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;, U;..JIVERSITY uf CAMBRIDGE
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1
English for Speakers of Other languages
T e
Course
MarySpratt
Alan Pulvel'ness
Melanie Williams
Contents
Introduction
Module 1 Language and background to language learning and teaching
Part 1 Describing language and language skills
Unit I Grammar
Unit 2 Lexis
Unit 3 Phonology
Un it 4 Functions
Uni t 5 Reading
Unit 6 Writing
Unit 7 Listeni ng
UnitB Speaking
Part 2 Background to language learning
Unit 9 MOljvation
Unit 10 Exposure and focus on form
Unit 11 The role of error
UIlII 12 DiHercnccs between II and L2 learning
Unit 13 Learner dlaraclcristics
Unit 14 Leamer needs
Part 3 Background to language teaching
Unit 15 Prescn tal ion tectlOiqucs and ioaoductory activities
Vn.il 16 Practjcc activitks and tasks for language and
skills development
Unil 17 Assessment types and tasks
TKT Module I Practice test
'w1odule 2 lesson planning and use of resources for language teaching
Part 1 Planning and preparing a lesson or sequence of lessons
Unl! 18 IdentHying and selecti ng aims
Unll 19 Identi fying the dHfcrenl components or a lesson plan
Uni t 20 Planning an individual lesson or a sequence of lessons
Unit 21 Choosing assessment activities
5
10
13
17
21
26
30
34
38
41
44
48
52
57
61
66
71
75
86
9 1
96
102
Part 2 Selection and use of resources and materials
Unit 21 Consulting reference resources to help in lesson prepilration
Unil 23 Selection and liSt' of cour"Sebook materials
Unit 24 SeJection and use of supplementary materials and ;](.1ivilit-s
Unit 25 Selection and usc of aids
TKT Module 2 Practice test
Module 3 Managing the teaching and learning process
Part 1 Teachers' and learners'language in the classroom
106
110
114
119
124
Uni t 26 Using language appropriately for a range of classroom functions 134
Unit 27 -Identifying the functi ons of learners' language 138
Unit28 Categorising !carners' mistakes 141
Part 2 Classroom management
Unit 29 Teacher roll's [45
Unit 30 Grouping sludems 148
Unit 3 1 Correcting learners
152
Unit 32 Giving [eedback
156
TKT Module 3 Practice test
160
Sample TKT answer sheet 168
Exam lips for TKT 169
Answe r key for Follow-up activities
171
Answer key furTKT praClire tasks
176
Answer kc)' for TKT practice tests
177
Alphabetical list of terms
178
Unil by uni t li st of terms
182
Phonelnic symbols
187
Acknowl<:dgemcl1ts 188
Introduction
What is the Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT)?
The Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) is a lest developed by Cambridge I:.SOL for teachers of
to speakers or other languages. TKT tests ctIndidal es' knowledge of concepts related 10
language. lcll1gu<lgc u .. e and the background to and pr.lClice of l.:mguagc teaching and learning.
It is not a l('SI of tl lc practical skills teachers need 10 lISC in lheir own classroom" or of English
languas;e profidcncy.
TKT consists 01 three modules whicll can be taken together. or separatel y. in any order. The
content of TKT is tested by mCiln5 of objecrive tasks, such as mmciliJlg and IllLdlip!c d lOice.
The ICSt for cach module consists 0180 quesTions.
There arc no entry requiremcnts. such as previous teaching experience and/or teaching or lan-
guage qualifications. for TKT. but candidates should have al It:ast an itllt'nncdiate level of English.
e.g. PET, lELTS 4, CEF I ALTE B \. They are also expeCtcd 10 understand J rilnge of abOlll 400
IcmlS describing the practice of English Language Teaching (ElT). A selection of these terms
appears in eadl TKT modu.le. A list of the terms that Illay occur in TKT is provided in the TKT
Glossary which is on Iht:: Cambridge ESQL websile: hnp: llwww.cambridgccsol.org/TKT.
Candidates are encouraged to keep a leaching ponfolio 10 help (hem rcnect on their teaching
pran..ice. bill Ihis ponfolio is not assessed.
What is The TKT Course?
Till' TKTCOllrsl' has four main aims:
I To illlrodu.CC readers (0 the concepts and terms about tcaching and learning that arc central
10 TKT. and to give them opponunilies to do exam practice with TKT sample lest tasks and
exam papers.
2 To illlfoduce readers to the milin current theories. approaches and activities in ELT and assess
their usefu lness to Ihe classroom.
"3 To share with readers some Qf Ille many resources available to F:nglisll language tcachers.
4 To provide il nd <lctivilics that give teachers oppOrTunitks for proressional
development by exploring I Ill' concepts which have been illlroduccd.
Who is The TKT Course wri tten for?
The TKTColirse is wrillen lor the following readers:
.. Reader:. intending to take TKT. They may be Studying for;1 on a course, or alone as
sell-access sllldents.
Readc.rs rollowing introductory leacher development courses in teadling English. or
(elraining 10 become English language Icachers.
Readers working by themselves 10 improve their knowledge of ELT .
.. Readers who have nOI sianed teaching yet. and readers who are already (('adling in primary
or secondary schools.
Both first and second language speakers of English.
1
IntroductIon
Th", i..ln;t.4O:: C u ~ c d in Thl TKT Course is at the samc level as the language used in TKT .
.c. .... rnu:d!ate Ie' el English at approximately fBITS band 4 or CEF (Common EuropeaJ1
r'-amr",' -." Bl.
7 . u ~ Ta.cricli in the hook is designed to provide approximately 60-90 hours of study.
" at are the contents of The TKT Course?
'The wntl'ntS of The TKT Course foUow the coments and order of the TKT specifications. The book
cIlntclins:
three modules, each focusil1g on ont.' module of TKT. Each mudule is divided into units
covering tht.' contents of the TKT specifications for th.ll module. Thl: units focus on topics from
the module, and then provide tasks and activit ies exploring the topics and prepari.ng the reClder
for TKT.
ELT te rms from the TKTGlossl1ry. These Occur in each unit and are shown in bold the first [jme
they appear ill a uni!. They are ddined rbe first time they appear in the book and some are
delim'd again later, if tbey have another meaning.
three TKT practice tesls. one for each module.
exam tips for taking TKT.
answer keys lor the activities. TKT pranke tasks and TKT practice teSts.
two !iSIS ofthl:: ELT terms from the TK1' Clossary that are used ill the Uook. The rirst!ist gives the
terms for the whole book. and the second gives the terms for each LIlli\. The first list gives the
page when.' each term is defined.
The unils bUild on one anolher, so thaI the ideas introduced in one unit provide tile foundation
for the ideas introduced in the next unit. Similarly, each module provides a foundation for the
next module. as in the design o[TKT.
Module I focuses on tenns alld concepts commonly used to describe: language and language
ski lls: the background 10 language learning; aClivities and approaches in ELT and assessmcnl.
Module 2 focuses on lesson planning and the usc of resources and materials.
Module 3 focuses on the language tbat teachers and learners usc in lhe classroom and on
tecllniqucs forc1assroom management.
How is each unit organised and how can it be used?
The advice in the table opposite is intended for those lIsing the book 011 a laughl course or for sel f-
access readers. It ca n also be adapted for usc by trainers.
Introduction
Each unit in The TKTCOl/rse foll ows the same structure:
Section Purpose Suggesrlons for use
Starter questIon To provide: a definItion of the key Try to answer the question
and answer terms in the title of the unit. before readIng the answer.
Key concepts To Introduce the main Ideas of the There Is a short question at the
topic of the unit and to explain beginning of this section. Try
the key Ell terms. answerIng It before reading the
text that follows. This section
could be read oUIside class.
Key concepts and To discuss how the key concepts It would be useful to think about
the language influence English language how each point might Influence
teaching classroom teaching and learning. what you do In the classroom.
Follow"up activities To allow the reader to work with the These activi ties are designed for
key concepts in order to understand use in or outside the classroom.
them more fully. Completing them leads to a much
N.B. These activities do not use the fuller understandIng of the unit's
same question formats as those used key concepts. There Is an answer
InTKT. key for these activities on
pages 171- 5.
Reflection To encourage the reader to develop Discuss these points with others
hls/ heropl nlons on the key concepts If possible. As this section is
by considering questiOns or comments about opinions. It does not
from teachers and learner ... have answers.
Discovery activitIes To help the reader to find out more These activities Involve doing
about the key concepts, to experiment things outside the classroom.
with them In the classroom and to e.g. reading chapters from books.
assess thei r usefulness. finding websites, seeing how key
concepts are applied In
coursebooks. trying out Ideas In
the classroom and writing
comments In the TKTport fof! o.
N.B. Decide if It Is more useful to
write the TKT portfolio in English
or your own language.
TKT practice task To review the unit'S content and to Do this task to familiarise yourself
help readers become familiar with with the formats ofTKT and to
the TKT task formats and level. test yourself on the contents of
N.B. These tasks use the .. ame the unit. You can checkyouf
question formats as those used in TKT. answers in the answer keyon
page 176.
3
Int roduction
We suggest that readers uSing tbis book by themselves dlOose a collrsebook 10 US(' for the
Discovery activities and think of a spednc group of learners for the Reflection and Discovery
ao:ivitic:s.
\'\'e a t ~ o recommend readers to look althe TKTGlossary (hllp: fl www.cambrtdgeesol.org/TKT) as
the1" work through the book. to hetp consolidate and extend understanding of ELT tenus. It may
also bl:' useful to have a good dictionary near you. e.g. Cambridge Advall(ed Leamtrs' Dictionary.
Cambridge University Prl:SS 2003.
Enjoy your teaching and your reflection 0]) your teaching. and good luck 10 those wbo
take TKT .

Module 1
Port of speech EJeamples function
Adjectives easier

to describe or give more information about a noun.
(e.g. comparative) pronoun or part of a sentence
Adverbs complerely

to describe or give more [nformatlon about how.
(e.g. of degree. quickly when or where something happens
manner. [[me) yesterday

to add information to adjectives. verbs. other
adverbs or sentences
Determiners my

(Q make clear which noun [s referred to or to give
(e.g. possessive the information about quantity
adjectives. articles, this
demonstrative both
adjectives. quantifiers)
Prepositions after

to connect a noun. noun phrase or pronoun to
(e.g. place.
or another word or phrase
direction towards
Pronouns
'he

to rep [ace or refer to a noun or noun phrase JUSt
(e.g. personal, mine mentioned
possessive, relat[ve. who
reflexive) myself
Conjunctions a,
to join words, sentences or parts of sentences
(e.g. of reason. and
addition. contrast) but
Exclamations Er

to show a (mong) feeling - especially in Informal
(e.g. of doubt, pain) Ow spoken language
We ca n divide the parts of speech into further categories. e.g. counta ble and uncollntable
nouns and tra nsitive and intransiti ve verbs.
Grammar rules also describe grammatical stl"UctUTCS, i. e. the arrangemcm of words inlO
patterns which haw meaning. The rules for grammatical strllclUres usc grammatical terms to
describe forms and lIses. 'Form' refers 10 the specifi c grammatical parts lha t make lip the
stnl<.lure and tile order they OCcur in. 'Use' refers to the lhalthe Slrudure is used to
express. Look at these examples:
Term form Use
Past subject + past tense of verb tobe+ -ing

to describe a temporary or
continuous form of verb background situation or action in the
I :ense e.g. he was running past
Diss've voice subje.ct + to be+ past participle

to show what happens to people
(+by+agem) or things
e.g. the rood was built (by !hecompany)
: o""'paratlve more+ long adjective (+ rhan)

