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GM 236 (2013) The Mortuary Texts on Statue JE 38001 (K.

603)
David Klotz, Yale University

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In his valuable series of articles on the Karnak Cachette, Ramadan El-Sayed brought to light many previously unedited documents,1 paving the way for future studies on Late Period statuary and the Theban clergy.2 Arguably one of the most interesting objects in this group is JE 38001 (K. 603), a Ptolemaic cuboid statue featuring extended funerary invocations.3 Unfortunately, the small hieroglyphs and creative orthographies on this Ptolemaic block statue are sometimes difficult to identify, and the provisional translation accompanying the editio princeps involved unique readings for certain signs and several unparalleled turns of phrase. Although the editor accurately recorded all of the relevant prosopographic data, collation from detailed photographs has suggested alternate readings for the offering formulae.4 With the utmost respect to Prof. El-Sayed and his many contributions to Late Period monuments, the author humbly submits new copies of the texts along with updated translation and commentary. A. Main Body, lines 2-4
Previous readings:

a-b:

c:

d-e:

f-g:

h-i:

, j: , m-n:

k-l:

R. EL-SAYED, la recherche des statues indites de la Cachette de Karnak au Muse du Caire, ASAE 74 (1999), pp. 137-159; ASAE 75 (1999-2000), pp. 173-209; ASAE 80 (2006), pp. 167-197; ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 53-100. 2 Note that nine of the fifteen statues which R. El-Sayed published in this series have now been republished or studied in greater detail elsewhere: Docs. 2 (JE 36991 = CG 48610), 3 (JE 37002 = CG 48644), 4 (JE 37128), 5 (JE 37134), 6 (JE 37148), 7 (JE 37149), 8 (JE 37155 = CG 42218), 10 (JE 37182), 12 (JE 37414 = CG 48622). For updated bibliography on each statue, consult the online Karnak Cachette Database: http://www.ifao.egnet.net/bases/cachette. 3 R. EL-SAYED, ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 67-71. 4 In addition to the excellent photographs published by R. EL-SAYED, ASAE 81 (2007), Pls. xxii-xxxviii, see also the very useful images from the archives of Bernard V. Bothmer in the Brooklyn Museum, the Corpus of Late Egyptian Statuary, available at http://www.ifao.egnet.net/bases/cachette/?id=548.

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Ssp=k sn.w pr(.w) m-bAH snTr wab Hr xAw.t A nis.tw rn=k gm.tw=f B m-xt wDb-ixt C di.tw n=k Htp.w m Iwnw obHw pr(.w) m Abw sn.w m pr-PtH D Ax=k m p.t xr Ra wsr=k m tA xr Gbb E ao=k pr=k m dwA.t Hna Ra mi xAbs.w r X.t n.t p.t F p.t n bA=k dwA.t n/m XA.t=k G mnx.t n saH=k H xnmw I nDm r fnD=k mHy.t pr(.t) m Itm J anx bA=k wDA XA.t=k nTry saH=k m Xr.t-nTr ib=k n=k wnn=k tp-tA mAa-xrw=k xr Wsir n(n) sk rn=k D.t nHH Notes
A)

GM 236 (2013)
May you receive food which appears before (god), pure incense upon the altar, may your name be called out as it is found, after the reversion of offerings, may you be given offerings from Heliopolis, cool water which comes from Elephantine, reversion offerings from the Temple of Ptah. May you be radiant in heaven before Re, may you be mighty in the earth before Geb, may you enter and exit the Duat along with Re, like the stars at the belly of the sky. The sky is for your Ba, the Duat is for your corpse, linen is for your mummy, sweet air is at your nose, the north-wind which came from Atum. May your Ba live, may your corpse thrive, may your mummy become divine in the Necropolis. Your heart belongs to you, (as if) you were on earth, may you be justified before Osiris, your name will never perish for all eternity.

