inband DCN A.3.6.4 Configuring the Priorities of Inband DCN Packets A.3.6.5 Setting a Port for an Inband DCN A.3.6.6 Configuring Access Control

1.2.12 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC).

Alarms
l GNE_CONNECT_FAIL This alarm indicates that the connection to the gateway NE has failed. The U2000 reports this alarm when communication between the U2000 and the gateway NE fails. l NE_COMMU_BREAK This alarm indicates that NE communication has been interrupted. The U2000 reports this alarm when communication is interrupted between the U2000 and its managed NE. l
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NE_NOT_LOGIN
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This alarm indicates that a login to an NE has failed. If the U2000 cannot log in to an NE, the U2000 reports this alarm. l DCNSIZE_OVER This alarm indicates an over-sized data communication network (DCN).

Events
None

1.2.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC). Q: Why does a network management system (NMS) fail to log in to an NE? A: Common causes are as follows: l l The communication connection between the NMS and the gateway NE is faulty. To locate the fault, run the ping or tracert command on the NMS. The embedded control channel (ECC) route between the gateway NE and a non-gateway NE is faulty. To locate the fault, check the ECC route between the gateway NE and non-gateway NE. l NE IDs conflict.

Q: Why does an NMS frequently fail to log in to NEs? A: Common causes are as follows: l l The NMS is faulty. In this case, the NMS generally fails to log in to any NEs. The IP addresses of gateway NEs conflict. In this case, the NMS generally fails to log in to any NEs on a data communication network (DCN). l A DCN comprises an excessive number of NEs. In this case, the NMS generally fails to log in to NEs that connect to multiple data communications channels (DCCs). Q: Why does a gateway NE frequently reset? A: Common causes are as follows: l l Unknown equipment connected to the LAN to which the NE connects, resulting in a conflict between the NE and the other equipment. A loop occurred in the LAN to which the NE connects, resulting in a network storm.

Q: What hazards can result from an excessively large DCN? A: Main hazards are as follows: l Stability of ECC routes is poor, convergence time is long, and ECC route flapping may occur.
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l l l l

Remote loading is slow. Alarms reported to the NMS are lost. The NMS cannot log in to certain NEs. NEs reset abnormally.

1.3 IP DCN Solution


This chapter describes the IP data communication network (DCN) solution. In IP DCN, NEs use unified DCN channels to transmit TCP/IP protocol data, which enables a network management system (NMS) to manage the NEs. IP DCN applies to networks that have only OptiX transmission equipment or a combination of OptiX transmission equipment and thirdparty equipment supporting IP DCN. This solution also applies when equipment at the center of a network must provide IP-based paths to transmit NMS messages for equipment at the edge of the network.

1.3.1 Introduction
This section defines IP data communication network (DCN) and describes its purpose. In IP DCN, equipment must support the IP protocol stack since network management system (NMS) messages are transmitted after being encapsulated in the IP protocol stack.

Definition
Huawei's IP DCN solution allows an NMS to manage NEs by encapsulating NMS messages in the IP protocol stack and transmitting them over DCN channels between the NEs. Figure 1-12 illustrates how NMS messages are transmitted using IP DCN. Vendors' NMS messages, encapsulated in compliance with the IP protocol stack, can be transmitted over the following DCN channels: l l l l Data communications channels (DCCs) carried by microwave links Ethernet service channels carried by microwave or GE links NMS ports DCCs carried over hitless switch mode (HSM) ports

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Figure 1-12 Application of IP DCN


3rd-party Msg IP stack NM-ETH Third-party NMS OptiX Msg IP stack DCC 3rd-party Msg IP stack NM-ETH

OptiX Msg IP stack NM-ETH

External DCN
OptiX Msg IP stack Inband DCN

NMS

OptiX Msg IP stack NM-ETH

OptiX Msg IP stack Inband DCN OptiX Msg IP stack Inband DCN

OptiX Msg IP stack Inband DCN

Ethernet link

Microwave link

Third-party equipment

Purpose
If a network has only OptiX RTN 310s or a combination of OptiX RTN 310s and third-party equipment supporting the IP protocol stack, using an IP DCN is recommended.

1.3.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of IP data communication network (DCN).

1.3.2.1 IP DCN Protocol Stack


IP data communication network (DCN) uses the standard TCP/IP protocol stack architecture.

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Protocol Stack Architecture


Figure 1-13 IP DCN protocol stack architecture

Routing protocol Transport layer Network layer

OSPF/RIP TCP/UDP IP PPP Ethernet DCC PPP PPPoE GE/Microwave (inband) Inband DCN

Data link layer

Physical layer

NMS port

Outband DCN

Physical Layer
The physical layer provides data transmission channels for data terminal equipment. Table 1-7 lists the ports and channels that can transmit DCN data. Table 1-7 Ports and channels that can transmit DCN data Channel Type Data communicatio ns channel (DCC) Inband DCN Port Type Microwave port Hitless switch mode (HSM) port Microwave port GE port Description Three Huawei-defined DCC bytes in a microwave frame D1 to D3 bytes A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth in a microwave frame A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth

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Channel Type Network management system (NMS) port

Port Type NMS port

Description All bandwidths at the NMS port

NOTE

DCCs take precedence over inband DCNs for microwave links.

Data Link Layer (Using Inband DCNs)


Using inband DCNs, the data link layer ensures reliable data transmission across physical links using PPPoE and PPP protocols. l PPPoE implements the following functions: Establishes point-to-point connections. Establishes PPP interfaces. Encapsulates PPP packets into MAC frames for transmission to peer NEs. l PPP implements the following functions: Controls link establishment, termination, and monitoring. Coordinates the formats and types of network layer data packets. Uses the handshake mechanism to ensure packet transmission. To distinguish inband DCN packets from service packets and to control the bandwidth of inband DCN packets, the data link layer also performs the following functions: l l Adds a VLAN ID to inband DCN packets. The VLAN ID, also called the management VLAN ID, distinguishes inband DCN packets from service packets. Uses a buffering queue to control the bandwidth of inband DCN packets in the transmit direction of an Ethernet port. By default, the bandwidth value is 512 kbit/s, but can be changed as required. Transmits higher-priority inband DCN packets first.

Data Link Layer (Using DCCs)


Using DCCs, NEs implement data link layer functions using PPP (complying with RFC 1661).

Network Layer
The network layer specifies the network layer address for a network entity and provides transferring and addressing functions. NEs implement network layer functions using the IP protocol, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).

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Transport Layer
The transport layer provides end-to-end communication services for the upper layer. An NE supports connection-oriented TCP and connectionless UDP.

Routing Protocol
Routes are classified into three types according to their sources: l l l Direct route A direct route is discovered by a data link layer protocol. Static route A static route is manually configured by a network administrator. Dynamic route A dynamic route is discovered by a routing protocol. Routing protocols belong to the application layer. NEs support 1.3.2.2 OSPF.

1.3.2.2 OSPF
The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol, developed by the IETF, is a link-state Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP).

Introduction
OSPF is a link-state dynamic routing protocol that divides an autonomous system (AS) into several areas. Routers within an area exchange routing information with each other, while routers at the edge of an area gather and exchange routing information with routers in other areas. Areas are identified by area IDs, and routers are identified by router IDs, both of which use the same format as IP addresses. OSPF has the following characteristics: l l l l Divides an AS into one or multiple logical areas. Advertises routes by sending link-state advertisements (LSAs). Synchronizes routing information by exchanging OSPF packets between routers in OSPF areas. Encapsulates OSPF packets in IP packets and then unicasts or broadcasts these packets.

OSPF Route Calculation


The following principles describe how OSPF routes are calculated: l l Each OSPF router generates an LSA based on its surrounding network topology and sends the LSA to other OSPF routers through link state update (LSU) packets. Each OSPF router collects LSAs sent from other routers to form a link state database (LSDB). An LSA describes the network topology surrounding a router, while an LSDB describes the network topology of an entire AS. An OSPF router transforms an LSDB into a weighted directed graph. The graph reflects the topology of the entire network and is identical on all routers on the network.
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Each OSPF router generates its own routing table in the AS from this graph by calculating a tree of shortest paths with itself as the root.

OSPF Packet Types


Table 1-8 OSPF packet types Packet Type Hello packet Database Description (DD) packet Function Hello packets are sent periodically to discover and maintain OSPF adjacency. DD packets carry brief information about the local LSDB and are used to synchronize the LSDBs of two routers. LSR packets are used to request desired LSAs from neighbors. LSR packets are sent only after DD packets are exchanged successfully. LSU packet Link state acknowledgement (LSAck) packet LSU packets are used to send LSAs to neighbors. LSAck packets are used to acknowledge that LSAs have been received.

Link state request (LSR) packet

OSPF Areas
If the majority of routers on a large-scale network run OSPF, the LSDB will become extremely large and occupy substantial memory. This may complicate shortest path first (SPF) algorithm operations and lead to router overload. Network expansion also increases the probability of topological changes, causing all routers on the network to recalculate routes and can lead to "turbulence". Meanwhile, the network's bandwidth utilization is constrained due to the large number of OSPF packets being transmitted across the network. The OSPF protocol resolves the preceding problems by dividing an AS into different areas. See Figure 1-14. l Area An area is a router group in an AS and is uniquely identified by an area ID. At the border of each area resides a router, rather than a link. A network segment (or link) belongs only to a single area. Each port running OSPF must specify explicitly to which area it belongs. l Backbone area Areas on a divided OSPF network are not always equal. The area with an area ID of 0 is called the backbone area. A backbone area is responsible for forwarding routing information between it and a non-backbone area and also routing information between nonbackbone areas. OSPF defines two rules for a backbone area: Connectivity must be available between non-backbone areas and the backbone area.
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Connectivity must be available over the backbone area. Figure 1-14 OSPF areas and router types
Static route ASBR Area 4

Area 1 Internal router Area 0

Backbon e router

Area 2

ABR

Area 3

Router Types
Table 1-9 lists common router types defined in OSPF. Figure 1-14 illustrates different router positions on a network. Table 1-9 Router types Router Type Internal router (IR) Area border router (ABR) Description All ports on an internal router belong to the same OSPF area. An ABR can belong to two or more areas, one of which must be the backbone area. An ABR is used to connect non-backbone areas to the backbone area using physical or virtual connections.
NOTE OptiX RTN 310 does not support virtual connections.

Backbone router

At least one port on a backbone router belongs to the backbone area. All ABRs and internal routers in area 0 are backbone routers.

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Router Type Autonomous system boundary router (ASBR)

Description An ASBR exchanges routing information with other ASs. An ASBR may not reside on the border of an AS. It can be an internal router or an ABR. If an OSPF router imports external routes, the router is an ASBR.

LSA Types
Table 1-10 OSPF LSA types LSA Type Type-1 LSA Name Router-LSA Function Generated by all routers, this LSA describes the link state and link cost of a router and is advertised only throughout a single area. Generated by designated routers (DRs), this LSA describes the link states of all routers on the local network segment and is advertised only throughout a single area. Generated by ABRs, this LSA describes routes on a specific network segment and is advertised throughout the LSA's associated areas. Generated by ABRs, this LSA describes routes to an ASBR and is advertised throughout the LSA's associated areas except the area to which the ASBR belongs. Generated by ASBRs, this LSA describes routes to a destination outside an AS and is advertised throughout all areas except stub areas and not-so-stubby areas (NSSAs). Generated by ASBRs, this LSA describes routes to a destination outside an AS and is advertised only in NSSAs. This LSA provides a general mechanism for OSPF extension. Type-9 LSAs are advertised on the network segment where ports reside. Type-10 LSAs are advertised throughout an area. Type-11 LSAs are advertised in an AS.

Type-2

Network-LSA

Type-3

Network-summaryLSA ASBR-summaryLSA

Type-4

Type-5

AS-external-LSA

Type-7

NSSA LSA

Type-9/Type-10/ Type-11

Opaque LSA

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NOTE

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l The NMS port on an OptiX RTN 310 supports DR election and advertises network-LSAs, whereas other ports on the OptiX RTN 310 advertise router-LSAs. l OptiX RTN 310 does not support Type-9 or Type-11 LSAs.

Stub Areas
A stub area is a special area where ABRs do not flood routes originating from outside the AS. In a stub area, both the routing table size and the transmitted routing information are reduced. A stub area is configurable, is generally a non-backbone area with only one ABR, and is located on the border of an AS. Therefore, not all areas can be configured as stub areas. To ensure reachability to destinations outside the AS, an ABR in a stub area generates a default route and advertises it to non-ABR routers. Note the following points when configuring a stub area: l l l A backbone area cannot be configured as a stub area. An ASBR must not exist in a stub area to prevent external routes from being flooded to the stub area. Virtual connections cannot pass through stub areas.

NSSA
NSSAs are defined in much the same manner as stub areas. An NSSA does not import ASexternal-LSAs (Type-5 LSAs). An ASBR in an NSSA generates Type-7 LSAs and advertises these LSAs only throughout the NSSA. When Type-7 LSAs reach an ABR in an NSSA, the ABR translates them into Type-5 LSAs and floods them to other areas. The ABR responsible for translating LSAs is called a translator. Similar to a stub area, an NSSA cannot be configured with virtual connections.

Area Route Aggregation


Area route aggregation (or ABR aggregation) is a process in which an ABR aggregates routes with the same prefix and advertises only a single aggregated route to other areas. The area route aggregation process is described as follows: An ABR generates Type-3 LSAs by network segment and sends the LSAs to other areas. Specifically, the ABR advertises only a single aggregated LSA to other areas, instead of all LSAs on a network segment. This method reduces routing traffic between areas and the routing table size, conserving system resources. As shown in Figure 1-15, there are four intra-area routes in area 1: 129.10.0.3, 129.10.0.4, 129.10.0.5, and 129.10.0.6. If route aggregation is configured and enabled on router A, the four routes are aggregated into one single route: 129.10.0.0. Router A then generates only one aggregated LSA and advertises it to other routers in area 0.

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Figure 1-15 Area route aggregation

NE IP: 129.9.0.1/16

NE IP: 129.9.0.2/16

NE IP: 129.10.0.3/16

NE IP: 129.10.0.6/16

129.10.0.0/16 Area 0 Area 0: 0.0.0.0 Network for area 0: 129.9.0.0/16 NE IP: 129.10.0.4/16 NE IP: 129.10.0.5/16 Area 1

Area 1: 0.0.0.1 Network for area 1: 129.10.0.0/16

OptiX RTN 310 supports both automatic and manual area route aggregation. l l Automatic aggregation An ABR automatically aggregates routes by network. Manual aggregation An ABR aggregates routes based on manually specified aggregation criteria.

Area, Network, and Port IP Address


For area route aggregation, one or more networks must be configured for an area. A network must be an IP network segment. A network belongs to only one area, and networks in different areas cannot overlap each other. After OSPF is enabled for a port, OSPF uses the port's IP address to find the mapping network. When the mapping network is found, the port is automatically added to the area for which the mapping network is configured. If no mapping network is found, the port will not run OSPF. OptiX RTN 310 has the following requirements: l l l l In a non-backbone area, all ports on a router use the router's IP address. The backbone area port on an ABR uses the ABR's IP address. All ports on a backbone router use the router's IP address. The IP address of the NMS port on an ABR must be on the same network segment as the backbone area. The non-backbone area ports on an ABR must use independent IP addresses, which must map to networks configured for the area where the non-backbone area ports reside.

Figure 1-16 illustrates allocation of areas, networks, router IP addresses, and port IP addresses on a data communication network (DCN) divided into several OSPF areas.

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Figure 1-16 Allocation of areas, networks, router IP addresses, and port IP addresses on a DCN
Area 1: 0.0.0.1 Network for area 1: 129.10.0.0/16 Router IP address: 129.10.0.6/16 Router IP address: 129.9.0.5/16 Area 2: 0.0.0.2 Network for area 2: 129.11.0.0/16 Router IP address: 129.11.0.8/16 Router IP address: 129.9.0.7/16 Area 2

Area 1

Port IP address: 129.10.0.1/16

Router IP address: 129.9.0.2/16 Router IP address: 129.9.0.3/16 Area 0

Router IP address: 129.9.0.1/16 Router IP address: 129.9.0.4/16

Port IP address: 129.11.0.1/16

Area 0: 0.0.0.0 Network for area 0: 129.9.0.0/16

Default OSPF Routes


Default OSPF routes are routes whose destination addresses and masks are all 0s. If a router does not find accurate mapping routes for received packets, it forwards packets along these default routes. Default OSPF routes are generally used in the following scenarios: l l An ABR advertises default Type-3 summary LSAs to instruct internal routers to forward packets between areas. An ASBR advertises default Type-5 ASE LSAs or default Type-7 NSSA LSAs to instruct internal routers to forward packets out of the AS.
NOTE

Default Type-3 LSAs have a higher priority than default Type-5 or Type-7 LSAs.

Table 1-11 describes the rules for advertising default routes in different areas. Table 1-11 Rules for advertising default OSPF routes Area Common area Function After being configured, an ASBR generates a default autonomy system-external (ASE) LSA (Type-5 LSA) and advertises it to the entire AS. An ABR automatically generates a default summary LSA (Type-3 LSA) and advertises it to the entire stub area.
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Area NSSA area

Function l If a default route is expected to reach another area through an ABR, the NSSA ABR must be configured to generate a default NSSA LSA (Type-7 LSA) and advertise it to the entire NSSA. l If a default route is expected to reach another area through an NSSA ASBR, the NSSA ASBR must be configured to generate a default NSSA LSA (Type-7 LSA) and advertise it to the entire NSSA.
NOTE When an OptiX RTN 310 functions as an NSSA ABR or NSSA ASBR, it cannot generate default routes even if it is manually configured.

Route Import
The route importing process is also known as route flooding. OSPF allows routes learned by other routing protocols to be imported and flooded within an AS. OptiX RTN 310 allows three types of external routes to be imported: default OSPF routes, direct routes, and static routes.
NOTE

l By default, only the direct route (with the OSPF protocol enabled at the ports at both ends of the route) between two NEs within an area can function as an LSA for calculating routes. To include an external route in route calculation, enable OSPF route flooding to flood the external route to the other NEs. l External routes are not advertised throughout a stub area. l In an NSSA, imported external routes are not advertised, but external routes imported by an NSSA ASBR are advertised using Type-7 LSAs. After receiving Type-7 LSAs, the NSSA ABR converts them into Type-5 LSAs and advertises them to other areas.

Route Classification
OSPF classifies routes into four types (in descending order of priority): l l l l Intra-area route Inter-area route Type-1 external route Type-2 external route

Intra-area and inter-area routes describe the AS internal network topology, whereas external routes describe routes to destinations outside the AS. OSPF classifies imported AS external routes into Type-1 external routes and Type-2 external routes. OptiX RTN 310 supports only Type-1 external routes.

OSPF Packet Authentication


OSPF supports packet authentication. Only authenticated OSPF packets are received; if authentication fails, OSPF neighbors cannot be established. OptiX RTN 310 supports two authentication modes:
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l l

Authentication by area Authentication by port type

Authentication by port type is the preferred option.

1.3.2.3 Proxy ARP


Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) enables NEs on the same network segment but different LANs to communicate with each other. If two NEs on the same network segment want to communicate, the source NE sends ARP broadcast packets to the target NE to address the route. If the NEs are on different LANs, the target NE cannot receive MAC-layer broadcast packets from the source NE. To solve this problem, a transfer NE with proxy ARP enabled (proxy NE) is required. The proxy NE checks the routing table after detecting an ARP broadcast packet. If the routing table contains the target address of the ARP broadcast packet, the proxy NE returns an ARP spoofing packet, indicating that its MAC address is that of the target NE. The proxy NE will then receive and forward packets to the target NE through the usual IP routing mechanisms. Figure 1-17 provides an example to illustrate how proxy ARP implements communication between third-party equipment and a third-party network management system (NMS). In this example, the third-party NMS and a third-party gateway NE (NE 4) are on the same network segment (130.9.0.0), and the third-party NMS and NE 5 access the OptiX transmission network through a LAN. The IP addresses of NE 1 and NE 4 are also on the 130.9.0.0 network segment. To enable communication between the third-party NMS and NE 4, enable proxy ARP for NE 1 and NE 4. Configure a static route to the third-party NMS on NE 1, and configure a static route to NE 5 on NE 4. On NE 1 and NE 4, enable route flooding. Figure 1-17 Example of proxy ARP
Third-party NMS Proxy ARP enabled NE 1 Proxy ARP enabled NE 4

NE 2

NE 3

NE 5 130.9.0.5

NE 6

130.9.0.100 130.9.0.1

129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3

130.9.0.4

130.9.0.6

Third-party equipment

Microwave link

Ethernet link

The involved routes are described as follows: l The OptiX transmission network uses the IP data communication network (DCN) solution, and all the NEs are in the same Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) area. Therefore, routes are available between NE 1, NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4. Due to route flooding provided by OSPF, NE 1 keeps the routes to NE 5, and NE 4 keeps the routes to the third-party NMS. When communicating with NE 5, the third-party NMS broadcasts the ARP packet that addresses routes to NE 5. After NE 1 is enabled with ARP proxy, it sends an ARP spoofing packet to the third-party NMS, and the third-party NMS sends the ARP packet to NE 1 instead of NE 5. Then, NE 1, NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 forward the packet until it reaches NE
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l l

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5. Similarly, the packet is transmitted from NE 5 to the third-party NMS over the correct routes.
NOTE

l Configure static routes and enable route flooding on NE 1 and NE 4. Otherwise, NE 1 and NE 4 keep only the local routes to the 130.9.0.0 network segment. If this occurs, NE 3 will not keep the routes to the third-party NMS, and NE 1 will not keep the routes to NE 5. l If the third-party NMS has a static route to NE 5 (the gateway IP address is NE 1's IP address) and NE 5 has a route to the third-party NMS (the gateway IP address is NE 4's IP address), you do not need to enable proxy ARP for NE 1 or NE 4.

1.3.2.4 NMS Access Modes


In IP data communication network (DCN), two modes are available for a network management system (NMS) to access an NE: gateway access mode and direct access mode.

Gateway Access Mode


In gateway access mode, an NMS accesses a non-gateway NE through a gateway NE. The gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer, based on the ID of the destination NE, to obtain the desired routes. The core routing table synthesizes the transport layer routing tables of all communication protocol stacks. Each routing entry includes the following information: l l l l ID of the destination NE Address of the transit NE Communication protocol stack of the transit NE Transit hop count

Figure 1-18 NMS packet forwarding (gateway access mode)


Application TCP IP TCP IP Application UDP IP PPP Ethernet Ethernet
DCC/ Inband DCN

Application UDP IP PPP


DCC/ Inband DCN

IP PPP
DCC/ Inband DCN

NMS

Gateway NE

Transit NE

Destination NE

NOTE

In gateway access mode, a gateway NE and its non-gateway NEs must be in the same Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) area.

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Direct Access Mode


In direct access mode, an NMS accesses an NE by considering it a gateway NE. To obtain the desired routes, transit NEs on the access path query the IP routing table of the network layer according to the IP address of the destination NE. The IP routing table is generated based on routing protocols. It includes both the dynamic routes generated by routing protocols and the static routes configured by users. Each routing entry includes the following information: l l l l Destination IP address Subnet mask Gateway IP address Port

When an NMS applies the direct access mode to access an NE, an IP route must be available between the NMS and the NE. In IP DCN, an NMS can access any NE using the direct access mode. In other words, the NMS can consider any NE as a gateway NE. However, to improve communication efficiency, the NMS should not access a large number of NEs in direct access mode. Figure 1-19 NMS packet forwarding (direct access mode)
Application TCP IP IP PPP
DCC/ Inband DCN

Application UDP IP PPP


DCC/ Inband DCN

IP PPP
DCC/ Inband DCN

Ethernet

Ethernet

NMS

Transit NE

Transit NE

Destination NE

1.3.2.5 Access Control


The access control function enables an OptiX RTN 310 to connect to a network management system (NMS) through its GE port.

Connecting to an NMS Through a Third-Party Service Network


Figure 1-20 illustrates a typical scenario in which an OptiX RTN 310 connects to an NMS through a third-party service network. When transmitting Ethernet services, the packet switched network (PSN) also transmits data communication network (DCN) packets between the NMS and the gateway NE. In this instance, the access control function can be enabled on the GE port of the gateway NE.
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Figure 1-20 Access control (OptiX RTN 310 connecting to an NMS through a third-party service network)
NMS DCN packets

LAN switch

PSN GE port Access control enabled

Router

Ethernet services

After you enable the access control function on the GE port: l l l The GE port functions as an NMS port on the gateway NE. You can specify the IP address of the GE port according to the requirements of the PSN. This IP address cannot be on the same segment as the IP address of the local NE. The DCN packets transmitted/received at the GE port carry a VLAN ID used for inband DCN. Before a DCN packet arrives at the NMS, its VLAN ID needs to be stripped off by an NE such as the LAN switch in Figure 1-20. The NMS can communicate with the gateway NE based on the IP address of the GE port on which the access control function is enabled.

Connecting to a Web LCT Through a GE Port


Figure 1-21 illustrates a typical scenario in which an OptiX RTN 310 connects to a Web LCT through its GE port. Generally, a Web LCT is used for OptiX RTN 310 onsite maintenance. At sites that do not have power injectors (PIs) installed, maintenance personnel must climb towers to connect OptiX RTN 310s to Web LCTs. To avoid climbing towers, maintenance personnel can instead disconnect the Ethernet service cable between an OptiX RTN 310 and a NodeB, connect the Ethernet service cable to a Web LCT, and then enable access control on the GE port on the OptiX RTN 310.

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Figure 1-21 Access control (OptiX RTN 310 connecting to a Web LCT through its GE port)

NodeB 1 GE port Access control enabled

Web LCT GE port

NOTE

l An OptiX RTN 310 can connect to a Web LCT through its GE port only if its GE port functions as an electrical port. l A VLAN ID can be added to and stripped from DCN packets only after you install a drive and specify the VLAN ID on the computer on which the Web LCT is installed.

1.3.3 Specifications
This section lists the IP data communication network (DCN) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 1-12 IP DCN specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item DCN channel type Microwave port Hitless switch mode (HSM) port Microwave port GE port Number of data communications channel (DCC) bytes that a microwave port supports
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Specifications 3 bytes (D1-D3) 3 bytes (D1-D3) A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth in a microwave frame A portion of Ethernet service bandwidth 3 bytes (D1-D3)

Inband DCN channel type

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Item Inband DCN Range of used VLAN IDs Bandwidth range Route type

Specifications 2 to 4094, with the default value of 4094 64 kbit/s to 1000 kbit/s. This parameter is set based on the channel type. l Direct route l Static route l Dynamic route

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Router type

l Internal router (IR) l Area border router (ABR) l Backbone router l Autonomous system boundary router (ASBR)

OSPF global parameters

The following parameters are configurable: l Router ID (NE IP address by default) l Packet timer

OSPF area parameters

The following parameters are configurable: l Area ID l Authentication by area (message digest algorithm 5 authentication, simple authentication, or no authentication) l Stub type (non-stub, stub, or not-so-stubby area) l Network l Area route aggregation (automatic aggregation, manual aggregation, or no aggregation)
NOTE If an NE belongs to only one area, the NE allows only the area ID, authentication mode, and stub type to be set. When functioning as an ABR, the NE allows only parameters related to the authentication mode for the backbone area to be set.

OSPF port parameters (microwave port)

The following parameters are configurable: l OSPF enabled/disabled (enabled by default) l Type-10 link-state advertisement (LSA) enabled/disabled (enabled by default) l Port IP address (If not specified, the NE IP address is used.)

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Item OSPF port parameters (NMS port, where NMS stands for network management system)

Specifications The following parameters are configurable: l OSPF enabled/disabled (disabled by default) l Type-10 LSA enabled/disabled (enabled by default)
NOTE The port IP address is always the NE IP address.

OSPF port parameters (inband DCN port)

The following parameters are configurable: l Port IP address (If not specified, the NE IP address is used.)
NOTE OSPF and Type-10 LSA are always enabled.

OSPF route flooding

The following types of external routes can be imported: l Direct routes l Static routes l Default routes
NOTE After OSPF route flooding is enabled for an NE, the function applies to all areas to which the NE belongs.

Maximum number of areas supported by an ABR Maximum number of areas on an entire network Maximum number of nodes in an area Maximum number of nodes in the area that directly connects to an ABR Maximum number of nodes on a network that is divided into multiple OSPF areas Maximum number of networks in an area Number of aggregated routes in an area

30

200 200

1000

4 l For automatic aggregation, this is the same as the number of networks. l For manual aggregation, the maximum is eight.

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Item Virtual connection Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) NMS access mode

Specifications Not supported Supported l Gateway access mode l Direct access mode

Access control DCN subnet scale

Supported A maximum of 150 NEs are supported.

1.3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with IP data communication network (DCN). l l l l l IETF RFC 1587: The OSPF NSSA Option IETF RFC 1661: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) IETF RFC 1027: Using ARP to Implement Transparent Subnet Gateways IETF RFC 2328: OSPF Version 2 IETF RFC 2370: The OSPF Opaque LSA Option

1.3.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the IP data communication network (DCN) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 1-13 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name IP DCN solution supported by data communications channels (DCCs) IP DCN solution supported by inband DCN Port Microwave port Hitless switch mode (HSM) port Microwave port GE port Hardware Version Any version Any version Any version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later V100R001C01 or later V100R001C00 or later V100R001C00 or later

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Feature Name IP DCN solution supported by network management system (NMS) ports Access control

Port NMS port

Hardware Version Any version

Product Version V100R001C00 or later

GE port

Any version

V100R001C00 or later

1.3.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of IP data communication network (DCN). Table 1-14 Dependencies and limitations of IP DCN Item Self-limitations Description l For multi-area Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), the IP addresses of network management system (NMS) ports on area border routers (ABRs) must belong to the backbone area. l For multi-area OSPF, non-backbone areas must communicate with backbone areas. l A network configured for an area must be an IP address with a subnet mask consisting of no more than 30 bits. The inband DCN function and access control function must both be disabled for a GE electrical port when: l The GE electrical port is involved in DCN division. l The GE electrical port is configured with DCN passthrough. Dependencie s and limitations between IP DCN and other features Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) The IP DCN protocol stack can communicate with the HWECC protocol stack only when they operate in the same area.

Link LAG protection can be implemented on ports enabled with aggregation access control. Access control must be enabled for the master group (LAG) and slave ports in a LAG group, and an IP address must be configured for the master port.

1.3.7 Principles
This section describes the principles of IP data communication network (DCN).
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Transferring Packets in Gateway Access Mode


Figure 1-22 illustrates how packets are transferred from a network management system (NMS) to a non-gateway NE when the NMS obtains access to the NE through a gateway NE. Figure 1-22 Process of transferring packets in gateway access mode
Application TCP IP TCP IP Application UDP IP PPP Ethernet Ethernet
DCC/ Inband DCN

Application UDP IP PPP


DCC/ Inband DCN

IP PPP
DCC/ Inband DCN

NMS

Gateway NE

Transit NE

Destination NE

The working principles of IP DCN are as follows: 1. 2. 3. The NMS transfers application layer packets to the gateway NE through the TCP connection. The gateway NE extracts packets from the TCP/IP protocol stack and delivers them to its application layer. The application layer of the gateway NE queries the destination NE address of the packets. If the address does not belong to the gateway NE, the gateway NE queries the core routing table of the application layer. The gateway NE obtains the route to the destination NE and the communication protocol stack of the transit NE according to the destination NE address. Because the transit NE in Figure 1-22 uses the IP communication protocol stack, the gateway NE transfers the packets to the transit NE through the IP protocol stack. The network layer of the transit NE queries the destination IP address of the packets. If the address does not belong to the transit NE, the transit NE queries the IP routing table to obtain the route to the destination NE and then transfers the packets. The network layer of the destination NE passes the packets to its application layer through the transport layer because the destination IP address of the packets is the same as the IP address of the destination NE. The application layer then processes the packets.

4.

5.

Transferring Packets in Direct Access Mode


Figure 1-23 illustrates how packets are transferred from an NMS to a destination NE when the NMS connects directly to the NE.

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Figure 1-23 Implementation principles for transferring packets in direct access mode
Application TCP IP IP PPP
DCC/ Inband DCN

Application UDP IP PPP


DCC/ Inband DCN

IP PPP
DCC/ Inband DCN

Ethernet

Ethernet

NMS

Transit NE

Transit NE

Destination NE

Unlike the gateway access mode, the original gateway NE acts as an ordinary transit NE, and packets are transferred at the network layer in direct access mode.

1.3.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning IP data communication network (DCN).
NOTE

In the planning guidelines, OptiX equipment refers to Huawei OptiX transmission equipment that supports IP DCN.

1.3.8.1 General Planning Guidelines


This section provides general guidelines for planning IP data communication network (DCN) in various scenarios.
NOTE

This section focuses on the differences between the guidelines for planning IP DCN and the guidelines for planning Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC). For their similarities, such as guidelines for planning external DCNs, NE IDs, and access control, see 1.2.8 Planning Guidelines for HWECC.

Planning Guidelines for DCN Channels


l If NEs on a network connect through microwave links, use the default data communications channel (DCC) bytes in microwave frames as data communication network (DCN) channels. If higher DCN channel bandwidth is required, ensure that the NEs use inband DCN channels. When inband DCN channels are used, DCC channels must be disabled. If NEs on a network connect through GE links, ensure that the NEs use inband DCN channels. If an NE connects to third-party equipment, ensure that the NE does not use inband DCN channels. When inband DCN channels are used, plan DCN channels as follows: Ensure that all the NEs use the same management VLAN ID and that the management VLAN ID is different from Ethernet service VLAN IDs. The default management VLAN ID 4094 is recommended.
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Generally, the inband DCN bandwidth is 512 kbit/s (default value). When the DCN channels over a convergence GE link are used as inband DCN channels, you can increase the inband DCN bandwidth to 1 Mbit/s. Generally, inband DCN packets use their default priority. If required, you can change the VLAN priority or differentiated services code point (DSCP) value of inband DCN packets according to the network plan.

Planning Guidelines for NE IP Addresses


l l l Plan the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway of the NE connected to an external DCN in compliance with the requirements for planning external DCNs. The IP addresses of the NEs connected through network management system (NMS) ports should be on the same network segment. When a network uses multiple Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) areas, plan the NE IP addresses as follows: Plan the NE IP address of an area border router (ABR) by considering the ABR as a backbone NE. Ensure that the IP addresses of NEs in different areas (including backbone and nonbackbone areas) are on different network segments. If possible, ensure that the IP addresses of NEs in the same area are on the same network segment. If special NE IP addresses are required, the IP addresses of NEs in the same area can belong to different network segments.

Planning Guidelines for Routes in a Single OSPF Area


l l A DCN subnet should use only a single OSPF area when the DCN subnet contains less than or equal to 64 NEs with OSPF enabled. If a network has only OptiX equipment, configure only a single OSPF area as follows: Plan the NE connected to the external DCN as a gateway NE and the other NEs as nongateway NEs. Ensure that the area ID, packet timer, and router ID of each NE use their default values. l If a network has both OptiX equipment and third-party equipment and if the OptiX equipment provides channels for transparently transmitting third-party network management information, configure only a single OSPF area as follows: Plan the OptiX NE connected to the external DCN as a gateway NE of the OptiX NEs and the other OptiX NEs as non-gateway NEs. Ensure that the area ID, packet timer, and router ID of each NE use their default values. On the OptiX gateway NE, configure a static route to the third-party NMS and enable static route flooding. On the OptiX NE connected to the third-party gateway NE, configure a static route to the third-party gateway NE and enable static route flooding. If the third-party NMS and the third-party gateway NE are on the same network segment, enable proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) on the OptiX NE connected to the third-party gateway NE. If the OptiX gateway NE is also on the same network segment, enable proxy ARP on the OptiX gateway NE. l If a network has both OptiX and third-party equipment and they transmit OSPF packets to each other, configure only a single OSPF area as follows:
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Plan the OptiX NE closest to the external DCN as a gateway NE and the other OptiX NEs as non-gateway NEs. Configure the area ID, packet timer, area type, and router ID for each OptiX NE in compliance with the requirements for third-party NEs. On the NE connected to the external DCN, configure a static route to Huawei NMS and a static route to the third-party NMS, and enable static route flooding.

Planning Guidelines for Multiple OSPF Areas


l l A DCN subnet should use multiple OSPF areas when the DCN subnet contains more than 64 NEs with OSPF enabled. If a network has only OptiX equipment, configure multiple OSPF areas as follows: Divide the network into several areas based on the network architecture. Ensure that each area contains 64 NEs or less. A network should ideally have 10 or fewer areas, but no more than 30 areas. The OptiX equipment does not support virtual connections. Therefore, ensure that each non-backbone area connects to the backbone area. Do not connect an ABR to a non-backbone router through the NMS port. Configure at least one gateway NE in each area. In the backbone area, configure the NE connected to the external DCN as a gateway NE and the other NEs (except for ABRs) as non-gateway NEs. Configure each ABR as a gateway NE. If a non-backbone area has only an ABR, configure the other NEs in the area as non-gateway NEs. If an area has multiple ABRs, configure the other NEs as non-gateway NEs, an ABR as the master gateway NE, and the other ABRs as backup gateway NEs. Configure an IP address for a port on an ABR connected to an internal router (IR) in the same area. Ensure that the IP addresses of ports in different areas are on different network segments. You can configure the IP addresses of the ports in the same area so they are on the same network segment. Configure port IP addresses and IR IP addresses of the same area on the same network segment. On an ABR, ensure the network configured for each area covers only the network segments to which the port IP addresses in this area belong. The network configured for an area should cover the network segments to which IR IP addresses in the area belong. Ensure that an area has four networks or less. Ensure that the packet timer and router ID use their default values. On the NE connected to the external DCN, configure a static route to the NMS and enable static route flooding. If none of the networks configured for all areas overlap, enable automatic route aggregation to decrease the number of routing table entries. Alternatively, manually aggregate some network segments that can be aggregated. l If a network has both OptiX and third-party equipment and if the OptiX equipment provides channels for transparently transmitting third-party network management information, configure multiple OSPF areas as follows (You must also follow the guidelines given above for planning multiple OSPF areas when a network has only OptiX equipment): On the OptiX NE connected to the external DCN, configure a static route to the thirdparty NMS and enable static route flooding.
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On the OptiX NE connected to the third-party gateway NE, configure a static route to the third-party gateway NE and enable static route flooding. If the third-party NMS and the third-party gateway NE are on the same network segment, enable proxy ARP on the OptiX NE connected to the third-party gateway NE. If the OptiX NE connected to the external DCN is also on the same network segment, enable proxy ARP on the OptiX NE. l If a network has both OptiX and third-party equipment and they transmit OSPF packets to each other, configure multiple OSPF areas as follows (You must also follow the guidelines given above for planning multiple OSPF areas when a network has only OptiX equipment): Plan third-party NEs as OptiX NEs. Rather than dividing the OptiX NEs into one area and the third-party NEs to another area, leave OSPF interaction implemented in the backbone area. Configure the packet timer and router ID in compliance with requirements for thirdparty NEs. Configure a static route to the third-party gateway NE and enable static route flooding on the OptiX NE connected to the third-party gateway NE.

Planning Guidelines for DCN Subnets


l l l l CPU resource usage increases as the number of NEs on a DCN subnet increases. Plan the number of NEs in a DCN subnet based on network conditions. A DCN subnet should ideally have 120 or fewer NEs, but no more than 150 NEs. If a DCN subnet has more than 150 NEs, divide the DCN subnet into several independent subnets, and disable the DCN channels between the subnets. If possible, select either the central node of a star network or the NE connected to the most DCN channels as the NE connected to an external DCN.

1.3.8.2 Planning Guidelines for NE IP Addresses and Routes in Typical Network Topologies
If operators do not have special requirements for NE IP addresses, you can set IP addresses to simplify route settings. Plan NE IP addresses as follows: l l If a network has only OptiX NEs, the IP address of the gateway NE and the IP addresses of non-gateway NEs must be on different network segments. If a network has both OptiX and third-party NEs, the IP addresses of the OptiX gateway NE, the IP addresses of the OptiX non-gateway NEs not connected to a third-party NE, and the IP address of the third-party gateway NE must be on different network segments. The IP addresses of the OptiX non-gateway NEs connected to a third-party NE and the thirdparty gateway NE must be on the same network segment.

Guidelines for planning NE IP addresses and routes in typical network topologies are described in the following section.

Network Comprising Only OptiX NEs, with the IP Addresses of the NMS and Gateway NE on the Same Network Segment
Figure 1-24 illustrates a network comprising only OptiX NEs. On the network, the IP addresses of the network management system (NMS) and gateway NE are on the same network segment.
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Figure 1-24 Diagram for planning NE IP addresses and routes (a network comprising only OptiX NEs, with the IP addresses of the NMS and gateway NE on the same network segment)

NMS

NE 1

NE 2

NE 3

NE 4

130.9.0.100

130.9.0.1 Ethernet link

129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3 Microwave link

129.9.0.4

In Figure 1-24: l l The IP address of the gateway NE (NE 1) belongs to the network segment 130.9.0.0, and the IP addresses of the non-gateway NEs belong to the segment 129.9.0.0. If the NMS requests direct access to a non-gateway NE (NE 2 or NE 3), configure a static route from the NMS to the network segment 129.9.0.0, or set the IP address of NE 1 (130.9.0.1) as the default gateway.

Network Comprising Only OptiX NEs, with the IP Addresses of the NMS and Gateway NE on Different Network Segments
Figure 1-25 illustrates a network comprising only OptiX NEs. On the network, the IP addresses of the NMS and gateway NE are on different network segments. Figure 1-25 Diagram for planning NE IP addresses and routes (a network comprising only OptiX NEs, with the IP addresses of the NMS and gateway NE on different network segments)

NMS

10.2.0.200 RT 1

10.2.0.100 NE 1 RT 2 130.9.0.100 130.9.0.1 129.9.0.2 129.9.0.3 Microwave link 129.9.0.4 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4

Ethernet link

In Figure 1-25:
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l l l l

The IP address of the gateway NE (NE 1) belongs to the network segment 130.9.0.0, and the IP addresses of the non-gateway NEs belong to the segment 129.9.0.0. On NE 1, configure a static route to the NMS (10.2.0.100), or set the IP address of RT 2 (130.9.0.100) as the default gateway. On the NMS, configure a static route to NE 1 (130.9.0.1), or set the IP address of RT 1 (10.2.0.200) as the default gateway. If the NMS requests direct access to a non-gateway NE (NE 2, NE 3, or NE 4), perform the following configurations in addition to the preceding ones: On NE 1, enable Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) route flooding, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 can obtain routes to the NMS. On the NMS, configure a static route to the network segment 129.9.0.0. Skip this operation if the default gateway has been configured. Configure routes from RT 1 and RT 2 to the network segment 129.9.0.0.

Network Comprising OptiX and Third-Party NEs, with the IP Addresses of the Third-Party NMS and OptiX Gateway NE on the Same Network Segment (No OSPF Interaction)
Figure 1-26 illustrates a network comprising OptiX and third-party NEs. On the network, the IP addresses of the third-party NMS and OptiX gateway NE are on the same network segment, and the OptiX NEs do not use OSPF to communicate with the third-party NEs. Figure 1-26 Diagram for planning NE IP addresses and routes (a network comprising OptiX and third-party NEs, with the IP addresses of the third-party NMS and OptiX gateway NE on the same network segment)
NMS

130.9.0.100 Third-party NMS

External DCN
NE 5 NE 1 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4 NE 6

130.9.0.200 130.9.0.1 129.9.0.2 129.9.0.3 131.9.0.4 131.9.0.5 131.9.0.6

Ethernet link

Microwave link

Third-party equipment

Compared with the scenario where a network comprises only OptiX NEs and the IP addresses of the NMS and gateway NE are on the same network segment, planning NE IP addresses and routes for this scenario has the following characteristics: l The IP addresses of the gateway NE (NE 1), non-gateway NEs (NE 2 and NE 3, which do not connect to a third-party NE), and third-party gateway NE (NE 5) are on the network segments 130.9.0.0, 129.9.0.0, and 131.9.0.0, respectively.
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l l l

The IP addresses of NE 4, a non-gateway NE connected to a third-party NE, and NE 5 are on the same network segment. On the third-party NMS, configure a static route to the third-party gateway NE (131.9.0.5), or set the IP address of NE 1 (130.9.0.1) as the default gateway. On NE 5, configure a static route to the third-party NMS (130.9.0.200), or set the IP address of NE 4 (131.9.0.4) as the default gateway.

Network Comprising OptiX and Third-Party NEs, with the IP Addresses of the Third-Party NMS and OptiX Gateway NE on Different Network Segments (No OSPF Interaction)
Figure 1-27 illustrates a network comprising OptiX and third-party NEs. On the network, the IP addresses of the third-party NMS and OptiX gateway NE are on different network segments, and the OptiX NEs do not use OSPF to communicate with the third-party NEs. Figure 1-27 Diagram for planning NE IP addresses and routes (a network comprising OptiX and third-party NEs, with the IP addresses of the third-party NMS and OptiX gateway NE on different network segments)
Third-party NMS 10.2.0.200 RT 1 10.2.0.100 130.9.0.100 RT 2 NE 5 NE 1 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4 NE 6

NMS

LAN swtich

130.9.0.1

129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3

131.9.0.4

131.9.0.5

131.9.0.6

130.9.0.200 Ethernet link Microwave link Third-party equipment

Compared with the scenario where a network comprises only OptiX NEs and the IP addresses of the NMS and gateway NE are on the same network segment, planning NE IP addresses and routes for this scenario has the following characteristics: l The IP addresses of the gateway NE (NE 1), non-gateway NEs (NE 2 and NE 3, which do not connect to a third-party NE), and third-party gateway NE (NE 5) are on the network segments 130.9.0.0, 129.9.0.0, and 131.9.0.0, respectively. The IP addresses of NE 4, a non-gateway NE connected to a third-party NE, and NE 5 are on the same network segment. On NE 1, configure a static route to the third-party NMS (10.2.0.100). On NE 1, enable OSPF route flooding, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 can obtain routes to the third-party NMS.
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l l l

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l l l

On the third-party NMS, configure a static route to the third-party gateway NE (131.9.0.5), or set the IP address of RT 1 (10.2.0.200) as the default gateway. On NE 5, configure a static route to the third-party NMS (10.2.0.100), or set the IP address of NE 4 (131.9.0.4) as the default gateway. Configure routes from RT 1 and RT 2 to the third-party gateway NE (131.9.0.5).

Network Comprising OptiX and Third-Party NEs, with the IP Addresses of the Third-Party NMS and OptiX Gateway NE on Different Network Segments (with OSPF Interaction)
In this example, the OptiX and third-party NEs in Figure 1-27 use OSPF to communicate with each other. On the network, the IP addresses of the third-party NMS and OptiX gateway NE are on different network segments, and each NE runs OSPF. Compared with the scenario where a network comprises only OptiX NEs and the IP addresses of the NMS and gateway NE are on the same network segment, planning NE IP addresses and routes for this scenario has the following characteristics: l The IP addresses of the gateway NE (NE 1), non-gateway NEs (NE 2 and NE 3, which do not connect to a third-party NE), and third-party gateway NE (NE 5) are on the network segments 130.9.0.0, 129.9.0.0, and 131.9.0.0, respectively. The IP addresses of NE 4, a non-gateway NE connected to a third-party NE, and NE 5 are on the same network segment. On NE 1, configure a static route to the third-party NMS (10.2.0.100). On NE 1, enable OSPF route flooding, so that NE 2, NE 3, NE 4, and NE 5 (a third-party NE) obtain the routes to the third-party NMS. On the third-party NMS, configure a static route to the third-party gateway NE (131.9.0.5), or set the IP address of RT 1 (10.2.0.200) as the default gateway. Configure routes from RT 1 and RT 2 to the third-party gateway NE (131.9.0.5).

l l l l l

1.3.8.3 Planning Guidelines for NE IP Addresses and Routes in Special Network Topologies
When operators have special requirements for NE IP addresses, route planning becomes complex. The IP addresses of a gateway NE, NEs connected to a third-party NE, and non-gateway NEs may be on different network segments. In such cases, configure more static routes or enable proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). Guidelines for planning NE IP addresses and routes in special network topologies are described in the following section.