generally used with adjectives of two
.,
:;jlg"
e.g. he was more embarrassed thon his syllables or more to compare sepame .
.,l;' friend things or people
Un it t Grammar
We also use grammar LO describe how w()rds are fom1Cd. English uses pref ixes (a group <"'If
lellers added at the beginning of a word) and suffixes (3 group of lellers added at the end (II a
word) to create new words. The prefixes and suffixes are added to base words (e.g. SftlP, ll-tJok) 1('1
make new grammatical units such as tcnses. parts 01 verbs, the plural of nouns. possessives.!!.g.
lalkfii g0eL 90$ book.s- gi rl.:s.. Many other prefixes (c.g. Wl-, il- , pre-. dis-) and suffixes (c.g. -film.
-est, -ly, -able) arc also used in English to make new words e.g. m.s.appear, (areM JriendIJ:. Some
languages, e.g. 1\trkish and Gennan, make a tOI of use of prefixes and suffixes 10 create 11t"\\
words . Other languages make lirue or 11 0 use of them.
Grammar includes a largt' number of terms, grammaTical stTuoures, uses and forms. This
unit only introduces them generally. The TKT Glossary (hllpJl www.cambridgeesol.org/TKT)
and the grammar books and websites suggested in the Discovery activi ti es on page 8 provide
more infonnation.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Grammar m les describc the way thaI language works, but language changes over lime. so
grammar rules are nOl fixed. They change too. Unfortunately, grammar rules and grammar
books don'l always change as quickly as the language, so they are not always up 10 da te. For
example. sOme grammar books sa}' that we should use whom rather tha n who after
prepositions, but. ill faCt , except in some sitUations. who is gcncrall}' used, wi th a dHicrelll
wQrd orde.r. e.g. 'I'vejust melilie girl who [talked to on Friday' is much more common and
accepted Ulan 'Tve jusl me! the girt 10 whom I lalked on Friday" .
Teachers need to keep up to da le with what parts of lbe language are cbanging and how.
Grammar rules traditionaUy descri be wrillen language rather than spoken language. For
example, repelition. exclamations and contractions (t WO words that arc pronounced or
written as one, e .g. dor!'r from do fl ol, iSI7't from is 1"101. won't from will no!) are common
featUres of spokcnlanguage. but Ibey are no! always described in grammar books. Some
grammar books arc now avai lable whjcb describe spoken language 100.
Ve ry often. speake rs of a language can spt!ak and write it well without consciollsly
knowing any graillmatkal rules Or terms.
Learning some grammatical rules and Terms makes languagt.:. learning casier for Some
karne.rs. Other Icarne.rs - e.g. young drildren - ma y not lind them useful at alL
J usilcarning grammatical ruks and struCltlrt!S doesn't give learners enough help with
learning how to communjCate, which is the main purpose of language. So, much language
teaching has moved awa y from tcachi ng onl y grammar. and now teaches. e.g. functions.
language skills and fluency as weU as grammar.
See Units 9-14 for how we learn grammar. Units 15 and 16for teaching grammatIcal structures, Units 18. 19
and.2o for planning lessons an grammar/cal strucrures and Units 28 and 31 for approaches to and ways of
correcting grammar.
7
Modulel
I'OLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES Pt. ".ge 171 ,j'r' /lhll"I'\)
Which I)CII'I of specdl is cadl of these words? To help you, think of the 1V0rds in sentences and
look at lhe lable on pages 5-6. (Some words are more than one pan of .speech.)
hox during walk because younger well wow
all decide water we clever herself though
2 Use prefixes and suffixes to make as many words as you can (rom these words:
new I>ossible run
'3 Find three gramrnatil:al Struoures in }' our coursebook and complete [his [able.
Term
REFLECTION
Wh,1t do you think these learners' comments mean? Do YOli agree with them? Why'!lwhy nOt?
I Lcaming gramm,1r doesn't help me \0 speak English with English-speaking people.
2 learning grammar rules is rcally useful. but leaming gramm3licalle.nm bn't .
3 I didn't need to learn grammar when Ilearnl my firs! language.
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
Find out which reJcrence materials art' available in )'our schoOl to help you with
grammar. Which arc mosl usdul'! why?
2 Compare <lny twO of these books on grammar or lhe grammar information on these
two websitl!S. Which do you peeler? Why?
Practical c"glish USlIg( (second edition) by Michael Swan, Oxford University Press 1995
Diswwr Ellglish by Rod Boliul0 and Brian Tomlinson. MacmWan 1995
En:Jlish Grammar 1/1 Use (third edilion) by Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University
Prt'ss 1004
Unroverill.IJ Grammar by Scott/homuuf}'. MaOllillan 200}
hn p: II www. learne.ngl ish.Drg.uk
h t t p: I {ww\v.cngl i;<;h ch,J b.com
3 Usc a or the TKTG/()ssary to Hod the meaning of these terms:
aaiwlptlssiw voicc. clallSe.lllodal verb, phrasr. qllefliolliag. rellse.
Unit 1 Crammar
............................................................................................... ........ ..
TKT practice task (See page 1 76for answers)
For questions 16, match the underlined words in the text below with the parts of speech listed AG
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Parts of speech
A conjunction
B preposition
C noun
o adverb
E pronoun
F verb
G adjective
I want you to write a (1) 1m of ten things which (2) ~ like. Do it (3) carefully. But don't talk to me
or your sister. (4) M me about any (5).d.i.tli.c..!.! words you can't spell. (6) ~ you have
finished, you can watch television.
.................................................. .... ..................................................
9
10
Unit 2 Lexis
What is lexis?
Lex-is is individual words or sets of words, i.e. vocabulary items, that have a specific meaning.
for example: Ire.!', get up, first of aU.
Key concepts
What mt'anings does the word tra have?
Vocabulary items have different. kinds of meaning. Firstly. there is the meaning that describes tIle
thing or idea behind the vocabulary item. e.g. a lTCt' is a large plant wiu} a wooden Trunk.
branches and leaves. This meani ng is called 'del1oration', Then there is figurative meanj ng. We
speak. for example, of 'the tree or li fe' or 'a family tree' , This imaginative meaning comes from.
but is diHerclH from. denotation. There is also the meaning that a vocabulary it em has in the
context (sit uation) in which it is used. e.g. in the sentence 'We couldn't sec the house because
of the tall tret's in front of it' we understand how tall the trees were partly from knowing the
meaning of tall and partty (rom knowing how tall a house is, so the meaning of tall in Ihis
sel1lence is partly defined by the context.
The meaning of sOllle vocabulary items is created by adding prefixes or suffixes 10 base
words (e.g. naliollnliJ:L, U!1Pro/essionol), or by making compound words (I WO or more words
tOgether tha t have meani ng as a sel. e.g. telwllolle /lumber, bookshop) or by collocation (words
Ihalofl.cn occur togcl her, e.g. 10 take a holiday, heavy rain).
To help disti nguish the meaning of words from other rrlaled words. vocabulary items can be
grouped into synonyms (words with the same or si milar n1canings), antonyms (words with
opposite meanings), and lexicaJ sets (groups of words that belong 10 the same topic area, e.g.
members: of Ihe famil y, furniture, types of food). The table below shows some examples.
Vocabulary items clear (adj ecti ve) paper (n oun)
Denotations 1 easy to understand 1 material used to Wr ite on or wrap things in
2 not covered or blocked 2 a newspaper
3 having no doubt 3 a document containing Information
Synonyms slmpie{tor meaning I} (none)
cerraln (for meaning 3)
Antonyms/ confUSing (meaning 1), (none)
Opposites untidy, covered (meaning 2)
unsure (meaning 3)
lexical sets (none) srone. plostic, clorh. etc.
Unit 2 lexis
vocabulary j[ems clear (adjective) paper (noun)
Prefixes + base word unclear (none)
Base word + suffixes clearly, a clearing paperless
Compounds clear-headed paper knife, paper shop, paperback
Collocations clear skin, a clear day [0 pur pen ro paper
Figura.tive meanings a clear head on poper(e.g.1t seemed a good idea on poper)
We can <;ec from this table IhM words sometimes have scvcral oenotations. The comex( in
which we are writing or speaking makes it clear which meaning we are using. Words can also
change their denotations according to wh,1t pan of speech they are, e.g. the adjective dear \' 5 the
verb (0 clear. We can a lso see that not aU words have all the kinds of forms. and tbat it is not
always possible to find synonyms for words. as few words are very simi.lar in meaning.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Re<llly knowing a word means knowing aU its different kinds or meanings.
Knowing a word also involves understanding its form, i.c. wb<ll pan of speech il is. how it
works grammatically. and how.it is pronounced and spell.
Whether we are learning our first or our secOlld language, it t<lkes a long time before we fully
know a word. We oft.en recognise a word bctore we can use it.
Teachers need 10 introduce vocabulary items again and again 10 learners. expanding graduall y
on their meaning and their forms. Ti llS also increases tll{' dlanccs of learners remembering
lile- item.
We ran introduce vocabulary items in reading and listening before we ask learners La use
the ilems.
See Module 1.2 forfocwrs offenlflg the leorn1ng ofvocobu/ary, Module I.] for [cchn1ques tor the reaching and
assessment ofvocobu/ary and Module 2.2 for resources for reaching vocabulary.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (Sft ptl.Q' t 71 j,ll oll/'>IL'I!n)
What does each of these selS of words have in common? Are they synonyms. antonyms.
lexical sets, compOlmds, collocations. words witb prdixes or words wilh suffixes?
A rabie, cbair, ;;ofa, bcd, bookcase, ches1 of drawe.rs, desk
Bold-young. bright-dark. loud-quiet, fasi-slow, first-last , long- shari
C a straight road, a briHi<ln! idea, ha rd work. 110 problem. extremely gratdul
o neat-tidy. preasely-exacl.ly. to doubF .... to question, nobody-no one
E microwave. compae disc, lt101Ilnrush. paper dip, lampshade, bottle top
F ill ness, badly, useless, doubtful, affordable. ability, practic,ll
G imperfect. rewrite. unable, iIliterate. inc(lffect, ultramodern
1 Pm Ihese words in their right place in the first column in the !able on the next page:
compound words synonyms antonyms collocations denota tions
lexical stl"S prefix + base word base word + suflix
11
Module!
Term care (noun) to decide
A sensitive attention to choose one option after thinking about several
B love and attention. worry to make up your mind
C neglect to hesitate
D pol it eness. admiration. respect to think. to hesitate, to wonder
E (none) undecided
f careful , careless. carelessness decided, decidedly
G caretaker (none)
H great care. take care of finally decide
REFLECTION
Think about l!lese teachers' commCni s:
I Beginner learners only need 10 learn the denotations of words.
2 Learners don'! need (0 leam ll1(' names for the different types of meaning.
J The only way 10 leam vocabuliHy is through reading
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
-I Look up three words [rom your coursebook in an English-English dictionary. What kinds
ofOleanings art: given roread) word?
2 Look at Chapter 7 'Vocabul ary' in Leaming Teaching by Jim Scrivener, MaaniJlan 1994.
It lell s you more about the meaning 01 words and gives ideas for teaching vocabulary.
3 Look al hltp:lldiclionary.cambridge.org and lutp:llwww.vocahulary.rom. which is more
useful for teaching vocabulary to your learners? Why? Wrile your answer'S in your TKT
pon(oUo.
4 Usc a dictionary or (he TKTGlossary 10 find iJ1C meanings of these terms: affix, /tomoplwne,
idiom, phrasal verb, re,.qisrer .
............................ , ... .......... .. ....................... .. .... .. ... .. ,., .. , ......... .. ....... .
TKT practice task (See pagl! 176!oranslVers)
For questions 1-5, match the examples of vocabulary with the categories listed A-F.
There Is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Examples of vocabul ary
, impossible, unhappy, disadvantage, rename
2 hard work, a heavy subject , a great idea
3 wonderful, marvellous, brilliant, great
4 longest. director. wooden, slowly
5 oranges, apples, mangoes, bananas
Categories
A synonyms
B collocations
C compound words
D lexical set
E words with suffixes
F words with prefixes
...... , , ..... ,." .... ... ... .... ......... _ .......... .... _ .. .. __ .. ....................... ................. .
Unit 3 Phonology
What is phonology?
Phonology is the study of Ihe sound IcawIes used in d language 10 communicate meani ng. In
English lht.'Sf." features include phonemes. word stress, sentence Stress and imOO<l1ioll .
Key concepts
Do you know what the signs and symbols in this word mcan?