This entire wishincluding the abbreviated phrase m-bAH (nTr)occurs frequently on other statues and stelae.5 R. El-Sayed translated this phrase: (...) on psalmodie ton nom. On le rptera (=ton nom), par la suite (gm.tw=f m-xt).6 Yet the specific verb used here (gmi) expressly demonstrates that priests would search for the names of the deceased upon temple statues before reciting their names,7 and numerous parallels for this phrase appear on other private monuments.8

B)

5 6

Wb. I, 421, 3; O. PERDU, Socle dune statue de Neshor Abydos, RdE 43 (1992), pp. 148-150, n. b. ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 68-69, with n. k. 7 For this practice, see recently C.R. PRICE, Materiality, Archaism and Reciprocity: The Conceptualisation of the Non-Royal Statue at Karnak during the Late Period (c. 750-30 BC) (PhD Diss., University of Liverpool, 2011), pp. 226-229. 8 In addition to the Karnak Cachette statue CG 42122 (cited by R. EL-SAYED, ASAE 81 [2007], p. 69, n. k), see the many examples discussed by J. ASSMANN, Harfnerlied und Horusshne: zwei Blcke aus dem verschollenen Grab des Brgermeisters Amenemt, JEA 65 [1979], p. 60, nn. 47-48; P. VERNUS, Le verbe gm(j): essai de smantique lexicale, in E. Grossman, S. Polis, J. Winand (eds), Lexical Semantics in Ancient Egyptian, LingAeg Studia Monographica 9 (Hamburg, 2012), pp. 421423, who translates the formula: que ton nom soit invoqu afin quil soit pris en compte (gmi). For the importance of finding, or recognizing (gm) a name in the afterlife, see further M. SMITH, The Mortuary Texts of Papyrus BM 10507, CDPBM 3 (London,

GM 236 (2013)
C)

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This phrase does not designate the general distribution of offerings (wdn ixt),9 but rather the standard reversion of offerings (wDb ixt)10 performed for private statues and clergy after the completion of divine rituals.11 While one might expect a reference to the three dynastic cities of Egypt (Memphis,12 Heliopolis, Thebes),13 the present text substitutes Elephantine, the traditional source of cool water (obHw). A similar combination occurs on Berlin 7276, where the deceased receives: offerings (Htp.wt) from within Heliopolis, provisions (DfA.w) in Memphis, and cool water from the grotto (TpH.t) of Elephantine.14 R. El-Sayed translated these phrases as follows: les produits utiles et efficaces (Ax.t mnx.t) provenant du ciel et des vivres destins chaque Avaleur (ixt r am nb) provenant du sol Geb.15 Nonetheless, the wish for a bipartite existence split between Re (heaven) and Geb (earth) is quite common, beginning already in the Eighteenth Dynasty.16 For a similar layout of signs, compare this variant on another Theban statue (MFA 1971.21):17

D)

E)

F)

R. El-Sayed alternatively rendered this and the following section: commes les toiles qui sveillent dans lOcan du ciel sur (ton) Ba (dans) la Douat et sur ton cadavre cach.18 The xAbs.w-stars are evoked in several other funerary wishes, including CG 553: bA n p.t m-m xAbs.w, may (your) Ba be in heaven among the stars.19 In the present text, the belly of the sky (X.t n.t p.t) refers to the womb of Nut.