IP Addresses of All NEs and the Third-Party NMS on the Same Network Segment (No OSPF Interaction)
Figure 1-28 illustrates a network where the IP addresses of all NEs and the third-party network management system (NMS) are on the same network segment. On the network, the OptiX NEs do not use the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol to communicate with the third-party NEs.
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Figure 1-28 Diagram for planning NE IP addresses and routes (a network where the IP addresses of all NEs and the third-party NMS are on the same network segment)
NMS

129.9.0.100

External DCN
Third-party NMS NE 1 129.9.0.200 129.9.0.5 129.9.0.4 129.9.0.6 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4 NE 5 NE 6

129.9.0.1 Ethernet link

129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3

Microwave link

In Figure 1-28: l l l l l l l l The IP addresses of all NEs are on the same network segment 129.9.0.0. On the gateway NE (NE 1), enable proxy ARP so that the gateway can respond to ARP requests from the OptiX and third-party NMSs to address destination NEs. On NE 1, configure a static route to the third-party NMS (129.9.0.200). If the OptiX NMS requests direct access to a non-gateway NE (NE 2, NE 3, or NE 4), configure a static route from NE 1 to the OptiX NMS (129.9.0.100). On NE 1, enable OSPF route flooding, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 can obtain routes to the OptiX and third-party NMSs. On NE 4, which connects to a third-party NE, configure a static route to NE 5 (129.9.0.5), the third-party gateway NE. On NE 4, enable OSPF route flooding, so that NE 1, NE 2, and NE 3 can obtain routes to NE 5. On NE 4, enable proxy ARP, so that NE 5 obtains the route to the third-party NMS.

IP Addresses of All OptiX NEs on the Same Network Segment and IP Addresses of the Third-Party NMS and NEs on Different Network Segments (No OSPF Interaction)
Figure 1-29 illustrates a network where the IP addresses of all OptiX NEs are on the same network segment while the IP addresses of the third-party NMS and NEs are on different network segments. On the network, the OptiX NEs do not use OSPF to communicate with the third-party NEs.

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Figure 1-29 Diagram for planning NE IP addresses and routes (a network where the IP addresses of all OptiX NEs are on the same network segment while the IP addresses of the third-party NMS and NEs are on different network segments)
Third-party NMS RT 1 10.2.0.200 10.2.0.100 RT 2 130.9.0.100 NE 1 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4

NE 5

NE 6

NMS

LAN swtich 129.9.0.1

129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3

129.9.0.5 129.9.0.4

129.9.0.6

129.9.0.200 Ethernet link Microwave link

In Figure 1-29: l l l l The IP addresses of all OptiX NEs are on the same network segment (129.9.0.0). On NE 1, configure a static route to the third-party NMS (10.2.0.100). On NE 1, enable OSPF route flooding, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 can obtain routes to the third-party NMS. If the OptiX NMS requests direct access to a non-gateway NE (NE 2, NE 3, or NE 4), configure a static route from the OptiX NMS to NE 2 (129.9.0.2), NE 3 (129.9.0.3), and NE 4 (129.9.0.4). In addition, configure a static route to the OptiX NMS (129.9.0.200) and enable OSPF route flooding on NE 1, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 can obtain routes to the OptiX NMS. On NE 4, which connects to a third-party NE, configure a static route to NE 5 (129.9.0.5). On NE 4, enable OSPF route flooding, so that NE 1, NE 2, and NE 3 can obtain routes to NE 5. On the third-party NMS, configure a static route to NE 5 (129.9.0.5). On the third-party gateway NE (NE 5), configure a static route to the third-party NMS (10.2.0.100).

l l l l

IP Addresses of All NEs and the Third-Party NMS on the Same Network Segment (with OSPF Interaction)
Figure 1-30 illustrates a network where the IP addresses of all NEs and the third-party NMS are on the same network segment. The OptiX NEs use OSPF to communicate with the thirdparty NEs.

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Figure 1-30 Diagram for planning NE IP addresses and routes (a network where the IP addresses of all NEs and the third-party NMS are on the same network segment)
NMS

129.9.0.100

External DCN
Third-party NMS NE 1 129.9.0.200 129.9.0.5 129.9.0.4 129.9.0.6 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4 NE 5 NE 6

129.9.0.1 Ethernet link

129.9.0.2

129.9.0.3

Microwave link

In Figure 1-30: l l l l l The IP addresses of all NEs are on the same network segment 129.9.0.0. On the gateway NE (NE 1), enable proxy ARP so that the gateway can respond to ARP requests from the OptiX and third-party NMSs to address destination NEs. On NE 1, configure a static route to the third-party NMS (129.9.0.200). If the OptiX NMS requests direct access to a non-gateway NE (NE 2, NE 3, or NE 4), configure a static route from NE 1 to the OptiX NMS (129.9.0.100). On NE 1, enable static route flooding, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 can obtain routes to the OptiX NMS, and NE 5 can obtain the route to the third-party NMS.

1.3.9 Configuration Process


Configuring IP data communication network (DCN) includes configuring communication data at the near end and creating NEs on a network management system (NMS).

Flowchart
Figure 1-31 shows the flowchart for configuring IP DCN.

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Figure 1-31 Flowchart for configuring IP DCN


Required Optional Set basic NE attributes. Start

Configure DCCs.

Configure inband DCN.

Disable extended ECC that works in Auto mode.

Configure IP routes.

Configure the NMS port on an NE.

Create NEs on a centralized NMS.

End

Process
Table 1-15 Process of configuring IP DCN Ste p 1 Operation Setting basic NE attributes A.3.1.4 Changing an NE ID Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set New ID to be the NE ID according to the DCN plan. l If a special extended ID is required for an NE according to the DCN plan, change New Extended ID.

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Ste p

Operation A.3.6.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set IP and Subnet Mask according to the external DCN plan for gateway NEs that communicate with the NMS through NMS ports. l For a gateway NE, set Gateway IP if the external DCN requires a default gateway NE. l Connection Mode should take the default value Common + Security SSL. If the NMS must connect to a gateway NE in Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection mode, set Connection Mode to Security SSL. l For a DCN with a single Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) area, set IP to 0x81000000 + NE ID for a non-gateway NE on the DCN. For example, if the NE ID is 0x090001, set IP to 129.9.0.1 and set Subnet Mask to 255.255.0.0. l For a DCN that is divided into multiple OSPF areas, plan the IP addresses of non-gateway NEs in different areas to be on different network segments and those of non-gateway NEs in the same area to be on the same network segment.

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Ste p

Operation

Remarks
NOTE l If the IP address of an NE has not been changed manually, the IP address defaults according to the NE ID and is always 0x81000000 + NE ID. Therefore, the IP address of a non-gateway NE does not need to be changed manually. l For a gateway NE that communicates with the NMS using the access control function (through a service port), plan its IP address in the same way as for a non-gateway NE.

A.3.6.2 Configuring DCCs

Required. Set parameters as follows: l For a microwave port that uses data communications channels (DCCs) to transmit IP DCN packets, set Enabled/Disabled to Enabled. For a microwave port that uses inband DCN to transmit IP DCN packets, set Enabled/Disabled to Disabled for related DCCs. l Set Protocol Type to the default value TCP/IP.

Configurin g inband DCN

A.3.6.3 Setting the VLAN ID and Bandwidth for an Inband DCN

If the VLAN ID and bandwidth of the inband DCN planned for the OptiX equipment do not take their default values, set the VLAN ID and bandwidth for an inband DCN. (The default VLAN ID is 4094 and the default bandwidth is 512 kbit/s.)
NOTE Use the same VLAN ID for inband DCN communication over the entire network.

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Ste p

Operation A.3.6.5 Setting a Port for an Inband DCN

Remarks Required. l For Ethernet and microwave ports with inband DCN enabled, set Enabled Status to the default value Enabled. l To avoid impact on base stations, set Enabled Status to Disabled for ports connected to base stations and to the default value Enabled for the other ports. l Set Protocol Type to the default value IP. A.3.6.6 Configuring Access Control Required when a gateway NE must communicate with the NMS through a third-party network. Set parameters as follows: l For the Ethernet port connecting the gateway NE to the third-party network, set Enabled Status to Enabled and plan IP Address and Subnet Mask according to the network plan. l IP Address must be on a network segment different from the segment to which the NE IP address belongs. A.3.6.4 Configuring the Priorities of Inband DCN Packets Required when DCN packets must be prioritized. For a gateway NE that communicates with the NMS through the NMS port, disable extended embedded control channel (ECC) that works in Auto mode.

A.3.6.7 Configuring Extended ECCs

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Ste p 5

Operation Configurin g IP routes A.3.6.9 Setting OSPF Protocol Parameters

Remarks Required. l Set the area ID according to the network plan. For an NE functioning as an area border router (ABR) or a backbone area router, set Area to 0.0.0.0. For an NE functioning as an internal router, set Area to the planned area ID. l For an NE functioning as an autonomous system boundary router (ASBR), determine whether to enable Direct route, Static route, and Default Route according to the network plan. l Set other parameters according to the route plan. A.3.6.11 Configuring the Network Information of an ABR Required for an ABR. Based on the network plan, set a network segment for a backbone area by setting IP Address and Subnet Mask in Network Segment.

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Ste p

Operation A.3.6.10 Creating an OSPF Area

Remarks If a network is divided into multiple OSPF areas, create the non-backbone area to which an ABR belongs. Set parameters as follows: l Set ID to the planned value. l Set IP Address and Subnet Mask to the segment and subnet mask of the network configured for the area, respectively. Do not overlap networks configured for different areas. l Set Authentication Type for the area according to the network plan. l If an area contains too many NEs, set Automatic Route Aggregation to Enabled to reduce the number of routes in the routing tables of other areas. l Set Stub Type for the area according to the network plan. A.3.6.11 Configuring the Network Information of an ABR Required when an ABR is in an area with multiple network segments. Based on the network plan, set a network segment for an area by setting IP Address and Subnet Mask in Network Segment.

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Ste p

Operation A.3.6.14 Configuring the OSPF Authentication Type

Remarks Required when OSPF authentication must be performed. l In OSPF Area, change the value of Authentication Type for the desired OSPF area. l Set passwords for different types of DCN ports when different OSPF authentication types are used.
NOTE l none indicates no authentication. l If Authentication Type is set to none, all preset authentication passwords are cleared. l MD5 Key is available only when Authentication Type is MD5.

A.3.6.12 Creating a Manual Route Aggregation Group

If automatic route aggregation is unavailable, configure manual route aggregation on an ABR to reduce the number of routes. The detailed configurations are as follows: In Manual Route Aggregation, set IP Address and Subnet Mask for the segment on which routes are aggregated.
NOTE An area can have a maximum of eight manually aggregated routes.

A.3.6.13 Configuring Port IP Addresses for an ABR

For an ABR NE, set IP Address and Subnet Mask to those of its non-backbone area port.
NOTE l The IP address of the backbone area port on an ABR NE always uses the NE IP address. l If not specified, the NE IP address is used.

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Ste p

Operation A.3.6.15 Enabling the Proxy ARP

Remarks l If the IP addresses of a thirdparty NMS and third-party NEs are on the same network segment and an OptiX transmission network provides an IP route between the third-party NMS and a third-party NE, enable proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) on the OptiX NE connected to the third-party NMS and on the OptiX NE connected to a third-party NE. l If the IP addresses of the NMS, gateway NE, and nongateway NEs are on the same network segment and the NMS must have access to the non-gateway NEs directly, enable proxy ARP for the gateway NE. A.3.6.8 Creating a Static IP Route Configure static routes for NEs according to the network plan. If the IP addresses of the gateway NE and NMS are on different network segments, configure a static route from the gateway NE to the NMS. In normal cases: l The gateway NE has a route to the NMS. l The gateway NE has routes to non-gateway NEs, and nongateway NEs have routes to the gateway NE. l If a third-party NE connects to the third-party NMS through an OptiX RTN 310 NE, the OptiX RTN 310 NE automatically has routes to the third-party NMS and to the third-party gateway NE.
NOTE You can check route status by testing route connectivity in addition to querying IP routes.

A.3.6.17 Querying IP Routes

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Ste p 6

Operation A.3.7 Configuring the NMS Port on an NE

Remarks Optional. Required when an NE connects to external equipment using its NMS port and when the working mode of the external equipment is not set to auto-negotiate.

Creating NEs on a centralized NMS

A.3.1.1 Creating an NE by Using the Search Method A.3.1.2 Creating an NE Manually

Recommended when one or more NEs must be added to a large-scale network. Recommended in all other cases.

1.3.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure IP data communication network (DCN) based on network conditions.

1.3.10.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. In Figure 1-32, the network has only OptiX RTN 310s and must be managed through the network management system (NMS) in a unified manner. On the microwave transmission network: l The gateway NE (NE 1) is on the network segment 130.9.0.0, and the non-gateway NEs (NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4) are on the network segment 129.9.0.0. Figure 1-32 illustrates the IP address of each NE. The IP address of the NMS is 10.2.0.100 and is on a network segment different from that of NE 1. NE 2 and NE 3 connect through GE optical fibers. The OptiX RTN 310s use D1 to D3 bytes in microwave links or a portion of Ethernet service bandwidth in GE links for internal data communication network (DCN) communication. The OptiX RTN 310s also use IP protocols for communication. On NE 1, Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) route flooding is enabled for static routes, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 can obtain routes to the NMS and the NMS has direct access to NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4. NE 2 and NE 3 receive services from the base stations through P&E ports.

l l l

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Figure 1-32 Networking diagram for IP DCN


NMS 10.2.0.200 Router 1 10.2.0.100 NE 1 NE 2 NE 3 NE 4

Router 2 130.9.0.100 130.9.0.1 129.9.0.2 129.9.0.3 129.9.0.4

NodeB 1 Ethernet link Microwave link

NodeB 2

1.3.10.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring IP data communication network (DCN).

ID and IP Address Information


Allocate IDs and IP addresses based on network conditions for all NEs according to Figure 1-33. Figure 1-33 Allocation of IDs and IP addresses for the NEs
NMS 10.2.0.200 Router 1 10.2.0.100

Router 2 130.9.0.100

9-1 130.9.0.1 0.0.0.0


NE 1

9-2 129.9.0.2 0.0.0.0


NE 2

9-3 129.9.0.3 0.0.0.0


NE 3

9-4 129.9.0.4 0.0.0.0


NE 4

Ethernet link

Microwave link

Extended ID-Basic ID IP address Gateway

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NOTE

1 Network Management Features

l The subnet mask for the IP address of each NE takes the same value 255.255.0.0. l The IP address allocated for an NE interlocks with the ID of the NE. Therefore, if the IP address of an NE has not been changed manually, the NE automatically changes the IP address to the planned value after the NE ID is changed.

Inband DCN Information


Plan the management VLAN ID and bandwidth of the inband DCN for NE 2 and NE 3. l l l l The management VLAN ID takes the default value 4094, which is different from the VLAN ID carried by service packets. The inband DCN bandwidth takes the default value 512 kbit/s. The inband DCN function needs to be enabled for the GE ports on NE 2 and NE 3. To avoid impact on base stations, the inband DCN function must be disabled for the P&E ports on NE 2 and NE 3.

Routing Information
l Plan the following route information between the OptiX RTN 310s: On NE 1, configure a static route to the network management system (NMS) with the IP address 10.2.0.100, and set the gateway to the port IP address 130.9.0.100 of the router. On NE 1, enable Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) route flooding for the static routes, so that NE 2, NE 3, and NE 4 have access to the NMS. The other OSPF parameters take their default values. l In addition, plan the following routes: On the NMS, configure a static route to NE 1 with the IP address 130.9.0.1, and set the gateway to the port IP address 10.2.0.200 of the router. On the NMS, configure a static route to the network segment 129.9.0.1 to which the non-gateway NEs belong, and set the gateway to the port IP address 10.2.0.200 of the router. On routers 1 and 2, configure routes to the network segment 129.9.0.0 to which the nongateway NEs belong.

1.3.10.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring IP data communication network (DCN).

Procedure
Step 1 Change NE IDs. For details, see A.3.1.4 Changing an NE ID. This table provides parameter values for changing NE IDs. Parameter Value NE 1 New ID
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NE 2 2

NE 3 3

NE 4 4
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Parameter

Value NE 1 NE 2 9 (default) NE 3 9 (default) NE 4 9 (default)

New Extended ID

9 (default)

Step 2 Set NE communication parameters. For details, see A.3.6.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters. This table provides values for setting NE communication parameters. Parameter Value NE 1 IP Gateway IP Subnet Mask Extended ID Connection Mode 130.9.0.1 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0.0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 2 129.9.0.2 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0.0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 3 129.9.0.3 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0.0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL NE 4 129.9.0.4 0.0.0.0 (default) 255.255.0.0 (default) 9 Common + Security SSL

Step 3 Configure data communications channels (DCCs). For details, see A.3.6.2 Configuring DCCs. This table provides parameter values for configuring DCCs. Parameter Value NE 1 (microwave port) Enabled/ Disabled Channel Protocol Type Enabled (default) D1-D3 (default) TCP/IP (default) NE 2 (microwave port) Enabled (default) D1-D3 (default) TCP/IP (default) NE 3 (microwave port) Enabled (default) D1-D3 (default) TCP/IP (default) NE 4 (microwave port) Enabled (default) D1-D3 (default) TCP/IP (default)

Step 4 Set a port for an inband DCN. For details, see A.3.6.5 Setting a Port for an Inband DCN. This table provides parameter values for setting a port for an inband DCN.

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Parameter

Value GE1 GE2 Enabled

Enabled Status

Disabled

Step 5 Set Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) parameters. For details, see A.3.6.9 Setting OSPF Protocol Parameters. This table provides values for setting OSPF parameters. Parameter Value NE 1 OSPF Status Static route LAN Interface Enabled Enabled Disabled NE 2 Enabled Disabled Disabled NE 3 Enabled Disabled Disabled NE 4 Enabled Disabled Disabled

Step 6 Create a static IP route. For details, see A.3.6.8 Creating a Static IP Route. This table provides parameter values for creating a static IP route. Parameter Value NE 1 Destination Address Subnet Mask Gateway 10.2.0.100 255.255.255.255 130.9.0.100

Step 7 Configure extended embedded control channels (ECCs). For details, see A.3.6.7 Configuring Extended ECCs. For NE 1, click Stop to disable extended ECC that works in Auto mode. Step 8 Query IP routes. For details, see A.3.6.17 Querying IP Routes. The expected query results are as follows: For NE 1: l The IP address of the gateway NE is 130.9.0.1 for routes to the IP addresses of 129.9.0.2, 129.9.0.3, and 129.9.0.4. l The IP address of the gateway NE is 130.9.0.100 for the route to the IP address of 10.2.0.100. ----End

Follow-up Procedure
To ensure communication between the network management system (NMS), the gateway NE, and non-gateway NEs, perform the following settings:
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l l l

On the NMS, configure a static route to NE 1 (IP address: 130.9.0.1), with the gateway being the port IP address 10.2.0.200 on router 1. On the NMS, configure static routes to the network segment 129.9.0.0, to which the nongateway NEs belong. On routers 1 and 2, configure routes to the network segment 129.9.0.0 to which the nongateway NEs belong.

1.3.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to IP data communication network (DCN).

Related Tasks
A.3.1.1 Creating an NE by Using the Search Method A.3.1.2 Creating an NE Manually A.3.1.4 Changing an NE ID A.3.6.1 Setting NE Communication Parameters A.3.6.2 Configuring DCCs A.3.6.8 Creating a Static IP Route A.3.6.9 Setting OSPF Protocol Parameters A.3.6.10 Creating an OSPF Area A.3.6.11 Configuring the Network Information of an ABR A.3.6.12 Creating a Manual Route Aggregation Group A.3.6.13 Configuring Port IP Addresses for an ABR A.3.6.14 Configuring the OSPF Authentication Type A.3.6.15 Enabling the Proxy ARP A.3.6.17 Querying IP Routes A.3.6.19 Verifying Connectivity of an IP DCN Network A.3.6.3 Setting the VLAN ID and Bandwidth for an Inband DCN A.3.6.4 Configuring the Priorities of Inband DCN Packets A.3.6.5 Setting a Port for an Inband DCN A.3.6.6 Configuring Access Control

1.3.12 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to IP data communication network (DCN).

Alarms
l GNE_CONNECT_FAIL This alarm indicates that the connection to the gateway NE has failed. The U2000 reports this alarm when communication between the U2000 and the gateway NE fails. l NE_COMMU_BREAK This alarm indicates that NE communication has been interrupted. The U2000 reports this alarm when communication is interrupted between the U2000 and its managed NE.
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NE_NOT_LOGIN This alarm indicates that a login to an NE has failed. If the U2000 cannot log in to an NE, the U2000 reports this alarm.

DCNSIZE_OVER This alarm indicates an over-sized data communication network (DCN).

Events
None

1.3.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about IP data communication network (DCN). Q: Compared to other solutions for communicating network management information, what advantages does IP DCN have? A: Main advantages of IP DCN are as follows: l l l l l l IP DCN uses the TCP/IP protocol stack, which allows OptiX NEs to easily work with thirdparty NEs and simplifies network management. IP DCN employs the transfer function of the network layer, requiring no extra overheads or service channels. IP DCN allows different vendors to multiplex the same data communications channels (DCCs). A vendor's network management system (NMS) does not need to directly connect to the vendor's equipment. IP DCN supports automatic rerouting and therefore protects network management information against channel faults. IP DCN enables the development of IP-based network management tools (for example, FTP and Telnet).

Q: Why does an NMS fail to log in to a non-gateway NE? A: Common causes are as follows: l l Communication between the NMS and the gateway NE is interrupted. To locate the fault, run the ping or tracert command on the NMS. The IP route between the NE and its gateway NE is faulty. To locate the fault, check the IP route between the NE and its gateway NE.

1.4 RADIUS
This chapter describes Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS). RADIUS is a networking protocol that provides centralized rights management for users of different vendors.

1.4.1 Introduction
This section defines RADIUS and describes its purpose.
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Definition
RADIUS is a server/client protocol that provides centralized management of AAA, and configuration information between network access equipment and a RADIUS server. When a user logs in to an NE from a network management system (NMS), the RADIUS server verifies the username and password, and then grants access rights and services. Therefore, usernames, passwords, and access rights are managed in a centralized manner. RADIUS has the following characteristics: l l l l Provides optimal real-time performance by using UDP as the transport protocol. Provides high reliability by retransmitting request messages and employing primary/ secondary RADIUS servers. Is easy to implement and is compatible with multi-thread applications. Supports security authentication and accounting.

Purpose
A RADIUS server provides centralized management and authentication of usernames, passwords, and access rights. RADIUS enhances equipment security and reduces the operating expense (OPEX). Figure 1-34 shows a typical application of RADIUS. If an authentication request is verified, the RADIUS server allows the NMS user to log in to the NE; if the authentication request is not verified, the RADIUS server rejects the login request. Figure 1-34 Typical application of RADIUS

NE 2

NE 1

NE 8

NE 7

Data Center

Internal DCN NE 3 NE 6 (GNE) External DCN

U2000/LCT

1. The NMS sends login requests. NE 4 NE 5 2. The NAS sends authentication requests. 3. The RADIUS server returns an authentication success response. 4. The NAS notifies the NMS of login success. RADIUS server

OptiX RTN equipment (RADIUS client)

Microwave link

Ethernet link

NOTE

l If the RADIUS server supports the accounting function, the server can record service usage of a user, such as online duration. l The authentication process for a login request from a local NMS client is similar to that from a remote centralized NMS.

1.4.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of RADIUS.
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1.4.2.1 NAS
If IP routes are available between an NE and a RADIUS server, the NE can work in network access server (NAS) mode for authentication. A NAS is also a RADIUS client. The authentication information between the NAS and the RADIUS server is transmitted with a key, which can protect the user password from theft on insecure networks. The authentication process in NAS mode is as follows: 1. 2. The NAS extracts and encapsulates the user authentication information into standard RADIUS packets and forwards these packets to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the user according to the username and password, grants the user access to the NE, and returns an authentication success response.

The NAS mode applies to the following scenarios: l l The RADIUS server authenticates a gateway NE. The RADIUS server authenticates a non-gateway NE in the IP data communication network (DCN) solution.
NOTE

l IP routes must be available between the NAS and the RADIUS server. l In the IP DCN solution, if IP routes are unavailable between non-gateway NEs and the RADIUS server, the non-gateway NEs can use 1.4.2.2 Proxy NAS for authentication.

Figure 1-35 shows a typical application of RADIUS in NAS mode. Upon receiving a login request from the network management system (NMS), the gateway NE sends an authentication request to the RADIUS server. Figure 1-35 Typical application of RADIUS in NAS mode

NE 2

NE 1

NE 8 GNE (NAS)

NE 7

1. Sends authentication requests.

Internal DCN NE 3

External DCN NE 6 NE 5 NE 4

RADIUS server

2. Returns an authentication success response. Microwave link Ethernet link

OptiX RTN equipment (RADIUS client)

1.4.2.2 Proxy NAS


If IP routes are unavailable between an NE and a RADIUS server, the NE can work in proxy network access server (NAS) mode for authentication.
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In proxy NAS mode, the proxy NAS functions as a proxy to complete authentication and authorization between NASs and the RADIUS server. The authentication information between the proxy NAS and the RADIUS server is transmitted with a key, which can protect the user password from theft on insecure networks. The authentication process in proxy NAS mode is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. A NAS extracts and encapsulates the user authentication information into unencrypted RADIUS packets and forwards these packets to the proxy NAS. The proxy NAS encrypts passwords contained in the RADIUS packets, adds the NE ID of the NAS to the RADIUS packets, and then forwards the packets to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the user according to the username and password, grants the user access to the NE, and returns an authentication success response. The proxy NAS sends the authentication result to the NAS.

The proxy NAS mode applies to the following scenario: l The RADIUS server authenticates a non-gateway NE. In this scenario, the gateway NE functions as the proxy NAS.
NOTE

l IP routes must be available between the proxy NAS and the RADIUS server. l In the IP DCN solution, if IP routes are available between non-gateway NEs and the RADIUS server, the non-gateway NEs can use NAS for authentication. l OptiX RTN 310 supports active and standby proxy NASs. If the active proxy NAS is Down or unreachable, the standby proxy NAS can be used.

Figure 1-36 shows a typical application of RADIUS in proxy NAS mode. Upon receiving a login request from the network management system (NMS), the non-gateway NE (NE3) sends an authentication request to the proxy NAS (gateway NE). The proxy NAS then sends the authentication request to the RADIUS server. Figure 1-36 Typical application of RADIUS in proxy NAS mode
NE 8 NE 1

NE 2 GNE NE 3 (NAS) 1. Sends the user (Proxy NAS) name and password. 4. Forwards authentication results.

NE 7

2. Forwards authentication requests.

External DCN

NE 6

RADIUS server

NE 4

NE 5

3. Returns an authentication success response. Microwave link Ethernet link

OptiX RTN equipment (RADIUS client)

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1.4.3 Specifications
This section lists the RADIUS specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 1-16 RADIUS specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Functions Specifications l Authentication l Accounting l Authentication and accounting Network management protocols l Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) l IP RADIUS server protection scheme Maximum number of proxy NASs Shared secret key RADIUS packet retransmission interval (in seconds) RADIUS packet retransmission attempts Reminding a user of pending account expiration Reporting an alarm upon an authentication failure 1+1 backup Two Supported 3 to 10. Default: 5 1 to 5. Default: 3 Supported Supported

1.4.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with RADIUS. l l IETF RFC 2865: Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) IETF RFC 2866: RADIUS Accounting

1.4.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the RADIUS feature. Table 1-17 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name RADIUS Port Network management system (NMS) port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later

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1.4.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of RADIUS. Table 1-18 Dependencies and limitations of RADIUS Item Self-limitations Dependencie s and limitations between RADIUS and other features Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) IP DCN Description The current Web LCT versions do not support RADIUS authentication. On a data communication network (DCN) running the HWECC protocol, the gateway NE uses the network access server (NAS) mode, and non-gateway NEs use the proxy NAS mode. On a DCN network running the IP protocol, the gateway NE uses the NAS mode. A non-gateway NE may adopt either the NAS mode or proxy NAS mode.

1.4.7 Principles
The principles to implement network access server (NAS) and proxy NAS are different. This section describes both principles.

NAS
If IP routes are available between an NE and the RADIUS server, the NE can use the NAS mode for authentication. Figure 1-37 Principles for RADIUS in NAS mode
U2000/LCT GNE (NAS) RADIUS server

1. Sends login requests. 2. Sends authentication requests. 3. Returns an authentication success response. 4. Notifies the NMS of login success. 1. Sends accounting start requests. 2. Returns an accounting started response. 3. Sends logout requests. 4. Sends accounting end requests. 6. Notifies the NMS of logout success. 5. Returns an accounting ended response.

Authentication process

Accounting process

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As shown in Figure 1-37, when communication between the network, network management system (NMS), and RADIUS server is normal and RADIUS-related configurations are correct, the process for authenticating a NAS (also a gateway NE) is as follows: 1. 2. A user sends a login request to the NAS through the NMS. Upon receiving the login request, the NAS extracts and encapsulates the user information into standard RADIUS packets in UDP format, and forwards these packets to the RADIUS server for authentication. The RADIUS server, upon receiving the authentication request, decrypts the RADIUS packets using a shared secret key, verifies the information in the RADIUS packets, and returns an authentication success response to the gateway NE. After receiving the authentication success response, the gateway NE notifies the NMS of login success.
NOTE

3.

4.

l The preceding process only involves authentication. If the accounting function is enabled, accounting procedures are triggered upon NE login and logout, as shown in Figure 1-37. l Only an authenticated NE can use the accounting function.

Proxy NAS
If IP routes are unavailable between an NE and the RADIUS server, the NE can use the proxy NAS mode for authentication. The proxy NAS functions as a proxy to complete authentication and authorization between NASs and the RADIUS server. Figure 1-38 Principles for RADIUS in proxy NAS mode
U2000/Web LCT NAS GNE (Proxy NAS) RADIUS server

1. Sends login requests. 2. Forwards the user name and password. 3. Forwards authentication requests. 4. Returns an authentication success response.

5. Forwards authentication results. 6. Notifies the NMS of login success.

As shown in Figure 1-38, the RADIUS server authenticates the NAS (a non-gateway NE) through the proxy NAS (a gateway NE). The authentication process in proxy NAS mode is the same as that in NAS mode. In proxy NAS mode, the proxy NAS forwards authentication packets between the NAS and the RADIUS server.

Abnormal Authentication
Both RADIUS servers and proxy NASs can work in 1+1 mode. In the following authentication process, the RADIUS servers work in 1+1 mode.
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1.

An NE sends an authentication request to the primary RADIUS server. If no response is returned within the preset time, the NE retransmits an authentication request to the server according to the preset retransmission time and interval. l If the NE receives a response from the primary RADIUS server, the authentication is successful. l If the NE receives no response, it sends an authentication request to the secondary RADIUS server.

2.

If no response is returned from the secondary RADIUS server within the preset time, the NE retransmits an authentication request to the secondary RADIUS server. l If the NE receives a response from the secondary RADIUS server, the authentication is successful. l If the NE receives no response, it requests for local authentication.

3.

If local authentication is successful, the NE returns a response to the NMS, indicating that the login is permitted.
NOTE

l If user information is not configured locally, local authentication fails. l When no secondary RADIUS server is configured, local authentication is performed if no response is received from the primary RADIUS server.

1.4.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning RADIUS. l l l Generally, a gateway NE uses the network access server (NAS) mode, and a non-gateway NE uses the proxy NAS mode with its gateway NE set to work in proxy NAS mode. Configure a secondary RADIUS server, when possible. An NE using the NAS mode must communicate with its RADIUS server through IP routes. A gateway NE using the proxy NAS mode must communicate with its RADIUS server through IP routes and its gateway NE must be enabled as a proxy server. If a data communication network (DCN) supports active and standby gateway NEs, set the active and standby gateway NEs to be the active and standby proxy NAS, respectively. Enable Authentication if you need to authenticate users. Enable Authentication + Accounting if you need to collect information about service usage of users. Alternatively, you can enable Accounting after enabling Authentication. A shared secret key is used to implement communications between NEs and the RADIUS server. Set it to the same value on the NEs and on the RADIUS server. It is recommended that Interval of Packet Transmission and Packet Retransmission Attempts take their default values.

l l

1.4.9 Configuration Process


This section describes the process of configuring a RADIUS server.
NOTE

The current Web LCT versions do not support RADIUS authentication.

Figure 1-39 shows the flowchart for configuring RADIUS.


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Figure 1-39 Flowchart for configuring RADIUS


Required Start Enable or disable RADIUS for an NE.

Create a RADIUS server or proxy server. Set RADIUS server parameters. End

NOTE

For an NE using the proxy network access server (NAS) mode, configure the NE to be a RADIUS client and a proxy NAS.

Table 1-19 describes the process of configuring RADIUS when an NE uses the NAS mode or functions as a proxy NAS. Table 1-19 Process of configuring RADIUS (for a RADIUS client using the NAS mode or a proxy NAS) Step 1 Operation A.4.9.1 Enabling/ Disabling the RADIUS Authentication Function Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l For an NE using the NAS mode, set RADIUS Client to Open. l For an NE using the proxy NAS mode, set RADIUS Client to Open, and set Proxy Server to Open.

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Step 2

Operation A.4.9.2 Creating a RADIUS Server or a RADIUS Proxy Server

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Enable Authentication if you need to perform authentication on users. Enable Authentication + Accounting if you need to collect information about the usage of NEs by users. l Set Server Type to RADIUS Server. l Set Server ID to IP Address, and set IP Address to the IP address of a RADIUS server. l To configure dual RADIUS servers, create one primary RADIUS server and one secondary RADIUS server.
NOTE If you need to collect information about the usage of NEs by users during authentication, enable Accounting after enabling Authentication. This method applies when you need to enable Accounting after Authentication is enabled.

A.4.9.3 Configuring RADIUS Server Parameters

Required. Set parameters as follows: l To configure 1+1 protection for a RADIUS server, set Server Status to Active and Standby for the primary and secondary RADIUS servers, respectively. l Set Shared Key to the same value on an NE and on its RADIUS server. l It is recommended that Interval of Packet Transmission and Packet Retransmission Attempts take their default values.

Table 1-20 describes the process of configuring RADIUS when an NE uses the proxy NAS mode. Table 1-20 Process of configuring RADIUS (for a RADIUS client using the proxy NAS mode) Step 1 Operation A.4.9.1 Enabling/Disabling the RADIUS Authentication Function Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: Set RADIUS Client to Open, and set Proxy Server to Close.
NOTE Disable the proxy server function for NEs that use the proxy NAS mode.

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Step 2

Operation A.4.9.2 Creating a RADIUS Server or a RADIUS Proxy Server

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Enable Authentication if you need to perform authentication on users. Enable Authentication + Accounting if you need to collect information about the usage of NEs by users. l Set Server Type to Proxy Server. l It is recommended that you set Server ID to NE ID and select the NE that functions as the proxy NAS. l To configure dual proxy NASs, create one active proxy NAS and one standby proxy NAS.
NOTE If you need to collect information about the usage of NEs by users during authentication, enable Accounting after enabling Authentication. This method applies when you need to enable Accounting after Authentication is enabled.

A.4.9.3 Configuring RADIUS Server Parameters

Required. Set parameters as follows: l To configure 1+1 protection for a proxy NAS, set Server Status to Active and Standby for the active and standby proxy NASs, respectively. l It is recommended that Interval of Packet Transmission and Packet Retransmission Attempts take their default values.

1.4.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure RADIUS based on network conditions.

1.4.10.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. As shown in Figure 1-40, a user logs in to NE 6 and NE 7 using the network management system (NMS). The RADIUS server performs centralized authentication and management on users to ensure the equipment security. The description of the networking diagram is as follows: l The data communication network (DCN) on the equipment side uses the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) solution, and IP routes have been configured between NE 6 and the RADIUS server.

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l l

NE 6 is a gateway NE and NE 7 is a non-gateway NE. For NE 6, its IP address is 10.10.10.3, its NE ID is 11, and its extended ID is 9. The RADIUS server is configured with 1+1 protection. The IP address of the primary RADIUS server is 10.10.10.1, and the IP address of the secondary RADIUS server is 10.10.10.2.

Figure 1-40 Networking diagram for RADIUS

NE 2

NE 1

NE 8

NE 7 U2000/LCT

HWECC network NE 3 External DCN NE 6 (GNE) NE ID: 9-11 IP address: 10.10.10.3 NE 4 NE 5 Primary RADIUS server IP address: 10.10.10.1

Secondary RADIUS server IP address: 10.10.10.2

1.4.10.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring RADIUS. Because there are IP routes between NE 6 and the RADIUS server, NE 6 uses the network access server (NAS) mode. Because there is no IP route between NE 7 and the RADIUS server, NE 7 uses the proxy NAS mode and uses NE 6 as its proxy server.

RADIUS Function Status


Table 1-21 RADIUS function status Parameter RADIUS client Proxy server NE 6 Open Open NE 7 Open Close

NE RADIUS Information
Table 1-22 NE RADIUS information Parameter RADIUS Function Server Type
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NE 7 Safety authentication Proxy server


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Parameter Server ID

NE 6 IP address of the RADIUS server: 10.10.10.1 Active Abcd1234 5 3 IP address of the RADIUS server: 10.10.10.2 Standby Abcd1234 5 3

NE 7 NE ID of the proxy server: NE 6 Active 5 3

Server Status Shared Key Interval of Packet Transmission Packet Retransmission Attempts

NOTE

l In this example, the proxy server is not configured with 1+1 protection. l NEs using the NAS mode need to be configured with a shared key that is the same as that on the RADIUS server. l It is recommended that Interval of Packet Transmission and Packet Retransmission Attempts take their default values.

1.4.10.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring RADIUS.

Procedure
Step 1 Configure the RADIUS function status. For details, see A.4.9.1 Enabling/Disabling the RADIUS Authentication Function. This table provides parameter values for configuring the RADIUS function status. Parameter Value NE 6 RADIUS Client Proxy Server Open Open NE 7 Open Close

Step 2 Create a RADIUS server or a RADIUS proxy server. For details, see A.4.9.2 Creating a RADIUS Server or a RADIUS Proxy Server. This table provides parameter values for creating a RADIUS server or a RADIUS proxy server.

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Parameter

Value NE 6 NE 7 Authentication RADIUS Server IP Address: 10.10.10.2 (secondary server) Authentication Proxy Server NE ID: NE 6

Function Server Type Server ID

Authentication RADIUS Server IP Address: 10.10.10.1 (primary server)

Step 3 Set RADIUS server parameters. For details, see A.4.9.3 Configuring RADIUS Server Parameters. This table provides values for setting RADIUS server parameters. Parameter Value NE 6 Function Server ID Server Type Server Status Shared Key Interval of Packet Transmission Packet Retransmission Attempts Authentication 10.10.10.1 (primary server) RADIUS Server Active Abcd1234 5 3 Authentication 10.10.10.2 (secondary server) RADIUS Server Standby Abcd1234 5 3 NE 7 Authentication NE 6 Proxy Server Active 5 3

----End

1.4.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to RADIUS.

Related Tasks
A.4.9.1 Enabling/Disabling the RADIUS Authentication Function A.4.9.2 Creating a RADIUS Server or a RADIUS Proxy Server A.4.9.3 Configuring RADIUS Server Parameters

1.4.12 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to RADIUS.
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Alarms
This alarm indicates a RADIUS authentication failure. This alarm is reported if RADIUS authentication fails for five consecutive times. Consecutive authentications mean that the interval between two attempts is less than 180 seconds.

Events
None

1.4.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about RADIUS. Q: Does RADIUS support accounting? A: Yes. Accounting is implemented in similar ways as authentication. After a user successfully logs in to a network access server (NAS), the NAS sends an accounting request to the RADIUS server. After the user logs out of the NAS, the NAS sends a request to the RADIUS server for stopping accounting. The RADIUS server then updates the logout time of the user and returns related information to the NAS.

1.5 SNMP
This chapter describes the SNMP feature.

1.5.1 Introduction
This section defines the SNMP feature and describes its purpose.

Definition
SNMP is a component of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It is a network management protocol that facilitates remote user access and management information configuration on NEs on an IP network.

Purpose
The SNMP feature enables an SNMP server to directly query configuration data, alarms, and performance events on OptiX RTN 310s on an IP network. For example, as shown in Figure 1-41, the SNMP server sends a request to query alarms and performance events on NE 5, and, after receiving a response from NE 5, displays the results of the query.

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Figure 1-41 Typical application of the SNMP feature

NE 2

NE 1 IP DCN

NE 8 NE 7

NE 3 NE 6 (GNE) NE 4 NE 5

External DCN

Request Response

SNMP server

NOTE

Since SNMP is a network management protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP routes must be available between an SNMP server and the NEs it accesses. The data communication network (DCN) between OptiX RTN 310s must be an IP DCN. Otherwise, the SNMP server can access only the gateway NE (GNE).

1.5.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of the SNMP feature.

1.5.2.1 SNMP Model


The SNMP model consists of a management process and an agent process. Figure 1-42 shows an SNMP server as a manager and an OptiX RTN 310 as a managed device running the SNMP agent. The SNMP server and the OptiX RTN 310 transmit management information by exchanging SNMP packets. Figure 1-42 SNMP model

Management process
SNMP request

Agent process
UDP port 161

SNMP server
UDP port 162

SNMP response Trap

OptiX RTN equipment

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The management process runs on an SNMP server and has the following functions: l l l l l l l Sends requests to OptiX RTN 310s. Receives responses and traps from OptiX RTN 310s. Displays operation results. Receives and processes requests from the SNMP server. Queries or sets management information as requested. Sends responses to the SNMP server. Sends traps to the SNMP server if preset conditions are met (for example, an OptiX RTN 310 reports an alarm, or a performance value has crossed the threshold).

The agent process runs on an OptiX RTN 310 and has the following functions:

SNMP packets are transmitted using UDP. The SNMP agent listens to requests from the SNMP server on UDP port 161, and the SNMP server listens to traps from the SNMP agent on UDP port 162.

1.5.2.2 MIB
A management information base (MIB) is a collection of all the SNMP-managed objects on an OptiX RTN 310. A MIB defines the attributes of a managed object, including: l l l Name Access permission Data type

MIB Tree
A MIB hierarchically organizes and identifies managed objects in a tree structure. Each node on a MIB tree represents a managed object, as shown in Figure 1-43. A MIB does not store data. For operations to be performed correctly, the MIB on an SNMP server must be consistent with the MIB on an SNMP agent.

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Figure 1-43 MIB tree

OID
Each node on a MIB tree is allocated a 32-bit unsigned integer. All the integers along the path from the root node to an object node form an object identifier (OID). The OID carried by an SNMP packet uniquely identifies the corresponding managed object on a MIB tree. For example, in Figure 1-44, the OID of the managed object directory is 1.3.6.1.1.

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Figure 1-44 OID

iso(1)

...

org(3)

dod(6)

...

Internet(1)

directory(1)

mgmt(2)

experimental(3)

private(4)

MIB Files
MIB files store MIB information. Objects in MIB files are defined using Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) and are organized using the structure of management information (SMI), which is used to name and define the managed objects. Manufacturers have developed proprietary MIB files for their objects because the existing common MIB files cannot cover all objects from all manufacturers. An SNMP server can manage objects only after the MIB files of the objects are loaded onto the SNMP server.

1.5.2.3 Basic SNMP Operations


The SNMP feature implements all functions using get and set operations instead of complex commands.

Operation List
Table 1-23 lists basic SNMP operations and the packets involved in these operations. Table 1-23 Basic SNMP operations Operation Get Get-Next SNMP Packet GetRequest GetNextRequest Description Obtains the value of a managed object. Obtains the value of the next managed object. SNMP Version SNMPv1 and later SNMPv1 and later

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Operation GetBulk

SNMP Packet GetBulk

Description Obtains the values of managed objects in batches. This operation is equivalent to several consecutive GetNext operations. Sets the value for a managed object. Reports an exception to an SNMP server. If the SNMP agent receives no response from the SNMP server, the SNMP agent retransmits the InformRequest message. Reports events.

SNMP Version SNMPv2c and later

Set -

SetRequest InformRequest

SNMPv1 and later SNMPv2c and later

Trap

SNMPv1 and later

Operation Examples
Table 1-24 provides examples of SNMP operations.
NOTE

The operations in the examples are performed using the MG-SOFT MIB Browser and SNMPv2c management information base (MIB).

Table 1-24 Operation examples Operatio n Get Description Queries the start time of a 15-minute performance monitoring task. Example Operation: Get Request binding: 1: per15mMonitorStartTime.0 (null) null Response binding: 1: per15mMonitorStartTime.0 (octet string) 1990-4-10,0:24:53.0 [07.C6.04.0A.00.18.35.00 (hex)]

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Operatio n Get-Next

Description Queries the value of the parameter next to the start time of the 15-minute performance monitoring task.

Example Operation: Get next Request binding: 1: per15mMonitorStartTime.0 (null) null Response binding: 1: per15mMonitorEndTime.0 (octet string) 2010-7-18,17:1:1.0 [07.DA. 07.12.11.01.01.00 (hex)]

GetBulk

Queries the values of all parameters that are under the same MIB node as parameter for the start time of the 15minute performance monitoring task.

Operation: Get bulk Request binding: 1: per15mMonitorStartTime.0 (null) null Response binding: 1: per15mMonitorEndTime.0 (octet string) 2010-7-18,17:1:1.0 [07.DA. 07.12.11.01.01.00 (hex)] 2: per24hMonitorStartTime.0 (octet string) 1990-4-10,0:24:53.0 [07.C6.04.0A.00.18.35.00 (hex)]

Set

Sets the enable/disable flag for the remote network monitoring (RMON) history control table to 1.

***** SNMP SET-RESPONSE START ***** 1: pmHistCtrEnableFlag.17 (integer) enable(1) ***** SNMP SET-RESPONSE END *****

1.5.2.4 Identity Authentication and Access Authorization


Identity authentication and access authorization can be implemented using community names configured on the U2000. An SNMP server can communicate with an OptiX RTN 310 only when the community names configured on them are the same. A community name is a character string of 16 bytes or less that acts like a password between the manager and an agent. The community name restricts the permissions of an SNMP server to perform operations on an OptiX RTN 310. A community name can have read or write operation permission. SNMP servers with read permission can perform the Get, Get-Next, and GetBulk operations, and SNMP servers with write permission can perform all SNMP operations.

1.5.3 Specifications
This section lists the SNMP specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports.
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Table 1-25 SNMP specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Supported SNMP versions Specifications l SNMPv1 l SNMPv2c l SNMPv3 Supported management functions l Querying of current and historical alarms l Querying of current and historical performance events l Querying of current and historical remote network monitoring (RMON) performance events l Automatic reporting of a trap when a microwave performance value exceeds the threshold l Automatic reporting of a trap when a data performance value exceeds the threshold l Automatic reporting of a trap when an alarm is generated l Setting and querying of the start time and end time of performance measurement l Setting and querying of the RMON history group and history control group Identity authentication and access authorization l Identity authentication and access authorization based on community names l Authentication of the complexity of community names l Setting of a community name based on the IP address of the SNMP server l Setting of a universal community name that can be used by all SNMP servers
NOTE If the SNMP server IP address is set to 0.0.0.0, the community name can be used by all SNMP servers.

Trap function settings

l Enabling/Disabling of automatic trap reporting when a microwave performance value exceeds the threshold l Enabling/Disabling of automatic trap reporting when a data performance value exceeds the threshold l Enabling/Disabling of automatic trap reporting when an alarm is generated l Setting of the port for listening to traps

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1.5.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with the SNMP feature. l l IETF RFC 1157: A Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) IETF RFC 1905: Protocol Operations for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)

1.5.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the SNMP feature. Table 1-26 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name SNMP feature Port Network management system (NMS) port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later

1.5.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of the SNMP feature. l l If an SNMP server needs to access a non-gateway NE, the IP data communication network (DCN) solution must be deployed on the DCN between the SNMP server and the NE. If the SNMP server IP address is set to 0.0.0.0, OptiX RTN 310 does not support the trap function.