A phoneme is the srmlllcsr unil of sound thaI has meaning i n a jangllngc. For example, lhe)' in
books in English shows that something is plural. so the sound lsI has meaning. Different
languages lIse a different range of sounds and nO! alJ of them have meaning in other languages.
For example, the distinction between 151 and Ishl is an imponatll one in English. where it helps
distinguish between words such as so and show. sock and shock, sore and shore, But in Cantonese.
you can lise either lsI or Ishl in words withom changing their meaning, i.e. in Cantonese they
are not. twO separate phonemes.
The phonemes of a language can be represented by phonemic symbols, such as 1i:/, l al/ and
/ 3/. Each phonemic symbol represents only one pboneme, unlike tJle lellers of the alphabet
In English where, for example, the lel1er a in wrillcn English represents the l re l sound in Jzat.
111(' lei I sound in made dnd Ihl.' / ;} I sound in usually. Phonemic symbols help the reader know
exactly what lhe correo pronullciillion is. A phonemic script is a set of phonemic symbols
which show (in writing) how words arc pronounced. e.g. beallfifui is wrillen Ibju:uflJ,
television is It cl! vl3nl and ydlow is I
Dictionaries Lise phonemic script to show the pronunciation of words. They usually have a
[is t of all the phonemiC at the beginning of the book. together with an example of the
sound each symbol represents. The symbols are Orten grouped into consonants and vowels,
and the vowels arc sometimes divided into monophthongs (single vowel sounds as in pm Ipoll
or dock I dok/). and dil)hlhongs (a combination ar IWO vowel sounds. e.g. the vowel sou nd in
l1wke Imclkl or in so There are several phonemic scripts and some small differences in
the symbols tJ1CY use. TKT a nd mOST learner dicTionaries usc symbols from the International
Phonetic Alphabet' (IPA). There is a liS! of sOlile of these symbols on page 187.
In didionary entries for words anolher symbolllsualJy accompanies tJle phonemic script. This
can be '. as in I' bju:llf11. or _' e.g. IbJI.!.:tlflI or 0, e.g. tn/. These signs are used to show
word stress. This is tJle part Of the word which we say wi th grealer energy, Le. with more
length and sound on its vowel sound. Compare til(' stress (the pronunciation with greater
energy) in the vowel sounds in the stressed syllables and the other syllables in: m.udrcn,
in1UQ[1am. (The Stressed syllables are underlined. ) We pronounce the other syllabk-s with less
energy, especiall y Ihe unstressed or weak syllables, whose vowels get shortened or sometimes
even disappear. e.g. the vowel sound in the lasl syllable of imponant, which is pronounced as a
schwa 1';)1. There arc many languages whidl. like English, give especiall y sLrong stress to one
IJ
Module I
syllable in a word, e.g. the PonuglH:se spoken in ponugal. O,l1(:r cquallenglh [Q
all the 'iyJlablcs.
In English, SlreS5 also infJUl'llct!'S how aud ilH.'ompit!tc arc pronounced.
We say dirfercllt parts of the Sentence with more or less stress, i.c. slower and louder. or quicker
aod more softly. This is called sentence stress. One word in the scmence has main stress. This
is the word which the speaker thinks is mosl importanl to the meaning of the sentence. Other
words can have secondary Slress. This is 1I0t so strong a!> main stress and falls on words whi ch are
nOt so important [Q the mcaning as the word wilh main stress. Oll1(.'r words in the selllence arc
unstressed. Por c.xampie. in 'She came home J..a.u: last night' or ' I can't understand a .ll1!.Id he
S.lYS, The words with the main slress arc the underlined one5, the words with secondary Stress
would probably be mme, home, last, lIight and am't, understand, says. and \ht' unstres!>ed word<; .fhe
and [, fl, hr.
Main and secondary stress are usually on content words ratller than structural words.
Conh:1Jt words <lre nouns. verbs. adverbs or adjeaivcs. i.e. words that give.'" more inlormation.
Structural words art:: article.. pronouns or determiners. i.c. words we use to
build the grammar of the sentence. For example, in the sentence ' The girl ran 10 the sea and
jumped in quickly' Ihe content words arc: girl, rail, sea, j umped, quickly. The Others arc structural
words. YOII can see Ihat nonnally these would not be stressed. Of course, there are exceptions to
this. It is possible to st ress any word ill a sentence if the speaker thinks it is important. FOr
example. 'The girl ran !Q the sea and jumJ>ed in quickly. ' This that sll(' ran towards lhe
sea and not. lor example, away from it. Changing the sm:ss of a sentence changes its meaning.
L()ok at these examples:
The girl ran to the sea andjUIDj>ed in quickly. (i.c. not anotberperson)
The girl ran h ) the andjuflll>ed in quickly_ (i.e, nO( to any olher place)
The girl ran to thc sea and jumped in QUickly. (Le. not in any Ot her way)
Semenc!! Stress Is a characrerisric of connected speech. i.!'. spoken language in which all the
words jOin to make a connected stream of sounds. SOIllt:: OlllCr charatlcristic"s of mnllt!cted
speech are contractions and vowel shorte.ning in unstressed words and syll abks, e.g. the schwa
sound /';) / in potatO or l.ondonIlAnd;:,n/ . These characteristics help to keep th(' rhythm
(pattern of stress) of speech regular. The regular beat falls on the main Stress. while the weaker
syllables ,lOd words are made shoner to keep to the rhythm. Try saying the SCntetlcts above and
out a regular rhythm on your hand as you say them.
lntonation is another important part of pronunaation. It is the movement of thc of the
voice, Lt::. the tllnc ora sentence or ,1 group of words. We lISC intonation to express cmolionsand
altitudes, to emphasise or make less importam particular things we 3re saying, <lnd to signal to
others the fll nction Of whal we are saying, e.g. to show we are starti ng or SlOpping speaking, or
whether we arl' aski ng a question or making a statement.
To hear Ihese uscs. try saying 'Sd1001'sjUSl nnished' with these meanings: as a sl<1l"ement of
facl. with surprise, with happi ness, as a queslioll, to emphasise 'just'. YOLI should hear the level
of your "oice rising and falling in di[fere..tH patterns. For eample, when you say the sentence as
a statemenl of fact, your inlonation should follow a falling tone' as rOllows: ' \ schoo/'s just
finishl'd'. Whcn you say it as a question. it bas a rising tone. as follows: "school's just finjshed',
and wilen YOll say it with surprise, you will probably say it with a fall-rise tOIlt:, as 'V"school's just
fmished'. Diflcrem inionation patterns can show many different meanings, but thcre is no shan
and. si.mple way of describing how the patterns relate to meanings. U YOll walll LO learn more
doom intonation. look at the book suggested in the Discovery acti vitk's 011 page 16.
Unit 3 ;>- ::; -.:
Key concepts and t he language classroom
Learners Or-English need to be able to understand a wide variety or accents in English. as
English becomes mOre and more a global language.
As prolllU1ciation communicates so much of Oll f meaning. producing sOllnds in <l wa y thaI
can be widely understood is extremely imponam in language learning. Learners'
pronundalion needs to be clear to speakers from manv countries.
A regular roeus in lessons on different aspects 01 pronwlcialion helps to make \earners aware
of its
Teaching materials sometimes include aaivi lies 01' exercises which fOCllS on hearing or
producing dlfferent sounds in a minimal pair. Le. words distinguished by only onc
phoneme. e.g. ship and sheep, hilt and hat, IIIill9 and tllillk, chip and slllp.
See Modules 2.1 and 2.2 far how [0 Incorporare the reaching of pronunciation Inro lesson plans and rhe
resources [hot can be used to do thTs.
FOLLOW-tJP ACTIVITIES p.1.ljl: [-:'J /oramwl'rs)
Look at The phonemic symbols on page 187. Pradise saying e,lch symbol. learn them. then
tcst yourself or a colleague.
2 How many phonemes are there in cadl of these words? What are they?
book flashcard number thirteen morning
3 Underline the stressed syllllble in each of these words:
twemy monkey difficult forget remember
4 On whidl word would you put the main stress in each of these sentences?
My name is Julia, nOt Janet.
Brasilia is in lhe middle of Brazil, not on lhe coast.
The girl was much taller than her older brother. He was rcally shon.
5 Say 'J'msorrv' wiLh these different intonations:
A a quick apology B a request for repetition C with surprise
REFLECTION
Think about these comments from tcadlers. Which do VOli agree with and wh}'?
1 I don't expect my learners to pronounce the language like a first language sJleaker.
2 Young children leam good pronunciation naturally. You don't need 10 teach it 10 them.
:} Good teachers need 10 understand phonology.
4 It's not very useful for my ltarners to learn anv of the phonemic symbols,
15
Module 1
16
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Here ls an extract [rom a pronwldation syllabus. Which parts would be re!cvant (or
tcaching to your
Lesson Pronunciation focus
1 Polite Intonation in questions
5
Intonation in question tags to show agreement
Progress check fiI and li:/: being aware of speaker's attitude
) Stress and intonation when correctlng someone
12 Word stress in sentences
15
Stress In compound nouns
(adapted trom lJy Simon GrecnollJ, Macmillan! 995)
2 'Find five words yOll will soon teach your learners. Check their pronundation in a
dicli onary. Dedde which sounds might be problematic. for your learners.
3 Have a look al SOl/lid FOllndations by Adriall Underhill. MaaniJian 1994. II has lOIS of
useful infom13Tioll about different aspects or phonology.
4 liSlCn \0 other people's pronunC"ialion and praa ise your own on this wl"bsilc:
b Il'p:ll lowerofcn glish.com/ pron u n dation.h un I
5 Play with lhe phonemiC symbols on this website: hltp:l/janmuJder.al.uk/ Phonmap
6 Usc a dictionary and/or the TKTGlossary to find the meaning or these terms: crmsonmtt,
lillking, syllable, voiced/llnvoiced SOli lid, I/o.vel.
TKT practice task (See pa,qe 176/or allswers)
For questions 15, look at the questions about phonology and the possible answers. Choose the
correct answer A, B or C.
1 How many phonemes does the word heart have?
A two B three C four
2 How is paper written in phonemic script?
A pxpcr B PldP<l C pelpd
3 Which of the followi ng is true about a stressed syllable?
A It contains the schwa sound. B It sounds stronger. C It is spoken fast.
4 Which of the following is a minimal pair?
A pinlbin B so/sing C lot/tist
5 Which of the following is a contraction?
A see you B ASAP C haven't
.. .......... .................... .... ............... .............................. ..................... ...
Unit4 Functions
What is a function?
A (unction is a rcason why we communicate. Every time we speak or write, we do so ft,[ a
purpost.' or function. Here are some examples of functions:
apologising greeting clarifying inviting
advising agreeing disagreeing refusing
thanking inlcrrupLing expressing obligation expressing preferences
Functions are a way of describing langui1ge use. We ctln also describe grammaticall y
or lexically (through vOGlbulary). When we describe language through functions we crnphaslse
Ihe useoflhe language and its mc::.'aning for the people who Me in tile context where it is used.
Key concepts
Look at this table. What do you think an 'exponent' is?
Contexf Exponent (in speech marks) Function
A boy wants to go to the The boy says to hiS friend:
i
cinema with his friend tonight. 'Let's go to the cinema tonight: suegeUlon about going to the
cinema
A girl meets some people for The girl says 10 the group: Introducing yourself
the first time. She wants to get 'Hello. My name's Emilia.'
to know them.
A customer doesn't The customer says to the shop
A5kiD&: f!2[ ,li[ifi'R1i!2D (I.e.
understand what a shop assistam: 'Sorry, what do you asking someone to explain
assistant has just said. mean?' something)
A girl writes a letter to a The girl Writes 'Thank you so Thinking someone for a present
relative thanking her for a much for my lovely .. :
birthday present.
The Innguage we usc [0 cxprl'ss a JUllction is called an expone-nt. Tht: piece:. of elireCt in
[h{' middle colurnn in the table aboVC:" are all examples of exponentS. In the third column, [he-
functions are underlined. You C<lll see from the table that we usc the illg forms or verbs (e.g.
suggestillg, asking) 10 name funaiolls. The words after the function in the third column are nO(
tht, funaion. They arc thl' specific topics that tht' funaiom refer to i [1 thest' <:ontexts.
An exponent can express several different functions. II all di' llends on lhc COlllcxt it is used in.
For example, think of lhe exponent 'I'm so tired' . This could be an exponent of the funaioll 01
describing feelings. But who is saying it? Who is he/she saying it to? Where is he/she suyin!! it?
i.e. what is the context in which it b being said? Imagine saying '1'111 :.0 tired' iu thot' two
different contexts:
17
Modulet
18
Conrext Function
A boy talking to his mother while he does his homework Requesting to stop doing homework
A patient talking to her doctor Describing feelings
One exponclll can express several djfferent functions because its fUllction depends on the
comext. One funaion can also be expressed through different exponentS.
He rt' art' fjve dil fercnt exponents bl illvitLng someoue to lunch. How are they di fferent trom
o ne another?
Coruillg for lunch?
Come lor lun ch with us?
would you like to come to lunch wit b us?
Why don't you come for lunch wit h us?
We would be very pleased if you cou ld us for lunch.
These expone.nts express differe.nt levels of formality, i.e. more or less relaxed ways or saying
things. Generally speaking. formal (serious and careful) exponents are used in ronnal situations,
informal (relaxed) exponems 1.0 informal siTuaTions and neutra.l (between formal <lnd
informal) exponems in neutral si tuat ions. Il is important 10 lise lhe level of forma lity thai suits a
situation. This is called appropriacy. A leachcr who greels a dass by s<lying ' I'd like 1.0 wish you
all a very good morning' is probably using an exponent 01 the [unction of grceling that is 100
formal. A Wilcher who greels a class uy saying 'Hi. guys! ' mighT be using language th,1t is LOO
informal. BUIll of these could be examples of inappropriate usc of langtl<1ge. It would probably
be appropriate for the teacher to say 'Good morning, everyone' o r something similar.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
in lan!;uage teaching, cOllrsebooks are often organised around functions.
For example, tht: map of the. book in a coursebook could list [unctions and language like litis:
functions language
Expressing likes first and third person present simple affirmative: I like ....
he/she likes .. .
Expressing dislikes first and third person present simple negative: I don't like ... ,
he/she doesn't like ...
Funaions are often taught in together wilh the grammar of their main
exponents. There isan example Oflhi5 in the map of the book above. You can see that the
langu<lge in the second column includes 'present simple affinna(ive', which is a gramm<1tical
term, while' r like . .. , he/she likes ... are exponents of the function ' Expressing likes'.
Unit 4 ... r
COllluining functions and grammar helps to give grammar a meaning for leamers dod .hel)'"
them to learn functions with grammatical structures tha t they can then use in Qlher
contexts .
A funaional approach LO leaching language helps teachers [ind real-world context s in whidl
10 present and praaisc grammar, aud helps 10 see the real-world uses of the
grammar they learn.
Set UnItS' 15 and 16 for teachIng activiries far functions. Units 18 and 20 for Ies:son plannIng and Units 26-27 fOf
classroom functions.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (St'f 17/ 1m JUI.IWfrS)
List al leaSt four different exponents [or each of these functions: introducing yourself.
s uggesting. asking for darification, thanking.
2 Go lhrougilthe li st oJ'exponel1ts you made in I and mark them F (formal), N (neutral)
or I (informal).
3 Look at your !ist of exponents. Which are Suitable to teacb to a ueginners' claSS?
REFLECTION
Think aboul these comments from teachers. Which do YOll agree with and why?
I It is easier to teach functions than gramm.ar.
2 Funaions contain 1'00 much complicmed grammar for beginner learners.
3 Learners don" need '0 learn the names of funaions- just some of ule exponents.
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Look at tile map of your coursebook. Is it organised Mound functions? What kinds of
activities a rc used in thecoursebook units to introduce and praaise functions?
2 In your TKT portfolio, list six functions your learners might need 10 learn 10 li se rheir
English outside Ule dassroom. Ust the mOSt useful exponentS tor them, too.
3 To find OUl more about funct ions and exponents, look at Chapler 5 of Thres/Joid 1990b),
JA va n fik and JLV1 Trim, Council of Europe, Cambridge Uni versity Press \998.
4 Her(' art' lhe nalnl'S of fOll r common functions: enquil'ill9, Ilegoliating, predicrillg.
speculating. USe a dictionary and/or the TKTGlossary to fjnd their meanings. Can you
think of two exponents I'or each one?
19
Modulel
... .. ..... ............ ........... ....................................................... .................
TKT practice task (SI!/! pag' J 76 for QIlSw fn)
For questions 1.-6. match the example sentences with the functions listed AG.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Example sentences
1 I don't think that's a lIery good idea.
2 It's a beautiful place with a big riller.
3 He might be able to, I'm not sure.
4 What I mean is ...
5 I'd really 10lle to fly to the moon.
6 They're much older than their friends.
Functions
A describing
B clarifying
C comparing
D disagreeing
E wishing
F suggesting
G speculating
......................................... ............ ...................... .......... ...... ........ ......
Unit 5 Reading
What is reading?
Reading is onc of Lhe four language. skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. II Is a
receptive skill, like listening. This means: it involves responding [(,) text. ralher than produong
it. Very simply we can say that reading involves making sense of texL To do this we need to
undcrsmnd the- language of the text al word level. semence level and whoie-Iexi level. We: also
need to connect Lhe message of the texi to our knowledge of Ihe world. look at this sentence.
for example:
The boy was surprised because the girl was much faSler at running rhan he was.
To undersmnd this sentence, we need 10 understand whM the tCllers are, how tbe lcuers join
together 10 make words, whal lhe words mean and the grammar of the words and the scmcnce.
But we also make sense of this sentence by knowing that. gcnerally speaking, girls do nOI run as
fast as boys. Our knowledge of Ihe wOrld helps liS understand why Ihe boy was surprised.
Key concepts
Can you think of reasons why !ea rners may find reading difficult?
A texl is usuall y longer lllan JUSt a word or a selllence. It of len contains a series of sentences, as
in a Itller or even a postcard. These sentences are connected LO one another by grammar and
vocabulary andlor knowledge of the world. Reading also involves understanding lhe connection
between sentences. For example:
The boy was surprised because the girl was milch taster at running than he was. Then he
found oUlthat her mother had won a medal [or running at the Olympic Games.
The second semCllce gives us a possible reason why the girl was so good at muning. Bill we can
only understand that tbis is a reason ir we know thai Olympic runners are very good. This
means \VC need to use our kno\<vledge of the world to see the connection between these twO
sentences icoherencc). The grammalicallinks between the sentences (cohesion) also help us
sec the conneCtion betweco them. For CX<l111P!c. in the second exnmpk' sClHence 'he' refers Tf)
' lhe boy' in the Hrst sentence. and 'her' refers to 'Lhe girl'.
When we re<ld we do nor necessarily read everything in a lext. What we read depe.nds on
why and how we are reading. For example. we may read a LraveJ website to find a sinsle piece 01
inforrnatj on about prices. 8m we may read a novel in great detail because we like Lhe SLOry and
Ihe characters and want to know as much as we CiIJl ahout them.
These e.xamples show us tha t we re,ld difIerenl text types and we read for diHcrenl reasons.
Some examples of wriue.n text types are lellers. anides. postcards. stories, infonnarioll