1987), p. 100, n. a to Col. VII, 10. So R. EL-SAYED, ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 68-69, with n. l. 10 For this orthography of wDb, see already Wb. I, 408-409; P. WILSON, A Ptolemaic Lexikon, OLA 78 (Leuven, 1997), p. 289. 11 C.R. PRICE, Materiality, Archaism and Reciprocity (supra, n. 6), pp. 238-244. 12 R. El-Sayed transcribed the signs differently, and translated this toponym as: la Maison-des-biens-agrables (pr ixt bnr) (ASAE 81 [2007], pp. 68-69, with n. q). 13 Cf. S. CAUVILLE, Les trois capitales Osiris le roi, RdE 61 (2010), pp. 1-42 14 gInschBerlin II (Berlin, 1913), p. 107. Compare also CG 39217 (J. OSING, Das Grab des Nefersecheru in Zawyet Sulan, AV 88 (Mainz am Rhein: 1992), pp. 47, 52, n. av = JWIS II, 421, No. 50), for provisions and libations from Memphis and Heliopolis. 15 ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 68-69, with notes r-s. 16 W. BARTA, Aufbau und Bedeutung der altgyptischen Opferformel, gForsch 24 (Glckstadt, 1968), pp. 190, 205, 213, 234 (Bitte 7); J. ASSMANN, JEA 65, 1979, p. 59, n. d; M.-Th. DERCHAIN-URTEL, Priester im Tempel: die Rezeption der Theologie der Tempel von Edfu und Dendera in den Privakdokumenten aus ptolemischer Zeit, GOF IV, 19 (Wiesbaden, 1989), pp. 119-26. 17 W.K. SIMPSON, Three Egyptian Statues of the Seventh and Sixth Centuries B.C. in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Kmi 21 (1971), p. 25. 18 ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 68, 70, with nn. v-z. 19 L. BORCHARDT, Statuen und Statuetten von Knigen und Privatleuten, II (Berlin, 1925), p. 100 (after W. BARTA, Aufbau und Bedeutung der altgyptischen Opferformel, p. 151, Bitte 137); cf. also . DRIOTON, Deux statues naophores consacres Apis, ASAE 41 (1942), pp. 28-29, who published a difficult formula occurring in two variants: travel (up to) heaven as a star (nw (r) Nw(.t) m xAbs), and may you travel up to heaven among the stars (nw=t r p.t m-m xAbs.w). For similar texts, see further Fr.-R. HERBIN, Le livre de parcourir lternit, OLA 58 (Leuven, 1994), pp. 95-96.
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G) H)

GM 236 (2013)
This wish finds numerous parallels in mortuary literature.20 The horizontal sign above saH is hard to identify, and it almost resembles a k-basket; yet the resulting translation (e.g. may you clothe your mummy (Hbs=k saH=k)) would diverge syntactically from the surrounding prepositional phrases. Instead, the sign could be the simplified, semi-cursive n-hieroglyph, which occurs earlier in the word nis (line 2), or perhaps another example of confusion between k and n.21 In any event, the specific wish for clothing of the mummy (mnx.t saH) occurs elsewhere.22 R. El-Sayed emended to , in order to obtain the conventional phrase TAw23 nDm, sweet breath. While one could envisage graphic confusion between the two signs, it is simpler to read the sign as xnmw breath,24 derived from the more common hieroglyph: (Xnm).25

I)

J)

This specific formula occurs in a number of Late Period texts.26 As elsewhere, the north-wind is identified with Tefnut-Mehyt,27 and thus logically comes forth from her father Atum.28

20

E.g. W. BARTA, Aufbau und Bedeutung der altgyptischen Opferformel, pp. 190-191, Bitte 137; J. ASSMANN, JEA 65 (1979), pp. 75-76. 21 For examples, cf. H. JUNKER, Die Stundenwachen in den Osirismysterien nach den Inschriften von Dendera, Edfu und Philae, DAWW 54 (Vienna, 1910), pp. 31-32; Ph. COLLOMBERT Hout-Sekhem et le septime nome de Haute-gypte II: les stles tardives, RdE 48 (1997), p. 20, n. a. 22 W. BARTA, Aufbau und Bedeutung der altgyptischen Opferformel, p. 213, Bitte 25. 23 ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 68, 70, n. bb. 24 For this writing, cf. D. KURTH, Einfhrung ins Ptolemische: Eine Grammatik mit Zeichenliste und bungsstcken, I (Htzel, 2007), p. 232, n. 80; D. KLOTZ, Caesar in the City of Amun: Egyptian Theology and Temple Construction in Roman Thebes, MRE 15 (Brepols, 2012), p. 68. G. POSENER, Le signe , RdE 7 (1950), p. 194. W. BARTA, Aufbau und Bedeutung der altgyptischen Opferformel, pp. 200, Bitte 135, 215, Bitte 79; M.-Th. DERCHAIN-URTEL, Priester im Tempel, pp. 137-38; O. PERDU, Documents relatifs aux gouverneurs du Delta au dbut de la XXVIe dynastie, RdE 57 (2006), pp. 167, 168, n. g. 27 S. CAUVILLE, Lhymne Mehyt dEdfou, BIFAO 82 (1982), pp. 116-118. 28 R. El-Sayed alternatively read the divine name as a stative form tm.tj, tant parfait (ASAE 81 [2007], pp. 68, 70, n. cc). For this orthography of Atum, see K. MYLIWIEC, Studien zum Gott Atum, II: Name, Epitheta, Ikonographie, HB 8 (Hildesheim, 1979), pp. 21-22.
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GM 236 (2013)
B. Statue Base, Left Side
Previous readings:

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a-b:

c:

, d-e:

Htp di nsw.t n Imn-Ra nb-ns.wt-tA.wy sHD.n=i XA.t=k m hb Mso.t A di=i sSp m orr.t=k wn(=i) n=k ir.t(y)=k(y) Sp(.w) dwn=i n=k rd.wy=k(y) orf(.w) B sro=i Hty.t=k m xprw(=i) m dwA.t C A royal-offering of Amun-Re Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands: It is while traveling through Mesqet, that I have illumined your corpse, while I place light inside your cavern. As I open for you your blind eyes, so I extend for you your crooked legs. That I make your throat breathe, is by means of my manifestation in the Netherworld. Notes
A)

R. El-Sayed translated this passage: jai clair ton cadavre dans lenclos de lAudel (m pA tb (db) mswt).29 Yet the verb hb, to perambulate; enter, frequently describes the presence of the sun or its light beneath the earth.30 The specific wording of the present statue finds close parallels in other solar texts: he traveled through (hb)

29 30

ASAE 81 (2007), pp. 70-1, with n. c. Compare a hymn to Amun from Hibis Temple: his rays penetrate into the [earth...] (HDD(.wt)=f hb=sn m [tA...]) (Hibis III, Pl. 32, 4; cf. D. KLOTZ, Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple, YES 6 [New Haven, 2006], pp. 139-40, Pls. 9, 44). For the general concept, cf. J. ZANDEE, Der Amunhymnus des Papyrus Leiden I 344, Verso, II (Leuven, 1992), pp. 450-52; cf. also Edfou I, 401, 4: your rays go around and enter Igeret (hb mAw.t=k ao=sn Igr.t); pBerlin 3049, VII, 5-6: his rays go around the two lands (hb mAw.t=f tA.wy) (S.A. GLDEN, Die hieratischen Texte des P. Berlin 3049, KlT 13 (Wiesbaden, 2001), pp. 40, 42.

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GM 236 (2013)
Mesqet in happiness (hb.n=f Msot.t m Aw.t-ib).31 Similarly: just as Re enters (hb) the earth, so does he go around Mesqet, in order to rejuvenate his body with his rays (hb Ra m tA, Snn=f Msot.t, r snxn Haw=f m stw.t=f).32

B)

C)

R. El-Sayed parsed this sentence differently, reading: (j)ai ouvert pour toi ton il (afin que toi) voies [(r) nw=k]. Jai dli [wny] pour toi tes jambes.33 However, this is a well-attested funerary formula,34 which usually employs the same modifiers, namely blind (Sp)35 and crooked; stiff (orf).36 R. El-Sayed translated this passage quite differently: Tous les opposants (rkw nb) se courbent (krf) en sloignant (m biA) au milieu des formes qui sont dans lAu-Del.37 As translated here, this wish refers to the solar god providing air to the residents of the Duat, specifically through his subterranean manifestation (xprw).38 Statue Base, Right Side

C.

Previous readings:

a-b:

c:

Htp di nsw.t n Wsir xnty-Imnty Hry-ib Ip.t-s.wt di=f sxn bA=k n/m Ra ir(.w) k(w) A nD=f tw m-a nkn(.w) k(w) aHa=k Hr rd.wy=k(y) D.t B A royal-offering of Osiris-Khentiamenty within Karnak, may he allow your Ba to unite with Re, your maker, may he protect you from your attacker, so you might stand upon your own feet forever.