1.5.7 Principles
An OptiX RTN 310 runs an SNMP agent, which it uses to communicate with an SNMP server. Figure 1-45 SNMP implementation principles

SNMP request

SNMP server

SNMP response Trap

SNMP agent

OptiX RTN equipment


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The SNMP implementation principles illustrated in Figure 1-45 are described as follows: 1. The SNMP server constructs a protocol data unit (PDU) based on the operation to be executed. The server then submits the PDU (which includes the source address, destination address, and a community name) for authentication, and generates and sends a request to the SNMP agent. Upon receipt of the request, the SNMP agent performs the following operations: a. Decodes the request message using Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), and generates a packet with an internal data structure. If decoding fails, the SNMP agent discards the request message. Reads the SNMP version number listed in the packet. If the agent does not support the listed version number, it discards the packet. Checks the community name in the packet. If the community name is different from that configured on the SNMP agent, the SNMP agent discards the packet and sends a trap to the SNMP server. Reads the packet to obtain information about the node corresponding to the managed object, and obtains the value of the managed object from the corresponding management information base (MIB) file. If the SNMP agent fails to read the packet, it discards the packet. Encodes the read contents using ASN.1, and generates and sends a response to the SNMP server. The destination address of the response is the same as the source address of the request.
NOTE

2.

b. c.

d.

e.

The SNMP agent also sends a trap to the SNMP server if preset conditions are met (for example, an NE reports an alarm, or a performance value has crossed the threshold).

3.

Upon receipt of the response, the SNMP server processes it and displays the results.

1.5.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning the SNMP feature. l If an OptiX RTN 310 needs to report a trap when an alarm has been generated or a microwave performance value or data performance value has crossed the threshold, set Report SDH Performance Trap, Report IP Performance Trap, and Report Alarm Trap to Report. The read/write permissions and community name of an OptiX RTN 310 must be the same as those configured on the SNMP server.

1.5.9 Configuration Process


After communication parameters are configured for an SNMP server on an OptiX RTN 310, the SNMP server queries alarms and performance events on the OptiX RTN 310 based on the parameters and management information base (MIB) files.

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Table 1-27 Process of configuring the SNMP feature Operation A.3.6.20 Setting SNMP Communication Parameters Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set NMS IP Address to the IP address of the SNMP server whose communication parameters have been configured. Set NMS IP Address to the default value 0.0.0.0 if the IP address of the SNMP server accessing the NE does not need to be limited. l Verify Read/Write Permissions, Read Community Name, and Write Community Name of the SNMP server based on the network plan. Read/Write Permissions, Read Community Name, and Write Community Name must take the same values as the permission parameters set on the SNMP server. l Set Report MW Performance Trap, Report IP Performance Trap, and Report Alarm Trap to Report if an SNMP server is required to automatically report traps when the microwave performance crosses the threshold, the data performance crosses the threshold, or an alarm is generated on an OptiX RTN 310. l It is recommended that Port take the default value. l Set Traps Version based on the SNMP version.

1.5.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure the SNMP feature based on network conditions.

1.5.10.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. As shown in Figure 1-46, an IP data communication network (DCN) is configured for the OptiX RTN 310s. Using DCN configurations, an IP route is created between the SNMP server and each OptiX RTN 310. The SNMP server directly queries the alarms and performance events on each OptiX RTN 310. The IP address of the SNMP server is 10.10.10.3.

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Figure 1-46 Networking diagram for the SNMP feature

NE 2

NE 1 IP DCN

NE 8 NE 7

NE 3 NE 6 (GNE) NE 4 NE 5

External DCN

SNMP server IP address: 10.10.10.3

1.5.10.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring the SNMP feature. In this example, each NE is planned and configured in the same way. This section uses NE 5 as an example of how to plan SNMP information to allow the SNMP server to query alarms and performance events on NE 5. Table 1-28 provides the SNMP plan of NE 5 based on the SNMP server. Table 1-28 SNMP plan Parameter IP address of the SNMP server Read/Write permissions Read permission communicate name Write permission communicate name SNMP version Whether a trap is automatically reported when a microwave performance value exceeds the threshold Whether a trap is automatically reported when a data performance value exceeds the threshold Whether a trap is automatically reported when an alarm is generated ID of the port for listening to traps NE 5 10.10.10.3 Reading and writing RTN310_read_01 RTN310_write_01 SNMPv2c Report Report Report 162

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NOTE

1 Network Management Features

The SNMP version, read/write permissions, and community name planned for an OptiX RTN 310 must be the same as those on the SNMP server.

1.5.10.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring the SNMP feature.

Procedure
Step 1 Set SNMP communication parameters. For details, see A.3.6.20 Setting SNMP Communication Parameters. This table provides values for setting SNMP communication parameters. Parameter Value NE 5 NMS IP Address Read/Write Permissions Report MW Performance Trap Report IP Performance Trap Report Alarm Trap Port Read Community Name Write Community Name Traps Version 10.10.10.3 Read/Write Report Report Report 162 RTN310_read_01 RTN310_write_01 SNMPV2C

----End

1.5.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to the SNMP feature.

Related Tasks
A.3.6.20 Setting SNMP Communication Parameters

1.5.12 Related Alarms and Events


There are no alarms or events associated with the SNMP feature.

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2
About This Chapter

Microwave Features

This part describes the microwave features supported by OptiX RTN 310. 2.1 1+1 HSB This chapter describes 1+1 hot standby (HSB). This feature provides 1+1 hot standby protection for the OptiX RTN 310s at the two ends of a microwave link hop. 2.2 1+1 FD This chapter describes 1+1 frequency diversity (FD). 1+1 FD uses two channels with a frequency spacing in between to receive and transmit the same services. The receive end selects the channel with better quality service signals. 1+1 FD reduces the impact of transmission fading. 2.3 1+1 SD This chapter describes 1+1 space diversity (SD). 1+1 SD uses two antennas at different heights to receive the same services. The receive end selects the channel with better quality service signals. 1+1 SD reduces the impact of transmission fading. 2.4 PLA This chapter describes physical link aggregation (PLA). PLA aggregates links and implements load sharing over these links based on physical-layer bandwidths. PLA effectively improves bandwidth utilization and reliability for transmitting Ethernet services over microwave links. 2.5 Cross Polarization Interference Cancellation This chapter describes cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC). The XPIC technology works with the co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP) technology. The use of the two technologies doubles transmission capacity without changing channel conditions. 2.6 Automatic Transmit Power Control This chapter describes automatic transmit power control (ATPC), an important function of a microwave transmission system. This function reduces the residual bit error rate (BER) and transmitter's interference to neighbor systems. 2.7 Adaptive Modulation This chapter describes adaptive modulation (AM). AM is one of the major microwave features of OptiX RTN 310.

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2.1 1+1 HSB


This chapter describes 1+1 hot standby (HSB). This feature provides 1+1 hot standby protection for the OptiX RTN 310s at the two ends of a microwave link hop.

2.1.1 Introduction
This section defines 1+1 hot standby (HSB) and describes its purpose.

Definition
1+1 HSB is a 1+1 protection mode. This feature provides 1+1 hot standby protection for the OptiX RTN 310s at the two ends of a microwave link hop. Figure 2-1 shows the application of 1+1 HSB. When the main OptiX RTN 310 at one end fails, the standby OptiX RTN 310 at that end begins to receive and transmit services. Figure 2-1 1+1 HSB
Main NE
Modem RF RF

Main NE
Modem MUX

GE

MUX

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

GE

IDU GE

IDU

GE

MUX

Modem

RF

RF

Modem

MUX

Standby NE

Before switching

Standby NE

Main NE

After switching
RF RF

Main NE
Modem MUX

GE

MUX

Modem

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

GE

IDU GE

IDU

GE

RF MUX Modem RF

Modem

MUX

Standby NE

Standby NE

Purpose
Compared with 1+0 non-protection, 1+1 HSB improves the reliability of microwave links.

2.1.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of 1+1 hot standby (HSB).

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2.1.2.1 System Configuration


Two OptiX RTN 310s must work with one OptiX RTN 900 IDU or one LAG-enabled UNI-side device to achieve 1+1 hot standby (HSB) protection (LAG is short for link aggregation group). A 1+1 HSB group uses one frequency and consists of: l l Two OptiX RTN 310s One antenna with a hybrid coupler

Figure 2-2 shows the configuration of a 1+1 HSB group. Figure 2-2 Configuration of a 1+1 HSB group
RNC RAN LAG LAG NE1 NE3 LAG LAG

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

LAG

NE2 Radio link

NE4 Ethernet link

LAG

OptiX RTN 900

OptiX RTN 310s must work with enhanced-LAG (E-LAG) to achieve 1+1 protection. l l l l An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection must be configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG that contains only the Ethernet port. An E-LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation. COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are connected by an optical fiber. On the main/standby OptiX RTN 310, only the Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection, specifically, the GE optical port or P&E electrical port, can be configured with services. If the other Ethernet port is configured with Ethernet services, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.

Being interconnected with OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 900 IDU or UNI-side device that supports the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) must meet the following requirements: l l A static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG is created. The system priority of the LAG must be greater than 1000. A LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation.
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2.1.2.2 Protection Types


1+1 hot standby (HSB) can work in revertive or non-revertive mode. l Revertive The main channel or NE clears the switching state and services are switched back to it a specified period of time after it is restored to normal. The period of time that elapses after the main channel or NE is restored and before the main channel or NE clears the switching state is called the wait to restore (WTR) time. To prevent frequent switchovers caused by unstable status of the main channel or NE, a WTR time of 5-12 minutes is recommended. l Non-revertive The main channel or NE remains in the switching state even after being restored to normal. The standby channel or NE continues to transmit services unless another switchover occurs.
NOTE

A reverse switchover is non-revertive. After a reverse switchover, services are not switched back to the main NE even though both the main and standby NEs work properly.

2.1.2.3 Switching Conditions


The switching priority varies according to switching condition.
NOTE

l The switching conditions in Table 2-1 are listed in descending order of priority. l A user can issue a switching command only to the main OptiX RTN 310. The standby OptiX RTN 310 does not allow a manually issued switching command.

Table 2-1 1+1 HSB switching conditions Switching Condition Switching clearing command (manually issued) Description Any switching state caused by a manually issued switching command is cleared.
NOTE In revertive mode, services are switched back to the main NE after the switching state is cleared.

Switching lockout command (manually issued) Forced switching command (manually issued)

Switching in any state enters the lockout state. No switching occurs until the lockout state is cleared. If switching is in the lockout state, no forced switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout state, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE or from the standby NE to the main NE according to the specific command. Switching enters the forced state. If switching is in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE is faulty, no HSB switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE is functioning normally, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE. Switching enters the automatic state. For the automatic switching conditions, see Table 2-2.

Fault in the main NE

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Switching Condition Reverse switching command (valid only when the reverse switching function is enabled)

Description When both the main and standby NEs at the sink report service alarms, a notification is sent to the source using the MWRDI overhead in a microwave frame. If switching at the source is in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE at the source is faulty, no reverse switching occurs. If switching at the source is not in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE at the source is functioning normally, HSB switching occurs at the source after the reverse switching timer expires. The reverse switching timer restarts after a protection group is created or when HSB switching occurs. The timer length is the wait to restore (WTR) time (in revertive mode) or 5 minutes (in non-revertive mode). After the reverse switching, switching enters the remote defect indication (RDI) state. If switching is in the lockout, forced, RDI, or automatic state, or if the standby NE is faulty, no switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout, forced, RDI, or automatic state, or if the standby NE is functioning normally, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE or from the standby NE to the main NE according to the specific command. Switching enters the manual state. In the automatic switching state, revertive switching occurs after the main NE is restored and remains in the normal state for the WTR time. From the time the main NE is restored to the time the revertive switching occurs, switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, switching enters the normal state.

Manual switching command (manually issued)

Revertive switching command (valid only in revertive mode)

Table 2-2 Automatic 1+1 HSB switching conditions Switching Type Switching when the main microwave link is faulty Switching Condition l MW_LOF l RADIO_TSL_HIGH l RADIO_TSL_LOW l RADIO_RSL_HIGH l MW_RDI (The reverse switching function is enabled.) Switching when the Ethernet access link to the main NE is faulty ETH_LOS or ETH_LINK_DOWN at an Ethernet service port

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Switching Type Switching when the main NE is faulty

Switching Condition l Hardware faults l Cold reset on the NE l Power failure of the NE
NOTE l 1+1 protection switching is triggered when the standby NE detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives a message about the fault in the main link from the remote NE. l If the standby NE only detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm, 1+1 protection switching is not triggered because the main NE and services are functioning normally. The alarm is reported possibly because the optical fiber between the main and standby NEs is disconnected.

2.1.2.4 Switching Impact


Services are interrupted during 1+1 hot standby (HSB) switching.

2.1.3 Specifications
This section lists the 1+1 hot standby (HSB) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 2-3 1+1 HSB specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Reversion mode Specifications Revertive Non-revertive Wait to restore (WTR) time Reverse switching Protection group alarms 5-12 minutes Supported Supported

2.1.4 Availability
This section lists the license, hardware, and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the 1+1 hot standby (HSB) feature.

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Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 2-4 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name 1+1 HSB Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C01 or later

2.1.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of 1+1 hot standby (HSB). Table 2-5 Dependencies and limitations of 1+1 HSB Item Self-limitations Description OptiX RTN 310s must work with enhanced-LAG (E-LAG) to achieve 1+1 protection. l An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection must be configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG that contains only the Ethernet port. l An E-LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation. l COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are connected by an optical fiber. l On the main/standby OptiX RTN 310, only the Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection, specifically, the GE optical port or P&E electrical port, can be configured with services. If the other Ethernet port is configured with Ethernet services, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.
NOTE Being interconnected with OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 900 IDU or UNI-side device that supports the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) must meet the following requirements: l A static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG is created. The system priority of the LAG must be greater than 1000. l A LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation.

Dependencie s and limitations between 1+1 HSB and other features

XPIC PLA Clock

1+1 HSB cannot coexist with cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC). 1+1 HSB cannot coexist with physical link aggregation (PLA). In 1+1 protection mode, clocks in centralized mode are used. In centralized mode, a standby NE traces the active NE's clock through its COMBO port.
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2.1.6 Principles
The main and standby OptiX RTN 310s exchange 1+1 protection protocol packets to implement 1+1 hot standby (HSB).

Before Switching
l In the transmit direction 1. As shown in Figure 2-3, the IDU at the source sends Ethernet services to the Ethernet service port of the main NE because the main NE has a higher system priority than the standby NE. The MUX unit of the main NE adds microwave frame overheads to received Ethernet service signals to form microwave frames. Then, the MUX unit modulates the microwave frames into RF signals by means of up-conversion, and sends them to the microwave link. The RF processing unit of the standby NE is muted and does not transmit the RF signals. The hybrid coupler receives RF signals from the antenna, splits them into two equal amplitude outputs, and forwards them to the main and standby NEs. The main NE sends Ethernet service signals to the IDU.

2.

In the receive direction 1. 2.

Figure 2-3 1+1 HSB implementation (before switching)


Main NE
RF

Main NE
Modem MUX

GE

MUX

Modem

RF

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

GE

IDU GE

IDU

GE

RF MUX Modem RF

Modem

MUX

Standby NE Transmit direction

Standby NE

Receive direction Main NE


RF

Main NE

GE

MUX

Modem

RF

Modem

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

MUX

GE

IDU

IDU

GE

MUX

Modem

RF

RF

Modem

MUX

GE

Standby NE

Standby NE

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NOTE

2 Microwave Features

To implement 1+1 HSB, the main and standby NEs exchange data communication network (DCN) messages and 1+1 protection protocol packets. The 1+1 protection protocol is used to: l Set up a heartbeat connection to detect the communication status between the main and standby NEs. l Transmit NE status information so that the 1+1 protection module can perform service switching when necessary. l Transmit 1+1 protection configurations to verify configuration consistency between the main and standby NEs.

After Switching
Figure 2-4 shows a 1+1 HSB switchover caused by a power failure of the main NE. The 1+1 HSB switchover is triggered when the standby NE detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives the MW_RDI alarm from the remote NE. Figure 2-4 1+1 HSB implementation (upon a power failure of the main NE)
Main NE
RF MUX Modem RF

Main NE
Modem MUX

GE

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

GE

IDU GE
MUX

IDU

GE

RF MUX Modem RF

Modem

Standby NE Transmit direction

Standby NE

Receive direction Main NE


RF

Main NE

GE

MUX

Modem

RF

Modem

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

MUX

GE

IDU GE

IDU

GE
MUX Modem RF

RF

Modem

MUX

Standby NE

Standby NE

Figure 2-5 shows a 1+1 HSB switchover caused by an Ethernet link failure between the IDU and the main NE. The 1+1 HSB switchover is triggered when the main NE detects the ETH_LOS alarm and sends 1+1 protection protocol packets to instruct the standby NE to perform a service switchover.

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Figure 2-5 1+1 HSB implementation (upon an Ethernet link failure)


Main NE GE
RF MUX Modem RF

Main NE
Modem MUX

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

GE

IDU GE
MUX

IDU

RF

Modem

GE

MUX

Modem

RF

Standby NE Transmit direction

Standby NE

Receive direction Main NE


RF Modem RF

Main NE
Modem

GE

MUX

Hybrid coupler

Antenna

Antenna

Hybrid coupler

MUX

GE

IDU GE

IDU

GE

RF MUX Modem RF

Modem

MUX

Standby NE

Standby NE

After switching: l l The IDU at the source sends Ethernet services to the Ethernet service port of the standby NE because the standby NE has a higher system priority than the main NE. The MUX unit of the standby NE adds microwave frame overheads to received Ethernet service signals to form microwave frames. Then, the MUX unit modulates the microwave frames into RF signals by means of up-conversion, and sends them to the microwave link.

2.1.7 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning 1+1 hot standby (HSB). l l If 1+1 HSB works in revertive mode, set the wait to restore (WTR) time to a value ranging from 5 minutes to 12 minutes. The default value (10 minutes) is recommended. It is recommended that you enable the reverse switching function. After this function is enabled, the main OptiX RTN 310 at the sink can instruct the standby OptiX RTN 310 at the source to perform reverse switching when the main OptiX RTN 310 at the source fails in the service transmit direction.

2.1.8 Configuration Process


To configure 1+1 hot standby (HSB), configure a link aggregation group (LAG), a 1+1 IF protection group, and then IF and RF information.

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Table 2-6 1+1 HSB configuration process Step 1 Operation Deleting the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection from the bridge of the Ethernet local area network (ELAN) service or deleting the Ethernet line (ELine) service on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks Required. Do not configure Ethernet services on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection. If you configure Ethernet services on the Ethernet port, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.
NOTE By default, an OptiX RTN 310 creates a bridge-based E-LAN service. All ports of the OptiX RTN 310 are mounted to the bridge. Therefore, you must delete the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection from the bridge. If an E-Line service has been configured on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection, delete the E-Line service.

Required. Configure a LAG on each of the main OptiX RTN 310s and each of the standby OptiX RTN 310s. The LAG has only one member port that receives and transmits Ethernet services. Set parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to Static. l Set Reversion Mode to Non-Revertive. l Set Load Balancing to Non-Sharing. l Set Master Port to the port that receives and transmits Ethernet services. Do not set Standby Ports.

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Step 3

Operation A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group

Remarks Required. Create a 1+1 HSB protection group on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s. Set parameters as follows: l Set Working Mode to HSB. l Set Working/Protection Unit Type to Working Unit for the main OptiX RTN 310 and Protection Unit for the standby OptiX RTN 310. l It is recommended that you set Reversion Mode to the default value Revertive Mode. l WTR Time(s) is available only when Reversion Mode is set to Revertive Mode. l It is recommended that you set Enable Reverse Switching to Enable. l Set Service port to the same value as Master Port that you set during LAG creation. l Set Working Mode, Reversion Mode, WTR Time(s), and Enable Reverse Switching to the same values for the OptiX RTN 310s at both ends of the hop of microwave link.
NOTE If 1+1 protection configuration fails, check that: l Working Mode is set to the default value AutoNegotiation for Service port on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s. l Logical Port Attribute of the P&E electrical port (1-SHXA2-2) takes the default value Electrical Port. l Ethernet services are configured only on Service port involved in 1+1 protection. l No feature that conflicts with 1+1 protection, such as cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or physical link aggregation (PLA), is configured. l The COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are properly connected using an optical fiber.

A.5.1 Configurin g a Single Hop of Microwav e Link

Setting basic parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all basic parameters consistently for the main and standby microwave links. l Do not select XPIC. l Set Link ID according to the plan.

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Step

Operation Setting IF parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all IF parameters consistently for the main and standby microwave links. l If adaptive modulation (AM) is disabled, set IF Channel Bandwidth and Modulation Mode according to the plan. l If AM is enabled, select AM and set AM parameters according to the plan.

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Step

Operation Setting RF parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all RF parameters for the main and standby microwave links in 1+1 HSB or 1+1 space diversity (SD) mode consistently. l For 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), set all RF parameters consistently, except TX Frequency(MHz), for the main and standby microwave links. l Set TX Frequency(MHz), T/R Spacing (MHz), and TX Power(dBm) according to the plan. l If automatic transmit power control is enabled, select ATPC and set automatic transmit power control (ATPC) parameters according to the plan. l Set Power to Be Received (dBm) to the received signal level specified in the plan. The antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled only after this parameter is set. After the antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled, a RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported if the actual receive power is 3 dB lower than expected. After antennas are aligned for 30 consecutive minutes, the antenna non-alignment indication function is automatically disabled. l Set TX Status to Unmute for the main and standby microwave links.
NOTE l When the main microwave link in 1+1 HSB or 1+1 SD mode is functioning normally, the RF processing unit of the standby microwave link is automatically muted and does not transmit any signals. l After deleting the 1+1 protection group, manually change TX Status to Unmute for the RF processing unit of the standby microwave link. If you do not change TX Status manually, the RF processing unit remains mute.

NOTE

In subsequent Ethernet service configuration, ensure that Ethernet service configurations are the same on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s.

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2.1.9 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure 1+1 hot standby (HSB) based on network conditions.

2.1.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. Figure 2-6 shows a hop of important microwave link. 1+1 host standby (HSB) protection is configured to ensuring reliable transmission of 1xGE services. Figure 2-6 Networking diagram for 1+1 HSB protection
Link ID: 101 Transmit frequency of the Tx high site : 14930 MHz Transmit frequency of the Tx low site: 14510 MHz Channel spacing: 28 MHz RF configuration: 1+1 HSB LAG LAG GE
COMBO

RNC

RAN

NE1 Tx high site Tx low site

NE3

LAG GE

LAG

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

GE LAG NE2 Radio link NE4

GE LAG

OptiX RTN 900

Ethernet link

NOTE

l l l l l

On the NMS, the logical port of a microwave port is 1-SHXA2-1(IF). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as an optical GE port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1). On the NMS, the logical port of a P&E port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1), when the COMBO port does not function as an optical GE port. On the NMS, the logical port of a GE port is 1-SHXA2-3(GE2). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as a 1+1 concatenation port is 1-SHXA2-4. This port is valid only when DCN is being configured.

2.1.9.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring 1+1 hot standby (HSB).

Basic Information About Microwave Links


You can obtain basic information about microwave links based on the spectrum allocation on the microwave network and the required radio transmission capacity, as listed in Table 2-7.
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Table 2-7 Basic information about microwave links Parameter Link ID TX high site TX low site TX frequency at the TX high site (MHz) TX frequency at the TX low site (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHz) IF Channel Bandwidth RF configuration mode Value 101 NE1 and NE2 NE3 and NE4 14930 14510 420 28 1+1 HSB

AM Attribute Information
You can compute adaptive modulation (AM) attribute information based on Ethernet service capacity and availability requirements, as listed in Table 2-8. Table 2-8 AM attribute information Parameter AM Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity Modulation Mode of the Full AM Modulation Mode Value Disabled 128QAM

NOTE

The radio capacity and the AM function are under license control.

Power and ATPC Information


You can obtain information about the microwave link power and automatic transmit power control (ATPC) by using microwave network planning software such as Pathloss, as listed in Table 2-9.

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Table 2-9 Power and ATPC information Parameter TX power (dBm) Value 16 (NE1/NE2) 16 (NE3/NE4) RX power (dBm) -46 (NE1/NE2) -46 (NE3/NE4) ATPC Disabled

NOTE

l The transmit power and receive power are calculated in the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity. l In this example, ATPC is disabled.

LAG Configuration Information


A static and non-load sharing link aggregation group (LAG) is configured on each of the two main OptiX RTN 310s and each of the two standby OptiX RTN 310s. The LAG has only one member port, which is an Ethernet port. Table 2-10 lists the LAG configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4. Table 2-10 LAG configuration information Parameter LAG Name LAG Type Reversion Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority Master Board Master Port Value E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 3(PORT-3)

1+1 HSB Configuration Information


Table 2-11 lists the 1+1 HSB configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4.

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Table 2-11 1+1 HSB configuration information Parameter Working Mode Reversion Mode WTR Time(s) Enable Reverse Switching Working/Protection Unit Type Service port Main NEs (NE1 and NE3) Standby NEs (NE2 and NE4) HSB Revertive 600s Enable Working Unit 1-SHXA2-3(PORT-3) HSB Revertive 600s Enable Protection Unit 1-SHXA2-3(PORT-3)

2.1.9.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring 1+1 hot standby (HSB).

Procedure
Step 1 Deleting 1-SHXA2-3(PORT-3) from the bridge of the Ethernet local area network (ELAN) service. Step 2 Create a link aggregation group (LAG). For details, see A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG. This table provides the LAG configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4. Table 2-12 LAG configuration information Parameter LAG Name LAG Type Reversion Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority Master Board Master Port Value E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 3(PORT-3)

Step 3 Create a microwave 1+1 protection group. For details, see A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group. This table provides the 1+1 HSB configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4.
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Table 2-13 1+1 HSB configuration information Parameter Working Mode Reversion Mode WTR Time(s) Enable Reverse Switching Working/Protection Unit Type Service port Main NEs (NE1 and NE3) Standby NEs (NE2 and NE4) HSB Revertive 600s Enable Working Unit 1-SHXA2-3(PORT-3) HSB Revertive 600s Enable Protection Unit 1-SHXA2-3(PORT-3)

Step 4 Configure a hop of microwave link. l Basic parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 Link ID 101 NE3 101 Standby Link Values NE2 101 NE4 101

l IF parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 IF Channel Bandwidth AM Modulation Mode 28M Deselected 128QAM NE3 28M Deselected 128QAM Standby Link Values NE2 28M Deselected 128QAM NE4 28M Deselected 128QAM

l RF parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHz) ATPC 14930 420 Deselected NE3 14510 420 Deselected Standby Link Values NE2 14930 420 Deselected NE4 14510 420 Deselected

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Parameter

Main Link Values NE1 NE3 16 -46 Unmute

Standby Link Values NE2 16 -46 Unmute NE4 16 -46 Unmute

TX power (dBm) RX power (dBm) TX Status

16 -46 Unmute

----End

2.1.10 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to 1+1 hot standby (HSB).

Related Tasks
A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group A.5.4 Microwave 1+1 Protection Switching A.5.5 Querying the Microwave 1+1 Protection Status A.11.3.2 Testing 1+1 Protection Switching

2.1.11 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to 1+1 hot standby (HSB).

Alarms
l l RPS_INDI This alarm indicates that microwave 1+1 protection switching occurred. NB_CFG_MISMATCH This alarm indicates that the main and standby NEs have different physical link aggregation (PLA) or 1+1 protection configurations. l NB_UNREACHABLE This alarm indicates that the main and standby NEs cannot communicate with each other. Upon detecting this alarm, visit the site to verify that the optical fiber between COMBO ports of the main and standby NEs are properly connected. If this alarm is not cleared timely, 1+1 protection fails.

Events
None

2.1.12 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about 1+1 hot standby (HSB).

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Q: During 1+1 HSB configuration, do the IF and RF parameters need to be configured for the standby OptiX RTN 310? A: Yes. The IF and RF parameters need to be configured for the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s separately. Keep the configurations consistent between the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s. Q: Why does the configuration of 1+1 HSB fail? A: The configuration may fail for one or more of the following reasons: l l l l l l Working Mode is not set to the default value Auto-Negotiation for ports that participate in 1+1 protection. Ethernet services are configured on both the GE optical port and the P&E electrical port of OptiX RTN 310. Ethernet services should be configured on either of the ports. An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection is not configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive link aggregation group (LAG) that contains only the Ethernet port. The default Logical Port Attribute of the P&E electrical port (1-SHXA2-2) is set to Optical Port. The correct default value is Electrical Port. A feature such as cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or physical link aggregation (PLA) that conflicts with 1+1 HSB is configured. The optical fiber connecting the COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are not properly connected.

Q: Why does reversion fail when switching is in the remote defect indication (RDI) state? A: The revertive mode is not available to reverse switching. After reverse switching, services are not switched back to the main OptiX RTN 310 even if both the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are functioning normally. Q: How should I handle a 1+1 HSB switching failure? A: Handle alarms reported by the standby OptiX RTN 310, and then perform a manual switchover to verify the 1+1 HSB switching function.

2.2 1+1 FD
This chapter describes 1+1 frequency diversity (FD). 1+1 FD uses two channels with a frequency spacing in between to receive and transmit the same services. The receive end selects the channel with better quality service signals. 1+1 FD reduces the impact of transmission fading.

2.2.1 Introduction
This section defines 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) and describes its purpose.

Definition
1+1 FD is a 1+1 protection mode. 1+1 FD uses two channels with a frequency spacing in between to receive and transmit the same services. The receive end selects the channel with better quality service signals. 1+1 FD reduces the impact of transmission fading.
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Figure 2-7 shows the application of 1+1 FD. When detecting that service signals transmitted over the main channel at frequency f1 deteriorate, the receive end receives service signals from the standby channel at frequency f2. Figure 2-7 1+1 FD
Main NE
Modem RF

Antenna f1

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF

IDU Antenna f2
RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction

Standby NE Before switching

Main NE

After switching Antenna f1 Antenna


RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

Modem

RF

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF

IDU Antenna f2
RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction

Standby NE

With 1+1 FD, the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s at the receive end receive RF signals at different frequencies. Microwave signals are affected by spatial fading. When service signals transmitted over the main channel deteriorate, the service unit receives service signals from the standby channel for service protection. 1+1 FD supports hot standby (HSB) switching and hitless switch mode (HSM) switching.

Purpose
Compared with 1+0 non-protection, 1+1 FD improves the anti-fading capability and reliability of microwave links.

2.2.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of 1+1 frequency diversity (FD).

2.2.2.1 System Configuration


Two OptiX RTN 310s must work with one OptiX RTN 900 IDU or one LAG-enabled UNI-side device to achieve 1+1 FD protection.
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A 1+1 FD group uses two frequencies and consists of: l l Two OptiX RTN 310s One antenna with a hybrid coupler or two antennas
NOTE

If the hybrid coupler supports the two transmit frequencies, use one antenna with a hybrid coupler. If the hybrid coupler does not support any of the two transmit frequencies, use two antennas.

Figure 2-8 and Figure 2-9 show the configurations of a 1+1 FD group. Figure 2-8 Configuration of a 1+1 FD group using one antenna with a hybrid coupler
RNC RAN LAG LAG NE1 NE3 LAG LAG

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

LAG

NE2 Radio link

NE4 Ethernet link

LAG

OptiX RTN 900

Figure 2-9 Configuration of a 1+1 FD group using two antennas


RNC RAN LAG LAG NE1 NE3 LAG LAG

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

LAG

NE2 Radio link

NE4 Ethernet link

LAG

OptiX RTN 900

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OptiX RTN 310s must work with enhanced-LAG (E-LAG) to achieve 1+1 protection. l l l l An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection must be configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG that contains only the Ethernet port. An E-LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation. COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are connected by an optical fiber. On the main/standby OptiX RTN 310, only the Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection, specifically, the GE optical port or P&E electrical port, can be configured with services. If the other Ethernet port is configured with Ethernet services, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.

Being interconnected with OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 900 IDU or UNI-side device that supports the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) must meet the following requirements: l l A static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG is created. The system priority of the LAG must be greater than 1000. A LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation.

2.2.2.2 Protection Types


1+1 frequency diversity (FD) can work in revertive or non-revertive mode. l Revertive The main channel or NE clears the switching state and services are switched back to it a specified period of time after it is restored to normal. The period of time that elapses after the main channel or NE is restored and before the main channel or NE clears the switching state is called the wait to restore (WTR) time. To prevent frequent switchovers caused by unstable status of the main channel or NE, a WTR time of 5-12 minutes is recommended. l Non-revertive The main channel or NE remains in the switching state even after being restored to normal. The standby channel or NE continues to transmit services unless another switchover occurs.
NOTE

Both the revertive and non-revertive modes apply only to hot standby (HSB) switching (on the equipment side). For hitless switch mode (HSM) switching (on the channel side), an NE attempts to perform revertive switching at a specified interval after HSM switching, regardless of the reversion mode.

2.2.2.3 Switching Conditions


1+1 frequency diversity (FD) supports hot standby (HSB) switching and hitless switch mode (HSM) switching. The two types of switching are triggered by different conditions.

Conditions for HSB Switching in 1+1 FD Protection


HSB switching in 1+1 FD protection occurs on the equipment side. It has the same switching actions and impact as 1+1 HSB switching, but is triggered by different conditions.

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2 Microwave Features

l The switching conditions in Table 2-14 are listed in descending order of priority. l A user can issue a switching command only to the main OptiX RTN 310. The standby OptiX RTN 310 does not allow a manually issued switching command.

Table 2-14 Conditions for HSB switching in 1+1 FD protection Switching Condition Switching clearing command (manually issued) Description Any switching state caused by a manually issued switching command is cleared.
NOTE In revertive mode, services are switched back to the main NE after the switching state is cleared.

Switching lockout command (manually issued) Forced switching command (manually issued)

Switching in any state enters the lockout state. No switching occurs until the lockout state is cleared. If switching is in the lockout state, no forced switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout state, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE or from the standby NE to the main NE according to the specific command. Switching enters the forced state. If switching is in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE is faulty, no HSB switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE is functioning normally, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE. Switching enters the automatic state. For the automatic switching conditions, see Table 2-15. If switching is in the lockout, forced, remote defect indication (RDI), or automatic state, or if the standby NE is faulty, no switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout, forced, RDI, or automatic state, or if the standby NE is functioning normally, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE or from the standby NE to the main NE according to the specific command. Switching enters the manual state. In the automatic switching state, revertive switching occurs after the main NE is restored and remains in the normal state for the wait to restore (WTR) time. From the time the main NE is restored to the time the revertive switching occurs, switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, switching enters the normal state.

Fault in the main NE

Manual switching command (manually issued)

Revertive switching command (valid only in revertive mode)

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Table 2-15 Conditions for automatic HSB switching in 1+1 FD protection Switching Type Switching when the main microwave link is faulty Switching Condition l RADIO_TSL_HIGH l RADIO_TSL_LOW l RADIO_RSL_HIGH Switching when the Ethernet access link to the main NE is faulty Switching when the main NE is faulty ETH_LOS or ETH_LINK_DOWN at an Ethernet service port l Hardware faults (HARD_BAD) The baseband processing unit is faulty. The RF processing unit is faulty. The system control unit is faulty. l Cold reset on the NE l Power failure of the NE
NOTE l 1+1 protection switching is triggered when the standby NE detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives a message about the fault in the main link from the remote NE. l If the standby NE only detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm, 1+1 protection switching is not triggered because the main NE and services are functioning normally. The alarm is reported possibly because the optical fiber between the main and standby NEs is disconnected.

Conditions for HSM Switching in 1+1 FD Protection


HSM switching in 1+1 FD protection occurs on the channel side. The channel-side switching can be: l Automatic switching HSM switching is automatically triggered when service signals transmitted over the main channel deteriorate. After automatic switching, the main baseband processing unit receives baseband signals from the standby baseband processing unit. The condition for triggering automatic HSM switching is MW_FEC_UNCOR. l Revertive switching After automatic HSM switching, the main baseband processing unit periodically performs revertive switching. If the main channel reports no service alarm, the switching state is cleared.

2.2.2.4 Switching Impact


Services are interrupted during hot standby (HSB) switching in 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) protection. Hitless switch mode (HSM) switching in 1+1 FD protection does not affect services.

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2.2.3 Specifications
This section lists the 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 2-16 1+1 FD specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Switching mode Specifications Hot standby (HSB) Hitless switch mode (HSM) Reversion mode Revertive Non-revertive Wait to restore (WTR) time Reverse switching Protection group alarms 5-12 minutes Not supported Supported

2.2.4 Availability
This section lists the license, hardware, and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 2-17 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name 1+1 FD Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C01 or later

2.2.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of 1+1 frequency diversity (FD).

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Table 2-18 Dependencies and limitations of 1+1 FD Item Self-limitations Description OptiX RTN 310s must work with enhanced-LAG (E-LAG) to achieve 1+1 protection. l An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection must be configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG that contains only the Ethernet port. l An E-LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation. l COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are connected by an optical fiber. l On the main/standby OptiX RTN 310, only the Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection, specifically, the GE optical port or P&E electrical port, can be configured with services. If the other Ethernet port is configured with Ethernet services, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.
NOTE Being interconnected with OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 900 IDU or UNI-side device that supports the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) must meet the following requirements: l A static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG is created. The system priority of the LAG must be greater than 1000. l A LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation.

Dependencie s and limitations between 1+1 FD and other features

Cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) Physical link aggregation (PLA) Clock

1+1 FD cannot coexist with XPIC.

1+1 FD cannot coexist with PLA.

In 1+1 protection mode, clocks in centralized mode are used. In centralized mode, a standby NE traces the active NE's clock through its COMBO port.

2.2.6 Principles
1+1 frequency diversity (FD) supports hot standby (HSB) switching and hitless switch mode (HSM) switching. OptiX RTN 310s implement HSB switching using E-LAGs, and implement HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.

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Before Switching
l In the transmit direction 1. As shown in Figure 2-10, the IDU at the source sends Ethernet services to the Ethernet service port of the main NE because the main NE has a higher system priority than the standby NE. The MUX unit of the main NE adds microwave frame overheads to received Ethernet service signals to form microwave frames, and sends the microwave frames to the RF processing units of the main and standby NEs. The RF processing units of the main and standby NEs convert the microwave frames into RF signals and send them respectively at frequencies f1 and f2 to the antennas. The antennas receive RF signals at different frequencies, and send them to the RF processing units of the main and standby NEs. The RF processing units of the main and standby NEs convert the RF signals into IF signals and send them to the modem units of the main and standby NEs respectively. The modem unit of the standby NE converts the IF signals into microwave frames and sends them to the main NE using an optical fiber. The MUX unit of the main NE selects the microwave frames from the local modem unit, abstracts Ethernet service signals, and sends them to the Ethernet service port.

2.

3. l

In the receive direction 1. 2. 3. 4.

Figure 2-10 1+1 FD implementation (before switching)


Main NE
Modem RF

Antenna f1

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF

IDU Antenna f2
RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE


Diversity switch Modem RF

Standby NE

Main NE Antenna f1
RF Modem MUX

Antenna GE

GE

MUX

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Modem RF

IDU Antenna f2
RF Modem Diversity switch MUX

GE

Standby NE

Standby NE

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NOTE

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To implement 1+1 FD, the main and standby NEs exchange services, data communication network (DCN) messages, and 1+1 protection protocol packets. The 1+1 protection protocol is used to: l Set up a heartbeat connection to detect the communication status between the main and standby NEs. l Transmit NE status information so that the 1+1 protection module can perform service switching when necessary. l Transmit 1+1 protection configurations to verify configuration consistency between the main and standby NEs.

After HSB Switching


Figure 2-11 shows an HSB switchover caused by an Ethernet link failure between the IDU and the main NE. The HSB switchover is triggered when the main NE detects the ETH_LOS alarm and sends 1+1 protection protocol packets to instruct the standby NE to perform a service switchover. l l The IDU at the source sends Ethernet services to the Ethernet service port of the standby NE because the standby NE has a higher system priority than the main NE. Only the NEs at the faulty end take HSB switching actions, while the NEs at the fault-free end do not.

Figure 2-11 HSB implementation in 1+1 FD protection (upon an Ethernet link failure)
Main NE
Diversity switch Modem RF

Antenna f1

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE f2
MUX Modem RF RF Modem MUX

IDU Antenna GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE


MUX Modem RF

Standby NE

Antenna f1

Antenna
RF

Main NE
Modem MUX

GE

GE

IDU Antenna GE f2
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF RF Modem Diversity switch MUX

IDU Antenna GE

Standby NE

Standby NE

Figure 2-12 shows an HSB switchover caused by a power failure of the main NE. The HSB switchover is triggered when the standby NE detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives a message about the fault in the main link from the remote NE.
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l l l

The IDU at the source sends Ethernet services to the Ethernet service port of the standby NE because the standby NE has a higher system priority than the main NE. Unlike the NEs at the fault-free end that take no switching action in Figure 2-11, the main NE at the fault-free end in Figure 2-12 receives service signals from the standby NE. Both ends receive service signals from the standby channel at frequency f2.

Figure 2-12 HSB implementation in 1+1 FD protection (upon a power failure of the main NE)
Main NE
Modem RF

Antenna f1

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE f2
MUX Modem RF RF Modem MUX

IDU Antenna GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE


Modem RF

Standby NE

Antenna f1

Antenna
RF

Main NE
Modem MUX

MUX

GE

GE

IDU Antenna GE f2
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF RF Modem Diversity switch MUX

IDU Antenna GE

Standby NE

Standby NE

After HSM Switching


As shown in Figure 2-13, an HSM switchover is triggered when the receive end detects that service signals transmitted over the main channel deteriorate. l Unlike HSB switching, HSM switching does not require the Ethernet service ports on the main and standby NEs and the IDU to participate. Therefore, HSM switching is free of bit errors. The main and standby NEs at the transmit end process service signals in the same way both before and after an HSM switchover. The MUX unit of the main NE at the receive end selects service signals from the standby NE, abstracts Ethernet service signals, and sends them to the Ethernet service port.

l l

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Figure 2-13 HSM implementation in 1+1 FD protection


Main NE
Modem RF

Antenna f1

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF

IDU Antenna f2
RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE


Diversity switch Modem RF

Standby NE

Main NE Antenna f1
RF Modem MUX

Antenna GE

GE

MUX

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Modem RF

IDU Antenna f2
RF Modem Diversity switch MUX

GE

Standby NE

Standby NE

2.2.7 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning 1+1 frequency diversity (FD). If 1+1 FD works in revertive mode, set the wait to restore (WTR) time to a value ranging from 5 minutes to 12 minutes. The default value (10 minutes) is recommended.

2.2.8 Configuration Process


To configure 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), configure a link aggregation group (LAG), a 1+1 IF protection group, and then IF and RF information.

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Table 2-19 1+1 FD configuration process Step 1 Operation Deleting the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection from the bridge of the Ethernet local area network (ELAN) service or deleting the Ethernet line (ELine) service on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks Required. Do not configure Ethernet services on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection. If you configure Ethernet services on the Ethernet port, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.
NOTE By default, an OptiX RTN 310 creates a bridge-based E-LAN service. All ports of the OptiX RTN 310 are mounted to the bridge. Therefore, you must delete the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection from the bridge. If an E-Line service has been configured on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection, delete the E-Line service.

Required. Configure a LAG on each of the main OptiX RTN 310s and each of the standby OptiX RTN 310s. The LAG has only one member port that receives and transmits Ethernet services. l Set LAG Type to Static. l Set Reversion Mode to Non-Revertive. l Set Load Balancing to Non-Sharing. l Set Master Port to the port that receives and transmits Ethernet services. Do not set Standby Ports.

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Step 3

Operation A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group

Remarks Required. Create a 1+1 FD protection group on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s. Set parameters as follows: l Set Working Mode to FD. l Set Working/Protection Unit Type to Working Unit for the main OptiX RTN 310 and Protection Unit for the standby OptiX RTN 310. l It is recommended that you set Reversion Mode to the default value Revertive Mode. l WTR Time(s) is available only when Reversion Mode is set to Revertive Mode. l Set Service port to the same value as Master Port that you set during LAG creation. l Set Working Mode, Reversion Mode, WTR Time(s), and Enable Reverse Switching to the same values for the OptiX RTN 310s at both ends of the hop of microwave link.
NOTE If 1+1 protection configuration fails, check that: l Working Mode is set to the default value AutoNegotiation for Service port on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s. l Logical Port Attribute of the P&E electrical port (1-SHXA2-2) takes the default value Electrical Port. l Ethernet services are configured only on Service port involved in 1+1 protection. l No feature that conflicts with 1+1 protection, such as cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or physical link aggregation (PLA), is configured. l The COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are properly connected using an optical fiber.

A.5.1 Configurin g a Single Hop of Microwav e Link

Setting basic parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all basic parameters consistently for the main and standby microwave links. l Do not select XPIC. l Set Link ID according to the plan.

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Step

Operation Setting IF parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all IF parameters consistently for the main and standby microwave links. l If adaptive modulation (AM) is disabled, set IF Channel Bandwidth and Modulation Mode according to the plan. l If AM is enabled, select AM and set AM parameters according to the plan. Setting RF parameters for the main and standby microwave links Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all RF parameters for the main and standby microwave links in 1+1 HSB or 1+1 space diversity (SD) mode consistently. l For 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), set all RF parameters consistently, except TX Frequency(MHz), for the main and standby microwave links. l Set TX Frequency(MHz), T/R Spacing (MHz), and TX Power(dBm) according to the plan. l If automatic transmit power control is enabled, select ATPC and set automatic transmit power control (ATPC) parameters according to the plan. l Set Power to Be Received (dBm) to the received signal level specified in the plan. The antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled only after this parameter is set. After the antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled, a RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported if the actual receive power is 3 dB lower than expected. After antennas are aligned for 30 consecutive minutes, the antenna non-alignment indication function is automatically disabled. l Set TX Status to Unmute for the main and standby microwave links.
NOTE The main OptiX RTN 310s at both ends form a hop of microwave link. So do the standby OptiX RTN 310s at both ends.

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NOTE

2 Microwave Features

In subsequent Ethernet service configuration, ensure that Ethernet service configurations are the same on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s.

2.2.9 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) based on network conditions.

2.2.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. Figure 2-14 shows a hop of important microwave link. 1+1 frequency diversity (FD) protection is configured to ensure reliable transmission of services. Figure 2-14 Networking diagram for 1+1 FD protection
Link ID: 101 Transmit frequency of the Tx high site: 14930 MHz/15000 MHz Transmit frequency of the Tx low site: 14510 MHz/14580 MHz Channel spacing: 28 MHz RF configuration: 1+1 FD LAG LAG NE1 Tx high site
COMBO

RNC

RAN

NE3 Tx low site

LAG

LAG

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

LAG

NE2 Radio link

NE4 Ethernet link

LAG

OptiX RTN 900

NOTE

l l l l l

On the NMS, the logical port of a microwave port is 1-SHXA2-1(IF). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as an optical GE port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1). On the NMS, the logical port of a P&E port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1), when the COMBO port does not function as an optical GE port. On the NMS, the logical port of a GE port is 1-SHXA2-3(GE2). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as a 1+1 concatenation port is 1-SHXA2-4. This port is valid only when DCN is being configured.

2.2.9.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring 1+1 frequency diversity (FD).
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Basic Information About Microwave Links


You can obtain basic information about microwave links based on the spectrum allocation on the microwave network and the required radio transmission capacity, as listed in Table 2-20. Table 2-20 Basic information about microwave links Parameter Link ID TX high site TX low site TX frequency at the TX high site (MHz) Value 101 NE1 and NE2 NE3 and NE4 NE1: 14930 NE2: 15000 TX frequency at the TX low site (MHz) NE3: 14510 NE4: 14580 T/R Spacing (MHz) IF Channel Bandwidth RF configuration mode 420 28 1+1 FD

AM Attribute Information
You can compute adaptive modulation (AM) attribute information based on Ethernet service capacity and availability requirements, as listed in Table 2-21. Table 2-21 AM attribute information Parameter AM Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity Modulation Mode of the Full AM Modulation Mode Value Disabled 128QAM

NOTE

The radio capacity and the AM function are under license control.