brochures. leaflet s and poems. All the<;e kinds of text t}' pes arc dirfercnt from ooe anot her. The}'
have diffcrelll lengths, layouts (the ways in which text is placed on the page), IOpie5 a nd kinds ui
language. Learning to read also involves learning how to handle these different lext Iypes.
21
Module!
22
OUT e a ~ o n s for reading inOuence how we read. i.e. whidl reading subskiU (a skill that is part
.,1 a main skill) we use. For example. jf we read a lext justin nnd a spedfie piece or pieces of
imomlalion in it . we usually use a subskill called reading for specific information or
scanning. When we scan, we don't read thc whole texL We hurry over most of iI until we find
the inlormation wc are imerested in, e.g. when we look for a number in a tclephone directory.
Another reading subskill is reading for gist or skimming. i.c. reading quickly t.hrough a text
to gel a general idea of what it is about. For example, you skim when you look quickly through a
book in a bonkshop to d('d de if you want to buy it. or when you go quickly lhrough a reference
book to dedele which pan wiJI help you wri te an essay.
A third reading subskill is reading for detail. [f YOll read a ICll cr from somcone yOlL love
who you haven't heard from for a long lime, you probably read like Ibis, gelling the meaning
out of ('\'ery word.
Anothcr way of reading is extensive reading. Extcnsive r(,ading inv()lvl"S reading IOllg
pieccs of text., for example a story or an anicle. As you read, yom aTtcotion .md intercst va ry-
you may H.'ad satHe parts of Ihe Il'XI in delail while you may skim through others.
Somel.im{s, especially in language classrooms, we: use tex ts 10 examine language. For
example, we mighl ask learners to look for aUthe w(lrds in a lext rdated to a particular tOpic. Or
work out Ihc grammar nf a particular sentence. The aim of these activities is 10 make learners
more aware of how language is used. These aCliviLies arc sometimes called intensive rcading.
They arc nOt a reading skill, but a language learning aaivit y.
We ca n scc that reading is J complicatcd process. It involvcs understanding lellcrs, words and
sentences, understanding the Connections between sentences (cohcrcnc(' and cohesion ),
understanding dirferenl leXI types, making sense 01 the text through our knowledge 01 the
world and using lhe appropriatc reading subskill. Reading ma y be a recl'jltive skill bll1 it certainly
isn't a passive one!
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
If learners know how to read in their own language, they can transrer thei r reading :. kills to
reading in English. Sometimes though, they find this difficult, espccially when (heir language
level is not high, and they need help to transfer these skills. Teachers need to check which
reading subskills their learners arc good at. then focus on practisi ng the subskills they are not
yet using well, alll.l. if necessary, un teaching them language whidl will help tl](,111 do this.
Giving learners lots of opponunities lor cxtensivc reading, in or Ollt Of d ass, hl:lps them to
develop their fluency in reading.
The reading subski ll s thaI we need 10 teach also depend on the age nnel fi rst language of the
\(arm.'rs. SOIllC /earners of Engli sh, e.g. young children, may not yet know how 10 read in
lllcir own language. They need 10 learn how lellers join to make words and how wrillen
words relall' to spoken words both in their language and in English. Other learners may not
understand the script used in English as lheirown script is dirfercl1I, c.g. Chinese, Arabic.
Thesc learncrs need to learn the script of English, and maybe also how 10 read a page fwm left
to right.
We need 10 dlOOSC the right lextS for our learners. Texts should b(' interesting for learners in
order to mOlivale uu'm. Texts should also be at the right level of difOcult y. A text may be
difricul1 because it contains complex language <lIldJor because it is about a topic thatlcarneTS
dOIl't know much about.
Unit 5 Reading
We (an make a difncuh lext casier for learners to read by giving them an easy comprehension
lask. Similarly, we can make an easier le)("1 more difficult by giving a hard comprehension task.
This means thai the dJUicuhy of a text depends partly on tlle level of the comprehension task
that we give 10 learners.
Somctimes we may ask learners to read teXIs that at(' specially wriuc.n or simplificd for
language learners. At other times Illey may read articles, brodlUres, story books, etc. lhal are
whal. a first language speaker would read. This is called authentic material. The languagt in
authenTic maTerial is sometimes more varied and ricber thalllhe language in Simplified texts.
Expcns believe thai leamers learn 10 read besl by reading both Simpli fi ed and authent ic
materials.
DiUere1ll readi.ng comprehension tasks and exercises focus on different reading subskills.
Teachers need to recognise which subskill a task focuses all .
Teachers need 10 choose comprehension tasks very carcIully. They necd to be of an
appropriatc level of difficulty and practise relevant readi.ng subskjIJs.
Tilt" adivitics in i.l reading lesson ofte.n roHow this patlern:
I Imrodudory i.lClivities: an lmToduction to !.he TOpic or tbe lexl and activities focusing on
the languagl' of the lext
2 Main acti vities: a series of comprehcnsion activities developing diffcrent reading subskills
3 Post-activi ties: aClivitjes which dsk learners to talk about how a topic in tlle leXI relaTes to
their own lives or give their opiniOns on parts of the texL Tbesc actjvi ti es also require
learners to use some oll.hc language they have met in the text.
See Unir 16 for acriVfrles practising different reading subski/ls, Module v fo/lesson planning and Madule2.2 faf
resaurcesro help plan lessons.
23
Module 1
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY
Look at Ihis text and aClivities from a coursebook for intennl!diate levelleenagers and young
adults. What docs each activity aim to do? Match Ibe activities with the aims in (he bux. (There
is one extra aim.)
LO relate the ('xt 10 our world knowledge
to int roduce the topic
BEfORE READING
1 Do people eat Ottt a lot i n your country?
2 What differelll ki nds of foods art: there?
[0 practise skimming
to praaisc re.1Cling for speci!ic information
When people think of food in the United States, they thinK mostly of fast
foods like hamburgers and hot dogs. In fact, in U.S. cities like New York and
Los Angeles, there are thousands of different kinds of restaurants with
foods from all over the world.
So If you like to try dIfferent foods, the United States is the place for you,
The United States has people from aU over the world, and they bring with
them typical foods from theIr countries. You can eat tempura in Japanese
restaurants, tacos in Mexican restaurants, paella in Spanish restaurants,
pasta in Italian restaurants, and you can also eat America's most
popular food, pIzza.
Yes, pizzal Pizza is originally from Italy, but today it is an important part of
the U.S. menu. There are about 58,000 pizzerias in the United States - that's
about 17 percent of all restaurants in the country, and the number Is growing.
The United States has eating places for all tastes - and all pockets. You can
buy a hot dog on the street and pay one or two dollars. Or you can go to a
four-star restaurant and pay $200 for a dInner.
AFTER READlNG
A Read the article tlnd [ill tn the information:
I Number of differe.nt kinds of restaurants in the U.S.
2 Cost of a meal at a very good restaurant
,
COSt of a hot dog on the streCI
4 Number of pizzerias in the U.S.
B Make a typical mell u from your counrry. Include food for breakfast. lunch and dinner.
(.l daplcd from SliperGM/l by Manuel <los SantOs, McGrilw-HiIl 2001)
REFLECTION
J Whm are the easiest and most difficulT things for you abollt reading in English?
2 Whailleiped you most to read English well when you were a Icamer?
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
Unit 5 I>eajil'lg
I Look a\ one text in your coursebooK. What text type is it? What reading subsk,ills do iL'i
exercises and aaivities focus on? Is the text Lole.rcst il1gand at Ibe righl1evel for tile learners?
Write YOUT answers in yourTKT ponlolio.
2: Exchill.lgc. ideas wilh colleag\les .alxiut books l)rmagazincs io English thaI. you have-enjoyed.
3 Teach a reading lessoll. PLU your plan (lnd your mate.rials In yourT..KT poniolio. Lndude some
commC1l1S a b ~ ) l J l . what was successful/ nOI successful and why. Also comment on how }'Qu
w6uld improve uw lesson next time.
4 Look aTl.hdc wcbsill"S:
ilup: llwww. lcilrncnglish.org.uk for reading text s-and actlvirics for primaryage learners
Imp:llkids.myslcrynet.com for mystery SLOricS to read and solve
hllp:llwww.thencwsp<tper.org.ukfor newspaper extrac\"s with s(->orts. news and music for
tee.ns.
S Use the TKTGlossfII)! \0 find themeaning ollbese terms: deduct meolli119from comext. prediaiofl,
lexl structure. topic-semel/ce. Thjuk abollt how lhesc terms cOLlld influence YQur l eadliog.
TKT practice task (See page 176 for answers)
For questions 1-5, match the instructions with the ways of reading listed AF.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Instructions
Ways of reading
A reading for specific information
B reading for detail
C reading for gist
o Intensive reading
E deducing meaning from context
F extensive reading
1 Find all the words in the story about pets.
2 Read Ihe text. Decide which is the best heading for it.
3 Read the article 10 find out exactly how the machine works.
4 Finish reading the story at home.
5 Read the poster to find the dates of Annie's, Sam's and Julie's birthdays.
Unit 6 Writing
What is writing?
Writing is otle of lhc four laoguage ski.11s: reading, wTiting. listelling and spl.'aking. Writing and
speaking are product ive skills. That means they involve producing language rather than
receiving it. Very simply. we call say thaI wri ting involvl'S communicat ing c1 message (something
[0 say) by making signs on a page. To write we need a message ,md someone to communicate it
to. We also need to be able to form !cUtIS and \\lords, and 1.0 join these together to make w()rds.
sentences or a series oj selllCllCCS that link together to communicate Ihal message.
Key concepts
What h<lv{' you wrilten In your Iililguagc in the past week?
Maybe you have nOI wri ntn anything in the past week! It is true that we do not wri te vely
much these days. BUI possibly you have wrincn a shopping Itsc a postcard, a birthday cMd,
some emails, your diary, maybe a Story. If you are stud\'ing. perhaps YOll have wri tten an essay.
All of these a re ex,1mples 01 wri1len texi types. You can see from this list lhat text types involve
different kinds of writing. e.g. single words only, short sentences or long sentences; usc (or not)
01 nOte form, addr<.'SSCs or paragraphs, spedallayoulS; different ways of ordering informal ion.
When we learn 10 write. we need 10 Icam how to deal wi th these dinerent features.
All wriuen te.xt types l1i1\'e two things in common. Firstly. they are written to ronummicale a
particular message. and secondly. they are writlen 10 communicate to somebody. Our message
and who W(' arc writing LO inrl uencc I .. 'hal we write and how we wril(,. For example, if you
write a nOie 10 YClurself 10 remind yourself to do something, you may write in terrible
handwriting, and usc nOI(' form or single words that other people would not understand. II you
write a nOle for your mend to remind him/her of something, your note will probably be clearer
and a bit more l>oli lc.
Writing involves several subskills. Some of these arc related to accuracy. i.e. using the
correct forms of language. Writ ing accurately involves spelli ng correctl y. fann ing leiter"
correCTly, wri ling lcgibl)'. punct uating corrcaly. using correct layouts, choosing the right
vocabulary, usi ng grammar correclly. joining se.1ltCIlCCS corrcCll y ilnd usi ng paragraph."
correctly.
But wri ting iSIl' t j USI about accuracy. It is also about having a message and communicat ing il
successfully 1.0 oiller people. To do tbis, we need 10 have enough ideas. organise them well and
t'"'(prcss them in an appropriate style.
Unit 6 WritIng
The table below is from a writi.ng syllabus for primary-school dlildrcn. The column on the
left loruscs on aCt1.uacy. and the cohunn on the right focllse's on COmmunication.
Shov.mg an understanding that letters can be
combined to form words. and producing letter
shapes, Including capitallerters, correctly
using Imual capital letters and full stops to
indicate sentences
Employing a range of connectIVes to express
sequence (e.g. next. then)
completing simple poems and rhymes With
some language support and based on models
Expressing your 0'NI1 expenence by supplying
labels for your own draWIngs
Ma!<ing Simple greelJngs cards and InVltatioos
based on models
Responding to greetings and Invitations In short
notes based on mOdels
(adapted rrom SI'lIl/bllSts for I'rimary Schools. Ellg!ish LaIl9I1a.qr. I'rima,)' 1-6. the Education Oep'H1melll.
1I0ng Kong 1997)
Writing also often involves going through a number of stages. When we write outside the
classroom we often go through these stnges:
brainstorming (t.hinking of everything we can abollt the topic)
making nOtes
planning (organisi ng ollr ideas)
writing a draft (a piece of writing ilIa I is not yet finished. and may be changed)
editing (correaing and improving the text)
producing anOther draft
proof-reading (dH:cking for mistakes in accuracy) or editing again.
TIICS(' arc the stagl'S of lht' writing process.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
The subskills of writing that we teach will vary a 101. depending on the age and needs of our
learners. At primary level we Illay spend a lot. of time teaching learners how 10 form letters
and words and write shon texts of a few words or sentences. alien by copying modeh;. At
secondary level we may need to foclls more on the skills required to wrile longer textS such as
lelters. ('mails or compositions.
Wilen we leach writing we need to focli S on bOlh accuracy ;:In(i on lIuiJding up and
comlll tinicating a message.
Sometimes in the classroom learners write by. for example. (Ompicling gaps in sentcnces
wilJllhe correa word, taking notl.!S fQr listening comprehension. writing one-word answers
to reading comprehension questions. These activities are very useful for teaching grammar,
and checking listening and reading, but they do not teach the skills of writing. To teach the
writing subskills wt' need 10 locus on ac('uracy in writing. on communicating a message and
on lhe writing process.
By encouraging learners to use Ihe wriling process in lhe classroom we help them to be
creative and TO develop Iheir m<. -ssage. i.e. what they want to say.
Set Unit 16 for reoclling writing, Unlr 20 for plonnlng (/ lesron ond Units 28 and 31 for ways of correcting
learners' writing.
27
Modul el
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (.)t'I p.lgt r 72 jOl ,l/IS\I On)
Here are some s uggestions for writing activities. Do Ihe}' fouls on:
A accuracy or B communicating ideas?
I Reading cha rts aDd then wrilwg sentences about them. e.g.:
Tom Undo
Swimming .;
X
Playing Playstatlon
X
.;
Reading .;
X
WatcnlngTV
X
.;
Dancing .;
X
./ = likes )( = doesn't like
Example sel11 cnce: Tom likes swi mmi ng but Linda doesn't.
2 Writing leiters, e.g. a lel\er to a pen friend tell ing them about yoursci L
J Labelling pictures or objects, e.g. clothes, animals.
4 a story, e.g. the teacher gives lhe sllldcnis thl' begi nning, middle or end of a story
and asks them 10 complete the missing pan(s).
5 Copying words from a reading book into an cxerdse book.
6 Wriling emails 10 othe.r students in the school.
REFLECTION
I !Iow did you learn 10 wri te Englisb? Was it lile best way?
2 What fOf yOIL arc the easiesl and most dHfkuJt things aboUI writing in English?
And for yOUf learners?
3 Which wri ting slibskills do your karners need 10 focus on most?
Unit 6 WritIng
DISCOVEHY ACTIVITIES
1 Go back 10 IILe liSI you made of lcxllypes you have written tl1i$ week. Beside each, nOll'
your reason for writing and who you wrote 10. How did your reason l.or writing and who
you wrote 10 influenr:t what you wrote? Write your answers in yourTKTponfolio.
2 Wlilt'<lll email ur a II(He to a ftknd. you write. decide which .of tht'Sc subskliis yOll use:
thinking of ideas, ordering ideas, formillg CQrrect letters. writing sentences grammatically.
linking semences, checki ng Ihe accuracy 01 your writing.
3 Look alone uni l in your courscbook and find the activi l ies and exerdses on wrili ng. Oedde
whkhsubskiJI(s) of writing they aim to develop.
4 Look at these resources to li nt! information, materials <Ind aCtivities on leaching writing:
hup:lllqjunioubi n kqucsI.org/51 (5/L wriring.hlm
h [ 1 p: I J\.vww. hiu. f l. hall7.c. n III h a r Iwriti og. h IIIl
Chaptcr 8, How To Teach English by Jcn::rny Barmt'c, Peac!iun Education Lid [998
Simple Writing A('fiviries by Ji ll nnd Charles Hadfield, Oxford Universi ty PreSS 2000.
; Use a dictjonary Of thc TK'J' to find the meaning of these lerms: COllc/lIsim1, llOll'-lakil1g,
pnmgmp/z. pn1c.:ss writiJl.9. sW1II1Itlry .
.. .. .............................. .. .... ......... .................. .. ........ .. -- .... ..................... .. .
TKT practice task (Set pagl' 176 for answers)
For questions 1-6, match the coursebook instructions with the writing subskills listed A-G.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Writing subskiUs
A punctuating correctly
B planning
C forming letters
o linking
E using the appropriate layout
F paragraphing
G proof-reading
Coursebook instructions
1 Put your hand in the air and write do-g with your finger.
2 Tick (.,I) the correct pl ace in this letter for the address of the receiver and put a cross (X) in the
correct place for the date.
3 This letter has no commas or full stops. Put them in the correct places.
4 Join these pairs of sentences by using the best conjunction from the following: because, after, while.
5 Look at this list of Ideas for a composi tion. Number them in the order you would write about them in
your composition.
6 Check your work for language mistakes after you have fi nished writing .
.. ... ... ...... ..... ..... ................ ... .... . ... ..... ..... .. ... ...... ..... ...... .. ........ ...... ......... .
29
Unit7 Listening
What is l ist ening?
Listening is one of the fou.r language skills: read.ing, wntlng, listening and speaking. like
reading. listening is a recep tive skill, as it involves responding 10 language rather than
producing it. Lislening involves making sense of the mea ningfu l (having meaning) sounds of
language. We do lhis by using con text and our knowledge 01 language and the world.
Key con cept s
Listening involvt'S understanding spoken language. which is different from wrilten language.
Wb<ll diffe rences can you think of between the spoken and written language of Englhh?
Li st some before reading I.his tabl e.
Wrirren language In English Spoken language In English
Stays on the page and doesn't disappear. Disappears as soon as It Is spoken. Sometimes It
Is spoken fast and sometImes slowly, with or
without pauses.
Uses punctuation and capitalletters to show
Shows sentences and meaningful groups of words
sentences. through stress and i ntonat ion.
Consists of letters. words. sentences
Consists of connected speech. sentences,
and punctuation j oined together into text. incomplete sentences or sIngle words.
Has no vIsual support - except photos or
The speaker uses body language to suppOrt
pictures sometimes.
his/her communication: for example, gestures
(movements of hands or arms to help people
understand us), and fadal expressions (the looks
on our face). This helps the listener to understand
what the speaker Is saying.
Is usually quite well organised: sentences follow
Is not so well organIsed: e.g. it conta i ns
one another I n logical sequences and are joined interruptIons, hesI tations, repeti tions and
to previous or following sentences. frequent changes of topic.
Usually uses quite exact vocabulary and more
Often uses rather general vocabulary and simple
complex grammar. grammar.
Unit 7 Listening
To understand spoken 1.1I1guage we need to be able to deal with all the cha racteristics of spoken
language li sted in the table on page 30. Here is an example of spoken language. YOII can see lhat
it can be less w(,]1 organised and less exact than written language:
F,\TI-ER:
SON:
FATIfER:
SON:
FATIfER:
SON:
How's your homework? You know, your history?