31 32

Edfou I, 417, 12-13 (left); Esna VII, 549. P. Louvre N 3284, 1; Fr.-R. HERBIN, Le livre de parcourir lternit, pp. 76, 511. 33 ASAE 81 (2007), p. 71, with nn. d-e. 34 CT I, 56a-b (Spell 20), CT III, 256a-b (Spell 226), BD 26; see recently D. KLOTZ, Emhab versus the tmrhtn: Monomachy and the Expulsion of the Hyksos, SAK 39 (2010), p. 223, n. 94; A. PRIES, Die Stundenwachen im Osiriskult. Eine Studie zur Tradition und spten Rezeption von Ritualen im Alten gypten, Studien zur sptgyptischen Religion 2 (Wiesbaden, 2011), I, pp. 175-177; II, p. 31. 35 The present orthography uses the p.t-sign instead of the expected S-hieroglyph, a graphic confusion attested elsewhere: D. MEEKS, Oiseaux des carrires et des cavernes, in U. Verhoeven, E. Graefe (eds.), Religion und Philosophie im alten gypten. Festfabe fr Philippe Derchain zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 24. Juli 1991, OLA 39 (Leuven, 1991), p. 234, n. a 36 For this term, see D. KLOTZ, SAK 39 (2010), p. 223, n. b. 37 ASAE 81 (2007), p. 71, with nn. f-h. 38 For the solar god providing breath in the underworld with his light, cf. J.C. DARNELL, The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity, OBO 198 (Fribourg; Gttingen, 2004), pp. 100-101.

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Notes
A)

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R. El-Sayed read the first sentence as follows: Soit pour quil (=le dieu) permette quil (= le mort) embrasse son Ba, quil contemple la perfection de son Ka.39 Instead, the text alludes to the desire of the deceased to unite with the sun, employing an expression similar to Sinuhe R,7: (he) united with the solar disk, the body of the god united with his maker (Xnm(.w) m itn, Haw nTr Abx(.w) m ir(.w) sw).40 Grammatically, one would expect dependent pronouns to follow the active participles ir.w (Wb. I, 111, 1-2) and nkn.w, so this may be the rare archaizing 2nd masculine singular pronoun, kw, which occurs in other Osirian texts of the Ptolemaic Period.41 R. El-Sayed understood the first group ( ) to mean: Que tu ne subisses pas de dommage, without identifying the grammatical construction; for that interpretation, one would expect something like: im=k nkn, or something similar. For the final phrase, he copied the text differently and translated: Que tu sois fort (sxm=k) sur tes jambes ternellement.42 Nonetheless, this entire passage derives from a common speech of Duamutef (BD 151m),43 particularly as it occurs on Late Period coffins (e.g. CG 41011):44 ii.n=i nD.n=i tw m-a nkn di=i aHa=k Hr rd.wy=k(y) n D.t As I have come, so have I protected you from attack, I allow you to stand upon your own feet forever.

B)

39 40

ASAE 81 (2007), p. 71. For similar adaptations of the Sinuhe passage in other Late Period texts, see A. LEAHY, The Adoption of Ankhnesneferibre at Karnak, JEA 82 (1996), p. 151, n. s. 41 H. JUNKER, Die Stundenwachen pp. 26-27; F.R. HERBIN, La tablete hiroglyphique MMA 55.144.1, ENIM 5 (2012), 305, verso 3. 42 ASAE 81 (2007), p. 71. 43 B. LSCHER, Untersuchungen zu Totenbuch Spruch 151, SAT 2 (Wiesbaden, 1998), pp. 230-231. 44 A. MORET, Sarcophages de lpoque bubastite lpoque sate, I (Cairo, 1913), p. 146; for the expression aHa Hr rd.wy, see also BD 32 (e.g. T.G. ALLEN, The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day, SAOC 37 [Chicago, 1974], p. 42); Fr.-R. HERBIN, Le livre de parcourir lternit, p. 136 (II, 21).