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Power and ATPC Information


You can obtain information about the microwave link power and automatic transmit power control (ATPC) by using microwave network planning software such as Pathloss, as listed in Table 2-22. Table 2-22 Power and ATPC information Parameter TX power (dBm) Value 16 (NE1/NE2) 16 (NE3/NE4) RX power (dBm) -46 (NE1/NE2) -46 (NE3/NE4) ATPC Disabled

NOTE

l The transmit power and receive power are calculated in the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity. l In this example, ATPC is disabled.

LAG Configuration Information


A static and non-load sharing link aggregation group (LAG) is configured on each of the two main OptiX RTN 310s and each of the two standby OptiX RTN 310s. The LAG has only one member port, which is an Ethernet port. Table 2-23 lists the LAG configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4. Table 2-23 LAG configuration information Parameter LAG Name LAG Type Reversion Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority Master Board Master Port Value E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 3(PORT-3)

1+1 FD Configuration Information


Table 2-24 lists the 1+1 FD configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4.
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Table 2-24 1+1 FD configuration information Parameter Working Mode Reversion Mode WTR Time(s) Working/Protection Unit Type Service port Main NEs (NE1 and NE3) Standby NEs (NE2 and NE4) FD Revertive 600s Working Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3) FD Revertive 600s Protection Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3)

2.2.9.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring 1+1 frequency diversity (FD).

Procedure
Step 1 Deleting 1SHXA23(PORT3) from the bridge of the Ethernet local area network (ELAN) service. Step 2 Create a link aggregation group (LAG). For details, see A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG. This table provides the LAG configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4. Table 2-25 LAG configuration information Parameter LAG Name LAG Type Reversion Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority Master Board Master Port Value E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 3(PORT-3)

Step 3 Create a microwave 1+1 protection group. For details, see A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group. This table provides the 1+1 FD configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4.

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Table 2-26 1+1 FD configuration information Parameter Working Mode Reversion Mode WTR Time(s) Working/Protection Unit Type Service port Main NEs (NE1 and NE3) Standby NEs (NE2 and NE4) FD Revertive 600s Working Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3) FD Revertive 600s Protection Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3)

Step 4 Configure a hop of microwave link. l Basic parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 Link ID 101 NE3 101 Standby Link Values NE2 101 NE4 101

l IF parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 IF Channel Bandwidth AM Modulation Mode 28M Deselected 128QAM NE3 28M Deselected 128QAM Standby Link Values NE2 28M Deselected 128QAM NE4 28M Deselected 128QAM

l RF parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHz) ATPC TX power (dBm)
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Standby Link Values NE2 15000 420 Deselected 16 NE4 14580 420 Deselected 16

NE3 14510 420 Deselected 16

14930 420 Deselected 16

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Parameter

Main Link Values NE1 NE3 -46 Unmute

Standby Link Values NE2 -46 Unmute NE4 -46 Unmute

RX power (dBm) TX Status

-46 Unmute

----End

2.2.10 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to 1+1 frequency diversity (FD).

Related Tasks
A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group A.5.4 Microwave 1+1 Protection Switching A.5.5 Querying the Microwave 1+1 Protection Status A.11.3.2 Testing 1+1 Protection Switching

2.2.11 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to 1+1 frequency diversity (FD).

Alarms
l l RPS_INDI This alarm indicates that microwave 1+1 protection switching occurred. NB_CFG_MISMATCH This alarm indicates that the main and standby NEs have different physical link aggregation (PLA) or 1+1 protection configurations. l NB_UNREACHABLE This alarm indicates that the main and standby NEs cannot communicate with each other. Upon detecting this alarm, visit the site to verify that the optical fiber between COMBO ports of the main and standby NEs are properly connected. If this alarm is not cleared timely, 1+1 protection fails.

Events
None

2.2.12 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about 1+1 frequency diversity (FD). Q: During 1+1 FD configuration, do the IF and RF parameters need to be configured for the standby OptiX RTN 310?
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A: Yes. Q: Why does the configuration of 1+1 FD fail? A: The configuration may fail for one or more of the following reasons: l l l l l l Working Mode is not set to the default value Auto-Negotiation for ports that participate in 1+1 protection. Ethernet services are configured on both the GE optical port and the P&E electrical port of OptiX RTN 310. Ethernet services should be configured on either of the ports. An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection is not configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive link aggregation group (LAG) that contains only the Ethernet port. The default Logical Port Attribute of the P&E electrical port (1-SHXA2-2) is set to Optical Port. The correct default value is Electrical Port. A feature such as cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or physical link aggregation (PLA) that conflicts with 1+1 HSB is configured. The optical fiber connecting the COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are not properly connected.

Q: Why does 1+1 FD not support reverse switching? A: The RF processing units of the main and standby NEs are unmuted in 1+1 FD mode, so service alarms at the sink cannot be cleared by switching the main and standby RF processing units at the source. Q: How should I handle a 1+1 FD switching failure? A: Handle alarms reported by the standby OptiX RTN 310, and then perform a manual switchover to verify the 1+1 FD switching function.

2.3 1+1 SD
This chapter describes 1+1 space diversity (SD). 1+1 SD uses two antennas at different heights to receive the same services. The receive end selects the channel with better quality service signals. 1+1 SD reduces the impact of transmission fading.

2.3.1 Introduction
This section defines 1+1 space diversity (SD) and describes its purpose.

Definition
1+1 SD is a 1+1 protection mode. 1+1 SD uses two antennas at different heights to receive the same services. The receive end selects the channel with better quality service signals. 1+1 SD reduces the impact of transmission fading. Figure 2-15 shows the application of 1+1 SD. When detecting that service signals transmitted over the main channel deteriorate, the receive end receives the services from the standby channel.
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Figure 2-15 1+1 SD


Main NE
Modem RF

Antenna

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF

IDU Antenna Antenna


RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Before switching

Standby NE

Main NE
Modem RF

After switching Antenna Antenna


RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF RF Modem MUX

IDU Antenna GE

Standby NE Transmit direction

Standby NE

With 1+1 SD, the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s at the receive end receive the same services using two antennas. Owing to space diversity, when service signals transmitted over the main channel deteriorate, the standby channel may not. The service unit then receives the services from the standby channel for service protection. 1+1 SD supports hot standby (HSB) switching and hitless switch mode (HSM) switching.

Purpose
Compared with 1+0 non-protection, 1+1 SD improves the anti-fading (especially, anti-multipath fading) capability and reliability of microwave links.

2.3.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of 1+1 space diversity (SD).

2.3.2.1 System Configuration


Two OptiX RTN 310s must work with one OptiX RTN 900 IDU or one LAG-enabled UNI-side device to achieve 1+1 SD protection. A 1+1 SD group uses one frequency and consists of: l
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Two OptiX RTN 310s


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Two antennas

Figure 2-16 shows the configuration of a 1+1 SD group. Figure 2-16 Configuration of a 1+1 SD group
RNC RAN LAG LAG NE1 NE3 LAG LAG

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

COMBO

LAG

NE2 Radio link

NE4 Ethernet link

LAG

OptiX RTN 900

OptiX RTN 310s must work with enhanced-LAG (E-LAG) to achieve 1+1 protection. l l l l An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection must be configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG that contains only the Ethernet port. An E-LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation. COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are connected by an optical fiber. On the main/standby OptiX RTN 310, only the Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection, specifically, the GE optical port or P&E electrical port, can be configured with services. If the other Ethernet port is configured with Ethernet services, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.

Being interconnected with OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 900 IDU or UNI-side device that supports the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) must meet the following requirements: l l A static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG is created. The system priority of the LAG must be greater than 1000. A LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation.

2.3.2.2 Protection Types


1+1 space diversity (SD) can work in revertive or non-revertive mode. l Revertive The main channel or NE clears the switching state and services are switched back to it a specified period of time after it is restored to normal. The period of time that elapses after
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the main channel or NE is restored and before the main channel or NE clears the switching state is called the wait to restore (WTR) time. To prevent frequent switchovers caused by unstable status of the main channel or NE, a WTR time of 5-12 minutes is recommended. l Non-revertive The main channel or NE remains in the switching state even after being restored to normal. The standby channel or NE continues to transmit services unless another switchover occurs.
NOTE

l Both the revertive and non-revertive modes apply only to hot standby (HSB) switching (on the equipment side). For hitless switch mode (HSM) switching (on the channel side), an NE attempts to perform revertive switching at a specified interval after HSM switching, regardless of the reversion mode. l A reverse switchover is non-revertive. After a reverse switchover, services are not switched back to the main NE even though both the main and standby NEs work properly.

2.3.2.3 Switching Conditions


1+1 space diversity (SD) supports hot standby (HSB) switching and hitless switch mode (HSM) switching. The two types of switching are triggered by different conditions.

Conditions for HSB Switching in 1+1 SD Protection


HSB switching in 1+1 SD protection occurs on the equipment side. It has the same switching actions and impact as 1+1 HSB switching, but is triggered by different conditions.
NOTE

l The switching conditions in Table 2-27 are listed in descending order of priority. l A user can issue a switching command only to the main OptiX RTN 310. The standby OptiX RTN 310 does not allow a manually issued switching command.

Table 2-27 Conditions for HSB switching in 1+1 SD protection Switching Condition Switching clearing command (manually issued) Description Any switching state caused by a manually issued switching command is cleared.
NOTE In revertive mode, services are switched back to the main NE after the switching state is cleared.

Switching lockout command (manually issued) Forced switching command (manually issued)

Switching in any state enters the lockout state. No switching occurs until the lockout state is cleared. If switching is in the lockout state, no forced switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout state, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE or from the standby NE to the main NE according to the specific command. Switching enters the forced state.

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Switching Condition Fault in the main NE

Description If switching is in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE is faulty, no HSB switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE is functioning normally, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE. Switching enters the automatic state. For the automatic switching conditions, see Table 2-28. When both the main and standby NEs at the sink report service alarms, a notification is sent to the source using the MWRDI overhead in a microwave frame. If switching at the source is in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE at the source is faulty, no reverse switching occurs. If switching at the source is not in the lockout or forced state, or if the standby NE at the source is functioning normally, HSB switching occurs at the source after the reverse switching timer expires. The reverse switching timer restarts after a protection group is created or when HSB switching occurs. The timer length is the wait to restore (WTR) time (in revertive mode) or 5 minutes (in non-revertive mode). After the reverse switching, switching enters the remote defect indication (RDI) state. If switching is in the lockout, forced, RDI, or automatic state, or if the standby NE is faulty, no switching occurs. If switching is not in the lockout, forced, RDI, or automatic state, or if the standby NE is functioning normally, services are switched from the main NE to the standby NE or from the standby NE to the main NE according to the specific command. Switching enters the manual state. In the automatic switching state, revertive switching occurs after the main NE is restored and remains in the normal state for the WTR time. From the time the main NE is restored to the time the revertive switching occurs, switching is in the WTR state. After the revertive switching, switching enters the normal state.

Reverse switching command (valid only when the reverse switching function is enabled)

Manual switching command (manually issued)

Revertive switching command (valid only in revertive mode)

Table 2-28 Conditions for automatic HSB switching in 1+1 SD protection Switching Type Switching when the main microwave link is faulty Switching Condition l RADIO_TSL_HIGH l RADIO_TSL_LOW l RADIO_RSL_HIGH l MW_RDI (The reverse switching function is enabled.) Switching when the Ethernet access link to the main NE is faulty ETH_LOS or ETH_LINK_DOWN at an Ethernet service port

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Switching Type Switching when the main NE is faulty

Switching Condition l Hardware faults (HARD_BAD) The baseband processing unit is faulty. The RF processing unit is faulty. The system control unit is faulty. l Cold reset on the NE l Power failure of the NE
NOTE l 1+1 protection switching is triggered when the standby NE detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives a message about the fault in the main link from the remote NE. l If the standby NE only detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm, 1+1 protection switching is not triggered because the main NE and services are functioning normally. The alarm is reported possibly because the optical fiber between the main and standby NEs is disconnected.

Conditions for HSM Switching in 1+1 SD Protection


HSM switching in 1+1 SD protection occurs on the channel side. The channel-side switching can be: l Automatic switching HSM switching is automatically triggered when service signals transmitted over the main channel deteriorate. After automatic switching, the main baseband processing unit receives baseband signals from the standby baseband processing unit. The condition for triggering automatic HSM switching is MW_FEC_UNCOR. l Revertive switching After automatic HSM switching, the main baseband processing unit periodically performs revertive switching. If the main channel reports no service alarm, the switching state is cleared.

2.3.2.4 Switching Impact


Services are interrupted during hot standby (HSB) switching in 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection. Hitless switch mode (HSM) switching in 1+1 SD protection does not affect services.

2.3.3 Specifications
This section lists the 1+1 space diversity (SD) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports.

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Table 2-29 1+1 SD specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Switching mode Specifications Hot standby (HSB) Hitless switch mode (HSM) Reversion mode Revertive Non-revertive Wait to restore (WTR) time Reverse switching Protection group alarms 5-12 minutes Supported Supported

2.3.4 Availability
This section lists the license, hardware, and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the 1+1 space diversity (SD) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 2-30 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name 1+1 SD Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C01 or later

2.3.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of 1+1 space diversity (SD).

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Table 2-31 Dependencies and limitations of 1+1 SD Item Self-limitations Description OptiX RTN 310s must work with enhanced-LAG (E-LAG) to achieve 1+1 protection. l An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection must be configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG that contains only the Ethernet port. l An E-LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation. l COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are connected by an optical fiber. l On the main/standby OptiX RTN 310, only the Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection, specifically, the GE optical port or P&E electrical port, can be configured with services. If the other Ethernet port is configured with Ethernet services, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.
NOTE Being interconnected with OptiX RTN 310, the OptiX RTN 900 IDU or UNI-side device that supports the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) must meet the following requirements: l A static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG is created. The system priority of the LAG must be greater than 1000. l A LAG must contain member ports of the same type, optical or electrical. Working Mode for all member ports must be set to Auto-Negotiation.

Dependencie s and limitations between 1+1 SD and other features

Cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) Physical link aggregation (PLA) Clock

1+1 SD cannot coexist with XPIC.

1+1 SD cannot coexist with PLA.

In 1+1 protection mode, clocks in centralized mode are used. In centralized mode, a standby NE traces the active NE's clock through its COMBO port.

2.3.6 Principles
1+1 space diversity (SD) supports hot standby (HSB) switching and hitless switch mode (HSM) switching. OptiX RTN 310s implement HSB switching using E-LAGs, and implement HSM switching by receiving baseband signals from the standby channel.

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Before Switching
l In the transmit direction 1. As shown in Figure 2-17, the IDU at the source sends Ethernet services to the Ethernet service port of the main NE because the main NE has a higher system priority than the standby NE. The modem units of the main and standby NEs receive microwave frames from the MUX unit of the main NE, convert the microwave frames into IF signals, and send them to the RF processing units of the main and standby NEs. The RF processing unit of the main NE sends the RF signals to the antenna. The RF processing unit of the standby NE is muted and does not transmit the RF signals. The antennas receive RF signals and send them to the RF processing units of the main and standby NEs. The RF processing units of the main and standby NEs convert the RF signals into IF signals and send them to the modem units of the main and standby NEs respectively. The modem unit of the standby NE converts the IF signals into microwave frames and sends them to the main NE using an optical fiber. The MUX unit of the main NE selects the microwave frames from the local modem unit, abstracts Ethernet service signals, and sends them to the Ethernet service port.

2.

3. l

In the receive direction 1. 2. 3. 4.

Figure 2-17 1+1 SD implementation (before switching)


Main NE
Modem RF

Antenna

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF

IDU Antenna Antenna


RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE


Diversity switch

Standby NE

Main NE Antenna
Modem RF

Antenna
RF Modem MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Modem RF

IDU Antenna GE
RF Modem Diversity switch MUX

Standby NE

Standby NE

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To implement 1+1 SD, the main and standby NEs exchange services, data communication network (DCN) messages, and 1+1 protection protocol packets. The 1+1 protection protocol is used to: l Set up a heartbeat connection to detect the communication status between the main and standby NEs. l Transmit NE status information so that the 1+1 protection module can perform service switching when necessary. l Transmit 1+1 protection configurations to verify configuration consistency between the main and standby NEs.

After HSB Switching


Figure 2-18 shows an HSB switchover caused by an Ethernet link failure between the IDU and the main NE. The HSB switchover is triggered when the main NE detects the ETH_LOS alarm and sends 1+1 protection protocol packets to instruct the standby NE to perform a service switchover. Figure 2-18 HSB implementation in 1+1 SD protection (upon an Ethernet link failure)
Main NE
Diversity switch Modem RF

Antenna

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Modem RF

IDU Antenna
RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE Antenna GE


MUX Modem RF

Standby NE

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF

IDU Antenna GE
RF Modem Diversity switch MUX

Standby NE

Standby NE

Figure 2-19 shows an HSB switchover caused by a power failure of the main NE. The HSB switchover is triggered when the standby NE detects the NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives the MW_RDI alarm from the remote NE.

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Figure 2-19 HSB implementation in 1+1 SD protection (upon a power failure of the main NE)
Main NE
Modem RF

Antenna

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

MUX

GE IDU Antenna GE
MUX Modem RF

GE

IDU Antenna
RF Modem MUX

GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE


Modem RF

Standby NE

Antenna

Antenna
RF

Main NE
Modem

MUX

MUX

GE

GE IDU Antenna Antenna


RF Modem Diversity switch MUX

IDU

GE
MUX Diversity switch

Modem

RF

GE

Standby NE

Standby NE

After switching: The IDU at the source sends Ethernet services to the Ethernet service port of the standby NE because the standby NE has a higher system priority than the main NE.

After HSM Switching


As shown in Figure 2-20, an HSM switchover is triggered when the receive end detects that service signals transmitted over the main channel deteriorate. l Unlike HSB switching, HSM switching does not require the Ethernet service ports on the main and standby NEs and the IDU to participate. Therefore, HSM switching is free of bit errors. The main and standby NEs at the transmit end process service signals in the same way both before and after an HSM switchover. The MUX unit of the main NE at the receive end selects service signals from the standby NE, abstracts Ethernet service signals, and sends them to the Ethernet service port.

l l

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Figure 2-20 HSM implementation in 1+1 SD protection


Main NE
RF

Antenna

Antenna
RF Modem

Main NE
Diversity switch MUX

GE

MUX

Modem

GE

IDU Antenna GE
MUX Diversity switch Modem RF RF Modem MUX

IDU Antenna GE

Standby NE Transmit direction Receive direction Main NE


Diversity switch Modem RF

Standby NE

Antenna

Antenna
RF

Main NE
Modem

GE

MUX

MUX

GE

IDU Antenna
MUX Modem RF

IDU Antenna
RF Modem Diversity switch

GE

GE
MUX

Standby NE

Standby NE

2.3.7 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning 1+1 space diversity (SD). l l l The two antennas are physically separated with an enough height difference so that microwave signals received in diversity mode are not much spatially correlated. If 1+1 SD works in revertive mode, set the wait to restore (WTR) time to a value ranging from 5 minutes to 12 minutes. The default value (10 minutes) is recommended. It is recommended that you enable the reverse switching function. After this function is enabled, reverse switching can be performed at the source when the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s at the sink report service alarms.

2.3.8 Configuration Process


To configure 1+1 space diversity (SD), configure a link aggregation group (LAG), a 1+1 IF protection group, and then IF and RF information.

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Table 2-32 1+1 SD configuration process Step 1 Operation Deleting the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection from the bridge of the Ethernet local area network (ELAN) service or deleting the Ethernet line (ELine) service on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks Required. Do not configure Ethernet services on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection. If you configure Ethernet services on the Ethernet port, 1+1 protection configuration will fail.
NOTE By default, an OptiX RTN 310 creates a bridge-based E-LAN service. All ports of the OptiX RTN 310 are mounted to the bridge. Therefore, you must delete the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection from the bridge. If an E-Line service has been configured on the Ethernet port that does not participate in 1+1 protection, delete the E-Line service.

Required. Configure a LAG on each of the main OptiX RTN 310s and each of the standby OptiX RTN 310s. The LAG has only one member port that receives and transmits Ethernet services. l Set LAG Type to Static. l Set Reversion Mode to Non-Revertive. l Set Load Balancing to Non-Sharing. l Set Master Port to the port that receives and transmits Ethernet services. Do not set Standby Ports.

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Step 3

Operation A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group

Remarks Required. Create a 1+1 SD protection group on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s. Set parameters as follows: l Set Working Mode to SD. l Set Working/Protection Unit Type to Working Unit for the main OptiX RTN 310 and Protection Unit for the standby OptiX RTN 310. l It is recommended that you set Reversion Mode to the default value Revertive Mode. l WTR Time(s) is available only when Reversion Mode is set to Revertive Mode. l It is recommended that you set Enable Reverse Switching to Disabled, and then to Enabled after the 1+1 protection status is stable. l Set Service port to the same value as Master Port that you set during LAG creation. l Set Working Mode, Reversion Mode, WTR Time(s), and Enable Reverse Switching to the same values for the OptiX RTN 310s at both ends of the hop of microwave link.
NOTE If 1+1 protection configuration fails, check that: l Working Mode is set to the default value AutoNegotiation for Service port on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s. l Logical Port Attribute of the P&E electrical port (1-SHXA2-2) takes the default value Electrical Port. l Ethernet services are configured only on Service port involved in 1+1 protection. l No feature that conflicts with 1+1 protection, such as cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or physical link aggregation (PLA), is configured. l The COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are properly connected using an optical fiber.

A.5.1 Configurin g a Single Hop of Microwav e Link

Setting basic parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all basic parameters consistently for the main and standby microwave links. l Do not select XPIC. l Set Link ID according to the plan.

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Step

Operation Setting IF parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all IF parameters consistently for the main and standby microwave links. l If adaptive modulation (AM) is disabled, set IF Channel Bandwidth and Modulation Mode according to the plan. l If AM is enabled, select AM and set AM parameters according to the plan.

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Step

Operation Setting RF parameters for the main and standby microwave links

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set all RF parameters for the main and standby microwave links in 1+1 HSB or 1+1 space diversity (SD) mode consistently. l For 1+1 frequency diversity (FD), set all RF parameters consistently, except TX Frequency(MHz), for the main and standby microwave links. l Set TX Frequency(MHz), T/R Spacing (MHz), and TX Power(dBm) according to the plan. l If automatic transmit power control is enabled, select ATPC and set automatic transmit power control (ATPC) parameters according to the plan. l Set Power to Be Received (dBm) to the received signal level specified in the plan. The antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled only after this parameter is set. After the antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled, a RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported if the actual receive power is 3 dB lower than expected. After antennas are aligned for 30 consecutive minutes, the antenna non-alignment indication function is automatically disabled. l Set TX Status to Unmute for the main and standby microwave links.
NOTE l When the main microwave link in 1+1 HSB or 1+1 SD mode is functioning normally, the RF processing unit of the standby microwave link is automatically muted and does not transmit any signals. l After deleting the 1+1 protection group, manually change TX Status to Unmute for the RF processing unit of the standby microwave link. If you do not change TX Status manually, the RF processing unit remains mute.

NOTE

In subsequent Ethernet service configuration, ensure that Ethernet service configurations are the same on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s.

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2.3.9 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure 1+1 space diversity (SD) based on network conditions.

2.3.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. Figure 2-21 shows a hop of important microwave link. 1+1 space diversity (SD) protection is configured to ensure reliable transmission of services. Figure 2-21 Networking diagram for 1+1 SD protection
Link ID: 101 Transmit frequency of the Tx high site: 14930 MHz Transmit frequency of the Tx low site: 14510 MHz Channel spacing: 28 MHz RF configuration: 1+1 SD LAG LAG NE1 NE3 LAG LAG RNC

RAN

COMBO

COMBO

Tx high site
COMBO

Tx low site
COMBO

LAG

NE2 Radio link

NE4 Ethernet link

LAG

OptiX RTN 900

NOTE

l l l l l

On the NMS, the logical port of a microwave port is 1-SHXA2-1(IF). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as an optical GE port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1). On the NMS, the logical port of a P&E port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1), when the COMBO port does not function as an optical GE port. On the NMS, the logical port of a GE port is 1-SHXA2-3(GE2). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as a 1+1 concatenation port is 1-SHXA2-4. This port is valid only when DCN is being configured.

2.3.9.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring 1+1 space diversity (SD).

Basic Information About Microwave Links


You can obtain basic information about microwave links based on the spectrum allocation on the microwave network and the required radio transmission capacity, as listed in Table 2-33.
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Table 2-33 Basic information about microwave links Parameter Link ID TX high site TX low site TX frequency at the TX high site (MHz) TX frequency at the TX low site (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHz) IF Channel Bandwidth RF configuration mode Value 101 NE1 and NE2 NE3 and NE4 14930 14510 420 28 1+1 SD

AM Attribute Information
You can compute adaptive modulation (AM) attribute information based on Ethernet service capacity and availability requirements, as listed in Table 2-34. Table 2-34 AM attribute information Parameter AM Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity Modulation Mode of the Full AM Modulation Mode Value Disabled 128QAM

NOTE

The radio capacity and the AM function are under license control.

Power and ATPC Information


You can obtain information about the microwave link power and automatic transmit power control (ATPC) by using microwave network planning software such as Pathloss, as listed in Table 2-35.

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Table 2-35 Power and ATPC information Parameter TX power (dBm) Value 16 (NE1/NE2) 16 (NE3/NE4) RX power (dBm) -46 (NE1/NE2) -46 (NE3/NE4) ATPC Disabled

NOTE

l The transmit power and receive power are calculated in the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity. l In this example, ATPC is disabled.

LAG Configuration Information


A static and non-load sharing link aggregation group (LAG) is configured on each of the two main OptiX RTN 310s and each of the two standby OptiX RTN 310s. The LAG has only one member port, which is an Ethernet port. Table 2-36 lists the LAG configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4. Table 2-36 LAG configuration information Parameter LAG Name LAG Type Reversion Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority Master Board Master Port Value E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 3(PORT-3)

1+1 SD Configuration Information


Table 2-37 lists the 1+1 SD configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4.

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Table 2-37 1+1 SD configuration information Parameter Working Mode Reversion Mode WTR Time(s) Enable Reverse Switching Working/Protection Unit Type Service port Main NEs (NE1 and NE3) Standby NEs (NE2 and NE4) SD Revertive 600s Enable Working Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3) SD Revertive 600s Enable Protection Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3)

2.3.9.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring 1+1 space diversity (SD).

Procedure
Step 1 Deleting 1SHXA23(PORT3) from the bridge of the Ethernet local area network (ELAN) service. Step 2 Create a link aggregation group (LAG). For details, see A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG. This table provides the LAG configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4. Table 2-38 LAG configuration information Parameter LAG Name LAG Type Reversion Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority Master Board Master Port Value E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 3(PORT-3)

Step 3 Create a microwave 1+1 protection group. For details, see A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group. This table provides the 1+1 SD configuration information for NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4.
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Table 2-39 1+1 SD configuration information Parameter Working Mode Reversion Mode WTR Time(s) Enable Reverse Switching Working/Protection Unit Type Service port Main NEs (NE1 and NE3) Standby NEs (NE2 and NE4) SD Revertive 600s Enable Working Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3) SD Revertive 600s Enable Protection Unit 1SHXA23(PORT3)

Step 4 Configure a hop of microwave link. l Basic parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 Link ID 101 NE3 101 Standby Link Values NE2 101 NE4 101

l IF parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 IF Channel Bandwidth AM Modulation Mode 28M Deselected 128QAM NE3 28M Deselected 128QAM Standby Link Values NE2 28M Deselected 128QAM NE4 28M Deselected 128QAM

l RF parameters Parameter Main Link Values NE1 TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHz) ATPC 14930 420 Deselected NE3 14510 420 Deselected Standby Link Values NE2 14930 420 Deselected NE4 14510 420 Deselected

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Parameter

Main Link Values NE1 NE3 16 -46 Unmute

Standby Link Values NE2 16 -46 Unmute NE4 16 -46 Unmute

TX power (dBm) RX power (dBm) TX Status

16 -46 Unmute

----End

2.3.10 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to 1+1 space diversity (SD).

Related Tasks
A.5.3 Creating a Microwave 1+1 Protection Group A.5.4 Microwave 1+1 Protection Switching A.5.5 Querying the Microwave 1+1 Protection Status A.11.3.2 Testing 1+1 Protection Switching

2.3.11 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to 1+1 space diversity (SD).

Alarms
l l RPS_INDI This alarm indicates that microwave 1+1 protection switching occurred. NB_CFG_MISMATCH This alarm indicates that the main and standby NEs have different physical link aggregation (PLA) or 1+1 protection configurations. l NB_UNREACHABLE This alarm indicates that the main and standby NEs cannot communicate with each other. Upon detecting this alarm, visit the site to verify that the optical fiber between COMBO ports of the main and standby NEs are properly connected. If this alarm is not cleared timely, 1+1 protection fails.

Events
None

2.3.12 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about 1+1 space diversity (SD).

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Q: During 1+1 SD configuration, do the IF and RF parameters need to be configured for the standby OptiX RTN 310? A: Yes. Q: Why does the configuration of 1+1 SD fail? A: The configuration may fail for one or more of the following reasons: l l l l l l Working Mode is not set to the default value Auto-Negotiation for ports that participate in 1+1 protection. Ethernet services are configured on both the GE optical port and the P&E electrical port of OptiX RTN 310. Ethernet services should be configured on either of the ports. An Ethernet port that participates in 1+1 protection is not configured in a static, non-load sharing, non-revertive link aggregation group (LAG) that contains only the Ethernet port. The default Logical Port Attribute of the P&E electrical port (1-SHXA2-2) is set to Optical Port. The correct default value is Electrical Port. A feature such as cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) or physical link aggregation (PLA) that conflicts with 1+1 HSB is configured. The optical fiber connecting the COMBO ports on the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are not properly connected.

Q: Why does reversion fail when switching is in the remote defect indication (RDI) state? A: The revertive mode is not available to reverse switching. After reverse switching, services are not switched back to the main OptiX RTN 310 even if both the main and standby OptiX RTN 310s are functioning normally. Q: How should I handle a 1+1 SD switching failure? A: Handle alarms reported by the standby OptiX RTN 310, and then perform a manual switchover to verify the 1+1 SD switching function.

2.4 PLA
This chapter describes physical link aggregation (PLA). PLA aggregates links and implements load sharing over these links based on physical-layer bandwidths. PLA effectively improves bandwidth utilization and reliability for transmitting Ethernet services over microwave links.

2.4.1 Introduction
This section defines physical link aggregation (PLA) and describes its purpose.

Definition
PLA allows all Ethernet transmission paths in multiple microwave links to be aggregated into a PLA group. For MAC users, a PLA group works as a single link.
NOTE

PLA allocates Ethernet traffic based on the Ethernet bandwidth of each member link. PLA can be viewed as L1 link aggregation group (LAG).

Different from air-interface LAG, PLA dynamically allocates Ethernet traffic based on the Ethernet bandwidth of each member microwave link to achieve load sharing between the
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member microwave links. PLA can implement load sharing regardless of whether member microwave links use the same Ethernet frame type or length, or whether they provide the same Ethernet bandwidth. PLA ensures equivalent Ethernet bandwidth utilization between member microwave links even when the Ethernet bandwidths of the member microwave links change.

Purpose
PLA can be used to balance traffic and improve service reliability when air-interface LAG is inapplicable. For example, when member microwave links provide different Ethernet bandwidths or the load-sharing algorithm used by air-interface LAG cannot achieve load balancing between member microwave links. As shown in Figure 2-22, RTN 310s use PLA to aggregate the two microwave links between two sites into one logical Ethernet link, allowing higher Ethernet bandwidth and balanced traffic allocation. Figure 2-22 PLA

Microwave link 1 Ethernet channel GE PLA Ethernet channel Microwave link 2 GE

2.4.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of physical link aggregation (PLA).

2.4.2.1 System Configuration


RTN 310 supports two configuration modes: physical link aggregation (PLA) configuration with E-LAG and PLA configuration without E-LAG. The protection scopes of the two configuration modes are different.

PLA Configuration Without E-LAG


Figure 2-23 shows the PLA configuration without E-LAG. This configuration mode can protect microwave links, but not radio equipment.

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Figure 2-23 PLA configuration without E-LAG

GE

GE

GE

GE

IDU

Antenna

Antenna

IDU

NOTE

l If RTN 310s use GE electrical ports to receive/transmit services, ensure that P&E ports are used, and cascade each pair of RTN 310s using GE ports. l If RTN 310s use GE optical ports to receive/transmit services, ensure that GE ports are used. If two RTN 310s do not form a cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) workgroup, cascade the two RTN 310s using COMBO ports (with SFP optical modules installed). If two RTN 310s form an XPIC group, cascade the two RTN 310s using P&E ports. In the latter case, cascade cables must be made onsite.

PLA Configuration with E-LAG


Figure 2-24 shows the PLA configuration with E-LAG. Configuring a LAG for the service source and an E-LAG for the access equipment can protect both microwave links and the access equipment. This configuration mode requires the service source (an IDU or UNI equipment) to provide two access ports and support a static LAG. The LAG of the service source and the ELAG on the RTN 310s can cooperate to implement protection switching for both equipment and Ethernet access links.
NOTE

For details about E-LAG, see E-LAG.

Figure 2-24 PLA configuration with E-LAG


LAG LAG
GE

LAG
GE

LAG

GE

GE

IDU

GE

Antenna
LAG

Antenna
LAG

GE

IDU

E-LAG

E-LAG

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l A static, non-load sharing, non-revertive LAG must be configured on the IDU. l The two RTN 310s must use the same type of service access ports (GE electrical port or GE optical port), and both ports must work in auto-negotiation mode. l If RTN 310s use GE electrical ports to receive/transmit services, ensure that P&E ports are used, and cascade each pair of RTN 310s using GE ports. l If RTN 310s use GE optical ports to receive/transmit services, ensure that GE ports are used. If two RTN 310s do not form an XPIC group, cascade the two RTN 310s using COMBO ports (with SFP optical modules installed). If two RTN 310s form an XPIC group, cascade the two RTN 310s using P&E ports. In the latter case, cascade cables must be made onsite.

2.4.2.2 Switching Conditions


Two types of physical link aggregation (PLA) switching are available: link protection switching and equipment protection switching. The two types of switching have different trigger conditions. Link protection switching decreases the bandwidth of a PLA group but does not interrupt Ethernet services. Equipment protection switching causes switching between devices and therefore transiently interrupts Ethernet services. Table 2-40 provides the conditions for triggering the two types of PLA switching. Table 2-40 PLA switching conditions Switching Type Link protection switching Switching Condition l MW_LOF l MW_RDI l MW_BER_EXC l MW_BER_SD
NOTE If the active NE detects that the standby NE reports a HARD_BAD or NB_UNREACHABLE alarm or is cold reset, a link protection switchover is triggered. If the standby NE detects an NB_UNREACHABLE alarm, it inserts an MW_RDI alarm and a link protection switchover is triggered on the remote NE.

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Switching Type Equipment protection switching (available only for PLA configuration with E-LAG)

Switching Condition l HARD_BAD l Cold reset l ETH_LOS alarm or ETH_LINK_DOWN on a service port l NE failure
NOTE l Equipment protection switching is triggered only when any of the preceding faults occurs on the active NE. l When the standby NE detects an NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives a message from the remote NE indicating that the active link is faulty, the standby NE considers that the active NE fails and an equipment protection switchover is triggered. If the standby NE only detects an NB_UNREACHABLE alarm, equipment protection switching is not triggered.

2.4.2.3 Switching Impact


The link protection switching time is different from the equipment protection switching time. l l l During a microwave link protection switchover, Ethernet services carried by a PLA group are not interrupted. During an equipment protection switchover, Ethernet services carried by a PLA group are transiently interrupted. If changes in Ethernet bandwidth on microwave links cause dynamic adjustments of service traffic carried by a PLA group, the adjustments do not interrupt Ethernet services.

2.4.3 Specifications
This section lists the physical link aggregation (PLA) specifications that RTN 310 supports. Table 2-41 PLA specifications that RTN 310 supports Item Number of PLA groups System configuration mode Specifications 1 PLA configuration with E-LAG PLA configuration without E-LAG Protection type Link protection Equipment protection (available only for PLA configuration with E-LAG)

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Item PLA configuration consistency check

Specifications l Consistency check between NEs in the same PLA group l Consistency check between two ends of a microwave link

Setting of the minimum number of activated links in a PLA group

Supported

2.4.4 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that RTN 310 must meet in order to run the physical link aggregation (PLA) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 2-42 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name PLA Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C01 or later

2.4.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of physical link aggregation (PLA). Table 2-43 Dependencies and limitations of PLA Item Self-limitations Description l An enhanced link aggregation group (E-LAG) must be configured to implement equipment protection. l When configuring PLA, ensure that the ID and type of the service port on the master NE are the same as those on the slave NE, and that both ports work in auto-negotiation mode. l When configuring PLA, ensure that the ID and type of the cascade port on the master NE are the same as those on the slave NE. l Cascade ports on the master and slave NEs cannot be configured with Ethernet services. l The air-interface capacity over any two microwave links in a PLA group cannot differ by more than a factor of 20. Otherwise, services may be interrupted.
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Item Dependencie s and limitations between PLA and other features 1+1 HSB/ FD/SD Adaptive modulation (AM) Data communicati on network (DCN)

Description Member links in a PLA group cannot be configured in a 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection group. PLA can coexist with AM. The member IF boards in a PLA group can have the same or different Hybrid/AM attributes and modulation schemes. The slave microwave links in a PLA group cannot transmit inband DCN messages. Therefore, enable outband DCN for each member link when you are configuring PLA.

Link Member links in a PLA group cannot be member links in a aggregation LAG. group (LAG) Cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) Link-state pass through (LPT) Compressio n of Ethernet frame headers Clock Two members of an XPIC group can form a PLA group, which provides Ethernet service protection between the vertical and horizontal polarization directions.

PLA can coexist with LPT. LPT switching is triggered when all links in a PLA group fail or when the number of available links in a PLA group is less than Minimum Active Links Threshold (configurable). The microwave ports of the master and slave NEs in a PLA group support Layer 2 and Layer 3 Ethernet frame header compression. However, the same compression mode must be set at all microwave ports of the master and slave NEs. When PLA is configured, Clock Control Mode can be set to Standalone (default and recommended value) or Centralized.

2.4.6 Principles
Physical link aggregation (PLA) adjusts traffic allocation between member links based on the Ethernet bandwidth provided by each member link. The principles for link protection switching and equipment protection switching are different.
NOTE

This section describes the implementation principles of PLA with enhanced link aggregation group (ELAG) configured. When E-LAG is not configured, only link protection switching is supported, and its switching principles are the same as those of PLA with E-LAG.

Before PLA Switching


l In the transmit direction:

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1.

As shown in Figure 2-25, the IDU where the service source is located sends Ethernet services to the service port on the master NE, because the link aggregation group (LAG) on the master NE has the highest system priority. The PLA module on the master NE evenly allocates the Ethernet service signals to the slave NE and the microwave port of the master NE based on the traffic balancing algorithm. The MUX unit on the master NE adds overheads to the Ethernet service signals to form microwave frames. Then, the modem unit modulates the microwave frames and sends them to the ODU. The slave NE receives the allocated Ethernet service signals through its cascade port. The MUX unit on the slave NE adds overheads to the signals to form microwave frames. Then, the modem unit modulates the microwave frames and sends them to the ODU.
NOTE

2.

3.

4.

The Ethernet service signals transmitted between the master and slave NEs include PLA packets, inband data communication network (DCN) packets, and communication protocol packets. The communication protocol provides the following functions: l Sets up a heartbeat connection so that an NE can quickly obtain status information about the communication with the other NE in the same PLA group. l Transmits NE status and Ethernet bandwidth information so that PLA modules can adjust traffic allocation in a timely manner. l Transmits PLA configuration information so that an NE can check the configuration consistency between itself and the other NE in the same PLA group.

Figure 2-25 PLA principles (before PLA switching)


Master NE P L A GE P L A Slave NE Ethernet service M U X Antenna Antenna M U X Antenna Antenna M U X GE M U X Slave NE P L A Master NE P L A

GE

GE

IDU

IDU

In the receive direction: 1. The MUX unit on the remote master NE extracts Ethernet service signals and transmits them to the PLA module. At the same time, the MUX unit on the remote slave NE extracts Ethernet service signals and transmits them to the PLA module on the remote master NE through the cascade port. The PLA module on the remote master NE performs frame alignment and decapsulates the two channels of Ethernet service signals, to recover the original Ethernet service signals. Then, the PLA module transmits the recovered Ethernet signals to the IDU through the service port.

2.

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A PLA module sequences received Ethernet packets in a receive buffer. This ensures that the Ethernet packet order at the receive end is the same as that at the transmit end.

After Link Protection Switching


When a link in a PLA group fails, the PLA module stops transmitting traffic to the failed link and transmits traffic only to the other functional links. As a result, the PLA group provides lower Ethernet bandwidth. As shown in Figure 2-26, when the master NE detects that the microwave link fails, the PLA module on the master NE stops transmitting service signals to the microwave port and transmits service signals only to the slave NE. When the microwave link recovers, the PLA module automatically starts transmitting Ethernet service signals over both the master and slave links. Figure 2-26 Link protection switching principles (after switching)
Master NE P L A GE P L A Slave NE Ethernet service M U X Antenna Antenna M U X Antenna Antenna M U X GE M U X Slave NE P L A Master NE P L A

GE

GE

IDU

IDU

GE

GE

Equipment Protection Switching (NE Failure)


The following describes the switching that occurs when the master NE fails.
NOTE

Failure of the slave NE triggers link protection switching, but not equipment protection switching.

As shown in Figure 2-27, when the slave NE detects an NB_UNREACHABLE alarm and receives a message from the remote NE indicating that the master link is faulty, an equipment protection switchover is triggered. After the switchover, the LAG system priority of the slave NE changes to the highest. Therefore, the IDU where the service source is located sends Ethernet services to the service port of the slave NE. The PLA module on the slave NE sends the received Ethernet service signals to the MUX unit through the microwave port. The MUX unit adds overheads to the Ethernet service signals to form microwave frames. Then, the modem unit modulates the microwave frames and sends them to the ODU. When the master NE recovers, no revertive switching occurs. The PLA module on the slave NE allocates and schedules services to the master and slave NEs based on the traffic balancing algorithm, as shown in Figure 2-28.
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Figure 2-27 Equipment protection switching principles (after switching)


Master NE P L A GE P L A Slave NE Ethernet service M U X Antenna Antenna M U X Antenna Antenna M U X GE M U X Slave NE P L A Master NE P L A

GE

GE

IDU GE

IDU GE

Master microwave link fault notice

Figure 2-28 Equipment protection switching principles (after the fault is rectified)
Master NE P L A GE P L A Slave NE Ethernet service M U X Antenna Antenna M U X Antenna Antenna M U X GE M U X Slave NE P L A Master NE P L A

GE

GE

IDU

IDU

GE

GE

2.4.7 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning physical link aggregation (PLA). l If a piece of user-to-network interface (UNI) equipment provides two access ports and supports a static link aggregation group (LAG), it is recommended that you use the PLA configuration with enhanced link aggregation group (E-LAG). If a piece of UNI equipment does not support a static LAG, use the PLA configuration without E-LAG or add IDUs to implement the PLA configuration with E-LAG. The cascade ports on the master and slave NEs must have the same ID. The service ports on the master and slave NEs must have the same ID and service configuration. The master and slave NEs must use the same Ethernet frame header compression mode. To trigger LPT switching upon failure of one member link in a PLA group, set Minimum Active Links Threshold to 2.

l l l l

2.4.8 Configuration Process


Physical link aggregation (PLA) group configuration is critical to PLA configuration.
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Table 2-44 Process of configuring PLA Step 1 Operation Deleting E-Line Services on Cascade ports or Deleting ELAN Services on Cascade ports Configuring an E-LAG Remarks Required. Delete Ethernet services on the cascade ports between the master and slave NEs before configuring PLA, because Ethernet services are not allowed on the ports during PLA configuration.

Required when you need to configure PLA providing NE-level protection. Set the parameter for the master and slave NEs as follows: l Set LAG Type to Static. l Set Revertive Mode to Non-Revertive. l Set Load Balancing to Non-Sharing. l Set the service access port as the master Port. l standby Port does not need to be specified.

Creating a PLA Protection Group

Required. Set the parameter for the master and slave NEs based on the PLA networking. Set the parameters (except for the following two parameters) to the same values for the master and slave ports: l Set the two NE Roles to Master and Slave. l Set Service Port consistently for the master and slave NEs if PLA needs to provide NE-level protection. The slave NE does not need to be configured if PLA does not need to provide NE-level protection.
NOTE If the configuration does not take effect, verify that: l No Ethernet service is configured at Cascade Port. l Before configuration of PLA providing NE-level protection, E-LAG has been configured on the master and slave NEs in the PLA group. l Working Mode of Service Port takes its default value AutoNegotiation. l If Service Port is P&E, Logical Port Attribute takes its default value Electrical Port.

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l When PLA is configured, Clock Control Mode can be set to Standalone (default and recommended value) or Centralized. l The ports at both ends of each GE access link must have the same ID and type (optical port or electrical port). The ports must work in auto-negotiation mode. l Non-revertive and non-load sharing static LAG must be configured on IDUs (or other UNI equipment) that are connected to the master and slave NEs in a PLA group providing NE-level protection. The LAG system priority is recommended to be larger than 1000. l The master and slave OptiX RTN 310s in a PLA group providing NE-level protection must be configured with the same Ethernet service. l Ethernet services do not need to be configured on the slave OptiX RTN 310 in a PLA group providing no NE-level protection.

2.4.9 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure physical link aggregation (PLA) based on network conditions.

2.4.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. As shown in Figure 2-29, the Ethernet service transmission channels in the link between NE1 and NE3 and the link between NE2 and NE4 need to be bound as a single transmission channel (namely, a PLA group). NE1 and NE2 are not configured with NE-level protection; NE3 and NE4 are configured with E-LAG for NE-level protection. Figure 2-29 Networking diagram for PLA
NE1 NE3
LAG
GE1 GE2 GE2 GE2 GE2 GE1

LAG

NodeB

Antenna

Antenna

IDU
GE1

LAG

NE2

NE4

E-LAG

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l l l l l

On the NMS, the logical port of a microwave port is 1-SHXA2-1(IF). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as an optical GE port is 1-SHXA2-2 (GE1). On the NMS, the logical port of a P&E port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1), when the COMBO port does not function as an optical GE port. On the NMS, the logical port of a GE port is 1-SHXA2-3(GE2). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as a 1+1 concatenation port is 1SHXA2-4. This port is valid only when DCN is being configured.

2.4.9.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring physical link aggregation (PLA).
NOTE

Boards mentioned in this section are logical boards.

E-LAG Configuration Information


To implement NE-level protection for NE3 and NE4, in addition to PLA configuration, E-LAG needs to be configured on NE3 and NE4. For details, see Table 2-45. Table 2-45 E-LAG configurations Parameter LAG Name LAG Type Reversion Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority master Board master Port NE3 E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 1-SHXA2-2(GE1) NE4 E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 1-SHXA2-2(GE1)

PLA Configuration Information


Table 2-46 lists PLA configurations on NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4. Table 2-46 PLA configurations Parameter PLA ID Protection Type NE1 1 (default value) No NE-Level Protection NE2 1 (default value) No NE-Level Protection NE3 1 (default value) NE-Level LAG Protection NE4 1 (default value) NE-Level LAG Protection
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Parameter NE Role IF Port Service Port Cascade Port Minimum Active Links Threshold

NE1 Local master NE 1-SHXA2-1(IF) 1-SHXA2-2 (GE1) 1-SHXA2-3 (GE2) 1 (default value)

NE2 Local slave NE 1-SHXA2-1(IF) 1-SHXA2-3 (GE2) 1 (default value)

NE3 Opposite master NE 1-SHXA2-1(IF) 1-SHXA2-2 (GE1) 1-SHXA2-3 (GE2) 1 (default value)

NE4 Opposite slave NE 1-SHXA2-1(IF) 1-SHXA2-2 (GE1) 1-SHXA2-3 (GE2) 1 (default value)

2.4.9.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring physical link aggregation (PLA).