You sure?
It 's just . .. I mean all we need to do is, well, JUSt read some stufr.
But (I 'you underswnd it ?
Yeall. Can J go and play with Tom?
To help liS understand spoken language we need 10 lise the comexi the language is spoken in
and our knowledge of the world. In lhis example, our knowledge 01 relationships between
fat bel's and sons, and of chil dren's a ttitudes to homework helps tiS understand, but if we knew
Ihe context of the conversalion (e.g. Ihe place where II took pl<l<':(" the falher's and son's body
language, their ilui ludcs to homework), we would understa nd more.
When we li sten, we also need to be able LO understand dilTcrem kinds of spoken tt:XI
types such as conversati ons, slori es, announcements, instructions, leclures and
adwrtiSl!lIlenh. Thl'Y <.:ontain diflen:nl ways 01 organising language and differt'nt language
fcal\1 res, and sollle consist of JUSt one voice while others consiSI of ml)re,
We also need to understand different speeds of speech. Some people speak more Slowly .1I1d
wilh more pauses. Others speak fast andlor with few pauses. This makes them more difficult 10
understand. We need to understand diIrt"renl accents too (e.g. Scottish or Aust ral ian English) .
BUl we du nl)t listen to evcrylhing ie lbe same way. How we lislen depends on OUf reason for
listening. We might listen for gist, specific information, detail. attitude (listening 10 see
whal altit\lde a speaker is expressing), ()r do extensive listening. See page 22 about reading
for an t"xplan<l lion of these t('rms.
We can sec that listeni ng involves dOing many things: dealing with 111C cbaractcristia of
spoken language; using the contt!xt and our knowledge 01 Ihe world: understa nding different
text Iypes; understanding different speeds of speech and accentS; using differe nt listcning
subskiUs. Look at lhis extract from a listening syllabus for lower secondary silldent s of English.
ft shows many of Ihese different aspects of Jistcning:
Hearing the differences between common sounds
Identifymg Important words In what someone has Just saId
Understanding and respondIng to SImple instructions and commands
Recognising basic dIfferences in information (e.g. commands vs questions)
Following a simple narrative spoken by the teacher with ihe help of pictures
Recognising the sound patterns of SImple rhyming words
understandmg the development 01 SImple stories
understandIng and responding to Simple requests ana classroom Instructions
Identlfylng main Ideas
(adapted from Syllabl/sa/ar $('ronda!), S<haau. En!llish fAt/suagl', StrolldlJry 1-5; the Education Dt'panmenl.
Kong 1999)
3J
Module 1
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
In the classroom, learners can listen to many sources of spokenlangllage, e.g. the tcacher,
olher learners. visitors. casseues. video, DVDs.
when we listen 10 audio cassettes or CDs we can' t sec the speakcr's oody languagl' or the
comext he/she is speaking in. And we can' , ask Lile speaker 10 repeal or explain. These faclors
make listening to recordings more diIlicuh than listening to li ve speakers.
Some listening texIS in coursebooks are authentic. i.e. they conta in all the features of real
spoken language. Other texts are wouen especially for language learners. Many experts think
Ihat learners need 10 listen to both kinds of text to develop their li stening skil ls.
Understanding and showing YOll have underst ood are not the same thing. For example,
maybe you can understand all of a Story. but YOlt can't lellthe SlOry. So. comprehension
aClivities should be in easier language than the language: in tbe listening text.
Chi ldren Icarn well [rom listening to stories that interest them.
We can develop skills by focusing regularly On pan.icular aspects of
li st.e ning, e,g. problem sounds, fealUres of connened speech, subskills, and, il necessary. on
any Hew language,
The activities in a li stening lesson often follow (his pattern:
1 Introdll Ctory activities: an introduction to the topic of (he text and aCtivilies fOCUSing on
language of the text
2 Main aaivities: a series of comprehension activities developing different listening subskills
3 POSt
4
aaivit ies: activi lies which ask learners 10 talk aboul how a topic in the text relates to
their own lives or give their opinions on pans of 111e texl. These acti vities also require
learners 10 li se some of the language they ha ve met in the lext.
See UnIt 16 for listening acrivilles and Unit20 for planning lessons,
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES rSeq/I1gc li4. for aW"I\'ln
Here is a convelXl ti on between twO learners of English. Find in it examples of contract ions.
repetitions, hesitations and interruptions.
Yuko:
Hiroko:
Yuko:
Hiroko:
Yuko:
What would you like your life to be like in 20 years' ttme?
I'd like It to be ... I want to have a family ... you know. a husband. three children. my ...
Would you be happy?
I'd be ... I mean, yes. Yeah, sure, sure, of course. What about you?
Erm, me, well, erm, er .. Maybe I'd li ke to have a good ... you know, to do a really
interestJngjob ... with lots of pay; of course I
{based 011 a COllvcrsatlon In EII,qllSh for rht Ttachtr. Mary Spran. Cambridge university Press 1994
2 What do yOll think is the context of this conve.rsation?
3 Which subskills - gist. detail. specific information 01' attitude - do the following questions
about this conversat ion focus on?
A What is tilt conversation about?
B What does Yuko want her life 10 be like in 20 yea rs' lime?
( Hm\ many children does Hiroko want?
U lK'C"" Hirako sound happy?
Unit 7 listening
REFLECTION
Which Oll l1c lollowing do you think your leamers need most practice in? Why?
Fealllrl"s of connected speed!? which?
Accents? Which?
Speed of speech?
Dirfcrelll lext which?
Listening forgisl I detail I specific information I at ritude?
EXlcnsivt' Iisll'ning?
OISCOVEIlY ACTIVITIES
1 Find SOnll' sui tablt' listening act ivities in your coursebook. 00 lhem wi th your learne.rs, and
,l,en alter the lessoll. complete thiS table in YQurTKTpOrtfolio:
What the leorners found easy and why Whot the learners found difficult and why
What wl.)uld yvu (It) dirfcrclllly if yc .. taughllhesc a(tjvjties again?
2 For more information aboullistcning skil ls and listening act ivities. fl'ad Chapler 10 of HOII/To
Teach English by Jeremy Hanner. Pearson Education [ld 199$.
3 Look althese \vcbsi lt's for lyrics for songs and ideas for how (Q use dlC!m in class:
hltp:llwww.cslp..nylanu.comJlcachers/nov/music.hlmandhup:lllVww.lyrics.com
and al Ihissi lC for all kinds or listening oppOTluni[fes and aaivities:
J.UjJ:llwww.l]io. h.llanLc.l ll / rna r/ listcn.h 1m
4 Use the TKTGlossary (0 lind IJ1(' meaning of these Icnm: dl1>'e10P skills, in/i!r(l/umdtor mood .
... ................................ .................................... ..................... .... .. ......... . .
TKT practice task (Su p(lge /76 for a/lswers)
For questions 1-6, match the instructions with the ways of listening listed A-G.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Instructions
1 Watch the video 10 see how the woman looks.
How do yOU think she feels?
2 Uslen to each pair of words. Say if they are the
same or different.
3 What lown does Jim live in? Uslen and find out.
4 Uslen to Ihe description of Ihe boy and the girl
and draw Ihem.
5 Uslen and underline the word in the sentence
thaI the speaker says most strongly.
6 Usten to the story and decide what is the best
title for it.
Ways of listening
A listening for gist
B understanding body language
C listening for individual sounds
o listening lor detail
E listening for sentence stress
F extensive listening
G listening for specific information
..... -_ ........ ............................................................................................. .
33
Unit 8 Speaking
What is speaking?
Speaking is a productive skU!, like writing. It involves using speedl to express meanings to
other people.
Key concepts
Ti ck the things on this list which people often do when they sI.'Jeak.
pronounce words 10 smiJe
2 answer questions 11 ask for and give information
3 lise intonation 12 respond appropriately
4 ask for clarification andlor explanation 13 persuade
5 correCllhemselves 14 sian speaking when someone else stops
6 take part in discussions 15 tell stories
7 change the contclll andlor styit' of their 16 use fully accurate grammar and vocabulary
speech according to how their listener 17 use tenses
responds 18 take pan in conversaTions
8 greet people
9 plan what they will say
We usually do all these things when we speak except 9 and 16. Speaking does nOt allow us time
to do these except in formal speaking such as making speeches. Here is a list of the categories
thallhc other points a re examples of:
grammar and vocabulary (17)
functions (2, 4. 6, 8. II , 12. 13. i s)
features of connected speech (.1.
appropriacy (12)
body Innguage (10)
illteraaion (5, 7,1 4, 18).
[nteraction is Iwo-way communication that involves using language and body language 10
keep our Jisli:=ner involved in what we are saying and to check that they understand Oll r
meani ng. Examples of these interactive strategies are: making eye COntaa, using faci al
expressions, asking check questions (e.g. 'DO you understand?'), clarifying your meaning (e.g.
' ! lUean .. :, ' What rm trying losay is . . :), confirming wlderstanding (e.g. '1ll1ll', 'right' ).
We speak Ouency a nd accuracy. Fluency is speaking at a normal speed, without
hesitatiOn. repetition or self-correction, and with smooth LIse of connected speech. Accuracy in
the use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation .
Unit 8
When we speak. we usc different aspect's of speaking depending on lhe type of speaking we
are invulved in. If you go to a shop to buy some swcelS and ask the shopk<."eper 'How mu('h?',
then leave after he/she replies. you don't use many of them. U you go to the bank to as).. Thl!'
bank manager to lend you $500,000, you will probably need tu use maJlY more. If rou <l
meal with all your relatives, yOll will also use many in conversation with them. As you can see.
speaking is a complex activity.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
We can develop learners' speaking ski lls by focusing regularly on panicll lar aspeas of
speaking, e.g. nuency, pronunciation, grammaTical accuracy, body language.
In many dasscs leamers do controlled practkc activities (activities in whidl t,hey C.1O ust'
only langu<lge lhat ha s jll!. t been taught) . These a re a very limited kind 01 speaking because
,hey JUSt fOal S on accuracy in speaking and not on communicat ion, interaction or fluency.
Controlled practice activities can provide useful, if limiLC;,cL preparation for speaking.
Thsks and less controll ed practice adivities give morc opportllnity than cont.rolled activi ti es
for learners to practise communicat ion, interaction and flue.ncy.
Someti mes learners speak morc wi lli ngly in class when they h<lw a reason for
communicat ing, e.g. to solve a problem or to give other classmates some information they
need.
Because speaking is such a complex skill, learners in the classroom ma y need a lot 01 help to
prepare for speaking. e.g. practice of necessary vocabulary. time to organise their ideas and
what they walll to say, practice in pronouncing new words and expressions, practice in
carrying out a task. before they speak fTeely.
Learncrs. especially beginners and children, may need time to take in and process all the new
languagl.' they hear berare they produce il in speaking.
The aClivilies in a speaking lesson often follow lhis pattern:
I an introduction to the topic of the lesson plus, sOll1c{imcs, activities focus ing on
lhe !l ew language
2 Practice activities or tasks i.l1 which [earne.rs bave opportunities to usc the new languilgc
3 Post-task ad ivilles: activities in which learners discuss the topic freely and/or ask lhe
teacher questions about the language used.
See Unlrs 15 and 16 forspellklng (lct/vrties, Unit 20 for planning ond Units 28 ond 31 forcorrecrlng
speoking.
35
Module 1
FOLLOIV-UP ACTIVITY
(oSn J'II.'/l' J 72 [..., .IIIJwJ;n)
The titles of some materials on teadling sp<:aking are numbered 1-10 below. Match the titles
wi th the aSlJects of speaking (A-E) that they focus on. Some lilies un mort' Ulan one aspen.
A acrur,lCY B connected speech C appropriacy
lnlOnation in wJr- questions (what, when, where, w"y, Irow)
2 Language (or asking for polite claIilication
3 Informal language for greeting
4 Language for agreeing aod disagreeing
5 Using past tenses in stories
6 Disti nguishing minimal pairs of sounds
7 Disagreeing polilely
8 Using imonalion to show doubt
9 Taking part in discussions
10 Tdling slOries
REFLECTION
o nucncy E functions
How did your teachers teach you the speaking skill in English? Did you ha ve enough pracrice
in all aspeas 01 speaking?
2 Which aspects of speaki ng English do you find mosl l'asy and di fficuh now?
3 Do YOll teach speaking in the same way you were la uglH iI? Why?IWhy not?
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 look al cl unit in your cOllcsebook. Which aspecls(s) of speaking docs il focus on mosl?
2 Listen 10 a shon conversation OTStOry on Ih(' cassette from your 'ourseoook. which of
the six categories on page 34 does 11 contain examples of?
3 Record yourseJI tell ing a story innglish. Then listen 10 yOllTsciL What are the weak.and
!il rong pOintS in your lise of connected speech? Praaise. and then record yourself aga in.
Have yOll improved? Put yOur analysis in YOllrTKT portfolio.
4 Look al thiS website to find speaking activities your learn\!rs can do:
hilI': III owe.ro(englislJ .
5 These books h,1ve lots of speaking activities. Are the(t' ally yOll '-"al l do wit h YOllr classes?
Blememary Commullicarion Games by Jill Hadfield. Pearson EductlliOIJ l.td 1992
Simple Spi!dkill9 Aaivities by Jil l and Charles Hadfield, Oxford University Press 1999
Unit 8 Speaking
................................................................ ............................ .. ...............
ncr practice task (See page 176 for Q/lswer
For Questions 17. match the activities with the teaching focuses listed A. B or C.
Activities
Teaching focuses
A appropriacy
B fluency
C connected speech
1 Identifying particular phonemes in conversations on audio cassette
2 Practice in speaking at a natural speed
3 Practice in greeting people informally
4 Identifying main stress in short dialogues on audio cassette
5 Practice in speaking without hesitating
6 Practice in using exponents of formal Invitations
7 Practice in using intonation to show surprise
..................... ........ ...... .. ........................................... .............. ... .. ...... .. ..
37
,
38
Part 2
Background to language learning
Unit 9 Motivation
What is motivation?
Moti vation is rbe thoughts and feclings we have which make us want 10 do something,
continue 10 want 10 do it ami rum Ollf wishes int o action, i.e. mOlivalion in/luenccs:
why people decide to do something
how long they w<lnllO do it for
how hard Ihey afC prepared 10 work La achieve il.
MOIivatiOIl is very importall1 in language learning. II helps make teaming successful.
Key concepts
WIl }1 were/are yOll mot ivated to learn Engl ish? Ust your reasons.
Many faoors influence our motivation to learn a language. These factors include:
the usefulness 10 us of knowing the laJlguagc well, e.g. for Ondingjobs, gelling on to courses
of study, gC[liJlg good marks from tllC tcacher
our in the ta.rget language culture (the (uhlirI.' of the langu.1gc we are learning)
feeling good aboUilcarlting tile language: success, self-confidence (fecling that we can do
things s uccessfully), learner a utonomy/ independence (feeling responsible for and in
COlllrol of our own learning)
eJlcouragcmcllI and supporllrom omers. e.g. teacher. parents. classmates. school. societ y
our interest in tbe learning process: the interest and relevance 10 us of the cOUJse cootem.
classruom a<:1ivi ties. lhe [Cadler':; personalit y. tcaching methods.
Learners Illay have strong motivation in olle of IheSt! areas a nd link in another. or their
motivat ion may be quite balan ced. Different learners will also be motivated in different ways
from one anoth<..: r. and motivation can change. Leamers may. for example. be quile uninterested
in lcaming a particular language. then meet a leacher who uley like so mllch that mel' begin to
love learning the language. Motivation can change with age. 100. with some factOrs becoming
more or less important as leamers get older. We can see thai motivation needs to be boTh created
and conti nued.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Here- a re some suggestions from two e.xpcns on motivation about how teachers can cncour.1ge
mOtivation in lheir leamc.rs.
Unit 9 Moriv;nion
1 set a personal example with your own behaviour (I.e. be motivated as a teacher yourself),
2 Create a relaxed atmosphere In the classroom (Le. try to prevent anxiety in yourself or the learnersl.
3 Present tasks In an interesting way which makes the tasks seem achievable to the learners.
4 DevelOp a gOOd relationship wah me learners.
5 Increase the learners' self-confidence about language learning O.e./lelp learners feel they can be gooc a.!
learning the language).
6 Make the language classes interesting.
7 Promote learner autonomy.
8 Personalise the learning process (r.e. make the COLJrse feel releVant to the learners' lives).
9 Increase the learners' awareness of their goals (i .e. what they wanl to achieve)
10 Familiarise learners With the target language CUlture
(adapted !I'om 'Ten collllnandmcms for mO!lvaung langllage leilmcf$; results of illIl'mplrical Study' by Z. I)vrnyel
and K. CSilCr. Wl1ff/{aflt Ttarhill9 Rtsta/ch. Hoddc::r Arnuld J 9981
See Units 29-32 for how motivation Innuences classroom management.
I' OLLOW-UP ACTIVITY
JJere a re S()ll1e clas.sroom aCTiviTies. Which of The above ten !;uggcsTioos do yOll think they aim ell?
(Some may aim a\ more than one.)
A Giving learners a story about skateboarding
because you know many of them like
skateboarrling
G Presenting the language to learners in small
bils which tlley are abk: to learn easily
B Encoumging lea rners 1.0 meet some first
language speakers or English
H Talking TO a learner aft er class about tbe
problems in lheir laSI homework, ami how
they can make beller progress
C Giving learners a lest Wl.lich is quite easy for
mOST of them
Encouraging and praising learners., even weak
D Asking learner s which oJ four tapes they
would like to li sten to in lhe next lesson
E Giving learners reading texts auouL working
in an Englisb-!g)eakiog country
F Teaching with emhusiasm and inter est
REFLECTION
ones
J Making sure your lessons are varied and
well-paced
K Your learners lave doi.ng crosswords - you
finel another one (or them LO do
What is learning English like? HNe are some answers [rom teenage Itamers. Do they seem
mOlivalcd?
Learning EngUsh is like:
al a fish gelling WatCf-easy, helpful, necessary.
b) bread - plenty of resources and op!}(l rlunilies, bUI none of lhem are ver y good.
c) rice - you need il ('vcry t1ay. BUI you gel bored wi th it bN:allse rOll have it aHthe time.
d) learning the piano - [ have learnt it for many years and am still nor ve.ry good al it.
2 Do you agree with the ten suggestions above for 11l0livBt.i llg learners?
39
Module 1
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Look al Ihl.'SC rcsources. Are any of them suitable for motivating Y( lur learners?
hll p: Ilwww.csJpartyland.com/teachers/nov/ music. him
hll p: Ilwww. lI:.:lrocl lglisll .org. ul
h 111):// www.cllglish-"lone.com
Communication Gamts (Bt"ginners', Elemc.lllary. imennt'dial e) by.Jill Hadlield, Pearson
Education LId 1999. 1992 and } 992
E1I9lislz Grammar 111 U S ~ (third t':ditio(l) by Raymond Murphy, Cambridge Univcrsity
Press 2004
2 Exchange ideas with another teacher about ways of increasing }'ollr learners' mOlivalion.
or ask anOlht'( tcacher if you could watch part / all of i1 lesson of t.heirs 10 see how thcy
t:llCoumgc mOlivdl iou.
3 Think about a lessQn or p,1rt of a lesson thaI you laught which rcally interested your
learners, Why were Lhe}f sO iruerested? How eQuid YOt l encourage lhal interest again in a
fulLi rc lesson? Put your ideas in your TKT portfolil). Share !l1cm wit h ,1 coll eague .
...... ... ..... ............. .. .... ..... .. ... ........... .. ........ ........ .. ....... ... ... ... ........ ... .. ..
TKT practice task ( S ~ t pctge 176for answers)
For Questions 17, match the teaching recommendations with the Influences on motivation
listed A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Influences on moti\lation
A learner autonomy
B interest in the lesson
C Interest in the target culture
o the usefulness of learning the language
E personaHsalion
F goal-setting
G support from others
H self-confidence
Teaching recommendations
1 Where possible, ask learners to choose what activities they want to do.
2 Encourage parents to motivate thei r children to learn English.
3 Remind learners how Important English is for getting jobs.
4 Choose activities and materials that are motivating,
5 Bring to the classroom any materials (e.g. brochures, photos, souvenirs) you have collected on
your trips to Englishspeaking countries.
6 Praise learners frequently but honestly.
7 Give learners opportunities to use English to talk about their own lives .
...................... ......................................... ..... .... .......................... ...... .
Unit 10 Exposure and focus on form
What are exposure and focus on form?
Across the centuries people have studied how loreign languages are learnl. Many cxPt'rlS now
believe that one way we learn a foreign language is by exposure to it. i .e. by hearing and/or
reading it all arowld us and wilhom studying it. They say we then picl< i t up aUlOmaticaliy, Le.
learn h without realising. This is the main way lhal ch.ildren learn their lirst language.
Expens also say d131lO learn a foreign language. particularly as adults, exposure 10 language
is nOI enough. We also need 10 focus our <mention on the fo rm of the foreign language. Le. on
how it is pronoullced or written. 00 how its granunar is fanned an d used, and on the form and
meaning of vocabulary. They say we need 10 ust' language to imcraCI all d communica te. lOO.
Key concepts
H,we yOll learnl l:nglish more successtuUy from (ormai 5w dy or jusl by picki ng II up?
Resc<1fcb has identified three main in which we learn a foreign language. Firsll y, expertS
talk olliS acquiring language. This means the same as picking it up. They say that to really learn
a foreign language we necd exposure to lots 01 examples of it, and thaI we learn from lhc
language in our surroundings. We nl!ed to bear and read lots 01 language which is rich in
variety, illlcrcsting to us and just difficult cnotlgh for us, i.e. jllst oe}'ond Ollr levee but not. roo
difficult. Acquisition takes place over a period of lime, Le. nOl instamly, and we listen 10 and
read items of language for a long Lime before we begin to lise them (a silent period ).
Secondly, to learn language we need 10 lise it in inte ra ct ion I'lith other people. We !leed to
use language to express ourselves and make our meanings dear 10 other people, and to
understand \.hcm. The person we are wlking 10 will show us, directly or indirectly, if they have
understood us or not. If they hav(' no\, we need to Try again, using other language, until we
manage \0 conununicatl! successfully.
Tbirdly, research shows thai foreign language lea rners also need 10 focus on fom). This means
lhallhey 10 pay al.lcntion LO l.1nguagl', e.g. by identifying, working wil.h and practising lhe
language they need to communicate.
Nowadays, experts generall y agree tha i we do nOl learn a rorcignlanguage best through
!eauung gramroaJ and translating (the grammar-tran slation method). Nor do we learn by
constantly practising ulllil we rorm habits (t.he oehaviourist or Slruauralisl approach) or just by
l'Olmnunicaling (the communicati ve app roa ch). We learn by picking lip language.
ime.racting and communicating and focusing on form. BUI the research still continues, and we
do nOI yet full y understand how foreign are learnt.
4 1
Module t
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
To acquire language, leamcl:s snollJd bear <lod rearl <I wide va.riety of language at lhe rigbt
level for them. They need exposure !.O language both inside and outside the classroom.
Lea rne rs need time to acquir(' language. l11ey may need a silelll period before they can
product' new language and we cannot expect l11em 10 learn things immediatcly. Lea rning
language is a graduaJ process.
Learners need 10 usc languagt' in Ihe dassrOOllllO LmcraCi wilh classmaTes or the teacher. This
gives them Lhe oPP01'l.unity to experiment with language and find out how successful their
communicati on is.
Learner:5 need opporlluuties to focus on [OLIDS of langllage ,-bey bave read or listened 10 io
texts or used in tasks. The leacher can help them to notice cenain points abolH language,
think about their lise and practise them.
13111 we need La remember that some learners may like to learn and/ or are used \0 learning in
particular wa ys. Teachers always need to match their Icaching to the charaneristics and
needs ollhe learner.
See Units- 12. 13 and T4 for the different characteristics and needs af learners and Unit 16 for ways af focusing on
and practIsing language, and for examples. of communlcotlve tas.ks..
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (.x. jld!F 172/1
1
,..111 '!Wl))
Pw tbese dassroom activities intO the correct column in the table according to which way of
learning they encoLlIage mosl. (Some may go i1llo more than one column.)
Acquisition Interaction Focus. on form
[ The learners ti slen to tht: teacher read a Story.
2 The Icamcrs do an oral pai.rwork task about choosing a birthday present for someone.
3 -n 1C learners underline examples orthe past Simple tensc in a text .
4 A karner asks the teacher what the Engli sh word for . .. is.
5 The (eacher corrects a learner's pronunciation of a word,
6 The learners categorise words in a list into different lexical sets.
7 A group of. learners research a topic and then presem their results to the rest of (he class.
g A role-play in which one learnergivt's anouler advice aboul a problem on a cue card.
9 While the learners have a class discussion. (he teacher listens and tells them new ~ " " o r d s
when th<.Y don't know them but need to use ulem.
[0 The learners write sentences each containing an examp,le (I f (lie new structure they have' j ust
been {,lughl.
Unit 10 ExpOSure.lnd focus on form
REFLECTION
Which method of learning English would you prefer: communicative, {ormfocuscd,
grammar-translation, or a combination of these? Why?
2 What method(s) do your learners seem 10 prefer? Why? Da you agree with their preferences?
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
I Laok al http://www.elt!oTum.com For articles discussing how languages are Jearnt.
2 fdentify one learner whu seems to prder a communicative style of learning and anoiller
WllO prefers learning language lorms. IOlcrvicw lilt-Ill (in their own language if necessary)
about how they prefer to learn language and why they prefer this way. Or observe tbeJU in
class and see how they each reat1 to different kinds of aCTivities. Write down your
observations and pm them in yuur TKT portfolio .
........ .......................... .......... ... ... ... ........................ ...... .. ................. .......
TKT practice task (See page 176 for amwers)
For questions 1-5, choose the correct option A. B ar e to complete each statement about learning
language.
1 The group of learners who generally benefit most tram picking up language is:
A children under the age of five.
B people over the age of 20,
e teenagers aged 15-19.
2 Being exposed to the right level of language helps learners
A check their own progress.
B increase their interaction.
e acqui re more language.
3 A silent period is a time when learners
A do written work.
B study the language.
e process the language.
4 Acquiring language involves
A studying the grammar carefully.
B listening just to language-focused exercises.
e learning language just by hearing or reading it.
5 When we focus on the form of language we
A talk with classmates.
B pay attention to accuracy and use.
e listen to videos and audio cassettes .
.. ......... ... ......... .. ..... .... .... ................ ... , ..... ..... ... ........ .............. ....... ........ .
43
Unit 11 The role of error
What is the rol e of error?
This uniT focuses on miS\.lkes learners make when they speak or write English. Mistakes are
often divided into errors and slips. Errors happen wl1('11 learners Iry to say something that is
beyond their curren! level of language processing. USllally, learners cannot correct errors
themselves because they dOll'1 understand what is wrong. Errors playa necesS<lry and imponant
part in language Ic.uning. as we will below. Slips are the result of tiredness. worry or olher
tempora ry emotions or circumstances. These kinds of mistakes can be correaed by leamers once
they they have made them.
Key concepts
There arc tWO main reasons why teamers make errors. Call you think Whilllhcy are?
There arc two main rea50m why second language learners make t' rrors. The (irSl reason is
influcnce from the learner's first language (U ) on th(' seconci language. This is called
int.erference or transfer. Learners may use sound patterns. lexis or grammatjca[ strudures from
their own l<lJlguage in English.
The rt'ason why learners make errors is because they arc unCOnsciously working Out
and orga nisiJ, g language. bUi this process is not yet complete. This kind of error is callc-d a
developmental error.l.eamers of whatever mother tongue make these kinds of errors, which
arc ohen similar to those made by a young first language speaker as p<1rt of their normal
language deveiopmt!llI. For example, very first language speakers of English ohen make
mistakes with verb rorms, saying lhings such as ' I goed' instead of ' I weill '. Errors such as this
one, in which learners wrongly apply a rule for one item of tl'\(' language to another item, are
known as overgcncral,isalion. Once dlildren develop. these errors disappear, and ,1$ a second
lallguagt' learner's language <lbi lit y increases. these kinds of disappt'ar.
Errors arc part of learners' inlerlanguagc, Le. the learners' own version of the second
language which they speak as they learn. Leaml'rs llncoJlsciollsty process, i.e. analyse and
reorganise their intcrianguage, so it is 001 fixed. It develops dnd progresses as they learn 1110n:.
Experts think thai iJl[crlanguage is an esscmial and unavoidable stage in leaming. In
other words, imcrtanguage and errors are necessary 10 language learning.
When chil dren leam their mother lOngue they seem 10 speak their own form or it ror a while,
to make progress On some language items, then to go backwards, and 10 make mistakes for a
time before these mistakes Hnall y disappear, without obvious corrc(lion.
Errors are a natural pan or learning. They usuall y show that learners arc learning and that
their internal mental processes arc working on and experimenting with language. We go
through stages of learning new language, and each new piece of language we learn helps us
learn olher pieces of language tbat we already know more fully - like pieces of a jigsaw pu:aJe
.. ..ruch only make full sense when they art" all in place.
Unit 11 The role of error
Developmt' llIal errors and errors of illlE'rference can disappear by themselves, without
correction, as the learner learns more language. In fan, correction may only help learners if
they arc ready for iI, i.e. they are al Ihe right stage in their individ ual learning process. But
expens believe lhat learners can be helped to develop their interJanguagc. There are three (llain
ways of doi ng this. Firslly, learners need exposure 10 lOIS of imcresting language <II the right
level; secondly they need to use language with other people; and Ihirdly they need to foclls
their attention on the forms of language. (See Unit 10 for more abOUI these lhree ways .)
Sometimes elTors do nOt disappear. but get fossilised'. Fossilised errors arc errors whidl a
teamer does not stop making and which last for a long lime, eVCll for ever, in his/her foreign
language use. They often happen when learners, particularly adults, arc able LO CO!'llll1unicate as
much ,1S they need to in Ihe foreign language and so have no communicative rcason to improve
their langudge. These fossilised errors may be the result of lack of exposure to the L2 (second
language) and/or of a learner's lack of motivation 10 improve their level of accuracy.
Key concepts and t he language teaching classroom
We need to think hard abOlll whether. when and how 10 correct learners.
We Ill UStn't expect instant learning. Lcarning is gradual. and errors will occur.
We need to think about what kind of mistake the learner is making - a slip Or an error.
If the mistake is a slip. the learner can probably correct him/ herself, maybe with a little
prompling from the teacher or another learner.
Sometimes. particularly in Ouency activities, it is bet ter not to pay anention to learners' errors
(i.e. ignore 1l1elll) so that the learners have an opportunity to develop their confidence and
their nuell(.Y, and to experiment with language.
Some errors may be more imponant to correct Lhan Olhers. Those which prevent
communical'ion are more imponal11 than 1l1Ose which do not, e.g. missing the final s off the
third persoll singular of a presem simple lense verb docsn't prevent conununicatioll. BUI
using the present simple tense instead of the pasl simple tense can sometimes prevent
communication.
We need to think about what is best for the learning of each learner. Different learners Wi lhill
lile same class may need to be corrected or not, depending olllheir stage of learning, learning
style and level of confidence. Different learners ma y also need 10 be corrected ill dilleren!
ways .
.. Ways of helping learners get beyond their errors arc:
- 10 expose them 10 lOIS of language lilat isjust beyond tlleir Jevt::llhrough reading or
listening
- 1O give them opportunities to focus on (he form Of language
- to prOVide them with time in class 10 use language to c(lmmunicate and interact and see if
they can do so successfully.
A good tjme 10 cOrn::cl lt:arners 01' 10 provide them wilh new language is when they realise
they have made a mistake or need some new language. We should encourage learners to ask
us for this help.
Errors are useful nOI only to the learner but also to the teacher. They can help the teacher see
how weU learners have learnt something and what. kind of. help they may need.
See Unit 28 for categories of miStakes, Unlr 31 for how to correct learners and Unit 32 for how to give feedback.
45
Module 1
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (Sa /72 lor WZSII'('I),)
Here is a conversalion between lWO elemel1lary-levellearners of English, They are doing a
fluency activity in whid) they talk about the hobbies they would like 10 stan. The woman is
Japanese and the man is Spanish.
Read it and notice bow the learners arc t rying their bes1 to communicate, and giving one
another help in communi cati ng.
N.B. The words i.n italics in bracketS ( ... ) are spoken by the other speaker al the same time as the
main speaker.
Woman: Oh if. if you call (mm) urn, what hObbies you would like to start?
Man: Yes, I like erso much the, to play the piano (ah, play piano), it Is one of my, my dreams (dream,
ah your dream, ah, yeS) because when I listen (yes) the piano music (Yes) (, I Imagine, I imagine
a lot of things (ah), beautiful things (yes, ah I see) a urn I like so much the, the plano (playpiano)
play the piano (yes). And you?
Woman: Um, yes, er, I want to, I want to learn (to learn) to dance (todancelum fl amenco (namenco) yes
(Spamsh flamenco) yes flamenco. When I flmsh my schoOl I maybe, I'll go to Spain (mm) to learn
(to learn flamenco) yeah, yes flamenco (mm) yes and then ... would, WOUld you like to
(laughter') ..
Man: And I play an instruments too.
Woman: No I can't, I can't, I can' t play anything, any instrument (yeah) even piano (mm), So how about
yoU? (yeah) Could you, can you play-
Man: No, I play nowaday the guitar; nothing more (guitar, oh it's good) yeah, the spanish guitar (yes,
oh it's lovely) the sound rs lovely.
Woman: Yes, yes, one day (yeah) please, please play the gUitar for me.
Man: Of course cyeah), of course.
({film English for tllr Tt llCht r by Mary Sprat!, Cambridge UniversilY Press 1994)
REFLECTION
Do you agree with these tCadl e. rs' dnd learne.rs' comments? Why?/Why nOt?
j (like my teacber to all my mistakes.
2 If I don't correct my s1udents, Lhey will continue to make lhe same mistakes and tllt.st' will
become bad habits.
3 It's impossible in class for a teacher to know wby a student is making a mistake.
4 It's diIficuh 10 usc different correction lechniques with difierem st udents.
Unit 11 The role of error
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
Look at a piece of writing 'rom one of your [earners and underline all the mistakes. Wha1
rJ1ighl be the cause or the mistakes? Arc Lhey all wonh cQrrecting? Discuss this with anothe.r
teacher if you can. Write. your analysis in your TKTpon(olio.
2 To learn more aoom why [eamelS make mistakes and how we can correa the.m, read
dlapter7 of The. Pracrireo[Englisl1 LnnguageTeaching (third edilion) by Jeremy Hanner.
Pearson EdUQltion Lid 200 I .
3 U:.c a dictionary onhe TKTGlossary 10 find the meaning or (O!JlIil ive .
............... ........... .... .. ... .. .. .......................... .. ... ..... ........ ..... .. ..... .. ........... .
TKT practice task (See page J 76[or al/swers)
For questions 1 6, match the statements with the types of mistakes listed A-C.
Types of mistakes
A asJip
B interference
C a developmental error
Statements
1 AU beginners confuse the tenses in English.
2 The learner was extremely tired. This made her forget lots of grammar.
3 The learner was able to correct hIs own mistake.
4 The leamer' s pronunciation was full of sounds from his own language.
5 Nearly aU the learners, of whatever mother tongue, made mistakes with the word order in English
present simple tense question forms.
6 He was very angry so he kept making mistakes.
7 The learner kept using vocabulary based on her own language .
..... .............. .. ....... .... ........... .............. ............... ................... , .......... , ..... .
47
Unit 12 Differences between 11 and L2learning
What are the differences between Ll and L2 learning?
When we learn our firs! language lLI ) we arc likely 10 [cam il in dHferCIlI ways and in dHfercl1l
conlexrs from whell we learn a second language (L21. We arc also likely (0 he a difrcrcnl age.
Key concepts
What differences can you think. of between L I and l 2 1carning? Think aboUl tilt' reamers' age.
ways of IC.1rning ami context [hal they are learning in.
u leornlng L2 Jearnlng On the classroom)
Age

Baby to young child.

Usually at primary school and/or
(Lllearnlng las[s Into adolescence for secondary schael.lt can also start or
some kinds of language and language
continue in adulthood.
sk.ills, e.g. academic writing.)
Woysof

By exposure to and picking up

Sometimes through expOSure but
leomlng language.
often by being taught specific language.

By wanting and needing to

With mong.little or no motivation.
communIcate. i.e. with strong

Through Interaction with a teacher
motivation. and sometimes with classmates.

Through interaction with family and

Often by talking about life outside the
friends.
classroom.

By talking about things present in the

Often by needing to produce
chitd's surroundings.
language soon after it has been

By listening to and taking in language taught.
formany months before USing it (si lent

Often by using language In
period). controlled practice actIvIties.

By playing and experimenting with
new language.
Context

The child hears the language around

The learner Is not exposed to the II very
him/her all the time. much -often no more than about three

Family and friends talk to and Interact hours per week.
with the child a lot.

Teachers usually simplify their

The chlld has lots of oppoftunities to language.
experiment with language.
Unit 12 Differences bet\olleen LI and L2 learning
l1/earning L2 learnjng (jn the classroom)
Context

Caretakers* often praise (tell the child

Teachers vary in the amount they
he/she has done well) and encourage
praise or encourage learners.
the child's use of la nguage.
The learner does not receive Individual

Caretakers simplify their speech to the
attention from the teacher.
child.