Procedure
Step 1 Create an E-LAG group.
NOTE

Boards mentioned in this section are logical boards.

This table provides values for E-LAG parameters on NE3 and NE4. Parameter Value NE3 LAG Name LAG Type Revertive Mode Load Balancing LAG Priority Master Board Master Port E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 2 NE4 E-LAG Static Non-Revertive Non-Sharing 32768 1-SHXA2 2

Step 2 Create a PLA group. This table provides values for PLA parameters on NE1, NE2, NE3, and NE4.

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Parameter

Value NE1 NE2 1 (default value) No NE-Level Protection Slave 1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-3 1 (default value) NE3 1 (default value) NE-Level LAG Protection Master 1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-2 1-SHXA2-3 1 (default value) NE4 1 (default value) NE-Level LAG Protection Slave 1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-2 1-SHXA2-3 1 (default value)

PLA ID Protection Type NE Role IF Port Service Port Cascade Port Minimum Active Links Threshold

1 (default value) No NE-Level Protection Master 1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-2 1-SHXA2-3 1 (default value)

----End

2.4.10 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to physical link aggregation (PLA).

Related Tasks
A.5.6 Creating a PLA Group A.5.7 Querying the Status of a PLA Group A.11.3.3 Testing PLA Protection Switching

2.4.11 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to physical link aggregation (PLA).

Alarms
NB_CFG_MISMATCH This alarm indicates that PLA configurations on the master and slave NEs are inconsistent. NB_UNREACHABLE This alarm indicates that communication between the NEs in a PLA group is interrupted. MW_CFG_MISMATCH This alarm indicates that PLA is created at only one end of a link.

Performance Events
None
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2.4.12 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about physical link aggregation (PLA). Q: What are the differences between PLA and air-interface link aggregation group (LAG)? A: Table 2-47 provides the details. Table 2-47 Differences between PLA and air-interface LAG Item Requirement on Ethernet bandwidths of microwave links PLA Member links in a PLA group may provide different Ethernet bandwidths. For the member links in a PLA group, all parameters affecting Ethernet bandwidth (such as the Hybrid/AM attribute and modulation scheme), except for channel spacing, can be set to different values. MAC layer-based traffic balancing algorithm Air-Interface LAG Member links in an airinterface LAG must provide the same Ethernet bandwidth. For the member links in a LAG, all parameters affecting Ethernet bandwidth, such as Hybrid/AM attribute and channel spacing, must have the same values. Hash algorithm based on MAC addresses, IP addresses, or Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) labels of Ethernet frames Static aggregation

Load sharing algorithm

Aggregation mode

Manual aggregation

2.5 Cross Polarization Interference Cancellation


This chapter describes cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC). The XPIC technology works with the co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP) technology. The use of the two technologies doubles transmission capacity without changing channel conditions.

2.5.1 Introduction
This section defines cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) and describes its purpose.

Definition
If the co-channel dual-polarization (CCDP) technology is used in channel configuration, the XPIC technology can be used to eliminate interference between two electromagnetic waves. The transmitter sends two orthogonally polarized electromagnetic waves to the receiver over the same channel. The receiver then recovers the original two channels of signals after XPIC eliminates interference between the two waves.
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Purpose
XPIC doubles transmission capacity without changing channel conditions. The following figures illustrate the transmission of two channels of service signals in one microwave direction. l When XPIC is not used, adjacent channel alternated polarization (ACAP) is used in channel configuration, and two channels are required to transmit two channels of service signals. See Figure 2-30. When XPIC is used, CCDP is used in channel configuration and only one channel is required to transmit two channels of service signals. See Figure 2-31.

Figure 2-30 Channel configuration using ACAP (without XPIC)


f1 H V Service f2 Service

Service

Service

Service signal H: horizontal polarization direction V: vertical polarization direction

Figure 2-31 Channel configuration using CCDP and XPIC


Cross interference f1 H V Service f1 Cross interference Service signal H: horizontal polarization direction V: vertical polarization direction XPIC signal Service

Service

Service

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2.5.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC).

2.5.2.1 CCDP and XPIC


Co-channel dual polarization (CCDP) and cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) have been developed based on the characteristics of microwave polarization. CCDP doubles transmission capacity by transmitting two channels of signals over two orthogonally polarized waves, and XPIC eliminates interference between the two waves. Microwave transmission can be classified as single-polarized transmission and CCDP transmission. l l In single-polarized transmission, one channel of signals is transmitted over a horizontally or vertically polarized wave. See Figure 2-32. In CCDP transmission, two channels of signals of the same frequency are transmitted over the horizontally polarized wave and the vertically polarized wave on a channel. See Figure 2-33.

The capacity of CCDP transmission is twice that of single-polarized transmission. Figure 2-32 Single-polarized transmission

Figure 2-33 CCDP transmission

If conditions were perfect, there would be no interference between the two channels of signals, and the receiver could easily recover the original signals. In reality, however, there is always interference caused by antenna cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) and channel deterioration. XPIC eliminates this interference and enables a receiver to recover the original signals.
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2.5.2.2 System Configuration


When one XPIC group is configured, two OptiX RTN 310s need to be configured on each XPIC site. Each XPIC group uses one frequency and requires the following hardware configurations: l l l Two OptiX RTN 310s One dual-polarized antenna mounted separately or one dual-polarized antenna mounted directly with an orthogonal mode transducer (OMT) One XPIC cable

Figure 2-34 and Figure 2-35 show two typical XPIC configurations on OptiX RTN 310. An XPIC cable connects the COMBO ports of two OptiX RTN 310s and transmits XPIC signals and control signals between the two OptiX RTN 310s. Figure 2-34 Typical XPIC configuration (one dual-polarized antenna mounted separately)

COMBO

flexible waveguide

XPIC cable

Dual-polarized antenna

COMBO

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Figure 2-35 Typical XPIC configuration (one dual-polarized antenna mounted with an OMT)

COMBO

XPIC cable

OMT Dual-polarized antenna

COMBO

2.5.3 Specifications
This section lists the cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) specifications that RTN 310 supports. Table 2-48 XPIC specifications that RTN 310 supports Item Channel spacing Specifications l 7 MHz l 14 MHz l 28 MHz l 56 MHz Number of XPIC groups One
NOTE When one XPIC group is configured, two OptiX RTN 310s need to be configured on each XPIC site.

Link configuration synchronization between NEs within an XPIC group

Supported
NOTE The adjacent NE refers to the NE in the same XPIC group as the local NE.

Cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) performance statistics Implementation mode

Performance statistics collected at 15 minute and 24 hour intervals Hardware

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Table 2-49 Radio working modes (XPIC enabled) Channel Spacing (MHz) Modulatio n Scheme Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressi on With L2 Frame Header Compressi on 8 to 12 10 to 15 16 to 26 20 to 31 24 to 38 31 to 48 36 to 56 16 to 26 20 to 31 34 to 53 40 to 62 50 to 78 63 to 98 74 to 116 84 to 131 37 to 57 43 to 66 74 to 114 86 to 133 110 to 170 136 to 210 160 to 249 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv4) 8 to 19 10 to 24 16 to 40 20 to 48 24 to 59 31 to 74 36 to 87 16 to 40 20 to 48 34 to 82 40 to 97 50 to 121 63 to 152 74 to 180 84 to 203 37 to 87 43 to 102 74 to 176 86 to 206 110 to 263 136 to 235 160 to 384 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv6) 8 to 24 10 to 30 16 to 49 20 to 59 24 to 73 31 to 92 36 to 108 16 to 49 20 to 60 34 to 101 40 to 102 50 to 149 63 to 188 75 to 223 84 to 251 37 to 107 43 to 126 87 to 255 87 to 255 110 to 325 136 to 402 161 to 475

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM

8 to 10 10 to 12 16 to 21 19 to 25 24 to 31 31 to 39 36 to 46 16 to 21 20 to 25 34 to 43 40 to 51 50 to 64 63 to 80 74 to 95 84 to 107 37 to 46 43 to 54 74 to 93 86 to 109 109 to 139 135 to 172 159 to 203

14

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM

28

QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM

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Channel Spacing (MHz)

Modulatio n Scheme

Native Ethernet Throughput (Mbit/s) Without Compressi on With L2 Frame Header Compressi on 180 to 281 187 to 291 200 to 312 213 to 333 74 to 114 86 to 133 148 to 230 172 to 269 216 to 337 272 to 423 321 to 500 362 to 565 376 to 586 402 to 627 429 to 670 450 to 703 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv4) 181 to 433 188 to 450 201 to 481 213 to 513 74 to 176 86 to 206 148 to 355 173 to 415 216 to 519 272 to 653 322 to 773 363 to 871 377 to 905 403 to 1000 429 to 1000 451 to 1000 With L2+L3 Frame Header Compressi on (IPv6) 181 to 536 188 to 557 201 to 596 214 to 636 74 to 218 87 to 255 148 to 440 173 to 514 217 to 643 273 to 810 323 to 957 364 to 1000 378 to 1000 404 to 1000 431 to 1000 452 to 1000

256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 56 QPSK Strong QPSK 16QAM Strong 16QAM 32QAM 64QAM 128QAM 256QAM 512QAM 512QAM Light 1024QAM 1024QAM Light

180 to 229 186 to 238 200 to 255 212 to 272 74 to 93 86 to 109 148 to 188 172 to 219 216 to 275 271 to 346 321 to 409 362 to 462 376 to 480 401 to 513 428 to 548 449 to 575

NOTE

The throughput specifications listed in the tables are based on the following conditions: l Without compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2 frame header compression: untagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv4): tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 64 bytes to 9600 bytes l With L2+L3 frame header compression (IPv6): tagged Ethernet frames with a length ranging from 90 bytes to 9600 bytes

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2.5.4 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that RTN 310 must meet in order to run the cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 2-50 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name XPIC Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later

2.5.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC). l XPIC can work with automatic transmit power control (ATPC), but using these two features together is not recommended. If you use XPIC and ATPC together, note the following: ATPC parameters, such as ATPC status (enabled or disabled) and ATPC adjustment thresholds, must be set to the same values for both horizontal and vertical polarization links in an XPIC group. The difference between the ATPC and lower thresholds must be as small as possible. A 5 dB difference is recommended. l AM can work with cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC), but using these two features together is not recommended. If you use AM and XPIC together, note the following: AM parameters, such as AM status (enabled or disabled), modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity, and modulation scheme of full AM capacity, must to be set to the same values for both horizontal and vertical polarization links in an XPIC group. The transmit power of the horizontal and vertical polarization links in an XPIC group must be within the transmit power range allowed by OptiX RTN 310 in the modulation scheme of full AM capacity. This ensures that transmit power does not change in the case of AM shifting. l l l XPIC can work with link aggregation group (LAG), but you must create a LAG manually. If the link in one polarization direction of an XPIC group fails, the link in the other polarization direction also fails. If the COMBO port on an OptiX RTN 310 is used for XPIC, the port does not function as a GE optical port.

2.5.6 Principles
After cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) is enabled, one OptiX RTN 310 receives signals in the horizontal polarization direction and the other OptiX RTN 310 receives signals in the vertical polarization direction. The two OptiX RTN 310s also send XPIC signals to each other to eliminate interference and recover the original signals.
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Figure 2-36 XPIC implementation principles


Horizontal polarization RX OptiX RTN 310

Modem

Cross interference Cross interference XPIC cable

XPIC signal
COMBO

COMBO

XPIC signal

RX

Modem

Vertical polarization

OptiX RTN 310

As shown in Figure 2-36, the COMBO ports of two OptiX RTN 310s are connected by an XPIC cable to form an XPIC group. XPIC is implemented as follows: 1. The transmitter transmits two channels of signals at the same frequency over two orthogonally polarized waves. Cross-polarization interference exists between the two channels of signals due to antenna cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) and channel deterioration. The receiver filters and divides the received signals into two channels. It then, l Sends one channel of signals to the XPIC module in the modem unit on the local OptiX RTN 310. l Uses an XPIC cable to send the other channel of signals, as XPIC signals, to the XPIC module in the modem unit on the adjacent OptiX RTN 310. 3. The XPIC module on the local OptiX RTN 310 filters and combines the IF signals received locally and the XPIC signals received from the adjacent OptiX RTN 310 to eliminate crosspolarization interference. The modem unit recovers service signals from the IF signals by means of digital demodulation.
NOTE

2.

4.

The XPIC cable transmits not only XPIC signals but also control signals between the two OptiX RTN 310s. The control signals help to synchronize link configurations between the two OptiX RTN 310s.

2.5.7 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC). l l XPIC must be enabled when co-channel dual polarization (CCDP) is used in channel configuration. The following parameters must be set to the same values for both horizontal and vertical polarization links in an XPIC group:
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Transmit frequency Transmit power T/R spacing Automatic transmit power control (ATPC) status (enabled or disabled) ATPC adjustment thresholds Channel spacing Modulation scheme Adaptive modulation (AM) status (enabled or disabled) Modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity Modulation scheme of full AM capacity

2.5.8 Configuration Process


Configure microwave link information for the local NE when configuring cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) for a link. After the configuration is complete on the local NE, click Synchronize to synchronize the microwave link information to the adjacent NE. Table 2-51 Process of configuring XPIC links Step 1 Operation A.5.1 Configurin g a Single Hop of Microwave Link Configuring basic information Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Choose XPIC. l Set Polarization Direction, Link ID, and Adjacent NE Link ID for the local NE according to the network plan. Required. Set parameters as follows: l If the AM feature is disabled, set IF Channel Bandwidth and Modulation Mode for the NE according to the network plan. l If the AM feature is enabled, choose AM and configure the AM attributes according to the network plan.

Configuring IF attributes

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Step

Operation Configuring RF information

Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Set TX Frequency (MHz), T/R Spacing (MHz), and RX Power (dBm) according to the network plan. l If the automatic transmit power control (ATPC) feature is enabled, choose ATPC and configure the ATPC attributes according to the network plan. l Set Power to Be Received (dBm) to the received signal level specified in the network planning information. The antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled only after this parameter is set. After the antenna non-alignment indication function is enabled, the RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported if the actual receive power is 3 dB lower than the expected receive power. After the antennas have been aligned for 30 consecutive minutes, the NE automatically disables the antenna non-alignment indication function. l Set TX Status to unmute. Synchronizi ng link configuratio n information to the adjacent NE After the configuration is complete on the local NE, click Synchronize to synchronize the microwave link information to the adjacent NE.

A.8.2.1 Enabling/ Disabling the IEEE-1588 Timeslot for a Microwave Port A.5.8 Configuring Ethernet Frame Header Compression and Errored Frame Discarding Over Air Interfaces

Required when a microwave port transmits IEEE 1588v2 packets. Set Enable IEEE-1588 Timeslot to Enabled. Required when the Ethernet frame header compression function is enabled for air interfaces or errored Ethernet frames are configured not to be discarded. Set the parameters according to the service plan.

2.5.9 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) based on network conditions.

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2.5.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. Figure 2-37 shows the service requirements of a hop of microwave link. l The microwave link between the NodeB and the radio network controller (RNC) needs to bear 100 Mbit/s Ethernet services. To increase the bandwidth for transmitting services from the NodeB, enable the cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) feature for the microwave links between NE11 and NE13 and between NE12 and NE14. Disable adaptive modulation (AM) and automatic transmit power control (ATPC) for all microwave links.

Figure 2-37 Networking diagram for XPIC


101 14930 MHz 14510 MHz 28 MHz XPIC V-polarization TX high site TX low site RNC

NE11

NE13

NodeB

TX high site

TX low site

NE12

102 14930 MHz 14510 MHz 28 MHz XPIC H-polarization Ethernet link

NE14

Link ID TX frequency at the TX high site TX frequency at the TX low site Channel spacing RF configuarion Polarization XPIC cable

Microwave link

2.5.9.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC).

Basic Information About Microwave Links


You can obtain basic information about microwave links based on the spectrum allocation on the microwave network and the required radio transmission capacity, as listed in Table 2-52.

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Table 2-52 Basic information about microwave links Parameter Link ID TX high site TX low site TX frequency at the TX high site (MHz) TX frequency at the TX low site (MHz) T/R spacing (MHz) Channel spacing (MHz) RF configuration mode Polarization direction Link 1 101 NE11 NE13 14930 14510 420 28 XPIC V (vertical polarization) Link 2 102 NE12 NE14 14930 14510 420 28 XPIC H (horizontal polarization)

AM Attribute Information
You can compute adaptive modulation (AM) attribute information based on Ethernet service capacity and availability requirements, as listed in Table 2-53. Table 2-53 AM attribute information Parameter Service capacity (Mbit/s) AM enabled status Manually specified modulation scheme Link 1 50 Disabled 128QAM Link 2 50 Disabled 128QAM

NOTE

l The Hybrid radio capacity and the AM feature require the proper license file. l The AM feature for the microwave links in the horizontal and vertical polarization directions of one XPIC group must be enabled or disabled simultaneously. l If you disable the AM feature for the microwave links in the horizontal and vertical polarization directions of one XPIC group, Modulation Mode of the two microwave links must be the same. l If you enable the AM feature for the microwave links in the horizontal and vertical polarization directions of one XPIC group, Modulation Mode of the Guarantee AM Capacity and Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity of the two microwave links must be the same.

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Power and ATPC Information


You can obtain information about the microwave link power and automatic transmit power control (ATPC) by using microwave network planning software such as Pathloss, as listed in Table 2-54. Table 2-54 Power and ATPC information Parameter Transmit power (dBm) Link 1 16 (NE11) 16 (NE13) Receive power (dBm) -46 (NE11) -46 (NE13) ATPC enabled status Disabled Link 2 16 (NE12) 16 (NE14) -46 (NE12) -46 (NE14) Disabled

Configuration Information About the XPIC Group


Table 2-55 lists the XPIC configuration information for NE11, NE12, NE13, and NE14. Table 2-55 Configuration information about the XPIC group Parameter XPIC group V (Vertical Polarization) NE11 NE13 H (Horizontal Polarization) NE12 NE14

2.5.9.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC).

Procedure
Step 1 Configure a single hop of microwave link. For details, see A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link. l Basic parameters: Parameter Value NE11 XPIC Link ID
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Parameter

Value NE11 NE13 V 102

Polarization Adjacent NE Link ID l IF attributes: Parameter

V 102

Value NE11 NE13 28M Deselected 128QAM

IF Channel Bandwidth AM Modulation Mode l RF attributes: Parameter

28M Deselected 128QAM

Value NE11 NE13 14510 420 Deselected 16 -46 unmute

TX Frequency (MHz) T/R Spacing (MHz) ATPC RX Power (dBm) Power to be Received (dBm) TX Status

14930 420 Deselected 16 -46 unmute

l After microwave link information has been configured for NE11 and NE13, click Synchronize to synchronize the configurations to NE12 and NE14 respectively. ----End

2.5.10 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC).

Related Tasks
A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link

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2.5.11 Related Alarms and Events


When cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) signals are lost on an OptiX RTN 310 or the other OptiX RTN 310 in the same XPIC group is unreachable, OptiX RTN 310 reports an alarm. This section describes the alarms and events related to XPIC.

Alarms
l l XPIC_LOS This alarm indicates a loss of XPIC signals. NB_UNREACHABLE This alarm indicates that the other OptiX RTN 310 in the same XPIC group is unreachable.

Events
XPIC_XPD_VALUE This event indicates the XPD value after XPIC is enabled.

2.5.12 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC). Q: What should I do when faults occur on links in the two polarization directions of an XPIC group? A: l Check whether equipment configurations are correct. The two OptiX RTN 310s that form an XPIC group must have the same transmit frequency, channel spacing, and modulation scheme. If adaptive modulation (AM) is enabled for both horizontal and vertical polarization links, the two links must have the same modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity and modulation scheme of full AM capacity. l Check whether the polarization directions of the dual-polarized antenna are aligned correctly. The polarization directions of a dual-polarized antenna must be aligned correctly for XPD to meet antenna specifications. Q: Why are services in one polarization direction of an XPIC group affected when a fault occurs in the other polarization direction? A: In an XPIC group, one polarization direction uses XPIC signals from the other polarization direction for canceling cross polarization interference. If a fault occurs in one polarization direction, XPIC signals from that direction become abnormal and this affects signals in the other polarization direction. Q: Why is it preferable not to use XPIC with AM or automatic transmit power control (ATPC)? A: If AM or ATPC is enabled, modulation scheme shifting or power adjustments may result in different transmit power in the two polarization directions of an XPIC group. If the received signal level (RSL) is different for the two polarization directions, XPD decreases in the polarization direction with a lower RSL.
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2.6 Automatic Transmit Power Control


This chapter describes automatic transmit power control (ATPC), an important function of a microwave transmission system. This function reduces the residual bit error rate (BER) and transmitter's interference to neighbor systems.

2.6.1 Introduction
This section defines automatic transmit power control (ATPC) and describes its purpose.

Definition
ATPC relies on the received signal level (RSL) of the receiver to adjust transmit power. When ATPC is enabled: l If the RSL is at least 2 dB less than the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds, the receiver instructs the transmitter to increase transmit power so that the RSL does not deviate more than 2 dB from the halfway value. See Figure 2-38.
NOTE

l The transmitter will not increase its transmit power if the actual transmit power has reached the preset maximum value. l The value for maximum transmit power cannot be set higher than the rated maximum transmit power of OptiX RTN 310. l If no value is set for maximum transmit power, transmit power will not increase beyond the rated maximum transmit power of OptiX RTN 310.

If the RSL is at least 2 dB greater than the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds, the receiver instructs the transmitter to decrease transmit power so that the RSL does not deviate more than 2 dB from the halfway value. See Figure 2-38.

Figure 2-38 Relationship between the RSL and TSL


TSL/RSL

TSL

Up-fading Value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds 2dB RSL 2dB Down-fading

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Purpose
The ATPC feature enables a transmitter to automatically adjust its transmit power within the ATPC control range based on the RSL of the receiver. RSL remains within a fixed range, and the residual bit error rate (BER) and interference to neighbor systems are reduced.

2.6.2 Specifications
This section lists the automatic transmit power control (ATPC) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 2-56 ATPC specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item ATPC control range Specifications The upper threshold is the maximum transmit power of OptiX RTN 310. The lower threshold is the minimum transmit power of OptiX RTN 310. ATPC adjustment step Transmit power is automatically adjusted based on the difference between the received signal level (RSL) and the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds. The maximum adjustment step is 10 dB, and the minimum adjustment step is 1 dB. > 30 dB/s Supported Supported

ATPC adjustment speed Setting the maximum transmit power Setting automatic ATPC adjustment threshold

2.6.3 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the automatic transmit power control (ATPC) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 2-57 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name ATPC Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later

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2.6.4 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of automatic transmit power control (ATPC). l AM can work with automatic transmit power control (ATPC), but using these two features together is not recommended. If you use AM and ATPC together, note the following: The ATPC lower threshold must be at least 14 dB greater than AM sensitivity in the modulation scheme of full AM capacity. The ATPC upper threshold must be 5 dB greater than the ATPC lower threshold. l XPIC can work with automatic transmit power control (ATPC), but using these two features together is not recommended. If you use XPIC and ATPC together, note the following: ATPC parameters, such as ATPC status (enabled or disabled) and ATPC adjustment thresholds, must be set to the same values for both horizontal and vertical polarization links in an XPIC group. The difference between the ATPC and lower thresholds must be as small as possible. A 5 dB difference is recommended.

2.6.5 Principles
The automatic transmit power control (ATPC) feature is implemented by using ATPC overheads in microwave frames. Figure 2-39 ATPC implementation principles
Transmitter Receiver

Microwave frame (ATPC overhead instructing power adjustment and containing adjustment step)

The RSL deviates from the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds by more than 2 dB.

The transmitter adjusts the transmit power once based on the ATPC adjustment step.

...

Microwave frame (ATPC overhead instructing power adjustment and containing adjustment step)

The RSL deviates from the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds by more than 2 dB.

The transmitter adjusts the transmit power once based on the ATPC adjustment step.

... Microwave frame (ATPC overhead indicating that no power adjustment is required) ...

The RSL does not deviate from the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds by more than 2 dB.

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The ATPC feature is implemented as follows: 1. 2. The receiver checks the received signal level (RSL). If the RSL deviates more than 2 dB from the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds, the receiver determines the type and amount of power adjustment required, based on the difference between the RSL and the halfway value. The receiver uses an ATPC overhead to instruct the transmitter to adjust transmit power. Upon receipt of the ATPC overhead, the transmitter adjusts the transmit power.
NOTE

3.

If transmit power has reached the preset maximum transmit power of OptiX RTN 310, the transmitter will not further increase the transmit power.

4.

If the RSL still deviates more than 2 dB from the halfway value, steps 2 and 3 are repeated until the RSL is within the ATPC control range.
NOTE

l If the difference between the RSL and the halfway value is less than 12 dB and there is no interference caused by fast fading, only one ATPC adjustment is required. If the difference is greater than 12 dB or there is interference from fast fading, more than one adjustment is required. l If the maximum number of ATPC adjustments have been made but the RSL is still beyond the ATPC control range, the system will start new ATPC adjustments after a set time period.

5.

If the receiver detects that the RSL deviates less than 2 dB from the halfway value, the receiver sends an ATPC overhead to notify the transmitter that transmit power requires no further adjustment.

2.6.6 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning automatic transmit power control (ATPC). l l l l l l Set ATPC parameters consistently at both ends of a microwav link hop. It is recommended that you disable the ATPC feature for NEs in areas with severe fast fading. Set the RSL to the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds. Ensure that the difference between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds is greater than or equal to 5 dB. Set a maximum transmit power value for OptiX RTN 310 if you want to limit the transmit power. It is recommended that you disable automatic setting of ATPC adjustment thresholds.

2.6.7 Configuration Process


When configuring automatic transmit power control (ATPC), you must set the ATPC parameters and the power parameters according to the actual requirements.

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Table 2-58 Process of configuring ATPC Step 1 Operation A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link Remarks Required if the ATPC feature must be used. l Select ATPC. l It is recommended that you set ATPC Upper Threshold (dBm) to 10 dB more than the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds. l It is recommended that you set ATPC Lower Threshold (dBm) to 10 dB less than the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds.
NOTE Disable the ATPC feature during site commissioning.

A.5.10 Setting the Maximum Transmit Power and the Power Thresholds

Optional. l To set the maximum transmit power that is supported by the ATPC adjustment function, you must set Maximum Transmit Power (dBm) according to the network plan. l TX High Threshold (dBm), TX Low Threshold (dBm), RX High Threshold (dBm), and RX Low Threshold (dBm) affect ATPC performance events. Set these parameters if necessary.

2.6.8 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure automatic transmit power control (ATPC) based on network conditions.

2.6.8.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. As shown in Figure 2-40, the automatic transmit power control (ATPC) feature must be enabled for the microwave link between the two OptiX RTN 310s. With this function, the received signal level (RSL) at both ends of a microwave link can always be approximately -46 dBm, and the transmit power will not exceed 20 dBm. Figure 2-40 Networking diagram for ATPC

NE1

NE2

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2.6.8.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring automatic transmit power control (ATPC). Table 2-59 lists the ATPC planning information that aligns with service requirements. Table 2-59 ATPC information Parameter ATPC enabled status Middle RSL value (dBm) Maximum transmit power (dBm) NE1 Enabled -46.0 20 NE2 Enabled -46.0 20

2.6.8.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring automatic transmit power control (ATPC).

Procedure
Step 1 Configure a single hop of microwave link. For details, see A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link. This table provides parameter values for configuring a single hop of microwave link. Parameter Value NE1 ATPC ATPC Upper Threshold (dBm) ATPC Lower Threshold (dBm) Selected -36.0 -56.0 NE2 Selected -36.0 -56.0

Step 2 Set the maximum transmit power and the power thresholds. For details, see A.5.10 Setting the Maximum Transmit Power and the Power Thresholds. This table provides parameter values for setting the maximum transmit power. Parameter Value NE1 Maximum Transmit Power (dBm)
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----End

2.6.9 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to automatic transmit power control (ATPC).

Related Tasks
A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link A.5.10 Setting the Maximum Transmit Power and the Power Thresholds A.5.12 Querying ATPC Adjustment Records

2.6.10 Related Alarms and Events


When an automatic transmit power control (ATPC) adjustment is performed, OptiX RTN 310 reports the corresponding performance event. This section describes the alarms and events related to ATPC.

Alarms
None

Performance Events
l TLHTT This event indicates a time period during which the transmit power is higher than the upper threshold. l TLLTT This event indicates a time period during which the transmit power is higher than the lower threshold. l RLHTT This event indicates a time period during which the receive power is lower than the upper threshold. l RLLTT This event indicates a time period during which the receive power is lower than the lower threshold. l l ATPC_P_ADJUST This event indicates a positive ATPC adjustment event. ATPC_N_ADJUST This event indicates a negative ATPC adjustment event.

2.6.11 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about automatic transmit power control (ATPC). Q: Why, even when ATPC has been enabled, does the received signal level (RSL) occasionally deviate more than 2 dB from the value halfway between the ATPC upper and lower thresholds?
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A: The possible causes are as follows: l The ATPC adjustment speed is lower than the instantaneous fading speed. If the ATPC adjustment speed is lower than the instantaneous fading speed, the increased transmit power fails to compensate quickly enough for fading. As a result, the RSL may deviate more than 2 dB from the halfway value. l The transmit power has reached the upper or lower threshold of the ATPC control range, and cannot be further increased or decreased.

Q: Why should ATPC not be used with adaptive modulation (AM)? A: The ATPC and AM features can work together but may affect each other. The main impact is as follows: l Transmit power cannot reach the maximum transmit power if the ATPC adjustment thresholds are not set to appropriate values. As a result, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvements to the microwave link are affected, and AM upshifting fails. ATPC adjustments have a high speed and a large step, affecting the stability of AM shifting.

2.7 Adaptive Modulation


This chapter describes adaptive modulation (AM). AM is one of the major microwave features of OptiX RTN 310.

2.7.1 Introduction
This section defines adaptive modulation (AM) and describes its purpose.

Definition
The AM feature automatically adjusts the modulation scheme based on the quality of transmission channels. After AM is enabled, the radio service capacity varies according to modulation scheme as long as channel spacing remains unchanged. The higher the modulation scheme, the higher the transmitted service capacity. Ethernet services are scheduled by quality of service (QoS) into queues with different priorities, and then transmitted to microwave ports using queue scheduling algorithms. Modulation schemes vary according to channel conditions, and service capacity varies according to modulation scheme. See Figure 2-41. l When conditions for channel quality are favorable (such as on sunny days), the equipment uses a higher-order modulation scheme to transmit more user services. This improves transmission efficiency and spectrum utilization of the system. When conditions for channel quality are unfavorable (such as on stormy or foggy days), the equipment uses a lower-order modulation scheme to ensure that higher-priority services are transmitted first. If some lower-priority queues become congested due to insufficient capacity at the air interface, some or all services in these queues are discarded. This improves anti-interference capabilities of a microwave link and ensures link availability for higher-priority services.

Figure 2-41 shows step-by-step AM shifting caused by weather changes and the impact of the shifting on service throughout and reliability. In Figure 2-41, the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity is QPSK Strong and the modulation scheme of full AM capacity is 256QAM.
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Figure 2-41 Adaptive modulation

256 QAM

128 64 32 QAM QAM QAM

16 16 32 16 16 QAM QAM QAM QAM QPSK QAM Strong Strong QPSK Strong QPSK

128 64 QAM QAM

256 QAM

RSL
256 QAM 128 QAM 64 QAM 32 QAM 16 QAM 16 QAM strong QPSK QPSK strong

Availability
99.5%

99.9% 99.92% 99.96%

Low-priority service

Low-priority service

99.99% 99.995% 99.998% 99.999%

High-priority service Time

Purpose
The purpose of the AM feature is to ensure link availability for higher-priority services and greatly improve band utilization

2.7.2 Specifications
This section lists the adaptive modulation (AM) specifications that RTN 310 supports.

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Table 2-60 AM specifications that RTN 310 supports Item Modulation scheme Specifications l QPSK Strong l QPSK l 16QAM Strong l 16QAM l 32QAM l 64QAM l 128QAM l 256QAM l 512QAM l 512QAM Light l 1024QAM l 1024QAM Light l 2048QAM
NOTE The modulation scheme must be supported by the frequency band and channel spacing of OptiX RTN 310.

Impact of modulation scheme shifting

l When the modulation scheme shifts, transmit frequency, receive frequency, and channel spacing remain unchanged. l When the modulation scheme downshifts, lower-priority services are discarded but higher-priority services are not affected.

Shifting mode Shifting speed

Step by step The shifting speed is quick enough to cope with 100 dB/s fast fading.

2.7.3 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that RTN 310 must meet in order to run the adaptive modulation (AM) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 2-61 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name AM Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later

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2.7.4 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of adaptive modulation (AM). l AM can work with cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC), but using these two features together is not recommended. If you use AM and XPIC together, note the following: AM parameters, such as AM status (enabled or disabled), modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity, and modulation scheme of full AM capacity, must to be set to the same values for both horizontal and vertical polarization links in an XPIC group. The transmit power of the horizontal and vertical polarization links in an XPIC group must be within the transmit power range allowed by OptiX RTN 310 in the modulation scheme of full AM capacity. This ensures that transmit power does not change in the case of AM shifting. l AM can work with automatic transmit power control (ATPC), but using these two features together is not recommended. If you use AM and ATPC together, note the following: The ATPC lower threshold must be at least 14 dB greater than AM sensitivity in the modulation scheme of full AM capacity. The ATPC upper threshold must be 5 dB greater than the ATPC lower threshold. l If the AM feature is enabled, configuring quality of service (QoS) for transmitted Ethernet services is recommended. When a microwave link works in a lower-order modulation scheme, QoS allocates available bandwidth so that higher-priority Ethernet services are transmitted first.

2.7.5 Principles
The adaptive modulation (AM) feature is implemented by the AM engine in a modem unit. This section describes how AM is implemented using service transmission from NE 1 (transmitter) to NE 2 (receiver) as an example.

AM Implementation Principles (Before Shifting)


1. As shown in Figure 2-42, the MUX unit on the transmitter multiplexes a service that is scheduled to the microwave port into a microwave frame. The microwave frame is then transmitted to the receiver over the TX path. The RX path receives and processes the IF signal and checks the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signal.
NOTE

2.

In this example, the quality of a received signal is considered poor if the SNR is lower than the preset threshold, and the quality of the received signal is considered good if the SNR is higher than the preset threshold.

3. 4. 5. 6.

The RX path transmits a signal indicating the quality of the received signal to the AM engine of the receiver. The AM engine sends a shifting indication signal, which is contained in a microwave frame, to the transmitter over the TX path. When processing the received IF signal, the modem unit of the transmitter extracts the shifting indication signal and sends it to the AM engine. The AM engine sends the shifting indication signal to the MUX unit, instructing the MUX unit, modem unit, and RF unit to shift the modulation scheme after N frames are transmitted.
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In addition, the transmitter inserts the shifting indication signal into a microwave frame transmitted to the receiver. 7. After the receiver detects the shifting indication signal, the MUX unit, modem unit, and RF unit of the receiver also shift the modulation scheme after N frames are received. In this manner, the modulation scheme is shifted at both the transmitter and the receiver based on the frame boundary.

Figure 2-42 AM implementation (before shifting)

Modem
MUX unit Microwave frame TX path

Modem
RX path

Microwave frame

MUX unit

INDI AM engine INDI MUX unit RX path

AM Messages

SNR AM engine INDI MUX unit

Microwave frame

TX path

Microwave frame

NE 1 Low-priority service High-priority service

NE 2 INDI: modulation scheme indication signal SNR: signal to noise ratio

AM Implementation Principles (After Downshifting)


When detecting that a received SNR is lower than the threshold for triggering modulation scheme downshifting, the modem unit of the receiver instructs the transmitter to perform downshifting. Downshifting decreases the bandwidth available for microwave frames. The transmitter first schedules higher-priority Ethernet services to the microwave port and discards lower-priority Ethernet services if insufficient bandwidth is available. See Figure 2-43.
NOTE

l The equipment transmits only higher-priority Ethernet services if downshifting goes to the lowest-order modulation scheme. l After the modulation scheme downshifts, transmit power changes to whichever of the rated maximum transmit power and the preset transmit power is lower.

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Figure 2-43 AM implementation (after downshifting)

MUX unit

Microwave frame

Modem
TX path

Modem
RX path

Microwave frame

MUX unit

INDI AM engine INDI MUX unit RX path

SNR AM Messages AM Engine INDI TX path MUX unit

Microwave frame

Microwave frame

NE 1 Low-priority service High-priority service

NE 2 INDI: modulation scheme indication signal SNR: signal to noise ratio

AM Implementation Principles (After Upshifting)


When detecting that a received SNR is higher than the threshold for triggering modulation scheme upshifting, the modem unit of the receiver instructs the transmitter to perform upshifting. Upshifting increases the bandwidth available for microwave frames, allowing more Ethernet services to be transmitted. See Figure 2-44.
NOTE

l The equipment transmits Ethernet services using available bandwidth if upshifting goes to the highestorder modulation scheme. l Transmit power changes to the rated maximum transmit power of the current modulation scheme if the transmit power before the upshifting is higher than the rated maximum transmit power of the current modulation scheme.

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Figure 2-44 AM implementation (after upshifting)

MUX unit

Microwave frame

Modem
TX path

Modem
RX path

Microwave frame

MUX unit

INDI AM engine INDI MUX unit RX path

AM Messages

SNR AM engine INDI TX path MUX unit

Microwave frame

Microwave frame

NE 1 Low-priority service High-priority service

NE 2 INDI: modulation scheme indication signal SNR: signal to noise ratio

2.7.6 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning adaptive modulation (AM).

Planning Guidelines for AM Enabling/Disabling


Adhere to the following guidelines to determine whether to enable or disable AM during network planning: l If different types of services transmitted on a microwave link all need to meet the same availability requirements, it is recommended that you disable the AM feature and determine a fixed modulation scheme based on availability requirements and maximum service capacity. If different types of services transmitted on a microwave link do not all need to meet the same availability requirements (that is, decreasing Ethernet service bandwidth is allowable when signal quality degrades), it is recommended that you enable the AM feature.

Planning Guidelines for AM Attributes


Adhere to the following guidelines when planning AM attributes: l The bandwidth of a microwave link working in the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity must be higher than the total bandwidth required for higher-priority services, and link availability must be adequate to satisfy the demand for higher-priority services. The bandwidth of a microwave link working in the modulation scheme of full AM capacity must be higher than the total bandwidth required for all services, and link availability must be adequate to satisfy the demand for lower-priority services.
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2.7.7 Configuration Process


When configuring AM, you need to set the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity and the modulation scheme of full AM capacity. Table 2-62 Process of configuring AM Step 1 Operation A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link Remarks Required. Set parameters as follows: l Choose AM. l Set Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity and Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity according to the network plan.
CAUTION If the current Modulation Mode is higher than the planned Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity, change Modulation Mode to the planned Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity. Enable AM after the change takes effect.

A.11.2 Testing AM Shifting

Perform this operation to test whether the service data is configured correctly.

2.7.8 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure adaptive modulation (AM) based on network conditions.

2.7.8.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. As shown in Figure 2-45, to balance link availability with service bandwidth, the adaptive modulation (AM) feature needs to be enabled for the microwave link between NE 1 and NE 2. The original modulation scheme of the link is 512QAM.

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Figure 2-45 Networking diagram for AM

Modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity: 16QAM Modulation scheme of full AM capacity: 512QAM

NE 1

NE 2

2.7.8.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring adaptive modulation (AM). Table 2-63 lists the AM planning information that aligns with service requirements. Table 2-63 AM configuration information Parameter AM status Modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity Modulation scheme of full AM capacity NE 1 Enabled 16QAM 512QAM NE 2 Enabled 16QAM 512QAM

2.7.8.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring adaptive modulation (AM).

Procedure
Step 1 Configure a single hop of microwave link. For details, see A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link.
NOTE

Because the original modulation scheme is lower than the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity, set Modulation Mode to 16QAM and click Apply. Then, configure AM parameters.

This table provides parameter values for configuring a single hop of microwave link.

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Parameter

Value NE 1 NE 2 Selected 16QAM 512QAM

AM Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity

Selected 16QAM 512QAM

Step 2 Test AM shifting. For details, see A.11.2 Testing AM Shifting. The system outputs an AM shifting test report. The report shows that the value of FEC_BEF_COR_ER is 0, indicating that the AM shifting is successful. ----End

2.7.9 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to adaptive modulation (AM).

Related Tasks
A.5.1 Configuring a Single Hop of Microwave Link A.5.11 Querying the AM Status A.11.2 Testing AM Shifting

2.7.10 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to adaptive modulation (AM).

Alarms
l AM_DOWNSHIFT This alarm indicates the downshift of the AM scheme. This alarm occurs after the AM mode is downshifted from the highest-order modulation scheme to the lower-order modulation scheme. After the AM mode is upshifted from the lower-order modulation scheme to the highest-order modulation scheme, this alarm is cleared. l MW_CFG_MISMATCH This alarm indicates inconsistent configurations between the two ends of a microwave link. This alarm is reported when an NE detects that settings for any of the following items are inconsistent: AM status (enabled or disabled), physical link aggregation (PLA) status,, channel space, IEEE 1588v2 overhead status (enabled or disabled), modulation scheme, or Ethernet frame header compression status (enabled or disabled). l MW_AM_TEST This alarm indicates that a microwave port is in the AM testing state.

Performance Events
l
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This event indicates the working duration of the QPSK Strong modulation scheme. l l l l l l l l l l l l l QPSKWS This event indicates the working duration of the QPSK modulation scheme. QAM_S_WS16 This event indicates the working duration of the 16QAM Strong modulation scheme. QAMWS16 This event indicates the working duration of the 16QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS32 This event indicates the working duration of the 32QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS64 This event indicates the working duration of the 64QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS128 This event indicates the working duration of the 128QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS256 This event indicates the working duration of the 256QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS512 This event indicates the working duration of the 512QAM modulation scheme. QAM_L_WS512 This event indicates the working duration of the 512QAM Light modulation scheme. QAMWS1024 This event indicates the working duration of the 1024QAM modulation scheme. QAM_L_WS1024 This event indicates the working duration of the 1024QAM Light modulation scheme. QAMWS2048 This event indicates the working duration of the 2048QAM modulation scheme. AMDOWNCNT This event indicates the number of AM downshifts during the current performance counting period. l AMUPCNT This event indicates the number of AM upshifts during the current performance counting period.

2.7.11 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about adaptive modulation (AM). Q: What are the possible causes of an AM shifting failure? A: The possible symptoms of an AM shifting failure are as follows: l l Bit errors occur after shifting is implemented. Shifting is not triggered when shifting conditions are met, or shifting is triggered when shifting conditions are not met.

The possible causes of an AM shifting failure are as follows:


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The AM feature is disabled. When the AM feature is disabled, the microwave link uses a fixed modulation scheme, and therefore AM shifting is impossible.

A user mistakenly believes that receiver sensitivity is a trigger condition for AM shifting. Shifting is implemented by detecting the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) instead of the received signal level (RSL). When the SNR exceeds the preset threshold, shifting occurs even if the RSL is higher than the receiver sensitivity.

Both the AM and automatic transmit power control (ATPC) features are enabled and affect each other. Transmit power cannot reach the maximum transmit power if the ATPC adjustment thresholds are not set to appropriate values. As a result, SNR improvements to the microwave link are affected, and AM upshifting fails. ATPC adjustments have a high speed and a large step, affecting the stability of AM shifting. Because the ATPC and AM features may affect each other when they work together, it is preferable not to use them together.

Q: For an OptiX RTN 310 that has a fixed transmit power, why does actual transmit power vary between a preset value and smaller values when the AM feature is enabled? A: The rated maximum transmit power of OptiX RTN 310 varies according to the modulation scheme in use. Upshifting the modulation scheme will result in a smaller rated maximum transmit power. After the AM feature is enabled, transmit power is set to a value within the rated transmit power range in the modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity. If the modulation scheme upshifts and the preset value for transmit power is higher than the rated maximum transmit power allowed by the new modulation scheme, actual transmit power decreases to this rated maximum transmit power. Q: Why is the working duration of a medium-order modulation scheme (for example, 64QAM) recorded when the AM feature is disabled and the modulation scheme upshifts (for example, from QPSK to 256QAM) or downshifts (for example, from 256QAM to QPSK)? A: When the AM feature is disabled, the modulation scheme is shifted step by step. For example, to shift the modulation scheme from QPSK to 256QAM, the equipment adjusts the modulation scheme in the following sequence: QPSK -> 16QAM -> 32QAM -> 64QAM -> 128QAM >256QAM. Therefore, a recording may be made at any of the step intervals as performance statistics are not collected in real time. Q: Why is it preferable that AM not work with ATPC? A: The main reasons are as follows: l After the ATPC feature is enabled, transmit power cannot reach the maximum transmit power if the ATPC adjustment thresholds are not set to appropriate values. As a result, SNR improvements to the microwave link are affected, and AM upshifting fails. ATPC adjustments have a high speed and a large step, affecting the stability of AM shifting.

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3
About This Chapter
3.2 Layer 2 Switching This chapter describes Layer 2 switching.

Ethernet Features

This section describes the Ethernet features that the OptiX RTN 310 supports. 3.1 Virtual Local Area Network This chapter describes the virtual local area network (VLAN) feature.

3.3 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS), which is applicable to ring physical networks, protects Ethernet services on an Ethernet ring. 3.4 Link Aggregation Group This chapter describes link aggregation group (LAG). In a LAG, multiple links to the same device are aggregated to work as a logical link. This helps to increase bandwidth and improve link reliability. 3.5 Link State Pass Through Link state pass through (LPT) can detect a fault that occurs on a service access device or a service network, and then instruct the service access device to immediately start the backup network for communication. LPT thereby ensures that faults do not affect the transmission of important data. 3.6 QoS This section describes quality of service (QoS). QoS places requirements on all aspects of a service, such as bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. This ensures that the request and response of a user or application reaches an expected quality level. 3.7 ETH OAM ETH OAM detects and monitors the connectivity and performance of service trails using OAM protocol data units (PDUs). ETH OAM does not affect services. 3.8 RMON This chapter describes remote network monitoring (RMON), which is one of the most widely used network management standards. RMON is used for providing performance statistics and managing Ethernet ports. It also supports performance threshold-crossing alarms.

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3.1 Virtual Local Area Network


This chapter describes the virtual local area network (VLAN) feature.

3.1.1 Introduction
This section defines VLAN and describes its purpose.

Definition
A VLAN is an independent logical network within a physical network. Because each VLAN is a broadcast domain, broadcast packets are transmitted only within a given VLAN. In Figure 3-1, the VLAN of each branch of an enterprise comprises the Ethernet devices of that branch. These Ethernet devices all belong to the same LAN of the enterprise. Each VLAN isolates broadcast packets from other VLANs. Therefore, Ethernet packets from a branch are contained within the VLAN of that branch, preventing broadcast storms. Figure 3-1 Typical application of VLAN
VLAN 100 Branch A

VLAN 100

Branch A'

Branch B

VLAN 101 LAN switch NE 1 NE 2

VLAN 101 Branch B' LAN switch VLAN 102 Branch C'

VLAN 102 Branch C


Ethernet link Microwave link

Purpose
VLAN is a low-cost method of preventing broadcast storms. It also offers other benefits: l Improved bandwidth utilization VLANs improve bandwidth utilization, because broadcast packets are forwarded only within a single VLAN, not over the entire LAN. If no route for a packet exists, a switch transmits the packet only to ports that belong to the same VLAN as the port that received the packet, instead of to all ports on the switch. l Separate user groups and improved network security You can assign user groups to separate VLANs, which improves network security because packets are forwarded only within the VLAN in which they were sent.
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Virtual workgroups VLANs can establish virtual workgroups. A virtual workgroup is a dynamic organizational environment. Members in the same VLAN, but in different LANs, can communicate with each other as if they were in the same LAN. In a virtual workgroup, if the location of a VLAN member changes but the member still belongs to the VLAN, the network administrator does not need to change the member's configuration. However, if the VLAN member's location does not change but the member switches to another VLAN, the network administrator must change the member's configuration.

3.1.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of VLAN.

3.1.2.1 VLAN Frame Format


IEEE 802.1Q defines the format of an Ethernet frame that contains VLAN information. This type of frame has a 4-byte IEEE 802.1Q header and is called a tagged frame or an IEEE 802.1Q frame. Figure 3-2 shows the format of a tagged frame. Figure 3-2 Format of a tagged frame
Destination address Source address 4 bytes 802.1q header FCS (CRC-32)

Length/Type

Data

TCI TPID 16 bits PCP 3 bits CFI 1 bit VID 12 bits

The 4-byte IEEE 802.1Q header is divided into two parts: tag protocol identifier (TPID) and tag control information (TCI). The TCI consists of three parts: priority code point (PCP), canonical format indicator (CFI), and VLAN identifier (VID). l TPID A TPID is a 16-bit field that identifies an Ethernet frame as a tagged frame. The value of TPID is always 0x8100. A network device discards any received tagged frames that it cannot identify. l PCP A PCP identifies the priority of an Ethernet frame. This field can be used to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements. l CFI A CFI is a 1-bit field used only on certain ring networks. This field is not processed on Ethernet networks.
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VID A VID is a 12-bit field that identifies the VLAN to which an Ethernet frame belongs. As a VID has only 12 bits, its value ranges from 0 to 4095.

3.1.2.2 Tag Attributes


The tag attributes of a port are classified into tag aware, access, and hybrid, based on how the port processes tagged and untagged frames. Table 3-1 lists the methods by which ingress and egress ports process Ethernet frames based on tag attributes. Table 3-1 Processing Ethernet frames based on tag attributes Direction Type of Ethernet Frame Tagged frame Untagged frame Processing Method Tag Aware Accepts the frame. Discards the frame. Access Discards the frame. Adds a port VID (PVID) and then accepts the frame. Strips the VLAN identifier (VID) and then transmits the frame. Hybrid Accepts the frame. Adds a PVID and then accepts the frame. Strips the PVID and transmits the frame if the VID is equal to the PVID. Directly transmits the frame if the VID is not equal to the PVID.

Ingress port

Egress port

Tagged frame

Transmits the frame.

NOTE

Because ingress ports either discard untagged frames or add PVIDs to them to form tagged frames, ingress ports transmit only tagged frames to their egress ports.

Figure 3-3, Figure 3-4, and Figure 3-5 show how an ingress port and an egress port process Ethernet frames based on tag attributes.

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Figure 3-3 Ethernet frame processing at a tag-aware ingress port


Ingress port Egress port A
VID

Ingress port

Egress port A

T H

VID

T VID = PVID

T H

1 2

VID

VID PVID

Access
VID

Tag aware

Hybrid Discards the frame

Tagged frame

Untagged frame

NOTE

When a tagged frame exits a hybrid egress port: l If its VID is equal to the PVID, the port strips the PVID and then transmits the frame. l If its VID is different from the PVID, the port directly transmits the frame.

Figure 3-4 Ethernet frame processing at an access ingress port


Ingress port Egress port A
VID

Ingress port

Egress port A

T H

T H

VID

VID = PVID VID = PVID

1 2

VID

VID PVID

Access
VID

Tag aware

Hybrid Discards the frame

Tagged frame

Untagged frame

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Figure 3-5 Ethernet frame processing at a hybrid ingress port


Ingress port Egress port A
VID

Ingress port

Egress port A

T H

VID

H VID = PVID

T H

VID

VID = PVID VID = PVID

1 2

VID

VID PVID

1 2

VID

VID PVID

Access
VID

Tag aware

Hybrid

Tagged frame

Untagged frame

3.1.2.3 VLAN-based E-Line Service


You can use VLANs to separate Ethernet line (E-Line) services, which allows the E-Line services to share one physical transmission channel. E-Line services separated in this manner are called VLAN-based E-Line services.

Service Model
Table 3-2 provides information about the VLAN-based E-Line service model. Table 3-2 VLAN-based E-Line service model Service Type VLAN-based ELine service Service Flow PORT+VLAN (source) PORT+VLAN (sink) Service Direction UNI-UNI (UNI stands for user-tonetwork interface.) Encapsulation Type at a Port IEEE 802.1Q (source) IEEE 802.1Q (sink) Service Description The source port processes incoming Ethernet frames based on its tag attribute, and then sends Ethernet frames containing a specific VLAN ID to the sink port. The sink port processes the Ethernet frames based on its tag attribute, and then transmits the processed Ethernet frames.

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Typical Application
Figure 3-6 shows a typical application of the VLAN-based E-Line service model. Services 1, 2, 3, and 4 from four NodeBs converge through a transmission network to a radio network controller (RNC). l l l l Services 1, 2, 3, and 4 carry different VLAN IDs. On NE 1, services 1 and 2 are received at port 2 and port 3, respectively, and forwarded through port 1. They share the same channel but are isolated by VLANs. On NE 2, services 3 and 4 are received at port 2 and port 3, respectively, and forwarded through port 1. They share the same channel but are isolated by VLANs. On NE 3, services 1 and 2 are received at port 2, services 3 and 4 are received at port 3, and all four services are forwarded through port 1. All the services share the same channel but are isolated by VLANs. Ports 2 and 3 on NE 1, NE 2, and NE 3 process incoming Ethernet frames based on their tag attributes and transmit the Ethernet frames to port 1. Port 1 processes outgoing Ethernet frames based on its tag attribute. Because the services have different VLAN IDs, they can share ports 1 on NE 1, NE 2, and NE 3.

Figure 3-6 VLAN-based E-Line service model


Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 Service 3 VLAN ID: 300 Service 4 VLAN ID: 400 Port 1 RNC Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 Port 1 NE 3 E-Line E-Line Port 2 Port 3

NE 1 E-Line E-Line

Port 2

NodeB 1

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Port 3 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 NodeB 2

Transmission network
E-Line Port 2 Port 3

Port 1 Service 3 VLAN ID: 300 Service 4 VLAN ID: 400

Service 3 NodeB 3 VLAN ID: 300

E-Line NE 2

Service 4 VLAN ID: 400 NodeB 4

3.1.2.4 VLAN Forwarding Tables for E-Line Services


Generally, the VLAN ID carried by a VLAN-based Ethernet line (E-Line) service does not need to be changed. If it is necessary to change a VLAN ID, you must configure a VLAN forwarding table. If VLAN ID change is required for a VLAN-based E-Line service, you must specify the source VLAN ID and sink VLAN ID, as shown in the E-Line service information table in Figure 3-7. In addition, you must configure a VLAN forwarding table to allow VLAN switching between the source and the sink. In Figure 3-7, service 1 from NodeB 1 and service 2 from NodeB 2 are transmitted through NE 3 to the radio network controller (RNC). Services 1 and 2 have the same VLAN ID of 100. To
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prevent a VLAN ID conflict on NE 3, you can configure a VLAN forwarding table on NE 2 so that the VLAN ID of service 2 changes from 100 to 200 on NE 2. Figure 3-7 Application of the VLAN forwarding table for an E-Line service (on NE 2)
Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Service 2 VLAN ID: 200 Port 1 RNC Service 1 VLAN ID: 100 Port 2 NE 3 E-Line E-Line Port 2 Port 3 NE 1 E-Line Port 1 NodeB 1 Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Transmission network
NE 2 Port 2 E-Line Port 1 Service 2 NodeB 2 VLAN ID: 100 VLAN forwarding table Source Port Port 1 Port 2 Source VLAN ID 100 200 Sink Port Port 2 Port 1 Sink VLAN ID 200 100

Service 2 VLAN ID: 200

E-Line service information table Source Port Port 1 Source VLAN ID 100 Sink Port Port 2 Sink VLAN ID 200

3.1.2.5 IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Services


You can use VLANs to separate Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services and divide an IEEE 802.1Q bridge into multiple independent switching sub-domains. E-LAN services separated in this manner are called IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services.

Service Model
Table 3-3 provides information about the IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model. Table 3-3 IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model Service Type IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based ELAN service Tag Type C-Aware Encapsulation Type at a Port IEEE 802.1Q Logical Port Type PORT+VLAN Learning Mode Independent VLAN learning (IVL) Switching Sub-domain A bridge divided into switching sub-domains by VLAN

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Typical Application
Figure 3-8 shows a typical application of the IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model. Services 1, 2, 3, and 4 from four NodeBs converge through a transmission network to a radio network controller (RNC). l l Services 1 and 2 have the same VLAN ID of 100, and services 3 and 4 have the same VLAN ID of 200. Because the VLAN ID of services 1 and 2 is different from that of services 3 and 4, IEEE 802.1Q bridges are configured: one each for NE 1, NE 2, and NE 3. The bridges are divided into switching sub-domains by VLAN for service isolation over each bridge.

Figure 3-8 IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model


NE 2
Service 1, 2 VLAN ID: 100 Service 3, 4 VLAN ID: 200 Port 1 RNC 802.1Q bridge
VLAN 100

Port 2 NodeB 1

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Port 1

NE 1

VLAN 100

Port 2 Domain 1 (VLAN ID: 100) Port 3

Port 3 802.1Q bridge

Service 2 VLAN ID: 100 NodeB 2

VLAN 200

Transmission network NE NE 3 VLAN 200 2 Port 2

Port 1 Domain 2 (VLAN ID: 200)

NodeB 3

Service 3 VLAN ID: 200

Port 3 Service 4 VLAN ID: 200

802.1Q bridge

NodeB 4

3.1.3 Specifications
This section lists the VLAN specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 3-4 VLAN specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Value range of VLAN IDs Maximum number of VLAN-based Ethernet line (E-Line) services Maximum number of IEEE 802.1Q bridges Tag attributes Specifications 1 to 4094 64 1 Tag aware Access Hybrid VLAN transparent transmission* VLAN ID change** for E-Line services
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NOTE

l *: VLAN transparent transmission indicates that the VLAN ID of an E-Line or Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service frame will not change when this frame is being forwarded. l **: VLAN ID change indicates that the VLAN ID of an E-Line service frame will change when this frame is being forwarded. On OptiX RTN 310s, VLAN switching is implemented based on VLAN forwarding tables.

3.1.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with VLAN. IEEE 802.1Q: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks

3.1.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the VLAN feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 3-5 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name VLAN Port Microwave port GE port Hardware Version Any version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later V100R001C00 or later

3.1.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of VLAN. l l VLANs divide an IEEE 802.1Q bridge into switching sub-domains. Simple traffic classification is implemented based on VLAN priorities.

3.1.7 Principles
The VLAN feature must be implemented based on port attributes and service types. An OptiX RTN 310, with VLAN enabled, processes Ethernet frames as follows: 1. 2. Processes incoming Ethernet frames based on the tag attribute of the ingress port. For details, see Table 3-1. Forwards Ethernet frames based on service types. l For an Ethernet line (E-Line) service, an OptiX RTN 310 forwards Ethernet frames to their destination ports based on the service configuration.
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l For an Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service, an OptiX RTN 310 forwards Ethernet frames to their destination ports specified in the MAC address table. For details, see 3.2.7 Principles of the Huawei Embedded Control Channel (HWECC) solution. 3. Processes outgoing Ethernet frames based on the tag attribute of the egress port. For details, see Table 3-1.

3.1.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning VLAN.

Planning Guidelines for Services


l If VLANs separate services from multiple users (such as when services from multiple NodeBs on a mobile backhaul network carry different VLAN IDs), plan services with reference to the service model described in 3.1.2.3 VLAN-based E-Line Service. If VLANs separate services from multiple user groups (such as when services from the NodeBs within an area of a mobile backhaul network carry the same VLAN ID but different areas use different VLAN IDs), plan services with reference to the service model described in 3.1.2.4 VLAN Forwarding Tables for E-Line Services. If VLANs separate multiple services from a single user and services from multiple users (such as when services from a NodeB on a mobile backhaul network carry different VLAN IDs, and all NodeBs use different VLAN IDs), plan services with reference to the service model described in 3.1.2.3 VLAN-based E-Line Service. If VLAN-based Ethernet line (E-Line) services traverse a Layer 2 network, VLAN switching can be performed based on the preset VLAN switching table to prevent a VLAN ID conflict on the Layer 2 network.

Planning Guidelines for Tag Attributes


l l l If only tagged frames are received, set the tag attribute to Tag aware for ingress ports. If only untagged frames are received, set the tag attribute to Access for ingress ports, and set VLAN priorities and default VLAN IDs based on the network plan. If both tagged and untagged frames are received, set the tag attribute to Hybrid for ingress ports, and set VLAN priorities and default VLAN IDs based on the network plan.

3.1.9 Configuration Process


Based on the VLAN plan, configure Ethernet services and set tag attributes for Ethernet ports.

3.1.9.1 Configuration Procedure (VLAN-based E-Line Services)


This section describes the processes of configuring the service information, port information, protection information, and quality of service (QoS) information for a VLAN-based Ethernet line (E-Line) service and the process of verifying the service configurations.

Flowchart
Figure 3-9 shows the flowchart for configuring VLAN-based E-Line services.
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Figure 3-9 Flowchart for configuring VLAN-based E-Line services

Required Optional

Start

Configure a LAG.

Configure E-Line services.

Set port attributes.

Configure QoS.

Verify Ethernet services.

End

The steps in the configuration flowchart are described as follows:

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Configuring LAG for Ethernet Ports


Table 3-6 Process of configuring LAG for Ethernet ports Step 1 Operation A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks When the Ethernet link between an OptiX RTN 310 NE and UNI-side equipment requires higher bandwidth or active/ standby protection. Set parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. The recommended value is Static. l Set Load Sharing to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Set Load Sharing to Sharing if the Ethernet link requires higher bandwidth, or NonSharing if the Ethernet link does not require higher bandwidth. l Load Sharing Hash Algorithm takes the default value of Automatic. This parameter is valid only to load-sharing LAGs. l Set Reversion Mode to the same value as that for the opposite equipment. The recommended value is Revertive. This parameter is valid only to non-load sharing LAGs. l Set WTR Time(min) to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. It is recommended that this parameter take its default value. This parameter is valid only to revertive LAGs. l Set the main and slave ports according to the network plan. It is recommended that you set the main and slave ports of the LAG at both ends consistently. 2 A.7.2.2 Setting Parameters for a LAG Optional.

Configuring VLAN-based E-Line Services


Table 3-7 Process of configuring VLAN-based E-Line services Step 1 Operation A.7.3.11 Deleting an E-LAN Service Remarks Required when an NE is being initially configured.
NOTE Because an OptiX RTN 310 carries IEEE 802.1D bridge-based Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services by default, you need to delete the default services manually before you configure VLANbased E-Line services on it.

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Step 2

Operation A.7.3.2 Creating a VLANbased ELine Service

Remarks Required. Set the service parameters as follows: l Set Source and Sink according to the network plan. l Set VLAN ID for the source and sink according to the network plan. Set parameters for the source and sink ports as follows: l Set Port Enable to Enabled. l Set Encapsulation Type to 802.1Q. l When the port is an Ethernet port connected to the UNIside equipment, set Working Mode to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Normally, this parameter is set to Auto-Negotiation on the UNI-side equipment. If the port is an Ethernet port used for internal connection, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation for related ports. l Set Tag according to the following principles: If all the accessed services carry VLAN tags (tagged frames), set Tag to Tag Aware. If none of the accessed services carries VLAN tags (untagged frames), set Tag to Access, and set Default VLAN ID and VLAN Priority according to the network plan. When the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set Tag to Hybrid, and set Default VLAN ID and VLAN Priority according to the network plan.
NOTE If PLA without NE-level protection has been configured, Ethernet services do not need to be configured for the standby NE. If 1+1 protection or PLA with NE-level protection has been configured, configure Ethernet services for the main and standby NEs consistently.

A.7.3.3 Creating an E-Line Service for Transmittin g Layer 2 Protocol Packets A.7.3.4 Creating VLAN Forwarding Table Entries

Required when Layer 2 protocol packets need to be transparently transmitted.

Required when the VLAN tags of the Ethernet service need to be switched at the source and sink. The parameters need to be set according to the network plan.
NOTE The corresponding VLAN forwarding table items need to be configured for the source port and sink port.

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Setting Port Attributes


Table 3-8 Process of setting port attributes Step 1 Operation Setting the parameter s of Ethernet ports A.6.1.1 Setting the Basic Attribute s for an Ethernet Port A.6.1.2 Configuri ng the Traffic Control Function for an Ethernet Port Remarks Optional. Set Max Frame Length (byte) to the length of the longest frame that the port may receive. It is recommended that this parameter take the default value of 9600.

Required when the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet port is connected. Set parameters as follows: l When the external equipment uses the non-autonegotiation flow control function, set NonAutonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. Optional.

A.6.1.4 Setting the Advanced Attribute s for an Ethernet Port 2 Setting the parameter s of microwav e ports A.5.8 Configuri ng Ethernet Frame Header Compress ion and Errored Frame Discardin g Over Air Interfaces

Optional.

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Step

Operation A.6.2.2 Setting Layer 2 Attribute s for a Microwav e Port A.6.2.3 Setting Advanced Attribute s for a Microwav e Port

Remarks Optional.

Optional.

NOTE

Because the Web LCT does not provide a window specifically for configuring microwave ports, configure microwave port parameters in the window for configuring Ethernet port parameters.

Configuring QoS
Table 3-9 Process of configuring QoS Step 1 Operation A.7.6.1 Modifying the Mapping for a DS Domain A.7.6.2 Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port A.7.6.4 Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies Remarks Required if the default mappings for the Differentiated Services (DS) domain are inapplicable. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

Required if the priority type of an Ethernet service is not CVLAN, which is the default packet type trusted by the DiffServ domain. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a port is required to schedule traffic according to a certain queue scheduling policy in the case of traffic congestion. The default queue scheduling mode is SP+WRR (SP is short for strict priority and WRR for weighted round robin). AF1 to AF4 queues are WRR queues (allocated the same weight) and the other queues are SP queues. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

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Step 4

Operation A.7.6.5 Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues A.7.6.6 Setting the Congestion Manageme nt Mode for Egress Queues A.7.6.3 Configuring Port Shaping

Remarks Required if the bandwidth for egress port queues needs to be restricted. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a certain congestion management mode is required for queues at an egress port. The default mode is tail drop. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

Verifying Ethernet Service Configurations


Table 3-10 Process of verifying Ethernet service configurations Step 1 Operation A.7.7.1 Creating an MD Remarks Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Domain Level to the same values for the NEs. l For an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Domain Level takes its default value of 4. For an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than 4. For an Ethernet service between two Ethernet ports on the same NE, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network.

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Step 2

Operation A.7.7.2 Creating an MA

Remarks Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value for the NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the NEs. l It is recommended that you set CC Test Transmit Period to 1s.

A.7.7.3 Creating an MEP

Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Port to the Ethernet ports that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for maintenance association end points (MEPs) in the same maintenance domain (MD). l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l Set CC Status to Active, as the MEP ID is used to identify the MEP during the loopback (LB) test.

A.7.7.4 Creating a Remote MEP in an MA

Required for the NE where the Ethernet ports involved in the OAM operation are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l To ensure that an MEP can respond to the OAM operations initiated by the other MEPs in the same maintenance association (MA), you need to set the other MEPs as the remote MEPs.
NOTE When two MEPs are on the same NE, you do not need to configure remote MEPs.

A.7.7.7 Performing an LB Test

Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

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3.1.9.2 Configuration Procedure (IEEE 802.1q Bridge-Based E-LAN Services)


This section describes the processes of configuring the service information, port information, protection information, and quality of service (QoS) information for an IEEE 802.1Q bridgebased Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service and the process of verifying the service configurations.

Flowchart
Figure 3-10 shows the flowchart for configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services. Figure 3-10 Flowchart for configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services

Required Optional

Start

Configure a LAG.

Configure ERPS protection.

Configure E-LAN services.

Set port attributes.

Configure QoS.

Verify Ethernet services.

End

The steps in the configuration flowchart are described as follows:

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Configuring LAG for Ethernet Ports


Table 3-11 Process of configuring LAG for Ethernet ports Step 1 Operation A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks When the Ethernet link between an OptiX RTN 310 NE and UNI-side equipment requires higher bandwidth or active/ standby protection. Set parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. The recommended value is Static. l Set Load Sharing to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Set Load Sharing to Sharing if the Ethernet link requires higher bandwidth, or NonSharing if the Ethernet link does not require higher bandwidth. l Load Sharing Hash Algorithm takes the default value of Automatic. This parameter is valid only to load-sharing LAGs. l Set Reversion Mode to the same value as that for the opposite equipment. The recommended value is Revertive. This parameter is valid only to non-load sharing LAGs. l Set WTR Time(min) to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. It is recommended that this parameter take its default value. This parameter is valid only to revertive LAGs. l Set the main and slave ports according to the network plan. It is recommended that you set the main and slave ports of the LAG at both ends consistently. 2 A.7.2.2 Setting Parameters for a LAG Optional.

Configuring ERPS Protection


Table 3-12 Process of configuring ERPS protection Step 1 Operation A.7.1.1 Creating an ERP Instance Remarks Required when an Ethernet ring needs to be protected and service loops need to be avoided on the Ethernet ring.

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Step 2

Operation A.7.1.2 Setting ERPS Protocol Parameters

Remarks Required if the values of the default parameters of the Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) timers need to be changed. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), WTR Time(mm:ss), and Packet Transmit Interval(s) according to the actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network.

Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Services


Table 3-13 Process of configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services Step 1 Operation A.7.3.11 Deleting an E-LAN Service Remarks Required when an NE is being initially configured.
NOTE Delete the IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN services that are configured for an OptiX RTN 310 by default before configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services.

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Step 2

Operation A.7.3.6 Creating an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based ELAN Service

Remarks Required. Set the service parameters as follows: l Set Source and Sink according to the network plan. l Set VLAN ID for the source and sink according to the network plan. l Set Tag Type to C-Aware. l Set Self-Learning MAC Address to Enabled according to the network plan. Set parameters for the source and sink ports as follows: l Set Port Enable to Enabled. l Set Encapsulation Type to 802.1Q. l When the port is an Ethernet port connected to the UNIside equipment, set Working Mode to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Normally, this parameter is set to Auto-Negotiation on the UNI-side equipment. If the port is an Ethernet port used for internal connection, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation for related ports. l To disable packet forwarding between certain E-LAN service ports, configure the ports as Split Horizon Group Members on the Config Split Horizon Group window. l Set Tag according to the following principles: If all the accessed services carry VLAN tags (tagged frames), set Tag to Tag Aware. If none of the accessed services carries VLAN tags (untagged frames), set Tag to Access, and set Default VLAN ID and VLAN Priority according to the network plan. When the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set Tag to Hybrid, and set Default VLAN ID and VLAN Priority according to the network plan.
NOTE If PLA without NE-level protection has been configured, Ethernet services do not need to be configured for the standby NE. If 1+1 protection or PLA with NE-level protection has been configured, configure Ethernet services for the main and standby NEs consistently.

A.7.3.7 Creating an E-LAN Service for Transmitting Layer 2 Protocol Packets

Required when Layer 2 protocol packets need to be transparently transmitted.

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Step 4

Operation Mana ging the MAC addres s table A.7.4.2 Creating a Blacklist MAC Address Entry A.7.4.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.7.4.3 Managing a Dynamic MAC Address Table

Remarks Required when usage of E-LAN services needs to be disabled on certain MAC address host. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if the aging function needs to be disabled or if the default aging time (five minutes) needs to be changed. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

A.7.5 Setting the Mode for Processing an Unknown Frame of an E-LAN Service

Optional. By default, the processing mode for unknown frames is flood.

Setting Port Attributes


Table 3-14 Process of setting port attributes Step 1 Operation Setting the parameter s of Ethernet ports A.6.1.1 Setting the Basic Attribute s for an Ethernet Port Remarks Optional. Set Max Frame Length (byte) to the length of the longest frame that the port may receive. It is recommended that this parameter take the default value of 9600.

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Step

Operation A.6.1.2 Configuri ng the Traffic Control Function for an Ethernet Port

Remarks Required when the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet port is connected. Set parameters as follows: l When the external equipment uses the non-autonegotiation flow control function, set NonAutonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. Required when you need to enable the port self-loop test and automatic loopback shutdown functions or to enable the broadcast packet suppression function. Set Loopback check, Loopback port shutdown, Enabling broadcast packet suppression, and Broadcast packet suppression threshold as desired. Optional.

A.6.1.4 Setting the Advanced Attribute s for an Ethernet Port 2 Setting the parameter s of microwav e ports A.6.2.1 Setting Basic Attribute s for a Microwav e Port A.6.2.2 Setting Layer 2 Attribute s for a Microwav e Port A.6.2.3 Setting Advanced Attribute s for a Microwav e Port

Optional.

Required when you need to enable the port self-loop test and automatic loopback shutdown functions or to enable the broadcast packet suppression function. Set Loopback check, Loopback port shutdown, Enabling broadcast packet suppression, and Broadcast packet suppression threshold as desired.

NOTE

Because the Web LCT does not provide a window specifically for configuring microwave ports, configure microwave port parameters in the window for configuring Ethernet port parameters.

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Configuring QoS
Table 3-15 Process of configuring QoS Step 1 Operation A.7.6.1 Modifying the Mapping for a DS Domain A.7.6.2 Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port A.7.6.4 Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies Remarks Required if the default mappings for the Differentiated Services (DS) domain are inapplicable. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

Required if the priority type of an Ethernet service is not CVLAN, which is the default packet type trusted by the DiffServ domain. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a port is required to schedule traffic according to a certain queue scheduling policy in the case of traffic congestion. The default queue scheduling mode is SP+WRR (SP is short for strict priority and WRR for weighted round robin). AF1 to AF4 queues are WRR queues (allocated the same weight) and the other queues are SP queues. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

A.7.6.5 Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues A.7.6.6 Setting the Congestion Manageme nt Mode for Egress Queues A.7.6.3 Configuring Port Shaping

Required if the bandwidth for egress port queues needs to be restricted. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a certain congestion management mode is required for queues at an egress port. The default mode is tail drop. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

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Verifying Ethernet Service Configurations


Table 3-16 Process of verifying Ethernet service configurations Step 1 Operation A.7.7.1 Creating an MD Remarks Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Domain Level to the same values for the NEs. l For an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Domain Level takes its default value of 4. For an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than 4. For an Ethernet service between two Ethernet ports on the same NE, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network. 2 A.7.7.2 Creating an MA Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value for the NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the NEs. l It is recommended that you set CC Test Transmit Period to 1s. 3 A.7.7.3 Creating an MEP Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Port to the Ethernet ports that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for maintenance association end points (MEPs) in the same maintenance domain (MD). l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l Set CC Status to Active, as the MEP ID is used to identify the MEP during the loopback (LB) test.

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Step 4

Operation A.7.7.4 Creating a Remote MEP in an MA

Remarks Required for the NE where the Ethernet ports involved in the OAM operation are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l To ensure that an MEP can respond to the OAM operations initiated by the other MEPs in the same maintenance association (MA), you need to set the other MEPs as the remote MEPs.
NOTE When two MEPs are on the same NE, you do not need to configure remote MEPs.

A.7.7.7 Performing an LB Test

Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

3.1.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure a VLAN-based Ethernet service based on network conditions. l For an example of how to plan and configure a VLAN-based Ethernet line (E-Line) service, see Configuration Example (VLAN-based E-Line Service) in the Commissioning and Configuration Guide. For an example of how to plan and configure a IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Service) in the Commissioning and Configuration Guide.

3.1.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to VLAN.

Related Tasks
A.6.1.1 Setting the Basic Attributes for an Ethernet Port A.6.1.3 Setting the Layer 2 Attributes for an Ethernet Port A.7.3.2 Creating a VLAN-based E-Line Service A.7.3.4 Creating VLAN Forwarding Table Entries A.7.3.6 Creating an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Service

3.1.12 Related Alarms and Events


There are no alarms or events associated with VLAN.
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3.1.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about VLAN. Q: What is the relationship between the VLAN identifier (VID) and the VLAN ID? They are the same. VID is short for VLAN ID, which is a 12-bit field and indicates the VLAN to which a frame belongs.

3.2 Layer 2 Switching


This chapter describes Layer 2 switching.

3.2.1 Introduction
This section defines Layer 2 switching and describes its purpose.

Definition
On a LAN, a bridge or a Layer 2 switch forwards Ethernet data based on MAC addresses. This method of forwarding data is called Layer 2 switching, because a MAC address is a Layer 2 address in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model.

Purpose
If an Ethernet processing unit supports Layer 2 switching, its switching domain can be divided into independent sub-domains. LAN services can then be separated using these sub-domains, and bridge resources can be dynamically shared. The example in Figure 3-11 illustrates a typical application of Layer 2 switching. Company A has three departments in different locations, and they send Ethernet services to the transmission network through NE1, NE3, and NE4. The convergence node NE3 needs to perform Layer 2 switching for Ethernet services from the two access nodes NE1 and NE4. NE1 and NE4 do not need to communicate. NE2 only passes services through.

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Figure 3-11 Application of Layer 2 switching


PORT 1 PORT 2

Department 3
PORT 1

PORT 3
PORT 2

NE4 NE 3
PORT 3 PORT 2 PORT 1 PORT 1 PORT 2 PORT 2

PORT 1

PORT 2 PORT 1

PORT 2

PORT 1

NE 1
Department 1 PORT 1

NE 2
PORT 2

Department 2

Microwave link

Ethernet link

Access point

Bridge

Department of company A

3.2.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of Layer 2 switching.

3.2.2.1 Bridges
A bridge is a functional unit that connects two or more LANs. Bridges are essential for Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services. After an Ethernet frame enters a bridge through an Ethernet port, the bridge creates mapping between this Ethernet port (that is, the source port) and the source MAC address contained in the Ethernet frame using the self-learning function. This mapping takes the form of an entry in a MAC address table. A bridge can use the following self-learning modes: l Shared VLAN learning (SVL) In SVL mode, a bridge creates an entry in the MAC address table based on the mapping between the source MAC address and the source receive port. This entry is valid to all VLANs. l Independent VLAN learning (IVL)

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In IVL mode, a bridge creates an entry in the MAC address table based on the mapping between the source MAC address, VLAN ID, and source port of an Ethernet frame. This entry is valid only to the VLAN represented by the VLAN ID carried in the Ethernet frame. Upon receipt of an Ethernet frame, a bridge processes it as follows: 1. If the bridge uses the SVL mode, it searches for the destination MAC address of the Ethernet frame in the MAC address table. If the bridge uses the IVL mode, it searches for the VLAN ID and destination MAC address of the Ethernet frame in the MAC address table. If the MAC address table contains the corresponding entry, the bridge forwards the Ethernet frame to the Ethernet port specified in the entry. If the MAC address table does not contain the corresponding entry, the bridge broadcasts the Ethernet frame in its broadcast domain. The bridge adds an entry to the MAC address table or updates the MAC address table based on the source MAC address of the Ethernet frame.

2.

3.

Bridge Types
OptiX RTN 310 supports IEEE 802.1D and IEEE 802.1Q bridges. Table 3-17 Bridges Item Logical port type Learning mode Broadcast domain Switching sub-domain IEEE 802.1D Bridge PORT SVL Entire bridge None IEEE 802.1Q Bridge PORT+VLAN IVL All logical ports that have the same VLAN ID A bridge divided into subdomains by VLANs

As shown in Figure 3-12, the services on different IEEE 802.1D bridges are separated, but the services of different VLANs on the same bridge are not. Figure 3-12 IEEE 802.1D bridge
LP1 LP4 LP5 LP6 LP7 LP8 LP9

VLAN1
LP2

VLAN2 VLAN3 ...

LP3 802.1d bridge LP: logical port

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As shown in Figure 3-13, the services on different IEEE 802.1Q bridges are separated, and the services of different VLANs on the same bridge are also separated. Figure 3-13 IEEE 802.1Q bridge

LP1 LP2

VLAN1
VLAN1, VLAN2

LP4 LP5 LP6 LP7 LP8 LP9

VLAN2
LP3

VLAN3
802.1q bridge LP: logical port

Logical Ports
OptiX RTN 310 considers all ports mounted to a bridge as logical ports. Logical ports mounted to different types of bridges carry different types of services: l l 802.1D bridge: PORT-based services 802.1Q bridge: PORT+VLAN-based services

A logical port can be in one or more switching sub-domains.

3.2.2.2 IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Services


Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services that are forwarded based only on the MAC address table are called IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN services.

Service Model
Table 3-18 shows the IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN service model. Table 3-18 IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN service model Service Type IEEE 802.1D bridge-based ELAN service Tag Type TagTransparent Encapsulation Type at a Port Null Logical Port Type PORT Learning Mode SVL Switching Sub-domain None

Typical Application
Figure 3-14 shows a typical application of the IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN service model. Services from NodeB 1 and NodeB 2 converge at NE1 and then are transmitted to the radio
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network controller (RNC). The services do not need to be separated; therefore, an IEEE 802.1D bridge is used at NE1 to schedule services. Figure 3-14 IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN service model
NE 2 Port 2 Port 1 NodeB 1

NE 1 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 RNC 802.1D bridge Port 2 NE 3

802.1D bridge Transmission network

Port 1 NodeB 2 802.1D bridge

3.2.2.3 8021Q Bridge-based E-LAN Services


You can use VLANs to separate Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services and divide an IEEE 802.1Q bridge into multiple independent switching sub-domains. E-LAN services separated in this manner are called IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services.

Service Model
Table 3-19 provides information about the IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model. Table 3-19 IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model Service Type IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based ELAN service Tag Type C-Aware Encapsulation Type at a Port IEEE 802.1Q Logical Port Type PORT+VLAN Learning Mode Independent VLAN learning (IVL) Switching Sub-domain A bridge divided into switching sub-domains by VLAN

Typical Application
Figure 3-15 shows a typical application of the IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model. Services 1, 2, 3, and 4 from four NodeBs converge through a transmission network to a radio network controller (RNC). l Services 1 and 2 have the same VLAN ID of 100, and services 3 and 4 have the same VLAN ID of 200.
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Because the VLAN ID of services 1 and 2 is different from that of services 3 and 4, IEEE 802.1Q bridges are configured: one each for NE 1, NE 2, and NE 3. The bridges are divided into switching sub-domains by VLAN for service isolation over each bridge.

Figure 3-15 IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service model


NE 2
Service 1, 2 VLAN ID: 100 Service 3, 4 VLAN ID: 200 Port 1 RNC 802.1Q bridge
VLAN 100

Port 2 NodeB 1

Service 1 VLAN ID: 100

Port 1

NE 1

VLAN 100

Port 2 Domain 1 (VLAN ID: 100) Port 3

Port 3 802.1Q bridge

Service 2 VLAN ID: 100 NodeB 2

VLAN 200

Transmission network NE NE 3 VLAN 200 2 Port 2

Port 1 Domain 2 (VLAN ID: 200)

NodeB 3

Service 3 VLAN ID: 200

Port 3 Service 4 VLAN ID: 200

802.1Q bridge

NodeB 4

3.2.2.4 Split Horizon Groups


To separate services that converge and to prevent broadcast storms resulting from service loops, configure a split horizon group for Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services at specified nodes. The logical ports within the same split horizon group cannot forward packets to each other. Figure 3-16 shows a typical application of a split horizon group. Each NE on the network is configured with E-LAN services, and the microwave port and two GE ports on each NE are configured as bridge-mounted logical ports. If a split horizon group is not configured on NE1, its microwave port and the GE port connected to NE4 forward packets to each other, causing a service loop and a broadcast storm. If a split horizon group is configured on NE1 and if its microwave port and the GE port connected to NE4 are configured as members of the split horizon group, the two ports do not forward packets to each other.

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Figure 3-16 Split horizon group

NE 2 NodeB 1 Split horizon group

NE 1 RNC

NE 3 NodeB 2 Microwave link

NE 4 NodeB 3 Ethernet link

NOTE

l Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) prevents service loops on ring networks. If ERPS has already been enabled for a ring network, do not configure a split horizon group because it may affect ERPS functionality. l OptiX RTN 310 allows only physical ports to be configured into a split horizon group. If a physical port is mapped into several logical ports and one of those logical ports is a member of a split horizon group, the other logical ports are added to the split horizon group automatically.

3.2.2.5 MAC Address Table Management


Entries in a MAC address table show the mapping between MAC addresses and ports. Entries can be classified into dynamic entries, static entries, and blacklist entries. Table 3-20 Entries in a MAC address table Entry Dynamic entry Description A dynamic entry is learned by a bridge in SVL or IVL mode. A dynamic entry will be aged out. It is lost after the Ethernet processing unit is cold reset. A static entry is manually added by a network administrator to the MAC address table on the network management system (NMS). Generally, a static entry is configured for a port connected to a device that has a known MAC address and that carries constant and heavy traffic. A static entry will not be aged out. It is not lost after the Ethernet processing unit is reset.

Static entry

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Entry Blacklist entry

Description A blacklist entry is also called a MAC disabled entry or a black hole entry. It is configured by a network administrator. An Ethernet frame whose source or destination MAC address is specified in a blacklist entry is discarded. A blacklist entry will not be aged out. It is not lost after the Ethernet processing unit is reset.

NOTE

If no new packet is received from a MAC address within a specified period of time, the corresponding entry is automatically deleted. This mechanism is called aging and the specified period of time is called aging time.

3.2.3 Specifications
This section lists the Layer 2 switching specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 3-21 Layer 2 switching specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Switching capacity Bridge types Specifications 2 Gbit/s IEEE 802.1D bridge IEEE 802.1Q bridge Bridge learning modes IVL/Ingress filter enabled (IEEE 802.1Q bridge) SVL/Ingress filter disabled (IEEE 802.1D bridge) Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services Maximum number of bridges Maximum number of logical ports mounted to a bridge Maximum number of split horizon groups Supported 1 3 1
NOTE OptiX RTN 310 allows a split horizon group to be configured only for physical ports.

Maximum number of static entries in a MAC address table Maximum number of blacklist entries in a MAC address table Maximum number of entries in a MAC address table

512 512 8K

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Item MAC address aging time Broadcast packet suppression function

Specifications 1 minute to 640 minutes Supported

3.2.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with Layer 2 switching. l l IEEE 802.1D: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges IEEE 802.1Q: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks

3.2.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the Layer 2 switching feature.

Hardware and Version Support


Table 3-22 Hardware and version support Feature Name IEEE 802.1D bridge IEEE 802.1Q bridge Port Type Microwave port GE port Hardware Version Any version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later V100R001C00 or later

3.2.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of Layer 2 switching. l l Ethernet line (E-Line) services cannot be configured on ports that are mounted to a bridge. A link aggregation group (LAG) can be mounted to a bridge.

3.2.7 Principles
Layer 2 switching forwards Ethernet frames based on a MAC address table. An IEEE 802.1D bridge or an IEEE 802.1Q bridge forwards Ethernet frames as follows: 1. The IEEE 802.1Q bridge checks incoming Ethernet frames and discards any that carry VLAN IDs different from those specified in the VLAN filter table for the ingress port. The IEEE 802.1D bridge does not perform this step. 2. If the broadcast packet suppression function has been enabled for the ingress port, and if the volume of broadcast packets has crossed the preset threshold, the bridge discards excess broadcast frames.
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3.

Based on the address learning mode (SVL or IVL), the bridge adds or updates entries containing the source MAC addresses of the Ethernet frames, establishing the mapping between the source MAC addresses and the source ports of the Ethernet frames. The bridge searches for the destination MAC addresses of the Ethernet frames in the MAC address table. l If the MAC address table has a blacklist entry containing the source or destination MAC address of an Ethernet frame, the bridge discards the frame. l If the MAC address table has a dynamic or static entry containing the destination MAC address of an Ethernet frame, the bridge forwards this frame to the destination port. l If the MAC address table does not have an entry containing the source or destination MAC address of an Ethernet frame, the IEEE 802.1D bridge forwards the frame to all ports mounted to it, while the IEEE 802.1Q bridge forwards the frame to all ports (excluding the source port) mounted to the VLAN.
NOTE

4.

Logical ports within the same split horizon group cannot forward frames to each other. Therefore, a bridge needs to check whether the source port and the destination port of an Ethernet frame are in the same split horizon group before forwarding the Ethernet frame.

3.2.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning Layer 2 switching.

Planning Guidelines for Bridges


l If there are a small number of users (for example, if a mobile backhaul network has fewer than 50 NodeBs) and therefore the users do not need to be divided into groups, plan services with reference to the service model described in 3.2.2.2 IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based ELAN Services. If the services of different user groups need to be separated by VLANs (for example, services from NodeBs in an area carry the same VLAN ID but different areas use different VLAN IDs), plan services with reference to the service model described in 3.2.2.3 8021Q Bridge-based E-LAN Services. If Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching converge from multiple branch nodes to a convergence node and the branch nodes do not need to communicate with one another, add these branch nodes to the same split horizon group.

Planning Guidelines for MAC Address Tables


l l l Configure a static entry for a port connected to a device that has a known MAC address and that carries constant and heavy traffic. Configure a blacklist entry for a bridge-mounted port connected to a node that is not allowed to forward Ethernet frames. It is recommended that you retain the default aging time for entries in a MAC address table.

3.2.9 Configuration Procedure


Configuring Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching is configuring Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) services.

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3.2.9.1 Configuration Procedure (IEEE 802.1d Bridge-Based E-LAN Services)


This section describes the processes of configuring the service information, port information, protection information, and quality of service (QoS) information for an IEEE 802.1D bridgebased Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service and the process of verifying the service configurations.

Flowchart
Figure 3-17 shows the flowchart for configuring IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN services. Figure 3-17 Flowchart for configuring IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN services

Required Optional

Start

Configure a LAG.

Configure ERPS protection.

Configure E-LAN services.

Set port attributes.

Configure QoS.

Verify Ethernet services.

End

The steps in the configuration flowchart are described as follows:

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Configuring LAG for Ethernet Ports


Table 3-23 Process of configuring LAG for Ethernet ports Step 1 Operation A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks When the Ethernet link between an OptiX RTN 310 NE and UNI-side equipment requires higher bandwidth or active/ standby protection. Set parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. The recommended value is Static. l Set Load Sharing to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Set Load Sharing to Sharing if the Ethernet link requires higher bandwidth, or NonSharing if the Ethernet link does not require higher bandwidth. l Load Sharing Hash Algorithm takes the default value of Automatic. This parameter is valid only to load-sharing LAGs. l Set Reversion Mode to the same value as that for the opposite equipment. The recommended value is Revertive. This parameter is valid only to non-load sharing LAGs. l Set WTR Time(min) to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. It is recommended that this parameter take its default value. This parameter is valid only to revertive LAGs. l Set the main and slave ports according to the network plan. It is recommended that you set the main and slave ports of the LAG at both ends consistently. 2 A.7.2.2 Setting Parameters for a LAG Optional.

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Configuring ERPS Protection


Table 3-24 Process of configuring ERPS protection Step 1 Operation A.7.1.1 Creating an ERP Instance Remarks Required when an Ethernet ring needs to be protected and service loops need to be avoided on the Ethernet ring. Perform the configuration based on the service plan and the parameter planning principles in the operation. 2 A.7.1.2 Setting ERPS Protocol Parameters Required if the values of the default parameters of the Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) timers need to be changed. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), WTR Time(mm:ss), and Packet Transmit Interval(s) according to the actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network.

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Configuring IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Services


Table 3-25 Process of configuring IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN services Step 1 Operation A.7.3.5 Creating an IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based ELAN Service Remarks Optional. Set the service parameters as follows: l Set Source and Sink according to the network plan. l Leave VLAN ID empty for both the source and sink. l Set Tag Type to Tag-Transparent. l Set Self-Learning MAC Address to Enabled according to the network plan. Set parameters for the source and sink ports as follows: l Set Port Enable to Enabled. l Set Encapsulation Type to Null. l When the port is an Ethernet port connected to the UNI-side equipment, set Working Mode to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Normally, this parameter is set to Auto-Negotiation on the UNI-side equipment. If the port is an Ethernet port used for internal connection, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation for related ports. l To disable packet forwarding between certain ELAN service ports, configure the ports as Split Horizon Group Members on the Config Split Horizon Group window.
NOTE IEEE 802.1D bridge-based services are configured for the OptiX RTN 310 by default. This step is required only when IEEE 802.1D bridge-based services need to be reconfigured for the OptiX RTN 310.

A.7.3.9 Changing Logical Ports Mounted to a Bridge

Optional.
NOTE Perform this operation when you need to change the type of a logical port mounted to a bridge, because an OptiX RTN 310 carries IEEE 802.1D bridge-based services by default.

Mana ging the MAC addres s table

A.7.4.2 Creating a Blacklist MAC Address Entry A.7.4.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry

Required when usage of E-LAN services needs to be disabled on certain MAC address host. Set the parameters according to the network plan. Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the parameters according to the network planning information.
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Step

Operation A.7.4.3 Managing a Dynamic MAC Address Table

Remarks Required if the aging function needs to be disabled or if the default aging time (five minutes) needs to be changed. Set the parameters according to the network plan. Optional. By default, the processing mode for unknown frames is flood.

A.7.5 Setting the Mode for Processing an Unknown Frame of an ELAN Service

NOTE

Because the Web LCT does not provide a window specifically for configuring microwave ports, configure microwave port parameters in the window for configuring Ethernet port parameters.

Setting Port Attributes


Table 3-26 Process of setting port attributes Step 1 Operation Setting the parameter s of Ethernet ports A.6.1.1 Setting the Basic Attribute s for an Ethernet Port A.6.1.2 Configuri ng the Traffic Control Function for an Ethernet Port Remarks Optional. Set Max Frame Length (byte) to the length of the longest frame that the port may receive. It is recommended that this parameter take the default value of 9600.

Required when the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet port is connected. Set parameters as follows: l When the external equipment uses the non-autonegotiation flow control function, set NonAutonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. Required when you need to enable the port self-loop test and automatic loopback shutdown functions or to enable the broadcast packet suppression function. Set Loopback check, Loopback port shutdown, Enabling broadcast packet suppression, and Broadcast packet suppression threshold as desired.

A.6.1.4 Setting the Advanced Attribute s for an Ethernet Port


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Step 2

Operation Setting the parameter s of microwav e ports A.6.2.1 Setting Basic Attribute s for a Microwav e Port A.6.2.3 Setting Advanced Attribute s for a Microwav e Port

Remarks Optional.

Required when you need to enable the port self-loop test and automatic loopback shutdown functions or to enable the broadcast packet suppression function. Set Loopback check, Loopback port shutdown, Enabling broadcast packet suppression, and Broadcast packet suppression threshold as desired.

NOTE

Because the Web LCT does not provide a window specifically for configuring microwave ports, configure microwave port parameters in the window for configuring Ethernet port parameters.

Configuring QoS
Table 3-27 Process of configuring QoS Step 1 Operation A.7.6.1 Modifying the Mapping for a DS Domain A.7.6.2 Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port A.7.6.4 Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies Remarks Required if the default mappings for the Differentiated Services (DS) domain are inapplicable. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

Required if the priority type of an Ethernet service is not CVLAN, which is the default packet type trusted by the DiffServ domain. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a port is required to schedule traffic according to a certain queue scheduling policy in the case of traffic congestion. The default queue scheduling mode is SP+WRR (SP is short for strict priority and WRR for weighted round robin). AF1 to AF4 queues are WRR queues (allocated the same weight) and the other queues are SP queues. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

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Step 4

Operation A.7.6.5 Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues A.7.6.6 Setting the Congestion Manageme nt Mode for Egress Queues A.7.6.3 Configuring Port Shaping

Remarks Required if the bandwidth for egress port queues needs to be restricted. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a certain congestion management mode is required for queues at an egress port. The default mode is tail drop. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

Verifying Ethernet Service Configurations


Table 3-28 Process of verifying Ethernet service configurations Step 1 Operation A.7.7.1 Creating an MD Remarks Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Domain Level to the same values for the NEs. l For an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Domain Level takes its default value of 4. For an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than 4. For an Ethernet service between two Ethernet ports on the same NE, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network.