Teachers generally correct lea rners a

caretakers rarely correct the form and
lot.
accuracy of what the child says in an
obvious way .
... Carelakers are people whQ look arle r a dlild. Olten Ihey are parelHs. BUl they may aJso be
brOlhers or sislers. other members ollhe famil y, etc.
11 is not always easy to describe 12 IC<lnling to the dassrOOIll because it happens in differem
ways in dHferelll classrooms. The c!cscriplion in Ihe labit' above may nO! be Iwe of all
classrooms.
Of course. L2 learning SOffit' limes lakes place outside Ihe classroom when children or adults
pick up language. in this situation. L2 learning is more similar 10 LI learning, except that the
learner often docs not gel as much exposure 10 the langllage as the L 1 learner and may 1101 be so
mOlivRled to Jearn.
Another big differenc(' belween Ll and L2 learning is Ihat Ll learniog is nearly always fully
s uccessfu l, while L2 learning varies a lot in how successful il is.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Foreign I,mguage learners need to be exposed to a rich variety of language, usc it 10
communicalc and imeracl. and have opportunities to focus on form. This helps to make the
circumstances of L2 leanling more similar to those in 1.1 learning and al lows L2 learners (who
are usuall y older thall LI learners) to use thei r different a b i l i t i e ~ 10 process 1,1JlgU<lge.
Motivation is veTY important in language learning, so we should do 0111 we can 10 motivalc
learners (see Unit 9).
Learners are differcnl from one another (in learning style. age. personality. ele. - see Unils 13
and 14) so we sholiid try IV personalise our teachi ng to match their learning nceds and
preferences. We can clo lhis by varying our leaching s tyle, approaches, materials, tOpicS, etc.
, Learners may find a silell! period usdul. but somc learners, especially adults, Ill<ly not.
We should encourage learners 10 use English as much as possible in Illeir out -orclass time.
This increases their expusure to it. They could, for example. listen to radiO program.mes or
songs. read books or magazines, look <II websites, make Engli sh-speaking friends, talk 10
tourists. write 10 English-speaking pcnfliends, etc.
We should try to simplify OLlr language to a level thai learners call learn [rom_ and avoid
correcting them lOO much. They need 10 build up their fluency, 1ll0{i\7ation and confidence.
and holY(' oppOrtunities 10 pick up and expcrimcll1 wilh la nguage.
In the classroom we should Ill' 10 praise \e,lrne rs and giv(' them as much individual allcmion
as we ca n.
49
.
Module 1
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES ,Sel' p.l.qt 171 (OIl/lInt...,s)
Look at these two pictures. What diUerences that inOuence language learning ca n you
imagine between the two language learning situations? Think of alieasl nve.
2 H(:re are twO learners. Which way would yOll suggest for them 10 improve thei r Engl ish.
A BorC'?
Fatima. aged l("n, is Moroccan and speaks
Arilbic. Sh.e li ves ill the cilpitaL Rabat. with
her famil y. She isj uSt sta rling to learn
English at school.
A Go and study in an English-speaktng
country.
B Use English when playing with a friend.
C Do lots of eXira homework.
REFLECTION
Ricardo, aged 40, is Brazilian. He lives in the
capital. Brasilia. Wilh his wife and [our
children. He has never learnt Engli sh before
but needs it for his new job as a laxi driver.
A Chat 10 as many foreign tourists as
possible.
B St udy Englisb grammar by himself.
C Go 10 conversation classes.
How did the age, ways and <."Outcxl in which you learnt English influence your success al
learning?
..2 \ .... hal wOldd help your learners to learn English betler'?
Unit 12 Differences between 11 and lliearning
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
Look at a unil in your coursebook. Fiud some anivit ics whidl encourage imcroaion,
exposure l ~ ) language or molivat ion.
2 Look althis website:
hllp:llwww.eltforum.com
It ohen has interesting articles about how we learn languages and how to teach different age
groups of learners. It also has teacher chat rOOms.
3 Use the TKT Glossary to find the- meanill),! of these terms: wctivity-based /((lIning, deductive
Irami1l9, inducrivllramillg .
.......... -.. ...... .... ............................... ... ................................ .. .... ............. .
TKT practice task (See pag' /76[01' tmswers)
For questions 1-9, match the features of learning with the learners listed A, B or C.
Learners
A Ll learner
B L2 beginner classroom learner
C both the L 1 learner and the l2 beginner classroom learner
The features of learning
1 The learner is very often surrounded by language that is interesting to him/her.
2 The learner picks up language from the rich language that surrounds him!her all day.
3 The learner learns with family and friends.
4 The learner often hears language that focuses on just one learning point.
5 The learner uses the language in controlled practice activities.
6 The learner often makes mistakes.
7 The learner usually receIves lois of indivi dual encouragement.
8 The learner often stays silent for a long time before finally speaking.
9 The learner needs time to process new language .
.................. ... .. ................... ................. .. ....................... ........ .. .. ... ..........
51
Unit 13
Learner characteri stics
What are learner characteristics?
Learner dlaraCICtislics are dilierences hetween learners w,hich inllucncf' their anitude 10
learning <1 language and how they l{'<lm it. These dint-rences influence how they respond to
different leadling styles and approaches in the classroolll. and how successful Lhey ilrc al
learning a language. The differences include a learner's motivation, personality, language level.
learning style. learning strategies. age and past language iearniog experience.
Key concepts
Can y OlI thi nk oj how the ways in which YOll li ke l ~ ) learn, hOw you have learnt in Ihe past
and your i1io;C might infl uence how you prd er 10 learn a I<lnguagc?
Leamillg styles
Learning styles afC the w a ~ ' s in which a learner naturally prefers 10 take in, process and
remembe.r information and skilts. Our learning style influences how we like 10 leam and how
we learn best. Expens haw suggested several dirferem ways of dassilying learning styit's. They
rela te to the physical senSe we prefer to usc 10 learn, our way ot interacting with other people
and our style 01 thinking. Here are some rO!llmonly mentioned learning styles:
visual the lea rner learns best through seeing
auditory the learner learns best through hearing
kinaesthetic the learner learns best through using the body
group the learner learns best through working with others
individual the learner learns best through working alone
reflective the learner learns best when given time to consider choices
ImpulsIve the learner learns best when able to respond immediately
YOu can sec from these descriptions how learners with different learning styles learn hl different
ways, and need to be ta ught in difrerem ways. We must remember though, thai learners may
not fall cxaoly imo any om' category of learning style. that differem cultures may use some
learning styles more than others and that learners may change or develop their learning styles.
Lean-ling strategies
Learnjng srrategies are the ways chosen and used by leamers 10 learn language. They incl ude
ways to htlp ourselves ide.ntify what we need to learn. process new language and work with
other people 10 learn. Using the right strategy at the eight time can h.elp us learn ule language
Unit 13 Learner characteristics
beller. and belp to make us more independem or autonomous learners. Some examples or
learning strategies are:
repeating new words in your head umi l you remember them
experiment ingl!aking risks by lIsingjusI learnt language in con versa lions
guessing the meaning of unknown words
asking tht:.leadler or others [0 what they think abuut yOUT USt' of 1.Jnguage
deciding to use the roreign language: as much as possible by talking to tourists
recording yourselr speaking, then judging and con eaing your pronuncialiOn
asking a speaker to repeat what they have said
deciding what area of vocabulary you need to learn ilOd then il
thinking about how to rt:member al l the new words you meCl in each lesson and Ihen
deciding to write each new one on a separate card
paraphrasing (using other language to say wllal you want 10 say) .
Different learners use diIferem strategies. Experts th.ink that the strategies that learners use-
IllOSt successfully depend on their personality and learning style. This means there are Jl0 besl
strategies. But research shows thai using strategies defi nitel y makes learning more successful
and Ihallearners can ile Lrained LO use strategies.
Malllri0'
Matutity involves becoming grown up physically. mentally and emotionally. Children,
teenagers and adullS ha ve different learning dl<1raneristics and therefore learn in differem
ways. Here are some of the main differences in maturity that influence languilge learning:
Children Teenagers Adults
Need to move Starting to keep still for longer Able to keep still for longer
periods but still need to move periods
Can concentrate for shorter Concentration developing Can concentrate for longer
periods periods
Learn through experience Beginning to learn in abstract learn in more abstract ways
ways. I.e. through thinking, as
well as experiencing
Are not very able to control and Beginning to control and plan Usually able to control and pla n
plan their own behaviour their own behaviour their own behaviour
Are not afraid of making May worry about what others Not so wIl ling to ma ke mistakes
mistakes or taking risks think of them or take risks
Are not aware of themselves Sometimes uncomfortably Aware of themselves and/or
and/or thei r actions aware of themselves and/or their actions
their actions
Pay attention to meaning in Pay attention [0 meaning and Pay attention to form and
language Increasingly to form meanIng In language
Have limited experience of life BegInning to Increase their Have experience of life
experience of Ufe
53
Modul e 1
Of course, t"very learner is differenl, so someone may 1101 fit t'x<lctly into these descriptions. They
are generalisations Ihat show likely, but nOI fixed. charactt'rislics. But from looking at these
differences we can set' thai cadl ast! group needs to be taught ill dilferellf ways.
Past language learning experimc
Teenage <Ind adult learners may have learnt English bdorc. They may be u.sed to learning in a
particular way and have definite ideas aboul how to learn For example, an adult may hav('
learnl English at SdlooI Ihrough lea.rning lots of grammar and may have been successful in
learning. this way. If he then finds himseU in a class where the teaching is done just tiuough
asking learners 10 use for communication. he may nm like learning in this new way.
Another adul! m<ly have learnt by using uanslatiOI1 al school and then come to a class in which
lranslation is never USed. She mayor may nOt like Ihis change. Teachers of adults (and
somelimes leachers of teenagers) need 10 be aware 01 how their leamcrs have learnt previously
and how they wanl 1.0 learn now. The learners may welcome a change in method but they may
want to learn in the same way as rhey learnt before. Teachers may need to discllss (lnd explain
their methods to learners whQ are unhappy with new methods. They may also need to dlange
their teadling lO make. the learner more comfonable and conlidcllt in their learning.
Key concepts and the language teaching class room
Leamer; arc nOT aillhe S<lme. They dn not all learn in tile same way.
Some learner characteristics, SUdl as paslJanguage [caming exp('Jience and learning
strategies. are. mort relevant tt) leaching teenagers and adults than to teachi. ng children.
Wc can find OUi what our learners' charaderisrics are by asking them. observing them. giving
1 bem queStionnaires, aski.og ill t be cncl of a lesson whether 1.hey liked !.he activities done iD
class and why, and in whar different ways they mighllike to work.
"Learner characlcristics may not be rixcd. We must nOI limit a learner by thi.llJ..ing thc)' ca.D
on ly learn in a particular way.
We ca n train learners to hecome aware of and use dirJerc.1lI1caming strategies.
It is not possible:- lor tile teacher of a big dass to meet Ihc leamer d13racterislics of eadl teamer
all the time. Across a number of lessons teachers can try 10 vary ho ... v Lhey leach so that they
can march the learner dlaraaeristics of a range of leamers.
Unit 13 learner characteristics
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES r.'Wi 1"1.>lC5 1 '2-3 /fJr
Look at tbese descriptions of three learners. How might their kamer charaCleristks inOuence
how they like to learn and how successful they arc at learning English'?
Name
Personali ty
leamjng English
learning English
Quiet.
Loves carlOOns.
Wants to travel to
USA.
None
Sociable,
Not'
English.
Likes hislory and
Four years al
schoolleaming songs,
listening 10 storieS and
playing games.
Confident, pr.1ctical
Wams
English foc his
fmure
Fourteen years al
Sd1001. Learnt lots
of grammar.
2 Look at these classroom acti viti es and at the lisl 01 learning styles on page 52. Match the activi ti es
witj] tile learning styles they are most for.
A reailing a text slowly and careful ly before answering questions
B playing a learn funni ng game
C writing in groups
D discussing how to improve pronunciation a rt er a spea,ki ng task
E listening to stories
F writing new vocabulary into an exercise book
G writing a composit ion on your own
H a speaking fl uency activity
Do you think all these activities are suitable for both adults' and young children's classes?
55
Module 1
56
REFLECTION
What is your lc.:arning style?
2 What snatcgies do you usc/ havc yOll lIsed to help you learn English?
3 What is your past experience of learning English?
DISCOYBRY AcnV1TIES
1 Observe fWO 01 your learners next week and work OUI which learning slyie(s) they have.
Write a description df tbeir leaming slyle/51 and pUI ilin yourTKT ponfol.io.
2 Look at the questionnaires on lcaming slyies on tbe:sc
llltp:ll www.ncsu.edu/ reldcr-public/ ILSpage.hlml
http:// www.vark-leam.(.."Om!english/page.asp?p=qucstiOnnaire
Use them to discover yOllr learning Stylte. Also, a.re they - or any parr ollhem -su.itahle
for giving 10 your leame.rs?
3 Use tbe TKTGlo.'!sary 10 fi nd I he meaning or these terms: attelltioll span, learner train iI/g.
self-access cmtre.
TKT practice task (Sf e page 176 for amwcrs)
For questions 1-7, match what the learner does with the learning strategies listed A-D.
You need to use some options more than once.
What the learner does
Learning strategies
A taking risks
B getting organised
C judging your own performance
D working with others
1 The learner collects new vocabulary on cards and then sorts the cards into topics.
2 The learner paraphrases to say something beyond his level of language.
3 The learner guesses an unknown word from the context.
4 The learner compares a recent composi tion with an old one, to see if she has made progress.
5 The learner decides to buy a dictionary for use at home.
6 The learner solves a problem with his classmates.
7 The learner records herself reading aloud and then listens to the recording to see if her
pronunciation is good.
Unit 14 Learner needs
What are learner needs?
When a learner learns a foreign language he or she has various kinds of needs which influence
his/her learning. They are personal needs, learning needs and future professional needs.
Meeting these learner needs is pan of being a good teadu;,[.
Key concepts
Can you think of any learner n('(:ds thaI your learners have?
The diffe.rent kinds Of learner needs are shown in Ihis table:
lEARNER NEEDS
Kind of needs Where the needs (orne from
Personal needs age
gender
cultural background
Interests
educational background
motivation
Learning needs learnIng styles
past language learning experience
learning gap (Le. gap between the presenr level and the target
level of language proficiency and knowledge of the target culture)
learning goals and expectations for the course
learner autonomy
availability of time
(Future) professional needs language requirements for employment. training or education
(based on ' What do tl:i1chers really Wilnt [rom coursebooks?' b}' Hitomi Masuhara in
Dewlopmefll in UmguQg,' TMc/ling, ed. Brian Tomlinson, Cambridge University Press 1998)
We can see from the table thaI differenllearners have dHferent needs. This means they need
to be laughl in different ways and learn different thi.ngs in the English classroom.
57
Modulel
58
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Adults or older teenagers with specific professional. general or academic goals for learning
English need courses thai meet their needs. Rere. for example, is a range of different kinds of
professional, general and academic Engli sh courses. Notice the differences there arc between
them.
I A four-week int ensive course on exam stra tegies for wking a university entrance exam.
2 A series of one-to-one lessons over eight weeks 011 busint:ss presel1taliOIl ski lls.
3 A six-month course for future tourisls focusing on speaking and listening for sodal and daily
survival English.
4 A yea r-long course on writing academic essays and reading academic books and articles.
5 A shan summer COUf5C in the UK lor teenagers. i.nvolving lots qf sporLs. trips to [Ourist Sites
and chan ing wi th English teenagers.
6 A once-a -week course for a small group of accountants held in (he learners' company, a large
acco untancy nnn, on English for accountants.
7 A fou r-week onli ne COUf5C on writing business leiters i. n English.
You can see that to meet thl! future needs of learners these cOllrses vary in length_ frequency.
class size, language skiU focused on. type uf English_ teaching methods and activities.
Lea rners at primary or secondary school may oot yet have professional or aca demic needs, but
they do have personal and learning needs in English. Meeling these needs presents the (eacher
with v<u ious choices for the classroom. Tbese are shown in t.he table below.
Learner needs How the teacher can meet learner needs
Personal needs Choosing SUitable:

materials

topics

pace (speed) of lessons

activities

approach to teaching (e.g. activity-based. topic-based)

treatment of individual learners

skills

interaction patterns (e.g. group. pair or Individual work.)

types of feedback (comments on learning)
Learning needs Choosing suitable:

ma terials and topics

activities

interaction patterns

approach to teaching

language and skms

level of language and skills

learning strategies

workload
See Unit9 for motivation In teaching and learning, Unlt 13 For the effects of learnercharacrerlstlcs an reaching and
learning and Unit20 for lesson planning.
Unltl4 Learner needs
li.,',Wli'i4i'i"iii,j ~ e , "O,l/t: I73N' .rllSlI'tN')
Look ill these descriptions of two learners, Make nores on their possible learning needs in rhe
English classroom.
Tatyal1a