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Step 2

Operation A.7.7.2 Creating an MA

Remarks Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value for the NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the NEs. l It is recommended that you set CC Test Transmit Period to 1s.

A.7.7.3 Creating an MEP

Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Port to the Ethernet ports that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for maintenance association end points (MEPs) in the same maintenance domain (MD). l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l Set CC Status to Active, as the MEP ID is used to identify the MEP during the loopback (LB) test.

A.7.7.4 Creating a Remote MEP in an MA

Required for the NE where the Ethernet ports involved in the OAM operation are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l To ensure that an MEP can respond to the OAM operations initiated by the other MEPs in the same maintenance association (MA), you need to set the other MEPs as the remote MEPs.
NOTE When two MEPs are on the same NE, you do not need to configure remote MEPs.

A.7.7.7 Performing an LB Test

Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

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3.2.9.2 Configuration Procedure (IEEE 802.1q Bridge-Based E-LAN Services)


This section describes the processes of configuring the service information, port information, protection information, and quality of service (QoS) information for an IEEE 802.1Q bridgebased Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service and the process of verifying the service configurations.

Flowchart
Figure 3-18 shows the flowchart for configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services. Figure 3-18 Flowchart for configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services

Required Optional

Start

Configure a LAG.

Configure ERPS protection.

Configure E-LAN services.

Set port attributes.

Configure QoS.

Verify Ethernet services.

End

The steps in the configuration flowchart are described as follows:

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Configuring LAG for Ethernet Ports


Table 3-29 Process of configuring LAG for Ethernet ports Step 1 Operation A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks When the Ethernet link between an OptiX RTN 310 NE and UNI-side equipment requires higher bandwidth or active/ standby protection. Set parameters as follows: l Set LAG Type to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. The recommended value is Static. l Set Load Sharing to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Set Load Sharing to Sharing if the Ethernet link requires higher bandwidth, or NonSharing if the Ethernet link does not require higher bandwidth. l Load Sharing Hash Algorithm takes the default value of Automatic. This parameter is valid only to load-sharing LAGs. l Set Reversion Mode to the same value as that for the opposite equipment. The recommended value is Revertive. This parameter is valid only to non-load sharing LAGs. l Set WTR Time(min) to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. It is recommended that this parameter take its default value. This parameter is valid only to revertive LAGs. l Set the main and slave ports according to the network plan. It is recommended that you set the main and slave ports of the LAG at both ends consistently. 2 A.7.2.2 Setting Parameters for a LAG Optional.

Configuring ERPS Protection


Table 3-30 Process of configuring ERPS protection Step 1 Operation A.7.1.1 Creating an ERP Instance Remarks Required when an Ethernet ring needs to be protected and service loops need to be avoided on the Ethernet ring.

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Step 2

Operation A.7.1.2 Setting ERPS Protocol Parameters

Remarks Required if the values of the default parameters of the Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) timers need to be changed. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), WTR Time(mm:ss), and Packet Transmit Interval(s) according to the actual requirements. Set these parameters to the same values for all the NEs on the network.

Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Services


Table 3-31 Process of configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services Step 1 Operation A.7.3.11 Deleting an E-LAN Service Remarks Required when an NE is being initially configured.
NOTE Delete the IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN services that are configured for an OptiX RTN 310 by default before configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services.

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Step 2

Operation A.7.3.6 Creating an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based ELAN Service

Remarks Required. Set the service parameters as follows: l Set Source and Sink according to the network plan. l Set VLAN ID for the source and sink according to the network plan. l Set Tag Type to C-Aware. l Set Self-Learning MAC Address to Enabled according to the network plan. Set parameters for the source and sink ports as follows: l Set Port Enable to Enabled. l Set Encapsulation Type to 802.1Q. l When the port is an Ethernet port connected to the UNIside equipment, set Working Mode to the same value on the NE and on the UNI-side equipment. Normally, this parameter is set to Auto-Negotiation on the UNI-side equipment. If the port is an Ethernet port used for internal connection, it is recommended that you set Working Mode to Auto-Negotiation for related ports. l To disable packet forwarding between certain E-LAN service ports, configure the ports as Split Horizon Group Members on the Config Split Horizon Group window. l Set Tag according to the following principles: If all the accessed services carry VLAN tags (tagged frames), set Tag to Tag Aware. If none of the accessed services carries VLAN tags (untagged frames), set Tag to Access, and set Default VLAN ID and VLAN Priority according to the network plan. When the accessed services contain tagged frames and untagged frames, set Tag to Hybrid, and set Default VLAN ID and VLAN Priority according to the network plan.
NOTE If PLA without NE-level protection has been configured, Ethernet services do not need to be configured for the standby NE. If 1+1 protection or PLA with NE-level protection has been configured, configure Ethernet services for the main and standby NEs consistently.

A.7.3.7 Creating an E-LAN Service for Transmitting Layer 2 Protocol Packets

Required when Layer 2 protocol packets need to be transparently transmitted.

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Step 4

Operation Mana ging the MAC addres s table A.7.4.2 Creating a Blacklist MAC Address Entry A.7.4.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.7.4.3 Managing a Dynamic MAC Address Table

Remarks Required when usage of E-LAN services needs to be disabled on certain MAC address host. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if you need to set certain MAC address entries not to age. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if the aging function needs to be disabled or if the default aging time (five minutes) needs to be changed. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

A.7.5 Setting the Mode for Processing an Unknown Frame of an E-LAN Service

Optional. By default, the processing mode for unknown frames is flood.

Setting Port Attributes


Table 3-32 Process of setting port attributes Step 1 Operation Setting the parameter s of Ethernet ports A.6.1.1 Setting the Basic Attribute s for an Ethernet Port Remarks Optional. Set Max Frame Length (byte) to the length of the longest frame that the port may receive. It is recommended that this parameter take the default value of 9600.

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Step

Operation A.6.1.2 Configuri ng the Traffic Control Function for an Ethernet Port

Remarks Required when the flow control function is enabled on the external equipment to which the Ethernet port is connected. Set parameters as follows: l When the external equipment uses the non-autonegotiation flow control function, set NonAutonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. l When the external equipment uses the autonegotiation flow control function, set Autonegotiation Flow Control Mode to Enable Symmetric Flow Control. Required when you need to enable the port self-loop test and automatic loopback shutdown functions or to enable the broadcast packet suppression function. Set Loopback check, Loopback port shutdown, Enabling broadcast packet suppression, and Broadcast packet suppression threshold as desired. Optional.

A.6.1.4 Setting the Advanced Attribute s for an Ethernet Port 2 Setting the parameter s of microwav e ports A.6.2.1 Setting Basic Attribute s for a Microwav e Port A.6.2.2 Setting Layer 2 Attribute s for a Microwav e Port A.6.2.3 Setting Advanced Attribute s for a Microwav e Port

Optional.

Required when you need to enable the port self-loop test and automatic loopback shutdown functions or to enable the broadcast packet suppression function. Set Loopback check, Loopback port shutdown, Enabling broadcast packet suppression, and Broadcast packet suppression threshold as desired.

NOTE

Because the Web LCT does not provide a window specifically for configuring microwave ports, configure microwave port parameters in the window for configuring Ethernet port parameters.

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Configuring QoS
Table 3-33 Process of configuring QoS Step 1 Operation A.7.6.1 Modifying the Mapping for a DS Domain A.7.6.2 Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port A.7.6.4 Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies Remarks Required if the default mappings for the Differentiated Services (DS) domain are inapplicable. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

Required if the priority type of an Ethernet service is not CVLAN, which is the default packet type trusted by the DiffServ domain. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a port is required to schedule traffic according to a certain queue scheduling policy in the case of traffic congestion. The default queue scheduling mode is SP+WRR (SP is short for strict priority and WRR for weighted round robin). AF1 to AF4 queues are WRR queues (allocated the same weight) and the other queues are SP queues. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

A.7.6.5 Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues A.7.6.6 Setting the Congestion Manageme nt Mode for Egress Queues A.7.6.3 Configuring Port Shaping

Required if the bandwidth for egress port queues needs to be restricted. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a certain congestion management mode is required for queues at an egress port. The default mode is tail drop. Set the parameters according to the network plan.

Required if you need to limit the egress bandwidth that an Ethernet service occupies. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

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Verifying Ethernet Service Configurations


Table 3-34 Process of verifying Ethernet service configurations Step 1 Operation A.7.7.1 Creating an MD Remarks Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name and Maintenance Domain Level to the same values for the NEs. l For an Ethernet service between two edge nodes on the transport network, it is recommended that Maintenance Domain Level takes its default value of 4. For an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than 4. For an Ethernet service between two Ethernet ports on the same NE, set Maintenance Domain Level to a value smaller than the value that is set in the test of an Ethernet service between two internal NEs on the transport network. 2 A.7.7.2 Creating an MA Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the same value for the NEs. l Set Relevant Service to the same service for the NEs. l It is recommended that you set CC Test Transmit Period to 1s. 3 A.7.7.3 Creating an MEP Required for the NEs where the two Ethernet ports involved in the service test are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Port to the Ethernet ports that are involved in the service test. l Set MP ID to different values for maintenance association end points (MEPs) in the same maintenance domain (MD). l If the OAM information initiated by the MEP travels through the packet switching unit on the local NE, set Direction of the MEP to Ingress. Otherwise, set Direction to Egress. l Set CC Status to Active, as the MEP ID is used to identify the MEP during the loopback (LB) test.

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Step 4

Operation A.7.7.4 Creating a Remote MEP in an MA

Remarks Required for the NE where the Ethernet ports involved in the OAM operation are located. Set parameters as follows: l Set Maintenance Domain Name to the value of Maintenance Domain Name that is set in the preceding step. l Set Maintenance Association Name to the value of Maintenance Association Name that is set in the preceding step. l To ensure that an MEP can respond to the OAM operations initiated by the other MEPs in the same maintenance association (MA), you need to set the other MEPs as the remote MEPs.
NOTE When two MEPs are on the same NE, you do not need to configure remote MEPs.

A.7.7.7 Performing an LB Test

Required. The LB test result should show that no packet loss occurs.

3.2.10 Configuration Example


This section provides examples of how to plan and configure Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching according to network conditions. l For an example of configuring IEEE 802.1D bridge-based Ethernet services, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Service) in the Commissioning and Configuration Guide. For an example of configuring IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based Ethernet services, see Configuration Example (IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Service) in the Commissioning and Configuration Guide.

3.2.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to Layer 2 switching.

Related Tasks
A.6.1.4 Setting the Advanced Attributes for an Ethernet Port A.7.3.5 Creating an IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Service A.7.3.6 Creating an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based E-LAN Service A.7.3.9 Changing Logical Ports Mounted to a Bridge A.7.4.1 Creating a Static MAC Address Entry A.7.4.2 Creating a Blacklist MAC Address Entry A.7.4.3 Managing a Dynamic MAC Address Table A.7.5 Setting the Mode for Processing an Unknown Frame of an E-LAN Service
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3.2.12 Related Alarms and Events


There are no alarms or events associated with Layer 2 switching.

3.2.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about Layer 2 switching. Q: When do I need to configure Ethernet services based on Layer 2 switching? A: Configure services based on Layer 2 switching when point-to-multipoint services need to be configured on an OptiX RTN 310 and when these services cannot be separated by VLANs on access nodes. If these services can be separated by VLANs on access nodes, configure Ethernet line (E-Line) services.

3.3 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching


Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS), which is applicable to ring physical networks, protects Ethernet services on an Ethernet ring.

3.3.1 Introduction
This section defines ERPS and describes its purpose.

Definition
ERPS refers to the automatic protection switching (APS) protocol and protection switching mechanisms for Ethernet rings. ERPS is applicable to Layer 2 Ethernet ring topologies, and provides protection for LAN services on an Ethernet ring.

Purpose
When a ring network is configured with ERPS, under normal conditions, the RPL owner blocks the port on a certain side so that all the services are transmitted through the port on the other side. In this manner, service loops can be prevented. If a ring link or a ring node fails, the RPL owner unblocks the preceding port and the services that cannot be transmitted over the faulty point can be transmitted through this port. In this manner, ring protection is achieved. Take the Ethernet ring under ERPS protection in Figure 3-19 as an example. Under normal conditions, NE1 blocks its GE port that is connected to NE2 and service loops are avoided. When the link between NE4 and NE5 fails, NE1 unblocks the GE port and the affected services are switched to the trail NE4-NE3-NE2-NE1-NE8-NE7-NE6-NE5.

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Figure 3-19 Typical application of ERPS


NE4 NE5 NE3 NE2

NodeB RNC NodeB NE6 NE7 NE8 NE1

NodeB

NodeB

Protection switching

NE4 Failure NE5

NE3 NE2

NodeB

RNC NE6 NE7 NE8 NE1

NodeB

Ethernet cable

NodeB

NodeB

Ethernet service direction Blocked port

3.3.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS).

3.3.2.1 Protection Instance


A protection instance is the basic unit of ERPS. As shown in Figure 3-20, an ERPS instance is a collection of Ethernet ring nodes that run the ERPS protocol. An ERP instance defines the ring links, ring protection link (RPL), RPL owner node, control VLAN, destination MAC addresses, and east/west ring ports.
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NOTE

3 Ethernet Features

For descriptions of control VLAN and destination MAC addresses, see 3.3.2.3 R-APS Messages.

Figure 3-20 An ERP instance


NE4 Ethernet Ring Node NE5 Ethernet Ring Node (W) (W) (E) (W) RPL (W) Control VLAN = 4094 (E) RPL connection point (E) NE3 Ethernet Ring Node (W) (E) NE2 Ethernet Ring Node

(E)

(E) NE6 Ethernet Ring Node

(W) NE1 RPL owner (W) (E) NE7 Ethernet Ring Node (W) (E)

NE8 Ethernet Ring Node

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

l l

An RPL is the ring link on which traffic is blocked during normal conditions. Only one RPL is defined on an Ethernet ring. An RPL owner node, marked with the RPL owner label, is a ring node at one end of the RPL. When an Ethernet ring is in the normal state, the RPL port on the RPL owner node is blocked to prevent the service channels from forming loops. Only one RPL owner node can exist on an Ethernet ring network. A ring port is a link connection point on a ring node. A ring port can be an FE port, a GE port, or a microwave port. An OptiX RTN 310 does not support Ethernet tangent rings or Ethernet intersecting rings. That is, a ring port can belong to only one ERP instance. Figure 3-20 is an example of a ring network. Generally, in the counter-clockwise direction and on a ring node, the ring port that transmits services is the east ring port and the ring port that receives services is the west ring port.

3.3.2.2 Protection Type


Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) is revertive. In revertive mode, an NE in the switching state releases switching and returns to the normal state after the working channel has recovered for a predefined period. The period from the recovery
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of the working channel to the release of switching is called wait to restore (WTR). To prevent frequent switching events caused by an unstable working channel, set the WTR to 5 minutes to 12 minutes.

3.3.2.3 R-APS Messages


A ring-APS (R-APS) message is a request message for Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS). Nodes on an Ethernet ring protection (ERP) ring transmit R-APS messages on R-APS channels. These messages ensure that all nodes on the ring perform consistent operations to implement ERPS. The R-APS message format is one of the ETH OAM frame formats, as shown in Figure 3-21. An R-APS message contains a fixed destination MAC address 01-19-A7-00-00-01. The VLAN ID carried by an R-APS message, which is different from the VLAN IDs of Ethernet services, separates the message from Ethernet services. Figure 3-21 Format of an R-APS message
1 byte 1 byte 1 byte 1 byte

Mac Destination Address

Mac Source Address 802.1Q Header Type Flags TLV Offset MEL Version OpCode

R-APS Specific Information (32 bytes)

... Frame Check Sequence

Each R-APS message carries specific R-APS information, which determines the types of R-APS messages. Different types of R-APS messages are transmitted in different stages of ERPS switching. Table 3-35 describes the types of R-APS messages. Table 3-35 Types of R-APS messages Message Type R-APS (SF) Function A ring node that detects a local signal fail (SF) condition transmits RAPS (SF) messages to inform other ring nodes of the failure. All ring nodes that receive the R-APS (SF) messages flush their filtering databases (FDBs). When the RPL owner node receives an R-APS (SF) message, it unblocks the RPL port.

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Message Type R-APS (NR, RB)

Function The RPL owner node forwards this type of message to inform the other ring nodes that the ring is in the normal state and that the RPL port is blocked. A ring node that detects clearing of an SF condition forwards this type of message to inform the other ring nodes that the local SF condition is cleared. A ring node that detects the RPL failure forwards this type of message to inform the other ring nodes to not flush their FDBs.

R-APS (NR)

R-APS (SF, DNF)

NOTE

The full names of acronyms in R-APS messages are as follows: l SF: Signal Fail l NR: No Request l RB: RPL Blocked l DNF: Do Not Flush

3.3.2.4 R-APS Timers


The Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) mechanism employs three timers: guard timer, wait to restore (WTR) timer, and hold-off timer.

Guard Timer
A guard timer prevents Ethernet ring nodes from acting upon outdated R-APS messages. When a ring node receives an indication that a local switching request has cleared, the ring node starts the guard timer and forwards R-APS (NR) messages (NR is short for no request). While the guard timer is running, the ring node discards the arriving R-APS messages. After the guard timer expires, the arriving R-APS messages are forwarded.

WTR Timer
A WTR timer prevents frequent switching actions caused by an unstable working channel. The period from the recovery of a faulty channel to the release of switching is called WTR. When a faulty channel is restored to the normal state, the WTR timer on the RPL owner node is started. While the WTR timer is running, a WTR timer running signal is continuously generated. When the WTR timer expires and no switching request with a higher priority is received, the WTR timer running signal stopped and a WTR expiry signal is continuously generated.

Hold-off Timer
A hold-off timer can coordinate the timing of ERPS switching and other coexisting protection switching. The hold-off timer allows another protection switchover to fix a fault before ERPS switching. When a ring node detects an SF condition, the hold-off timer is started if the preset hold-off timer value is non-zero. While the hold-off timer is running, the fault does not trigger ERPS
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switching. After the hold-off timer expires, the ring node rechecks the link status. If the fault persists, ERPS switching is triggered.

3.3.2.5 Switching Conditions


A local SF condition can trigger switching on a ring of microwave links and a ring of Ethernet links, but the condition for triggering switching is identified differently on the two rings. Table 3-36 Switching conditions of ERPS Switching Condition Local SF Description l On a ring of microwave links When a ring node detects a local SF condition on one of its ring ports, the ring node blocks the service channel and R-APS channel of this ring port. In addition, the two ring ports on this ring node transmit R-APS (SF) messages. Upon receiving the R-APS (SF) messages, the other ring nodes flush their filtering databases (FDBs) A local SF condition is identified when an MW_LOF or MW_LIM alarm occurs. l On a ring of Ethernet links When a ring node detects a local SF condition on one of its ring ports, the ring node blocks the service channel and R-APS channel of this ring port. In addition, the two ring ports on this ring node transmit R-APS (SF) messages. Upon receiving the R-APS (SF) messages, the other ring nodes flush their FDBs. A local SF condition is identified when an Ethernet port fails or an LSR_NO_FITED or ETH_LOS alarm occurs.

3.3.2.6 Switching Impacts


Services are interrupted during Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS).

3.3.3 Specifications
This section lists the Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports.

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Table 3-37 ERPS specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item ERP instance Types of east/west ring ports Specifications GE port Microwave port
NOTE An OptiX RTN 310 does not support Ethernet tangent rings or Ethernet intersecting rings. That is, the east and west ports must belong to the same Ethernet ring.

Control VLAN ID of an R-APS channel

1 to 4094
NOTE The control VLAN ID must be different from the VLAN IDs of services.

Timer

Hold-off timer WTR timer Guard timer

The hold-off timer is set in increments of 100 ms from 0s to 10s. The default value is 0s. The WTR timer is set in increments of 1 min from 5 to 12 min. The default value is 5 min. The guard timer is set in increments of 10 ms from 10 to 2000 ms. The default value is 500 ms. The transmission interval ranges from 1s to 10s. The default value is 5s. The entity level ranges from 0 to 7. The default value is 4.

R-APS message

Transmission interval Entity level

3.3.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS). ITU-T G.8032/Y.1344: Ethernet Ring Protection Switching

3.3.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 3-38 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name ERPS Port Type Microwave port Hardware Version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later
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Feature Name

Port Type GE port

Hardware Version Any version

Product Version V100R001C00 or later

3.3.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS). One LAG can serve as a ring link or an RPL in the ERPS mechanism.

3.3.7 Principles
Failures on an ERP ring can be categorized as either RPL failures or non-RPL failures. ERPS works differently to handle RPL and non-RPL failures.

3.3.7.1 Non-RPL Failure


When a non-RPL fails on an ERP ring, R-APS (SF) messages are forwarded to trigger an Ethernet routing switchover. The ERPS process in the case of a non-RPL failure is as follows: 1. When the Ethernet ring is in the normal state, the east (E) port on the RPL owner node (NE1) is blocked.
NE4 (E) NE5 (W) NE3 (W) NE2 (E)

(E)

(W)

(E)

(W)

RPL (W) (E)

(E) NE6 (W) (E) NE7 (W) NE8 (E)

(W) NE1 RPL owner

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

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2.

The ring link between NE4 and NE5 fails.


NE4 (E) Failure NE5 (W) (W) (E) RPL (W) (E) (E) NE3 (W) NE2 (E)

(W)

(E) NE6

(W) NE1 RPL owner

(W) (E) NE7 Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction (W) NE8

(E)

3.

NE4 and NE5 detect a local SF condition. After the hold-off timer expires, NE4 and NE5 block the ring ports that are connected to the faulty link and flush their filtering databases (FDBs).

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NE4 Failure NE5 Flush (E) Flush NE3 (W)

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NE2 (E)

(W) (W) (E) (W)

(E)

Holdoff timer RPL (E)

(W)

(E) NE6

(W) NE1 RPL owner

(W) Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction NE7

(E)

(W) NE8

(E)

4.

NE4 and NE5 send R-APS (SF) messages to inform other ring nodes of the link failure.
R-APS(SF)

(E) NE4 Failure NE5 (W) R-APS(SF) (W) (E)

NE3 (W) NE2 (E)

(E) (W) (W)

(W) RPL (E)

(E) NE6

(E) NE1 RPL owner

(W) NE7 Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

(E)

(W) NE8

5.

The ring nodes that receive an R-APS (SF) message flush their FDBs. When the RPL owner node receives an R-APS (SF) message, it unblocks the RPL port.

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R-APS(SF)

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NE4 Failure NE5 (W) (E)

NE3

Flush (W) Flush (E) Flush NE2

Flush

(E)

(W) Flush

(E) Flush

(W) RPL

Flush

(W)

Unblocked (E) Flush (E) NE6 Flush (W) Flush NE7 (E) Flush (W) Flush NE8 (E) Flush (W) Flush NE1 RPL owner

Unblocked port Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

R-APS(SF)

6.

After the ERPS switching is complete, the ring nodes build new FDBs and transmit services over the new route.

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NE4 (E) NE5 (W) NE3 (W)

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NE2 (E)

(E)

(W)

(E)

(W)

RPL (W) (E)

(E) NE6

(W) NE1 RPL owner (W) NE7 (E) (W) NE8 (E)

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

7.

After the link failure is cleared, the Ethernet ring recovers to the normal state.
NE4 (E) NE5 (W) NE3 (W) NE2 (E)

(E)

(W)

(E)

(W)

RPL (W) (E)

(E) NE6 (W) (E) NE7 (W) NE8 (E)

(W) NE1 RPL owner

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

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3.3.7.2 RPL Failure


When the RPL fails on an ERP ring, R-APS (SF, DNF) messages are forwarded to ensure stable routes. The ERPS process in the case of an RPL failure is as follows: 1. When the Ethernet ring is in the normal state, the east (E) port on the RPL owner node (NE1) is blocked.
NE4 (E) NE5 (W) NE3 (W) NE2 (E)

(E)

(W)

(E)

(W)

RPL (W) (E)

(E) NE6 (W) (E) NE7 (W) NE8 (E)

(W) NE1 RPL owner

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

2.

The RPL between NE1 and NE2 fails.

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NE4 (E) NE5 (W) NE3 (W)

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NE2 (E)

(W) (E)

(E) Failure

(W) RPL (E)

(W)

(E) NE6

(W) NE1 RPL owner (W) NE7 (E) (W) NE8 (E)

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

3.

NE2 detects a local SF condition. After the hold-off timer expires, NE2 blocks its port connected to the faulty RPL.

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NE3 (W)

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NE4

NE2 NE5 (W) (E)

(W) (E)

(E)

(W) Failure Holdoff timer RPL (E)

(W)

(E) NE6

(W) NE1 RPL owner (W) NE7 (E) (W) NE8 (E)

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

4.

NE1 and NE2 send R-APS (SF) messages to inform other ring nodes of the link failure. Each R-APS (SF) message contains the do not flush (DNF) indication, which prevents all Ethernet ring nodes from performing an FDB flush.

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R-APS(SF, DNF) NE4 (E) NE3 (W) NE2 (E)

NE5 (W)

(W) (E)

(E) Failure

(W) RPL (E)

(W)

(E) NE6

(W) NE1 RPL owner (W) (E) NE7 (W) (E) NE8 R-APS(SF, DNF)

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

5.

The Ethernet ring enters the stable state. Service transmission is not affected.
NE4 NE3 (W) NE5 (W) (E) NE2

(E)

(W)

(E)

(W)

RPL (W) (E)

(E) NE6 (W) (E) NE7 (W) NE8

(W) NE1 RPL owner (E)

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

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6.

After the RPL failure is cleared, the Ethernet ring recovers to the normal state.
NE4 (E) NE5 (W) NE3 (W) NE2 (E)

(E)

(W)

(E)

(W)

RPL (W) (E)

(E) NE6 (W) (E) NE7 (W) NE8 (E)

(W) NE1 RPL owner

Blocked port Ring link (microwave) Ring link (Ethernet) Ring protection link (blocked) Ethernet service direction

3.3.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS).

Planning Guidelines for ERPS


l l l l On a ring consisting of the OptiX RTN 310, use ERPS to protect Ethernet services. Ensure that E-LAN services are transmitted on an ERP ring. Ensure that multiple ERP ring networks do not share ring ports. There is no limit on the number of nodes on a ring network but too many nodes affect the switching speed.

Planning Guidelines for ERP Instances


l l On an ERP ring network, ring nodes can have different ERPS IDs or share same ERPS IDs. Plan the main direction of service transmission as counterclockwise. For a ring node in the main direction of service transmission, the port that transmits services is an east port, and the port that receives services is a west port. Ensure that only one ring node is an RPL owner node on an Ethernet ring network. An RPL owner node needs to balance the traffic on each ring link. Therefore, do not select a convergence node as an RPL owner node. Instead, select a service access node as an RPL owner node. Set a GE port on the RPL owner node as an RPL port.
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l l

l
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The ID of the control VLAN must be different from the VLAN IDs of Ethernet services. All ring nodes should use the same control VLAN.

Planning Guidelines for ERPS Protocol Parameters


l l Ensure that all ring nodes use the same parameter settings for the ERPS protocol. Use the default values for the three timers and the entity level.

3.3.9 Configuration Process


This section describes the process of configuring Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS). Table 3-39 Process of configuring ERPS Step 1 2 Operation A.7.1.1 Creating an ERP Instance A.7.1.2 Setting ERPS Protocol Parameters Remarks Required to protect an Ethernet ring network needs ant prevent service loops. Required if you need to change the default parameter values of ERPS timers. Set Hold-Off Time(ms), Guard Time(ms), WTR Time(mm:ss), and Packet Transmit Interval(s) as required and ensure that these parameter values are the same on all NEs in a network.

3.3.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS) based on network conditions.

3.3.10.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. As shown in Figure 3-22, OptiX RTN 310 NEs (NE1 to NE8) form a ring microwave network on which ERPS is configured to protect Ethernet services. In normal conditions, to protect Ethernet services on the ring microwave network and to prevent service loops, the ring protection link (RPL) owner, NE1, blocks its RPL port and transmits all the services through its west port. If a ring link or an NE fails, NE1 unblocks the RPL port and transmits the services through the RPL port.

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Figure 3-22 Networking diagram


NE4 E: IF W: GE NE5 E: GE W: IF NE3 E: GE W: IF NE2 E: IF W: GE

NodeB RNC NodeB NE6 E: IF W: GE NE7 E: GE W: IF NodeB Ethernet cable Ethernet service direction Blocked port NE8 E: IF W: GE NE1 E: GE W: IF RPL Owner

NodeB

NOTE

l l l l l

On the NMS, the logical port of a microwave port is 1-SHXA2-1(IF). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as an optical GE port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1). On the NMS, the logical port of a P&E port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1), when the COMBO port does not function as an optical GE port. On the NMS, the logical port of a GE port is 1-SHXA2-3(GE2). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as a 1+1 concatenation port is 1-SHXA2-4. This port is valid only when DCN is being configured.

3.3.10.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS). Table 3-40 Parameters for ERP instances Param eter ERPS ID NE1 1 NE2 1 NE3 1 NE4 1 NE5 1 NE6 1 NE7 1 NE8 1

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Param eter East Port

NE1 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) 1SHXA 2-1(IF) Yes

NE2 1SHXA 2-1(IF) 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) No

NE3 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) 1SHXA 2-1(IF) No

NE4 1SHXA 2-1(IF) 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) No

NE5 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) 1SHXA 2-1(IF) No

NE6 1SHXA 2-1(IF) 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) No

NE7 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) 1SHXA 2-1(IF) No

NE8 1SHXA 2-1(IF) 1SHXA 2-3 (GE2) No

West Port

RPL Owner Ring Node Flag RPL Port Control VLAN

GE2 4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

Table 3-41 ERPS protocol parameters Param eter Holdoff Time (ms) Guard Time (ms) WTR Time (min) Packet Transm it Interval (s) NE1 0 NE2 0 NE3 0 NE4 0 NE5 0 NE6 0 NE7 0 NE8 0

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

3.3.10.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS).
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Procedure
Step 1 Create an ERP instance. For details, see A.7.1.1 Creating an ERP Instance. The following table provides parameter values for creating an ERP instance. Param eter ERPS ID East Port West Port RPL Owner Ring Node Flag RPL Port Contro l VLAN Value NE1 1 1SHXA 2-3 1SHXA 2-1 Yes NE2 1 1SHXA 2-1 1SHXA 2-3 No NE3 1 1SHXA 2-3 1SHXA 2-1 No NE4 1 1SHXA 2-1 1SHXA 2-3 No NE5 1 1SHXA 2-3 1SHXA 2-1 No NE6 1 1SHXA 2-1 1SHXA 2-3 No NE7 1 1SHXA 2-3 1SHXA 2-1 No NE8 1 1SHXA 2-1 1SHXA 2-3 No

GE2 4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

4093

Retain the default values for ERPS protocol parameters on NE1 to NE8. ----End

3.3.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS).

Related Tasks
A.7.1.1 Creating an ERP Instance A.7.1.2 Setting ERPS Protocol Parameters A.7.1.3 Querying the ERPS Status A.11.3.1 Testing ERPS Switching

3.3.12 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS).
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Alarms
l l MULTI_RPL_OWNER This alarm indicates that more than one RPL owner node exists on an Ethernet ring network. ERPS_IN_PROTECTION This alarm indicates that ERPS is in switched state. When a node fault on the Ethernet ring network triggers ERPS, the RPL owner node reports the ERPS_IN_PROTECTION alarm.

Events
None

3.3.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about Ethernet ring protection switching (ERPS). Q: Why does ERPS fail when a fault occurs on the Ethernet ring link? A: The possible causes are as follows: l l The value of the hold-off timer is set too high. It is recommended that you set the hold-off timer to 0 on the NMS. Two or more Ethernet links are faulty on the Ethernet ring network. ERPS protects Ethernet services only when one link is faulty. If more than one Ethernet link is faulty, ERPS fails. l l Different control VLANs are configured on the ring nodes on an ERP ring. You must configure the control VLANs to the same on the NMS. ERPS parameter settings are inconsistent on the ring nodes. On the NMS, set the ERPS parameters to the same values for each node on an Ethernet ring network. l More than one RPL owner node exists on an Ethernet ring. Only one RPL owner node is allowed on an Ethernet ring. If more than one RPL owner node exists, the MULTI_RPL_OWNER alarm is reported.

3.4 Link Aggregation Group


This chapter describes link aggregation group (LAG). In a LAG, multiple links to the same device are aggregated to work as a logical link. This helps to increase bandwidth and improve link reliability.

3.4.1 Introduction
This section defines link aggregation group (LAG) and describes its purpose.

Definition
Link aggregation allows one or more links attached to the same equipment to be aggregated to form a LAG. For MAC clients, a LAG works as a single link.
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Purpose
As shown in Figure 3-23, a LAG provides the following functions: l Increases bandwidth. A LAG provides users with a cost-effective method for increasing link bandwidth. Users obtain data links with higher bandwidths by combining multiple physical links into one logical link without upgrading live equipment. The logical link provides a bandwidth equal to the total bandwidths provided by these physical links. The aggregation module distributes traffic to LAG members by using the load balancing algorithm, achieving load sharing between links. l Improves availability. When a link fails, the other member link in the LAG quickly takes over. Figure 3-23 LAG
Link 1 Link 2 Ethernet packet Link aggregation group Ethernet packet

NOTE

As shown in Figure 3-23, link 1 is created between two microwave ports on two OptiX RTN 310s and link 2 is created between two GE ports on two OptiX RTN 310s.

3.4.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of link aggregation group (LAG).

3.4.2.1 LAG Types


Link aggregation groups (LAGs) support manual aggregation and static aggregation. In addition, LAGs support two load-sharing modes: load sharing and non-load sharing.

Aggregation Types
LAGs support the following aggregation types: l Manual aggregation A LAG is manually created. The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is not enabled. A port can be in the Up or Down state. The system determines whether to aggregate a port according to its state (Up or Down), working mode, and rate. l Static aggregation A LAG is created by a user. The LACP protocol is enabled. By running LACP, a LAG can determine the state of each member port. A member port can be in any of the following states: selected, standby, or unselected.
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Static aggregation has more accurate and effective control over link aggregation than manual aggregation.
NOTE

In a LAG: l A port is in the selected state if it meets aggregation requirements and is carrying services. l A port is in the standby state if it meets aggregation requirements but is not carrying services. l A port is in the unselected state if it does not meet aggregation requirements (for example, it fails to receive LACP packets from the remote end after a specific time period).

Load Sharing
LAGs support the following load-sharing modes: l Load sharing In load-sharing mode, each member link in a LAG carries traffic and link bandwidth increases. When a member in a LAG changes or a link fails, the traffic is reallocated automatically. Load-sharing algorithms allocate traffic based on: Media access control (MAC) addresses, including source and destination MAC addresses IP addresses, including source and destination IP addresses Algorithm auto-sensing
NOTE

Auto-sensing means that an algorithm is automatically selected based on the Ethernet packet type. Basic auto-sensing principles are as follows: l If a LAG transmits Ethernet packets containing IP packets, the LAG uses the load-sharing algorithm based on IP addresses. l If a LAG transmits Ethernet packets containing no IP packets, the LAG uses the load-sharing algorithm based on source MAC addresses.

Non-load sharing In non-load sharing mode, only one member link in a LAG carries traffic, and other links in the LAG are in the standby state. This is equivalent to a hot standby mechanism whereby the system can select the standby link to take over if the active link fails.
NOTE

On OptiX RTN 310, only one active link and one standby link can be configured.

A LAG in non-load sharing mode can be set to work in revertive or non-revertive mode. If a LAG is working in revertive mode, services are automatically switched back to the active link after the wait to restore (WTR) time expires. If a LAG is working in non-revertive mode, services are not switched back to the active link after this link is restored. Instead, service transmission remains on the standby link.

3.4.2.2 Port Types


In link aggregation groups (LAGs), ports are classified into master ports and slave ports.

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Port Type

Definition

Characteristics Similarity Difference l The master port participates in service configuration, whereas the slave port cannot. l A LAG has only one master port but can have several slave ports*. l The master port can quit its affiliated LAG only after the LAG is deleted. A slave port can be added to or deleted from a LAG whenever required. l After a LAG is deleted, its services are still carried by the master port.

Master port

Port representing a LAG in service configuration All member ports except for the master port

Slave port

l When creating a LAG, users need to specify both the master and slave ports. l The master/slave attribute of a LAG member port does not change once configured. A master or slave port can be in any of the following states: selected, standby, or unselected.

NOTE

*: OptiX RTN 310 supports only one slave port per LAG.

3.4.2.3 LACP Packet Transparent Transmission


An OptiX RTN 310 can transparently transmit Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) packets from other OptiX RTN 310s, other types of OptiX equipment, or user-side equipment (such as base stations and switches).

Application Scenarios for LACP Packet Transparent Transmission


In compliance with IEEE 802.3ad, LACP is used to implement dynamic aggregation and deaggregation of links. In LACP, information about the local end is sent to the opposite end through link aggregation control protocol data units (LACPDUs). A static LAG runs LACP to determine the state of each member port and to control LAG setup and switching. Two common application scenarios of LACP packet transparent transmission are as follows: l Transparently transmitting LACP packets from other OptiX RTN 310s As shown in Figure 3-24, NE 1 and NE 4 are each configured with a link aggregation group (LAG). In the LAG configured on NE 1, the microwave link between NE 1 and NE 4
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functions as the master link, and the GE link between NE 1 and NE 2 functions as the slave link. In the LAG configured on NE 4, the microwave link between NE 4 and NE 1 functions as the master link, and the GE link between NE 4 and NE 3 functions as the slave link. If LACP packet transparent transmission is disabled on NE 2 and NE 3, the two NEs will terminate LACP packets from NE 1 and NE 4, and LACP packet interchange between NE 1 and NE 4 fails. Therefore, in addition to pass-through services, LACP packet transparent transmission must be configured on NE 2 and NE 3. Figure 3-24 Transparent transmission of LACP packets from other OptiX RTN 310s

LAG GE link Microwave link NE 1 GE link Microwave link NE 2

LAG GE link NE 4 GE link

NE 3

LAG

LACP packet pass-through Slave link in a LAG Incoming service

Master link in a LAG

Transparently transmitting LACP packets from other types of OptiX equipment or userside equipment As shown in Figure 3-25, NE A and NE B are other types of OptiX equipment and each is configured with a LAG. OptiX RTN 310s cooperate with NE A and NE B to achieve LAG protection. In the LAG configured on NE A, the GE link between NE A and NE 1 functions as the master link, and the GE link between NE A and NE 2 functions as the slave link. In the LAG configured on NE B, the GE link between NE B and NE 4 functions as the master link, and the GE link between NE B and NE 3 functions as the slave link. If LACP packet transparent transmission is disabled on NE 1 to NE 4, the NEs will terminate LACP packets from NE A and NE B, failing LACP packet interchange between NE A and NE B. Therefore, in addition to pass-through services, LACP packet transparent transmission must be configured on NE 1 to NE 4.

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Figure 3-25 Transparent transmission of LACP packets from other types of OptiX equipment or user-side equipment
LAG NE 1 GE link Microwave link NE 4 GE link LAG

NE A Other equipment

NE B Other equipment

GE link

Microwave link

GE link

NE 2 LAG LACP packet pass-through Slave link in a LAG

NE 3

Master link in a LAG

Incoming service

LACP Packet Transparent Transmission Modes


OptiX RTN 310 supports LACP packet transparent transmission based on: l Configuration of an Ethernet line (E-Line) service or IEEE 802.1D bridge-based Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service with a port encapsulation type of null In this scenario, LACP packets are transmitted over the same port as service packets and are generally mapped to the BE queue. If link congestion occurs, LACP packets will be discarded, triggering LAG switching. l Configuration of an IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN service, with LACP packet transparent transmission enabled In this scenario, an E-LAN service must be configured for the LACP packets and the equipment will forward LACP packets based on MAC addresses. LACP packets are mapped to the highest-priority queue (CS7) and therefore will not be lost even if link congestion occurs. The E-LAN service is used only for transparently transmitting the protocol packets and does not transmit other Ethernet service signals. l Configuration of an E-Line service dedicated for LACP packet transmission, with LACP packet transparent transmission enabled In this scenario, LACP packets are transparently transmitted as an E-Line service and are mapped to the highest-priority queue (CS7). Therefore, LACP packets will not be lost even if link congestion occurs. This E-Line service carries LACP packets but not Ethernet data.

3.4.2.4 E-LAG
When switching occurs on the NEs in a 1+1 HSB/SD/FD or physical link aggregation (PLA) group, an enhanced link aggregation group (E-LAG) is required to implement switching for active and standby GE access links (HSB is short for hot standby, SD for space diversity, and FD for frequency diversity).

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Introduction
E-LAG is a mechanism that implements multi-chassis link aggregation using the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). It enhances Ethernet link reliability from the port level to the equipment level. As shown in Figure 3-26, two OptiX RTN 310s form a 1+1 HSB/FD/SD or PLA group. A static link aggregation group (LAG) that has only the master port is configured on each of the OptiX RTN 310s. The master and slave OptiX RTN 310s exchange 1+1 HSB/FD/SD or PLA protection protocol packets so that the LAGs on them form a multi-chassis E-LAG. A static, non-load sharing, and non-revertive LAG must be configured on the IDU (or UNI equipment) connected to the OptiX RTN 310s. This LAG works with the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD or PLA group to implement switching for the active and standby GE access links. Figure 3-26 E-LAG application
LAG LAG GE Cascade cable IDU GE LAG E-LAG Antenna Antenna LAG E-LAG Cascade cable GE IDU LAG GE LAG

Principles
NOTE

This section describes the E-LAG implementation at the transmit end shown in Figure 3-26. The E-LAG implementation at the receive end is similar.

1.

Before E-LAG switching NE 1 is the master NE in the 1+1 HSB/SD/FD or PLA group. In normal cases, the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD or PLA protection protocol sets the highest LAG system priority on NE 1 and a lower LAG system priority on NE 2. Manually set the LAG system priority on the IDU to be much lower than the LAG system priorities set on NE 1 and NE 2 (it is recommended that the value of the LAG system priority on the IDU be greater than 1000). According to the LACP negotiation results, the link between NE 1 and the IDU is in the Selected state, and the link between NE 2 and the IDU is in the Unselected state. As a result, the IDU transmits services only to NE 1.

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Figure 3-27 Before E-LAG switching


NE1 Master Ethernet service Master port GE LAG 1 Protection protocol packets LAG 2 Antenna E-LAG NE 2 Slave LAG of the highest system priority

Ethernet service IDU

GE Slave port LAG 3

2.

E-LAG switching When switching occurs on NE 1 and NE 2, they exchange the LAG system priorities, and the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD or PLA protection protocol sets the highest LAG system priority on NE 2. According to the LACP renegotiation results, the link between NE 1 and the IDU is in the Unselected state, and the link between NE 2 and the IDU is in the Selected state. As a result, the IDU transmits services only to NE 2.

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Figure 3-28 E-LAG switching


NE 1 Master

Master port GE LAG 1


Protection protocol packets

Ethernet service IDU

GE Slave port LAG 3 Ethernet service

LAG 2 Antenna E-LAG NE 2 Slave

LAG of the highest system priority

Feature Dependencies and Limitations


l l The ports at both ends of each GE access link must have the same ID and type (optical port or electrical port). The ports must work in auto-negotiation mode. The IDU (or UNI equipment) connected to NE 1 and NE 2 must be configured with a static, non-load sharing, and non-revertive LAG. It is recommended that the value of the LAG system priority on the IDU be greater than 1000.

3.4.2.5 Switching Conditions


LAG switching occurs if a member port fails, a key chip of a member port fails, or the port priority or system priority of a member port is changed. Table 3-42 Switching conditions Switching Condition A member Ethernet port is in the link down state. Description If the member port of a LAG is an Ethernet port and is in the link down state, the ETH_LOS or ETH_LINK_DOWN alarm is reported.

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Switching Condition A member microwave port is in the link down state.

Description If the member port of a LAG is a microwave port and reports the MW_LOF, MW_BER_SD, MW_LIM, or MW_BER_EXC alarm, OptiX RTN 310 considers the microwave port in the link down state and then triggers LAG switching.
NOTE The MW_BER_SD alarm is an optional condition.

The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) protocol detects a link failure.

If the protocol packets are not received for three consecutive periods (3s), the LACP protocol considers the link unavailable and then triggers LAG switching. LAG switching occurs if the port priority or system priority of a member port is changed.

The port priority or system priority of a member port is changed.

3.4.2.6 Switching Impact


Services on link aggregation group (LAG) member links are unavailable within the LAG switching time.

3.4.3 Specifications
This section lists the link aggregation group (LAG) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 3-43 LAG specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item Maximum number of LAGs Types of ports in a LAG Specifications 2 Microwave port GE port Load-sharing mode Load sharing Non-load sharing Maximum number of slave ports in a LAG Setting of the minimum number of active links LAG type 1 Supported Manual aggregation Static aggregation

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Item Load-sharing type (only applicable to the load-sharing mode)

Specifications l Algorithm auto-sensing l Based on source and destination media access control (MAC) addresses l Based on source and destination IP addresses
NOTE For OptiX RTN 310, a load-sharing algorithm takes effect at the NE level.

Reversion mode (only available in loadsharing mode) Wait-to-restore (WTR) time Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) packet transparent transmission flag Service type configured for transparently transmitting LACP packets Maximum number of services for transparently transmitting LACP packets

Revertive Non-revertive 1 to 30 minutes (default: 10 minutes) Not transparently transmitted (default) Transparently transmitted Ethernet line (E-Line) service Ethernet local area network (E-LAN) service 1

3.4.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with link aggregation group (LAG). IEEE 802.3ad: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications

3.4.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the link aggregation group (LAG) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 3-44 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name LAG Port Type Microwave port GE port Hardware Version Any version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later V100R001C00 or later

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V100R001C01 and later versions allow you to set the minimum number of active links in a LAG.

3.4.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of link aggregation group (LAG). Table 3-45 Dependencies and limitations of LAG Item Self-limitations Description l A GE optical port and a GE electrical port can form a LAG. l A microwave port and a GE port can form a LAG. The limitations for the LAG are as follows: The microwave port must function as the master port, and the GE port must function as the slave port. The slave port must work in 1000M full-duplex mode or auto-negotiation mode. After the LAG is configured, you cannot change the working mode or the maximum frame length for the slave port. l An OptiX RTN 310 allows only one E-Line service to transparently transmit Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) packets. l An E-Line service with transparent LACP packet transmission enabled carries only LACP packets. Dependencie s and limitations between LAG and other features Cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) Link-state pass through (LPT) OptiX RTN 310 does not automatically create a LAG during XPIC configuration. You must create the desired LAG manually.

If the LAG and LPT features work together, you can implement the following function by changing the minimum number of active links in a LAG: When some Integrated IP radio links in the LAG fail, the LAG quickly triggers LPT to disable the member GE ports and to instruct the third-party equipment to switch to the backup network.

3.4.7 Principles
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is used to implement dynamic aggregation and deaggregation of Ethernet links. Implementation of the link aggregation group (LAG) feature complies with IEEE 802.3ad.

LACP Packets
In compliance with IEEE 802.3ad, LACP is used to implement dynamic aggregation and deaggregation of links. In LACP, information about the local end is sent to the opposite end through
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link aggregation control protocol data units (LACPDUs). A static LAG runs LACP to determine the state of each member port and to control LAG setup and switching. Figure 3-29 Frame format of the LACP packet

Table 3-46 Parameter description Parameter Actor_Port/Partner_Port Indication Local/Opposite port Description Parameter value is the local/ opposite port ID.

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Parameter Actor_State/Partner_State

Indication Local/Opposite port status

Description The port status is an 8-bit value, representing the state of one of the following eight attributes: LACP_Activity, LACP_Timeout, Aggregation, Synchronization, Collecting, Distributing, Defaulted, and Expired. Parameter value is specified by the user. Parameter value is the MAC address of the local/opposite system. The operational key is the key that is currently in active use for the purposes of forming aggregations and indicates whether ports can be aggregated. The parameter value is determined by the administrative key (LAG ID for a static LAG), rate, and duplex mode. Only ports that have the same parameter values can be aggregated.

Actor_System_Priority/ Partner_System_Priority Actor_System/ Partner_System Actor_Key/Partner_Key

Local/Opposite system priority Local/Opposite system ID

Operational key at the local/ opposite end

Actor_Port_Priority/ Partner_Port_Priority

Local/Opposite port priority

Port priorities in descending order are: non-defaulted ports, ports in full-duplex mode, ports at a higher rate, ports with a higher priority, and ports with a smaller ID.

Static LAG Setup Process


As shown in Figure 3-30, LACP aggregates links as follows: 1. NE A and NE B exchange LACP packets through ports 1 and 2. An LACP packet contains information such as the system priority, system MAC address, port priority, port ID, and operational key. 2. Upon receipt of an LACP packet from NE A, NE B compares the information in the LACP packet with the information saved by its other ports and selects the ports that can be aggregated.
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3.

Upon receipt of an LACP packet from NE B, NE A compares the information in the LACP packet with the information saved by its other ports and selects the ports that can be aggregated. NE A and NE B agree on the ports that can be aggregated into a LAG. NE A negotiates LAG parameter values with NE B, such as the master port and reversion mode. After negotiation, the LAGs on NE A and NE B will use the parameter values of the LAG that has a smaller system priority value. In Figure 3-30, assume that: on NE A, the system priority of LAG is 100, the master port is port 1, and the LAG works in revertive mode; on NE B, the system priority of LAG is 10, the master port is port 2, and the LAG works in non-revertive mode. In this case, the negotiation result is as follows: ports 2 on NE A and NE B function as the master ports, and the LAGs work in non-revertive mode.
NOTE

4. 5.

If the system priorities and port priorities of two peer LAGs are the same, parameters of the LAG that has the master port with the smaller MAC address are used.

Figure 3-30 Application of LACP

NE A LACP packet Port 1 Port 2

NE B

Port 1 Port 2

LAG Switching Process


After detecting that a port in a static LAG is in the link down state or that other conditions triggering LAG switching have been met, the following operations are performed: 1. 2. 3. 4. The local NE shuts down its faulty port. The local NE selects the highest-priority link among available standby links to take over. The local NE sends an LACP packet to the opposite NE. The opposite NE shuts down the corresponding port and implements port switching, as required by the LACP packet.
NOTE

For a load-sharing LAG, traffic will be reallocated among member links based on the load-sharing algorithm after a faulty link is shut down.

3.4.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning link aggregation group (LAG). l Physical link aggregation (PLA) can provide the functions of air-interface link aggregation group (LAG). It is recommended that PLA be used instead of LAG.
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l l

Use the same aggregation type at both ends. Static aggregation is recommended. Use the same load-sharing mode at both ends. The non-load sharing mode is appropriate if a LAG is configured for protection, and the load-sharing mode is appropriate if a LAG is configured to increase bandwidth. OptiX RTN 310 supports load-sharing algorithms based on media access control (MAC) addresses (source and destination MAC addresses) and load-sharing algorithms based on IP addresses (source and destination IP addresses). Note the following when selecting an algorithm: For a load-sharing LAG, the auto-sensing algorithm is recommended. Select an appropriate algorithm based on packet characteristics. If packets transmitted by a LAG carry the same source and destination MAC addresses but different source and destination IP addresses, select an IP address-based algorithm. If packets transmitted by a LAG are not IP packets and carry different source and destination MAC addresses, select a MAC address-based algorithm. For OptiX RTN 310, a load-sharing algorithm takes effect at the NE level.

l l l

It is recommended that you set the master and slave ports consistently for the equipment at both ends. It is recommended that the system priority of a LAG take the default value. The system priority is valid only when the LAG is in static aggregation mode. If the LAG and link-state pass through (LPT) features work together, you can implement the following function by changing the value of Minimum Active Links to 2: When some Integrated IP radio links in the LAG fail, the LAG quickly triggers LPT to disable the member GE ports and to instruct the third-party equipment to switch to the backup network.

When LACP packets pass through an intermediate network, it is recommended to set Packet Receive Timeout Period to Short period. In other scenarios, set it to Long period to prevent unnecessary switchovers.

3.4.9 Configuration Process


When applying the LAG protocol, configure a LAG and transparent transmission of Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) packets as required.
NOTE

The master and slave Ethernet links in a LAG are considered one link at the data link layer. Therefore, the Ethernet port attributes or IF port attributes of the master port must be set to the same values as those of the slave port.

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Table 3-47 Process of configuring a LAG Step 1 Operation A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG Remarks Required in the following two scenarios: l If two microwave links between two OptiX RTN 310s must share Ethernet services using a LAG, a LAG must be created on the two OptiX RTN 310s. Set parameters as follows: Set LAG Type to Static. Set Load Sharing to Sharing. Retain the default value Automatic for Load Sharing Hash Algorithm. This parameter is valid only when Load Sharing is set to Sharing. Set Main Port to IF. Set Standby Port to the GE port connected to the other OptiX RTN 310. l If the Ethernet link between an OptiX RTN 310 and user equipment requires higher bandwidth or active/standby protection, a LAG must be created on the OptiX RTN 310 and the user equipment. Set parameters as follows: Set LAG Type to the same value on the OptiX RTN 310 and on the user equipment. The recommended value is Static. Set Load Sharing to the same value on the OptiX RTN 310 and on the user equipment. Set Load Sharing to Sharing if the Ethernet link requires higher bandwidth, or Non-Sharing if the Ethernet link requires protection. Retain the default value Automatic for Load Sharing Hash Algorithm. This parameter is valid only when Load Sharing is set to Sharing. Set Reversion Mode to the same value on the OptiX RTN 310 and on the user equipment. The recommended value is Revertive. This parameter is valid only when Load Sharing is set to Non-Sharing. Set WTR Time(min) to the same value on the OptiX RTN 310 and on the user equipment. The default value is recommended. This parameter is valid only when Reversion Mode is set to Revertive. Set the master and slave ports according to the network plan. It is recommended that you set the master and slave ports consistently at both ends. l Retain the default value for System Priority. l Retain the default value Disabled for Switch LAG upon Air Interface SD. Set Switch LAG upon Air Interface SD to Enabled to enable a LAG switchover to be triggered when radio signals degrade. l If the LAG and link-state pass through (LPT) features work together, implement the following function by modifying

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Step

Operation

Remarks Minimum Active Links Threshold: When some Integrated IP radio links in the LAG fail, the LAG quickly triggers LPT to disable the member GE ports and to instruct the third-party equipment to switch to the backup network. l When LACP packets pass through an intermediate network, it is recommended to set Packet Receive Timeout Period to Short period. In other scenarios, set it to Long period to prevent unnecessary switchovers.

A.7.2.2 Setting Parameters for a LAG

Optional.

Table 3-48 Process of configuring transparent transmission of LACP packets Scenario 1 NEs transparently transmit LACP packets through VLAN-based Ethernet line (E-line) services. 2 NEs transparently transmit LACP packets through IEEE 802.1Q bridgebased Ethernet local area network (ELAN) services. Remarks Create E-Line services that carry LACP packets by following instructions in A.7.3.3 Creating an E-Line Service for Transmitting Layer 2 Protocol Packets. Set parameters as follows: l Set L2 Protocol Control to LACP Packet Transparent. l Set Service ID, Service Name, Source, and Sink according to the network plan. Ensure that Source and Sink include IF ports. l Retain the port parameter values. Create IEEE 802.1Q bridge-based E-LAN services by following instructions in A.7.3.6 Creating an IEEE 802.1Q Bridge-based ELAN Service. Set L2 Protocol Control to LACP Packet Transparent. Set the other parameters according to the network plan. Ensure that ports mounted to the IEEE 802.1Q bridge include IF ports.

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Scenario 3 NEs transparently transmit LACP packets through transparently transmitted point-to-point E-Line services or IEEE 802.1D bridgebased E-LAN services.

Remarks l If LACP packets are transparently transmitted through transparently transmitted point-to-point E-Line services, create transparently transmitted point-to-point E-Line services by following instructions in A.7.3.1 Creating a Point-to-Point Transparently Transmitted E-Line Service. Retain the default value Not Transparent for L2 Protocol Control and set the other parameters according to the network plan. Ensure that Source and Sink include IF ports. l If LACP packets are transparently transmitted through IEEE 802.1D bridge-based E-LAN services, create IEEE 802.1D bridge-based ELAN services by following instructions in A.7.3.5 Creating an IEEE 802.1D Bridge-based E-LAN Service. Retain the default value Not Transparent for L2 Protocol Control and set the other parameters according to the network plan. Ensure that ports mounted to the IEEE 802.1D bridge include IF ports.

3.4.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure link aggregation group (LAG) based on network conditions.

3.4.10.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. As shown in Figure 3-31, one hop of cross polarization interference cancellation (XPIC) links formed by four OptiX RTN 310s carries Ethernet services between the NodeB and radio network controller (RNC). A load-sharing link aggregation group (LAG) is required to increase the bandwidth of the XPIC links.

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Figure 3-31 Networking diagram for LAG

V-polarization H-polarization XPIC LAG

NE 1 P&E GE NodeB COMBO V-polarization

NE 3 P&E GE COMBO RNC

COMBO GE NE 2 H-polarization

COMBO GE NE 4

Microwave link

Ethernet link

XPIC cable

3.4.10.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring link aggregation group (LAG). In this example, microwave ports (whose logical ports on the NMS are IF ports) on NE 1 and NE 3 are master ports, and GE ports (whose logical ports on the NMS are GE2 ports) on NE 1 and NE 3 are slave ports in a load-sharing LAG on the OptiX RTN 310 NEs. Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) packets are transparently transmitted through VLAN-based Ethernet line (E-Line) services between NE 2 and NE 4.

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Figure 3-32 Information about LAGs and transparent LACP packet transmission
NE 1 P&E NodeB GE FO LAG FO LAG NE 3 P&E GE RNC

GE

FO Transparently transmitting LACP packets

FO GE

NE 2

NE 4

Microwave link

Ethernet link

Table 3-49 lists LAG configurations. Table 3-49 LAG configurations Parameter LAG No. LAG Name LAG Type Load Sharing Load Sharing Hash Algorithm System Priority Switch LAG upon Air Interface SD Main Port Slave Port LAG Min Active Link Threshold Packet Receive Timeout Period NE 1 1 LAG_NodeBtoRNC Static (default value) Sharing Auto (default value) 32768 (default value) Disable (default value) 1-SHXA2-1(IF) 1-SHXA2-3(GE2) 1 Long Period NE 3 1 LAG_RNCtoNodeB Static (default value) Sharing Auto (default value) 32768 (default value) Disable (default value) 1-SHXA2-1(IF) 1-SHXA2-3(GE2) 1 Long Period

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Table 3-50 lists configurations for transparent transmission of LACP packets.


NOTE

In this example, an E-Line service must be created to transparently transmit LACP packets because native Ethernet services between NE 2 and NE 4 are carried by VLAN-based E-Line services.

Table 3-50 Configurations for transparent LACP packet transmission Parameter Service ID Service Name L2 Protocol Control Direction Source Sink NE 2 1 NE1toNE3_Vline_L2 LACP Packet Transparent UNI-UNI 1-SHXA2-3(GE2) 1-SHXA2-1(IF) NE 4 1 NE3toNE1_Vline_L2 LACP Packet Transparent UNI-UNI 1-SHXA2-1(IF) 1-SHXA2-3(GE2)

3.4.10.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring link aggregation group (LAG).

Procedure
Step 1 Create a LAG. For details, see A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG. This table provides values for parameters in Attribute Setting. Parameter LAG No LAG Name LAG Type Load Sharing Load Sharing Hash Algorithm System Priority Switch LAG upon Air Interface SD LAG Min Active Link Threshold Packet Receive Timeout Period NE 1 1 LAG_NodeBtoRNC Static Sharing Auto 32768 Disabled 1 Long period NE 3 1 LAG_RNCtoNodeB Static Sharing Auto 32768 Disabled 1 Long period

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This table provides values for parameters in Port Setting. Parameter Main Port Selected Standby Port NE 1 1 3 NE 3 1 3

Step 2 Create an Ethernet line (E-Line) service for transmitting Layer 2 protocol packets. For details, see A.7.3.3 Creating an E-Line Service for Transmitting Layer 2 Protocol Packets. This table provides values for service parameters on NE 2 and NE 4. Parameter Service ID Service Name L2 Protocol Control Direction Source Sink NE 2 2 NE1toNE3_Vline_L2 LACP Packet Transparent UNI-UNI GE2 IF NE 4 2 NE3toNE1_Vline_L2 LACP Packet Transparent UNI-UNI IF GE2

Retain port parameter values. ----End

3.4.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to link aggregation group (LAG).

Related Tasks
A.7.2.1 Creating a LAG A.7.2.2 Setting Parameters for a LAG A.7.2.3 Querying the Protocol Information About a LAG A.7.3.3 Creating an E-Line Service for Transmitting Layer 2 Protocol Packets

3.4.12 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to link aggregation group (LAG).

Alarms
l LAG_DOWN This alarm indicates that a LAG is unavailable. This alarm is reported when the number of activated member ports in a LAG is 0.
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LAG_MEMBER_DOWN This alarm indicates that at least one member port of a LAG is unavailable. This alarm is reported when any member port of a LAG can neither be activated nor work as a standby port.

Events
None

3.4.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about link aggregation group (LAG). Q: Does OptiX RTN 310 support dynamic aggregation? A: No, OptiX RTN 310 does not support dynamic aggregation.

3.5 Link State Pass Through


Link state pass through (LPT) can detect a fault that occurs on a service access device or a service network, and then instruct the service access device to immediately start the backup network for communication. LPT thereby ensures that faults do not affect the transmission of important data.

3.5.1 Introduction
This section defines link state pass through (LPT) and describes its purpose.

Definition
LPT enables a transmission NE to detect a fault that occurs on a service access device or a service network, and then instructs the service access device to immediately start the backup network for communication. LPT thereby ensures that faults do not affect the transmission of important data. As shown in Figure 3-33, LPT is enabled on NE1 and NE2. When a fault occurs on access link 1, access link 2, or the service network, NE1 disconnects from router A and NE2 disconnects from router B. Router A and router B then immediately detect the link failure between them, and a backup network is started.

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Figure 3-33 LPT application

Backup network

Service network

Router A

Access link 1 Working link Protection link

NE1

NE2

Access link 2

Router B

Purpose
LPT ensures the transmission of important data.

3.5.2 Specifications
This section lists the link state pass through (LPT) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 3-51 Specifications of LPT that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item LPT type Specifications A single or multiple GE ports connected to an Integrated IP radio link are disabled/enabled when the Integrated IP radio link is interrupted or restored. Less than 300 ms

GE port disabling/enabling duration

3.5.3 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with link state pass through (LPT). Link state pass through (LPT) adheres to the specifications in the Huawei proprietary LPT protocol.

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3.5.4 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the link state pass through (LPT) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 3-52 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name LPT Port Type GE port
NOTE This type of port can function as an LPT access-side (UNIside) port.

Hardware Version Any version

Product Version V100R001C01 or later

3.5.5 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the dependencies and limitations of link state pass through (LPT). Table 3-53 Dependencies and limitations of LPT Item Self-limitations Dependencie s and limitations between LPT and other features Protection scheme LAG/PLA Description A microwave port cannot function as an LPT access-side (UNI-side) port. LPT can work with other protection schemes. You can change the minimum number of active links in a LAG or PLA so that when one or more Integrated IP radio links in the LAG or PLA fail, LPT is triggered to disable the member GE ports and to instruct the third-party equipment to switch to a backup network.

3.5.6 Principles
An OptiX RTN 310 implements link state pass through (LPT) by grouping its microwave port and the associated GE port. The LPT implementation illustrated in Figure 3-34 is described as follows: 1. 2. When the service network is faulty, the microwave port status on the OptiX RTN 310 is Down. After detecting that the microwave port status is Down, the Ethernet service switching unit reports the fault to the system control unit.
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3.

After receiving the fault information, the system control unit learns the GE port associated with the microwave port in the LPT group. The system control unit then disables the GE port. When the service network recovers, the system control unit enables the GE port.

4.

Figure 3-34 LPT implementation

Backup network

Fault

Service network Router A Access link 1 Working link Protection link


NE1 NE2

Access link 2

Router B

NOTE

l If the service network is faulty bidirectionally, both NE1 and NE2 can detect the fault. NE1 and NE2 then disable the corresponding GE ports. l If the service network is faulty unidirectionally (for example, the link from router B to router A is faulty), only NE1 can detect the fault. NE1 then disables the corresponding GE port.

3.5.7 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning link state pass through (LPT). Add an access-side (UNI-side) port and a network-side (NNI-side) microwave port into an LPT group. The access-side (UNI-side) port connects to third-party equipment and the network-side (NNI-side) microwave port carries GE services.

3.5.8 Configuration Process


This section describes the process of configuring link state pass through (LPT).

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Table 3-54 Process of configuring LPT Step 1 Operation Configuring LPT Remarks Required l Configure the microwave port as a fixed convergence port. l For the UNI-side GE port that connects to thirdparty equipment, configure this port as an access port.

3.5.9 Configuration Example


This section provides an example to describe how to plan and configure link state pass through (LPT) based on network conditions.

3.5.9.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. In Figure 3-35, when the microwave link between NE1 and NE2 fails, NE1 and NE2 disable the Ethernet ports that connect to the microwave ports and instruct the BTS to enable the standby link for the transmission of important data. Figure 3-35 Networking diagram of LPT
To NE2: IF To NodeB1: P&E To NE1: IF To RNC: P&E
P&E

P&E

NodeB 1

NE1

NE2

RNC

Radio link

Ethernet link

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l l l l l

On the NMS, the logical port of a microwave port is 1-SHXA2-1(IF). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as an optical GE port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1). On the NMS, the logical port of a P&E port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1), when the COMBO port does not function as an optical GE port. On the NMS, the logical port of a GE port is 1-SHXA2-3(GE2). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as a 1+1 concatenation port is 1-SHXA2-4. This port is valid only when DCN is being configured.

3.5.9.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring link state pass through (LPT).

LPT Configuration Information


Table 3-55 provides the LPT configuration information. Table 3-55 LPT configuration information Parameter Convergence port Access port NE1 1-SHXA2-1 (IF) 1-SHXA2-2 (GE1) NE2 1-SHXA2-1 (IF) 1-SHXA2-2 (GE1)

3.5.9.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring link state pass through (LPT).

Procedure
Step 1 Configure LPT. For details, see Configuring LPT. 1. Configure a convergence point. This table provides parameter values for configuring a convergence point. Parameter Value NE1 Board Port 2. Configure an access point. This table provides parameter values for configuring an access point. Parameter Value NE1 Board Port
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1-SHXA2 1

NE2 1-SHXA2 2
319

1-SHXA2 2
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----End

3.5.10 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to link state pass through (LPT).

Related Tasks
A.7.9 Configuring LPT

3.5.11 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and events related to link state pass through (LPT).

Alarms
ETH_AUTO_LINK_DOWN This alarm indicates that the LPT function disables an Ethernet port.

Events
None

3.5.12 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about link state pass through (LPT). Q: When the Ethernet link between a piece of UNI equipment and the GE port at an OptiX RTN 310 is interrupted, can LPT instruct the UNI equipment to switch to the backup network? A: No. LPT cannot instruct the UNI equipment to switch to the backup network.

3.6 QoS
This section describes quality of service (QoS). QoS places requirements on all aspects of a service, such as bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. This ensures that the request and response of a user or application reaches an expected quality level.

3.6.1 Introduction
This section defines quality of service (QoS) and describes its purpose.

Definition
QoS places requirements on all aspects of a service, such as bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. This ensures that the request and response of a user or application reaches an expected quality level. Key QoS indicators are defined as follows:
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Delay Delay refers to the time that elapses after a service is transmitted at a reference point and before the service is received at another reference point.

l l

Jitter Jitter refers to the variation in packet transmission delay. Packet loss ratio Packet loss ratio refers to the ratio of discarded packets to total transmitted packets. Packet loss generally results from network congestion.

Service availability Service availability refers to the normal running time rate for guaranteed service transmission.

Throughput Throughput refers to the packet transmission rate in a network, which is expressed by the average rate or peak rate.

Purpose
QoS provides guaranteed bandwidth for important services, minimizes delay and jitter, and properly allocates and monitors network resources. Figure 3-36 illustrates how QoS is performed on Ethernet services on OptiX RTN 310. Figure 3-36 QoS processing
Ingress Packet switching Congestion avoidance Buffer queue Threshold Egress Queue traffic shaping Queue scheduling

Simple Traffic classification DiffServ Forwarding

...... ...... ...... ......

Port traffic shaping PIR Scheduling

...

Mapping

Token bucket

...... ......

...

CoS x Drop

...... ......

CoS z

3.6.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concepts of quality of service (QoS).

...

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3.6.2.1 DiffServ
Differentiated services (DiffServ) provide an easy-to-implement and scalable architecture for end-to-end quality of service (QoS).

DiffServ Model
A DiffServ (DS) domain is a group of network nodes (DS nodes) that operate with a common set of service provisioning policies and per-hop behavior (PHB) definitions. DS nodes are classified into DS boundary nodes and DS interior nodes. As shown in Figure 3-37, in a DS domain, DS boundary nodes identify the classes of service (CoSs) carried by the packets that enter the DS domain and then map different service flows to different PHBs. The DS interior node performs traffic control based on the PHBs and forwards the service flows to the next-hop DS boundary node. Figure 3-37 DiffServ model
DS domain DS boundary node Non-DS node DS interior node DS boundary node Non-DS node

NOTE

A PHB indicates a specific forwarding behavior applied by a DS node on packets with the same QoS.

Simple Traffic Classification


CoS is a priority-bit field in an Ethernet frame and is used to differentiate traffic. Generally, CoS is defined before a UNI-side service arrives at the ingress node of a transport network. OptiX RTN 310 supports the following CoSs at an Ethernet port or microwave port: l l l C-VLAN priority Differentiated services code point (DSCP) value in an IP packet Experimental bits (EXP) value in a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) packet

In the ingress direction, OptiX RTN 310 reads the CoS information from incoming packets based on the CoS trusted by the ingress port. Then, OptiX RTN 310 identifies incoming service flows and maps them to different PHBs. If some packets do not carry the CoS trusted by the port, OptiX RTN 310 maps them to the best effort (BE) queue. In the egress direction, OptiX RTN 310 modifies the CoS information carried by packets based on the mapping between the PHB and the trusted CoS.
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NOTE

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OptiX RTN 310 supports eight PHBs: BE, AF1, AF2, AF3, AF4, EF, CS6, and CS7. An AF queue can be divided into two service classes. l Packets mapped to the AF11, AF21, AF31, and AF41 queues are green by default and are preferentially scheduled and forwarded. l Packets mapped to the AF13, AF23, AF33, and AF43 queues are red by default and are preferentially dropped when congestion occurs. l Packets mapped to the BE, EF, CS6, and CS7 queues are green by default.

3.6.2.2 Congestion Avoidance


Congestion avoidance is a traffic control mechanism that monitors the usage of network resources, such as queues or memory buffers, and drops packets under overload or congestion. The OptiX RTN 310 supports two congestion avoidance algorithms: tail drop and weighted random early detection (WRED).

Tail Drop
Figure 3-38 shows how tail drop works. With tail drop enabled, all newly arriving packets are dropped if the buffer queue is filled to its maximum capacity. Figure 3-38 Tail drop function diagram

Buffer queue Tail drop Threshold

.........

Full drop Schedule

...

WRED
Figure 3-39 and Figure 3-40 show how WRED works. With WRED enabled, yellow and red packets are preferentially dropped and green packets are always transmitted first in the case of network congestion.

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Figure 3-39 WRED function diagram


WRED Buffer queue High Low threshold threshold

.........

.........

Random drop

Schedule

...

High priority Medium priority Low priority

Figure 3-40 Packet dropping probability diagram (WRED)

3.6.2.3 Queue Scheduling


OptiX RTN 310 supports three queue scheduling algorithms: strict priority (SP), weighted round robin (WRR), and SP+WRR.
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SP
Figure 3-41 illustrates how SP works. Figure 3-41 SP diagram
Buffer queue Highest priority CS7 CS6 Classification Schedule

...

...

CoS x CoS y Lowest priority

BE

CoS z

During SP scheduling, packets are transmitted in descending order of queue priorities. Packets in a lower-priority queue can be transmitted only after a higher-priority queue becomes empty. Therefore, important services are placed in higher-priority queues and are transmitted with precedence over unimportant services. SP scheduling uses all resources to ensure the quality of service (QoS) of higher-priority services. If there are always packets in higher-priority queues, packets in lower-priority queues will never be transmitted.

...

WRR
Figure 3-42 illustrates how WRR works. Figure 3-42 WRR function diagram
Buffer queue

Weight: 50% Weight: 20% Classification Weight: 20% CoS x CoS y Weight: 10%

AF4 AF3 Schedule AF2 AF1

...

CoS z

WRR allocates a weight to each queue and a service time segment to each queue based on the weight. Packets in a WRR queue are transmitted at the allocated service time segment. If the queue does not have packets, packets in the next queue are transmitted immediately. Therefore, if a link is congested, WRR allocates bandwidth based on the weights of queues. If a link is not congested, WRR ensures the full use of bandwidth.
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Unlike SP, WRR schedules packets in every queue based on weights, so event packets in lowerpriority queues have a chance to be transmitted.

SP+WRR
Figure 3-43 illustrates how SP+WRR works. This algorithm ensures the precedence of higherpriority services (for example, voice services) and assigns time segments to transmit lowerpriority services. Figure 3-43 SP+WRR diagram
Buffer queue CS7 SP CS6 EF Weight: 25% Classification CoS x CoS y Weight: 25% SP WRR Weight: 25% Weight: 25% AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 BE Schedule ...

CoS z

...

If CS7, CS6, and EF queues, which have higher priorities than WRR queues, have packets, packets in the CS7, CS6, and EF queues are transmitted using SP whereas packets in the WRR queues are not transmitted. If the CS7, CS6, and EF queues have no packets, packets in the WRR queues (AF4, AF3, AF2, and AF1) are transmitted using WRR. If both WRR queues and CS7, CS6, and EF queues have no packets, packets in the BE queue are transmitted using SP.

l l

3.6.2.4 Traffic Shaping


Shaping limits the traffic volume and burst size of an outgoing traffic stream, so that the traffic stream can flow at a regular speed. OptiX RTN 310 supports queue shaping and port shaping. If shaping is enabled and the buffer queue is empty, OptiX RTN 310 processes incoming packets as follows: l l l Forwards packets directly if the packet arrival rate is lower than or equal to the preset peak information rate (PIR). Pushes packets into the buffer queue if the packet arrival rate is higher than the PIR. Forwards some packets as burst packets if the packet arrival rate is lower than or equal to the PIR in a certain period. The maximum burst size is equal to the peak burst size (PBS).

If the buffer queue is not empty, the system pushes newly arriving packets into the buffer queue and then forwards them at the PIR.
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Figure 3-44 Traffic shaping

PBS PIR

PIR

PIR

Shaping

3.6.3 Specifications
This section lists the quality of service (QoS) specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports. Table 3-56 QoS specifications that OptiX RTN 310 supports Item DiffServ Maximum number of DiffServ (DS) domains Types of DSsupporting ports Classes of service (CoSs) trusted by ports 1 Specifications

Ethernet port Microwave port C-VLAN priority DSCP value MPLS EXP value

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Item Per-hop behaviors (PHBs) l CS7 l CS6 l EF

Specifications

l AF4 (AF41 and AF43) l AF3 (AF31 and AF33) l AF2 (AF21 and AF23) l AF1 (AF11 and AF13) l BE
NOTE l Packets mapped to the AF11, AF21, AF31, and AF41 queues are green by default and are preferentially scheduled and forwarded. l Packets mapped to the AF13, AF23, AF33, and AF43 queues are red by default and are preferentially dropped when congestion occurs. l Packets mapped to the BE, EF, CS6, and CS7 queues are green by default.

Congesti on avoidanc e

Tail drop WRED

Both microwave ports and Ethernet ports support tail drop. l Microwave ports support WRED, while Ethernet ports do not. l OptiX RTN 310 supports the high threshold, low threshold, and drop probability settings for red and green packets. l When WRED is applied to the AF4, AF3, AF2, and AF1 queues, the high threshold, low threshold, and drop probability settings for green packets take effect if the packets are mapped to the AF41, AF31, AF21, and AF11 queues, and those for red packets take effect if the packets are mapped to the AF43, AF33, AF23, and AF13 queues.

Queue scheduli ng

Maximum number of egress queues Queue scheduling algorithms

Strict priority (SP) Weighted round robin (WRR) SP+WRR


NOTE Ethernet ports and microwave ports use SP+WRR by default. The queues in descending order of priory are CS7, CS6, EF, AF4-AF1 (WRR queues), and BE.

Weight allocation of WRR

When WRR is applied to the AF4, AF3, AF2, and AF1 queues, the default weight (25%) of each AF queue is changeable.

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Item Traffic shaping Traffic shaping for egress queues Traffic shaping at egress ports

Specifications PIR and PBS settings are supported.

3.6.4 Reference Standards and Protocols


This section lists the standards and protocols associated with quality of service (QoS). l l l l IETF RFC 2309: Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion Avoidance in the Internet IETF RFC 2597: Assured Forwarding PHB Group IETF RFC 2598: An Expedited Forwarding PHB IEEE 802.1p: Traffic Class Expediting and Dynamic Multicast Filtering

3.6.5 Availability
This section lists the hardware and version requirements that OptiX RTN 310 must meet in order to run the quality of service (QoS) feature.

Hardware and Version Requirements


Table 3-57 Hardware and version requirements Feature Name DiffServ Congestion avoidance Queue scheduling Traffic shaping Port Type Microwave port Ethernet port Hardware Version Any version Any version Product Version V100R001C00 or later V100R001C00 or later

3.6.6 Feature Dependencies and Limitations


This section describes the self-limitations of quality of service (QoS), and limitations and dependencies between QoS and other features. Table 3-58 describes the self-limitations of QoS, and limitations and dependencies between QoS and other features.

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Table 3-58 Feature dependencies and limitations Item Selflimitations DiffServ Description For E-Line services or E-LAN services at a port, MPLS EXP is not modifiable in the egress direction if MPLS EXP is the CoS type trusted by the port. l When the weighted random early detection (WRED) algorithm is applied to an egress queue at a microwave port on the OptiX RTN 310, it is recommended that queue shaping should not be enabled for the egress queue. Otherwise, the WRED algorithm cannot function as expected when the queue is congested and packets are lost due to queue shaping. l When more than 1 Gbit/s traffic is aggregated at a microwave port on the OptiX RTN 310, the WRED algorithm applied to the microwave port may fail to function as expected. WRR At each port of the OptiX RTN 310, WRR queues must be consecutive. That is, WRR queues and SP queues cannot interleave.

WRED

Limitations and dependencie s between QoS and other features

A shaping-enabled port cannot function as a slave port in a Link LAG. By default, a port is shaping-disabled. aggregation group (LAG) In an existing LAG, a slave port automatically copies the QoS policies of its master port, including: l Trusted CoS type l Port shaping l Queue shaping l Queue scheduling algorithm l Packet dropping policy
NOTE If the main port in a LAG is a microwave port that applies the WRED policy and the slave port is an Ethernet port, the slave port cannot copy the WRED policy of its master port because an Ethernet port does not support the WRED policy.

Adaptive modulation (AM)

If AM is enabled, it is recommended that QoS be configured for Ethernet services transmitted over microwave ports on the OptiX RTN 310. After QoS is configured, Ethernet services with higher priorities are transmitted first when radio links work in a low-order modulation scheme. The VLAN priority of an inband DCN packet takes the default value 6. Inband DCN packets are scheduled and mapped to the egress queue CS6 by default.

Data communicati on network (DCN)

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3.6.7 Principles
Traffic shaping is implemented using the token bucket algorithm.

3.6.7.1 Traffic Shaping


Traffic shaping is implemented using the single token bucket two color marker algorithm. Figure 3-45 shows the principles of the single token bucket two color marker algorithm. Figure 3-45 Principles of the single token bucket two color marker algorithm
...

Congestion avoidance

Buffer queue Threshold PIR Token bucket PBS

... ... ... ... ...

Drop

Tokens are placed in the token bucket at the peak information rate (PIR). The capacity of the token bucket is equal to the peak burst size (PBS). When the buffer queue is empty, packets are processed as follows: l l If a packet obtains a token, the packet is directly forwarded. If a packet does not obtain a token, the packet enters the buffer queue.

When the buffer queue is not empty, packets are processed as follows: l l If a packet in the buffer queue obtains a token, the packet is directly forwarded. If a packet in the buffer queue does not obtain a token, the packet stays in the buffer queue. When the length of the buffer queue reaches the preset threshold, packets that newly arrive at the buffer queue are dropped using the specified congestion avoidance algorithm. This ensures the forwarding efficiency and bandwidth utilization of the buffer queue.

3.6.8 Planning Guidelines


This section provides guidelines for planning quality of service (QoS). Before planning QoS, identify the QoS requirement characteristics of services and the QoS requirements of carriers, and consider network conditions.
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Obtaining QoS Requirement Characteristics of Typical Services


Table 3-59 QoS requirement characteristics of typical services Servi ce Type Voice servic e Characteristic Notes to QoS Planning

l Low bandwidth (for example, a NodeB requires less than 5 Mbit/s bandwidth) l High QoS requirements (low delay, low jitter, and low packet loss ratio) l Traffic convergence implemented on NodeBs and radio network controllers (RNCs), and transparent transmission tunnels provided by mobile backhaul networks

l Network planning includes bandwidth estimation and reservation for voice services. l Voice services are tagged with high priorities on NodeBs and RNCs. l A mobile backhaul network consisting of OptiX RTN 310s ensures high-priority service scheduling. It is recommended that voice services be mapped to the EF queue. l Bandwidths are not converged for data services at the terminal access layer but reserved at the convergence layer based on the convergence ratio. l Different services are tagged with different priorities on NodeBs and RNCs. Data services have a lower priority than voice services. l A mobile backhaul network consisting of OptiX RTN 310s ensures high-priority service scheduling. It is recommended that data services be mapped to the AF1, AF2, AF3, or AF4 queue. l Network planning includes bandwidth estimation and reservation for control packets and management packets. l Control packets and management packets are tagged with high priorities on NodeBs and RNCs. l A mobile backhaul network consisting of OptiX RTN 310s ensures high-priority service scheduling. It is recommended that control packets and management packets be mapped to the CS6 or CS7 queue.

Data servic e

l High bandwidth (a NodeB may require up to 20 Mbit/s bandwidth) l Diverse services with different QoS requirements l Low delay, low jitter, and low packet loss ratio for real-time services, such as video phone and online game services l Statistical multiplexing for non-realtime services such as Internet accessing services, allowing a high convergence ratio

Contr ol packet Mana geme nt packet

l Low bandwidth l High QoS requirements (low delay, low jitter, and no packet loss)

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Determining QoS Requirements


When planning QoS, determine: l l l l Whether an end-to-end bandwidth guarantee is required. Whether bandwidth limiting is required. Whether a minimum bandwidth is required for low-priority services. Priority plans for various services.

Obtaining Information About Network Situations


When planning QoS, obtain the following information: l l l l l CoSs trusted by ports Whether the mapping between service priorities and per-hop behaviors (PHBs) has been specified in the wireless network plan Whether the transport network incorporates released third-party networks and their available bandwidths, if any Bandwidths provided by the OptiX RTN 310 chain or ring network and bandwidths required by service access and transmission Special network situations (for example, whether there are ports that carry both services with and without priorities)

Working out QoS Plans


If an end-to-end bandwidth guarantee is required, perform the following: l Configure DS based on the mapping between service priorities and PHBs. If wireless network engineers have not yet worked out the mapping, liaise with them to determine the mapping. CS6 and CS7 queues always have higher priorities, and the packets in these two queues are always scheduled first. It is recommended that these queues be used for control packets and management packets, which require the highest scheduling priority and very low bandwidth. Do not place services that require high bandwidth and are insensitive to delay in highpriority strict priority (SP) queues, such as EF. Otherwise, high-priority SP queues will occupy all port bandwidth. It is recommended that voice services be placed in the EF queue. It is recommended that data services be placed in AF1, AF2, AF3, and AF4 queues using the weighted round robin (WRR) algorithm. The scheduling weights determine the proportion of bandwidth allocated to each queue. l l If services traverse a third-party network, ensure that the third-party network provides a bandwidth that is higher than or equal to the total bandwidth to be guaranteed. If the OptiX RTN 310 chain or ring network provides a bandwidth lower than the total bandwidth to be guaranteed, expand the network capacity.

If bandwidth limiting is required, consider the following: l To restrict the bandwidth of services based on PHBs (queues), perform shaping for port queues.
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If a leased third-party network provides a bandwidth lower than the Ethernet port bandwidth on its connected OptiX RTN 310, perform shaping at the Ethernet port so that the egress bandwidth of the OptiX RTN 310 matches the bandwidth of the third-party network. To better share the air-interface link bandwidth, do not perform shaping for microwave ports on OptiX RTN 310 unless necessary.

If low-priority services require a guaranteed minimum bandwidth, perform shaping for port queues of high-priority services, or configure an appropriate queue scheduling policy. To avoid congestion, it is recommended that you configure weighted random early detection (WRED) for microwave ports on OptiX RTN 310. WRED ensures the transmission of highpriority services.

3.6.9 Configuration Process


Configure QoS policies, and then apply them to quality of service (QoS) objects. Table 3-60 Process of configuring QoS Ste p 1 Operation Modifying the Mapping Relationships for the DS Domain Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies Remarks Required if the default mapping for the DiffServ (DS) domain is inapplicable. Set parameters according to the network plan.

Required if the priority type of an Ethernet service is not CVLAN, which is the default packet type trusted by ports in the DS domain. Set parameters according to the network plan. Required if a port is required to schedule traffic according to a specified queue scheduling policy when traffic congestion occurs. The default queue scheduling policy is SP+WRR (SP is short for strict priority and WRR for weighted round robin). AF1 to AF4 queues are WRR queues (allocated the same weight) and the other queues are SP queues. Set parameters according to the network plan.

Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Port Queues Setting Congestion Management Mode for Egress Queues

Required if the bandwidth for egress port queues needs to be restricted. Set parameters according to the network plan.

Required if a congestion management mode is required for queues at an egress port. Set parameters according to the network plan.

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Ste p 6

Operation Configuring Port Shaping

Remarks Required if the bandwidth in the egress direction of a port needs to be restricted. Set related parameters according to the network plan.

3.6.10 Configuration Example


This section provides an example of how to plan and configure quality of service (QoS) based on network conditions.

3.6.10.1 Networking Diagram


This section describes the networking of NEs. The packet microwave network shown in Figure 3-46 has the following quality of service (QoS) requirements: l Different types of Ethernet services, including the real-time voice service, real-time high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) service, non-real-time R99 service, and HSDPA data service, on NodeB 1 and NodeB 2 have different differentiated services code point (DSCP) values. Ethernet services from NodeB 1 and NodeB 2 are transmitted to the radio network controller (RNC) over the packet microwave network. On the packet microwave network, Ethernet services require end-to-end QoS management based on the DSCP values planned on the NodeB side.

l l

Figure 3-46 Networking diagram for QoS


To NE 2: IF To NodeB 1: P&E NE 1 To NE 1: IF To NE 3: GE NE 2 To NE 2: GE To NE 4: IF To NodeB 2: P&E NE 3 To NE 3: IF To RNC: P&E NE 4 RNC
GE P&E GE P&E P&E

NodeB 2

Microwave link

Ethernet link

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l l l l l

On the NMS, the logical port of a microwave port is 1-SHXA2-1(IF). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as an optical GE port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1). On the NMS, the logical port of a P&E port is 1-SHXA2-2(GE1), when the COMBO port does not function as an optical GE port. On the NMS, the logical port of a GE port is 1-SHXA2-3(GE2). On the NMS, the logical port of a COMBO port that functions as a 1+1 concatenation port is 1-SHXA2-4. This port is valid only when DCN is being configured.

3.6.10.2 Service Planning


This section describes the parameters required for configuring quality of service (QoS).

DiffServ
DiffServ (DS) is the basis for QoS. It is recommended that a VLAN priority or differentiated services code point (DSCP) value be allocated to a base station service based on the service type. The transport network creates the corresponding DS domain according to the allocated VLAN priority or DSCP value. All ports involved in the service must use the same DS configuration. In this example, services from the base stations are allocated DSCP values based on service types, and the OptiX RTN 310s allocate per-hop behaviors (PHBs) according to the DSCP values. For details, see Table 3-61. Table 3-61 PHBs and Service types PHB CS7 CS6 EF DSCP 56 48 40 Service Type Real-time voice services (R99 conversational and R99 streaming services) and signaling O&M and high-priority realtime HSDPA services (O&M and HSPA streaming services) Low-priority real-time HSDPA service (HSPA streaming service) High-priority non-real-time R99 services (R99 interactive and R99 background services)
336

AF41 AF43 AF31

36 32 28

AF33

24

AF21

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PHB AF23

DSCP 16

Service Type Low-priority non-real-time R99 services (R99 interactive and R99 background services) HSDPA data services (HSPA interactive and background services)

AF11 AF13 BE

12 8 0

NOTE

l CS7 or CS6 is not recommended, because CS7 or CS6 may be used to transmit Ethernet protocol packets or inband data communication network (DCN) packets. l The trusted packet type is not the C-VLAN priority but the DSCP value. Therefore, the trusted packet type needs to be changed for service-associated Ethernet ports in the default DS domain.

Queue Scheduling Policy and Congestion Management Mode


Because the transmission rate of an Ethernet port is much higher than the volume of traffic, congestion never occurs at an Ethernet port. Therefore, queue scheduling policy and congestion management mode need to be planned only for microwave ports. Retain the default queue scheduling policy and congestion management mode for an Ethernet port. Table 3-62 and Table 3-63 list the queue scheduling policies and congestion management modes for services of various priorities on microwave ports in this example. Table 3-62 Queue scheduling policies PHB CS7 CS6 EF AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 BE Queue Scheduling Policy Strict priority (SP) SP SP SP SP SP SP SP

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Table 3-63 Congestion management modes PHB Congestion Management Mode WRED Configuration High Threshold (Bytes) 64 (green) 42 (red) AF2 WRED 64 (green) 42 (red) AF1 BE Tail drop Tail drop Low Threshold (Bytes) 42 (green) 21 (red) 42 (green) 21 (red) 100 Drop Probability (%) 100

CS7 CS6 EF AF4 AF3

Tail drop Tail drop Tail drop Tail drop WRED

Shaping
If the Ethernet bandwidth planned for the aggregation link is lower than the total bandwidth for aggregation services, you can enable port shaping at the edge node to limit the Ethernet service traffic sent to the convergence node. This prevents congestion at the convergence node. In this example, you do not need to enable port shaping.

3.6.10.3 Configuration Procedure


This section describes the procedure for configuring data.

Procedure
Step 1 A.7.6.1 Modifying the Mapping for a DS Domain. The following table provides the values of the parameters on the Ingress tab page. CVLAN MPLS EXP Retain the default values for all the parameters. 0 12 8 20
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IP DSCP

PHB BE AF11 AF13 AF21


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CVLAN MPLS EXP

IP DSCP 16 28 24 36 32 40 48 56

PHB AF23 AF31 AF33 AF41 AF43 EF CS6 CS7

The following table provides the values of the parameters on the Egress tab page. CVLAN Retain the default values for all the parameters. IP DSCP 0 12 8 20 16 28 24 36 32 40 48 56 PHB BE AF11 AF13 AF21 AF23 AF31 AF33 AF41 AF43 EF CS6 CS7

Step 2 A.7.6.2 Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port. NE NE1 Port 1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-2 Trusted Packet Type ip-dscp

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NE NE2

Port 1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-3

Trusted Packet Type ip-dscp

NE3

1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-2 1-SHXA2-3

ip-dscp

NE4

1-SHXA2-1 1-SHXA2-2

ip-dscp

NOTE

The packet type trusted by an Ethernet port or microwave port is indicated by DSCP value instead of C-VLAN priority. Therefore, you need to change the associated trusted packet types that are applied in the default DS domain.

Step 3 A.7.6.4 Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies. The following table provides the values of microwave port parameters. Table 3-64 Queue scheduling policies PHB CS7 CS6 EF AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 BE Queue Scheduling Policy Strict priority (SP) SP SP SP SP SP SP SP

Step 4 A.7.6.6 Setting the Congestion Management Mode for Egress Queues. The following table provides the values of microwave port parameters.

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Table 3-65 Congestion management modes PHB Congestion Management Mode WRED Configuration High Threshold (Bytes) 64 (green) 42 (red) AF2 WRED 64 (green) 42 (red) AF1 BE Tail drop Tail drop Low Threshold (Bytes) 42 (green) 21 (red) 42 (green) 21 (red) 100 Drop Probability (%) 100

CS7 CS6 EF AF4 AF3

Tail drop Tail drop Tail drop Tail drop WRED

----End

3.6.11 Task Collection


This section provides hyperlinks to tasks related to quality of service (QoS).

Related Tasks
A.7.6.1 Modifying the Mapping for a DS Domain A.7.6.2 Changing the Packet Type Trusted by a Port A.7.6.3 Configuring Port Shaping A.7.6.4 Setting Egress Queue Scheduling Policies A.7.6.5 Setting Traffic Shaping for Egress Queues A.7.6.6 Setting the Congestion Management Mode for Egress Queues

3.6.12 Related Alarms and Events


This section describes the alarms and performance events related to quality of service (QoS).

Alarms
l PORT_EXC_TRAFFIC This alarm indicates that the bandwidth utilization at an Ethernet port has crossed the threshold because of heavy traffic at the Ethernet port. l
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This alarm indicates that there is no traffic at an enabled Ethernet port or microwave port when the connected link is in the Up state. l FLOW_OVER This alarm indicates that the traffic transmitted or received at an Ethernet port or microwave port has crossed the threshold.

Performance Events
l l RXGOODFULLFRAMESPEED This performance event indicates the rate of receiving good packets at a port. TXGOODFULLFRAMESPEED This performance event indicates the rate of transmitting good packets from a port.

3.6.13 FAQs
This section answers FAQs about quality of service (QoS). Q: Why is the rate limitation result calculated based on the peak information rate (PIR) different from the rate limitation result measured with a meter? A: It is normal that a slight difference exists. The difference is caused by the leaky bucket algorithm and the chip processing precision.

3.7 ETH OAM


ETH OAM detects and monitors the connectivity and performance of service trails using OAM protocol data units (PDUs). ETH OAM does not affect services.

3.7.1 Introduction
This section defines ETH OAM and describes its purpose.

Definition
ETH OAM uses OAM protocol data units (PDUs) to perform OAM operations in Ethernet Layer 2. ETH OAM is a low-rate protocol that is independent of the transmission medium. It occupies minimal bandwidth and, therefore, does not affect services The OptiX RTN 310 provides a complete ETH OAM solution, as shown in Figure 3-47. Figure 3-47 ETH OAM solution
Ethernet port OAM Ethernet service OAM Ethernet port OAM

Transmission network NodeB RNC

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Ethernet service OAM, also called connectivity fault management (CFM), focuses on endto-end maintenance of Ethernet links. Based on services, Ethernet service OAM implements end-to-end monitoring across a maintenance domain (MD) and manages each network segment that a service traverses. Ethernet port OAM, also called Ethernet in the first mile (EFM), focuses on point-to-point maintenance of Ethernet links between two directly-connected devices in the last mile. Ethernet port OAM, independent of services, performs OAM automatic discovery, link performance monitoring, fault detection, remote loopback detection, and local loopback detection to maintain a point-to-point Ethernet link.

Purpose
ETH OAM enhances Ethernet Layer 2 maintenance functions and supports service continuity verification, service deployment commissioning, and network fault locating.

3.7.2 Basic Concepts


This section describes the basic concep