Age 6, female

Russian father. French mother, lives in
Paris

Loves activities and span and being with
other people

Started learning English two months ago

Learns English happily because she
enjoys her class and likes ber teacher





CuI
Age 30, male
lndiall, lives in India - rarely meel.S
people from Other countries
Needs to improve his English for his new
job as a hOiel manager
Very interested in computer programming
Started learning Engli sh at age 7 in primary
school and has e:xcellcllI grammar. weak
speaking skills, good writing skHls. little
knowledge of hOlei English
Wams to learn quickly al)d 10 a high level
Very busy; little time ror lessons
2 Rere are some leacher dwices. Whidl of the !carner needs on page 57 do they aim to meet?
(Some choices may aim at more than one need. )
A Choosing to read Lhe learners a [airy story
B Focusing on the specific pronunciation
problems of the dass
C Deciding thm three learners should work
alone while the rest do group work
D Choosing to focus on the language of oral
presentations with a class of adult
profeSSionals
E Pocusjng on devdoping lcarm;'rs' ability to
read for detail in preparation for an. exam
F Deciding to put the learners in groups for
the whole tenn and only do group work
G Teaching learners to lise a dictionary and the
spell checker on the computer
H Deciding to ask the learners w,hy they art'
learning English and what they hope to
adlleve WiLh it
Deciding LO only praise and never criticise a
partkular learner
J Choosing to take the class 1.0 the computer
laboratory ra lher than the classroom to write
a composit ion
'9
Modulel
60
REFLECTION
Think about IhL"SC comments from lcadlers. whidl do you agree with and why?
I J cann01 think about my students' needs when J have 40 simit-ms in ;l class. AU I can do is
Icadl the in my coursebook.
2 When I find a topic and activities lhal my sludellls arc interested in, they seem 10 wake up
and really enjoy my lessons.
3 Salis{ying my studCl1fs' needs gives me satisfaction as a teacher.
DiSCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 Choose one 01 your learners, and over the ne..Xl week or tWO try to idcllI ify his or her
learner needs. It might be useful to imelView the learner to help you do Ibis. When you
have a clear idea ollbl' leamer's needs. think -about how you could [each this learner
bc<;f.. WriT" a desLTiplion I)f rhe leaml'r's needs and your leaching ideas for Y01 lrTI<T
ponfo\io.
2 Ask a CO]JC.1gUC H yO\l can obscrve one of herlhis cl asses. Or vldco one or your own
classes, Ihen walch it. As you observe, try to nOl ice all Ule dHferent net!t.ls the learners
show during the .
.... ... , ............... .. ...... .................................... .. ........................ - , .... .... .
TKT practice task (See page 176 for a1/SweTf)
For questions 17, match the descriptions of the learners with the causes of their needs listed A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Descriptions of learners
Causes of needs
A lack of motivation
B learner autonomy
C past learning experience
D learning style
E learning gap
F learning goals
G availability of lime
H professional
1 The learner really needs to learn English well 10 succeed in her job.
2 The learner learns best through working alone.
3 The learner has an extremely busy job and can only learn English In the evenings.
4 The learner has serious pronunciation prOblems which prevent him passing an oral exam.
S The learner is used to learning lots of grammar.
6 The learner finds the English classes boring.
7 The learner needs to learn how to learn English by herself, as she can't afford to go to classes .
... ... ... . .... ...... ... .. ............................................ .. .... ........... ..... ..... ...... , .
Part 3
Background to language teaching
Unit 15 Presentation techniques and
introductory activities
What are presentation techniques and introductory activities?
Prest'Jltation arc ways used oy the teacher 10 present (introduce to learners for Lhe
Cirs! time) new language such as vocabulary, grammatical struCllHt'S and pronunciation.
[l1irOdudory aelivilles are Ihost' used by a teacher 10 introduce a lesson or [caching topiC.
Key concepts
Look a1 lhe presentation st,lge<; (the areas 1ha1 are shadt.:d) in tht' se descriptions oltw()
lessons for elt'meutary-level secondary-school siudents, How aTe the slages diflerent?
Presentation, Practice and Production {PpP} lesson Task-bosed learning (TBl) lesson
Ai m: students learn the difference between Aim: students choose food and drinks for a
countable and uncountable nouns. and when to birthday party.
use a and some with them.
Procedure: Procedure:
1 Ask students what food and drink they like at 1 Hold a discussion With the students about
birthday parties. when their birthdays are. what presents t hey
2 Stick on the board magazine pictures of
would l ike. what good birthday parties they
different party foods. (They should be a
have been to and what they like to eat and
mixture of countable and uncountable nouns
drink at birthday parties.
e.g. ice cream, sandwiches, cola. fruit, 2 Put students Into small groups and give them
bananas. chicken legs. cake. a box of sweers.) a worksheet wirh the pictures. names and
l
Ask students the names of the food items,
prices of lots of party food and drink on It.
write the names on the board under each
3
Tell the students to do this task: choose the
pietu re a nd then do a quick choral drill on the food and drink they would l ike for a birthday
pronunciation of these wards. party for ten friends keeping within a price
4
Say to students: 'I'm having a birthday party
limit e.g. S10.
thiS weekend. I'd like a box of sweets and a
4
The students do the task while the teacher
cake for my party. And I'd like some Ice cream, goes round the class listening and answering
some cola and some fruit. I'd also like some any questions.
sandwiches. some bananas and some
5
Each group tells the other groups what
chicken legs.'
decisions they have made.
61
Module 1
62
Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP) lesson Tosk-bosed Leornina (TBL) lesson
5 Say 'I'd like a box of sweets', 'I'd like a cake', I' d
6 The students ask the teacher questions about
like some Ice cream', etc., and ask students to
-any language they needed for the task and/or
repeat each sentence chorally.
the teacher tells the students aboutany
6 Point out to the students that you can count
language she noticed they didn't know while
some nouns bur you can't count others.
they were doing the task, e.g. the
These-are called countable and uncountable
pronunciatfon of some food words , the
nouns. You use Q with singular countable
grammar of uncountable and countable
nouns and.somewith uncountable nouns or
nouns.
plural countable.nouns.
7
Students do a written exercise on the new
7
Ask the students some concept questions,
language.
e.g. 'Which of the food items on the board are
co u nta ble/u n co u nta bl e/si ngu lar/p lura I?'
8 Students do a written gap-fill exercise. filling
the gaps With Q or some.
9
Students work in pairs with a worksheet of
pictures of food and d rink items. One student
tells the other what they'd like for their party,
e.g. 'I'd like some/a .. .', while the other student
takes notes. Then they swap roles.
The introductory STage of a lesson helps students to settle into Ihe lesson and focus on irs
content. There are twO kinds of introductory activities: warmers and WanTl<:rs are
of len used to raise sllldents' energy levels or 10 make them leel comfortable. They are nOt always
cOi1Jleded 10 the lopic of Ihe lesson, for example, Ihcy eQuid be a quiz, game or pairwork
act ivi ty. Lead-ins focus on the 10pic or new language of the lesson. They can also focus and
motivale sludents and make a link between the topic of the lesson and the SlUdents' own lives
(personalisation). For exampl e, if ill one lesson students are going to rcad a lexl about the
lnternet. rather Ihan giving them Ihe lext immediat.ely, wc could do one or more lead- i.n
aaivities such as discussing with students how often they usc the Internet, what they use it for
what their favourit<: websiles are, etc. Or if in another lesson they are going 10 listen m a
conversation about favourite lelevision progranlllleS, the lead-in activities might be making a lis!
of Iheir favourite Ielevision programmes and discussing them with a partner. These acrjvities win
probably ]('ad on 10 teaching relevant vocabulary for Ihe texts and comprehension tasks In
follow.
If YOli look back al the PPP and TBL lessons on page 61 you will sec that they too include
introductory activities. Step I in the PPP lesson provides a lead-in to the topk, and steps 2 and :)
a leadin for language needed for ute Jesson's main aim. [n tile TBL less()n, steps I and 2 af!:"
lead-ins.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
The twO lessons on pages 61-2 show twO common and differeut approaches to presenting nen
language items. The lesson on the left is an exampl e of a PPP lesson, t.he lesson on Lhe right ar.
t:xarnple of a TBL It:sson. There are many differences between them.
Unit 15 Presentation techniques and introductory activities
In the Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP) lesson:
The lesson has a language aim.
The read ler first contextuaUses the new language. i.e. puts it intO a situation which shmV5
what it means. (Step 1)
The teacher theo makes sure tbaT the students remember previously studied languagt:
needed 1.0 practise the ne.w language by e lici ting it. Le. asking studems to say the language
rat her than givi ng it to them. and by doing a cho ral d rill (getting the students to repeat as a
whole class what he/sill.' says). (Steps 2-3)
Tbe tcacher next presenlS the new language 010(1 the students just listen, (Step 4)
The students then say sentences including thc new language ina very controlled or
res t ricted p ractice aoivilY. Le. one in which the}' can use only the new language and
without making mistakes. (SICp 5)
The teacbcrlells students about the grammmical use of the new language. (SICp 6)
The reacber a:;ks t.he slUdents concept ques t ions, i.e. questions that check their
understanding of tbe usc of the: new language. (Step 7)
The students ulcn ca rry out anotllcr controlled praclice activilY. (Step 8)
The stude.nts do less controlle d or freer p ractice (i.e. where [bey can lISC theirowo ideas)
using the new language. (Step 9)
You can see thai in a PPP lesson Ihe teacher:
prcsellls new langllage in <1 context
2 gels sluMnts 10 practise il in controlled praclkc aCtivities
3 asks tbe. sludcllIS w use the new language in less controlled activities, in a communicalive
way.
In the Thsk-based Learning (TBL) lesson:
The aim of Ihe lesson is for w(- students 10 complete a tas k (an iH_ '1iviIY in which studeots try
to achieve somcthing rea\, and have to communicate IQ do so).
The teacher stans by holding a discussion on the lopicof the lesson. (Step I)
Tile leacher Ihe11 gives the siudems tasks t.o do. (Steps 2. 3. 4. 5)
Then the teacher and studCnlS discuss any new or problematic language they needed for the
task. (Step 6)
Lastly. the StudenlS do an exe rcise on the new language. (Stcp 7)
YOu can see that in a TBL lessoll the reacher:
I gives students tasks to do
2 presents new language after students have needed 1O LIse It, and only presems language that
he/she or Ihe srudeills have identified as needed.
A PPP approadl ro presenting n('w language gives students an opportuniry to practise language
in iI safe learning cnvironJl1t:m where it is difficult to make mislakes. It can therefore be quire a
confidence-building approacb for students. Bul. il makes students learn language items they may
!lot be interested in or teady 10 learn and gives them few opportunities to really use the language
forcommuniGHion. Tbe TBt approacb, on the other Jland, allows studentS to lind new language
when they wam 1.0. and to usc language experimentally and creatively for real communication. In
this way it puts second language learners in a situation whkh is quite similar to tbe one in which
63
Module 1
64
children learn uleir firs! language. Some learners may find this approach to language learning
exciting and challenging. Others may wish for more guidance. and Structure to help them.
ppp and TBL are nOI rhe only ways of presenting new language. II is also possible. for
example. 10 presenL new language IQ learners after they have mct it in a reading or listening text
which is first used for comprehension. Another possibility is 10 hold a discussion on a topic -and
introduce new language in Ihe context of the discussion; another one is 10 give learners a task
that requircs UH!m lO use new language. theo after tbe task. present ule new language to Ulcm
and then give them anOlher task [I) practise the new language (Test-teachtest).
Preseming new language involves making various choices:
When 10 present the new language? Berore (as in PPP) or after (as in TBL) learners try to use
th{' IIl'W langu<1gc?
What and bow many language items to present (new grammatkal strul1ures, new
vocabulary. new lex,ical phrases, new functional exponents, new topiCS)? In PPP the teacher
makes Ihis choice: in mL lbe teacher and/or the learners make the choice.
What context to present the new language .in? In both TBL and PPP new language items are
presented in a meaningful context. i.e. one that shows the meani.ng of the !lew language.
and is personalised.
What aids to use to help create the context. e.g. pictures. video. cassette. a worksheet?
How to show the meaning or LISt' of Ihe new language. e.g. explanation. translation.
presenting through a situation?
What aspects of tbe new language to present. i.e. one. some or all of the [ollowing:
meaning/usc. pronunciation. granul1ar. spelling?
InlIodul10ry adivitics involve the teacher in selecting interesting and relevant warmers and
lead-ins. The warmers make the students feel comfortable and ready for the lesson, and ult'lead
ins introduce the !Opic of the Jesson and main language poims needed by the learners 1.0
complete the mam tasks of the lesson. You may not always need to do wamlers as learners ma y
arrive al a lesson ready to Jearn.
Tile wars you present new language or introduce kssons will depend on your learners - thei r
level, interests. age, what language they already know. weaknesses and strengths in English and
leaTning styles. They will aha depend on mt resources available to you in your school and tht=
approach to presemation used in your coursebook.
See Unlr 16 for rypes of activities and tasks. Unit 18 far selecting language far presentatian and planning a
lesson. Units 23-25 far resources Gnd materials useful fot presenraCion Gnd Unit 26 for classroom functions
often used by the reacher to present new language.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (St.'( Pd.W': 173 lor OlIUH\"l'1
Wilidl of these are presemation activities?
1 The teacher says (wo new functional exponents and asks the learners to repeat them.
2 The learners rcad a newspaper article and do a comprehension task on it.
3 The learners ask the tcacher how to say ... in English and the teacher tells them.
4 The teacher points OUI \.0 learners lhat in I,he lask many of them mispronoullced tbe word
slarion. Sile asks them to repeat it afterber.
Unit 15 Presentation techniques and Introductory activiti es
5 The learners have a discussion.
6 The learners translale a shorT poem ima their own language.
7 The teacher uses a picture slory to Crt'ale a conlcxt for inlrodudllg he and she.
REFLECTION
Think ahom these comments from teachers. Which do you agree with and why?
I TBl is dose to the way we leartllleW language jJl our first language.
2 l earners preler a PPP to a TBL approach.
3 I always present new language in the same way as I was taught at school.
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
Look al a unit in yOur c()ursehook that presents new language. Does iL LI se PPp, TBL or
a.nother approach?
2 Prcscnt solJ]c nl::w language to a class usi ng PPP and to anutht::.r usi ng TBL. Anal}'sc tht!
SITOJlg and weak poinlS of each. PUt your analysis in YOllrTKT portioliQ.
3 For Illorl! ideas on presenting new language. read Chapler 9 of LearnilJg Teaching by Jim
Scrivener, Macmillall 1994.
4 Find or create some warmers. Do opt: with it and in yOUI' TKT portfolio. nute the effect iI
had on the learners and the lcsson.
5 Use tbe TKTGlossary to find the meaning of these terms: definition, illustrate
mefmin.9, lexical (rpproach. situatiollal presellfatioll .
.. ......... ....... ................... ........ .... ....... ............. .. ... ... ... ........ .... .......... .. ... ..
TKT practice task (See page I 76for answer. .. )
For questions '-6, match the parts of a presentation stage with the names listed AG.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Parts of a presentation stage
went , came, chose, swam, ate, thought, ran
2 The teacher teUs the learners about a wonderful
holiday she went on last summer.
3 Photos of last summer's hoUday.
4 The teacher asks: 'When am I talking about, the
past, the present or the future?'
5 The teacher drills pronunciation of new words.
6 The teacher says: 'We use the past tense to talk about
actions in the past that have completely finished. '
Names
A concept question
B aids in presentation
C context for presentation
o freer practice activity
E language selected for
presentation
F controlled practice activity
G explanation of use
65
66
Unit 16 Practice activities and tasks for language
and skills development
What are practice activities and tasks for language and skills
development?
These. afC activities and rasks de$igned to give learners opportunities to prarust' and extend their
use of language. such as new vocabulary, functional e x p o n e n t ~ or grammatical structures,
or of the subskills of reading. listening. speaking or writing. There arc many different kinds of
activi ties and tasks with diflefcnl names and different uses.
Key concepts
Hert aTe two writing ElCT ivilics. C<l1l yOll find three teaching differences betwecn tbem?
ActivilY 1
Complete these sentences abolll yoursclf
with can or can 'r.
0 swim.
2 I .......... speak Mandarin.
3 I .... ...... play the gui tar.
4 I
5 I ...... .
... lise a computer .
.. run very fast.
ActiviTy 2
Write an invitarion inviting your friends
10 your birtbday pany.
Invite [bern.
Tell them:
the date
the time
the address of the pany.
We can see Lllat both these activities give learners an opportunity to use language, hut in
different ways.
Activify J Activity 2
is a controlled/restricted practice
aCt ivit y hecaust' learners can only use
certain items of language
" focuses on accurate use of language
is a gap-fill exercise.
is a less controll ed/freer practice
acrjvity because the language l11e [ea rners
will use is not carefully limited or
connol [ed
focuses on communicating a message
is a task.
The same kinds of cUffercnces can also be seen in OIher act ivities for speaking, "Vfiling and
learning new language. Drills (guided repetitions), copying words or sentences, jazz dlants.
dictation and reading aloud are other examples of controlled practice activities. In freer aCTivi ti es
!.he teacher or tile ma terials do not limit the language thaI feamcrs use. Examples of these are:
Unit 16 Pldctice activities and tasks for language and sktl!s development
discussions; solving problems tluough exchanging ideas; sharing or comp.ari ng ideas.
information or experiences; writing cmails. stories, !etters, invitations or compositions.
Here are six mOre activities. What skill/subskHlflanguagc do they focus on? Whalls the name
of The type of activity?
Read the story. Then answer these
questions:
a How old is the gi rl?
b Where does she live?
c What is her friend's name?
2 A Listen to the tape and choose the
best answer:
The children's SdlOOI is:
a ncar their house
b ncaf Ihe shops
c opposite the poSt office
B Now listen again. Arc these
sentences true or false?
it The school is new.
b The classroom is big.
C The library has many books,
4
5
6
Listen \0 the tape, and III pairs fi ll in
thiS form:
Girl's name: ... .. . ................... ... . . ...
Girl's address: .......... ..... ........ , ...... ... .... ..
Name of girl's friend: ..... , ......................
Work in pairs. Eadl 01 yOu shuuld usc
one of these role canis.
A Your friend has a problem. Give
him/her Lhe besl advice you can.
B YOll have a problem. You wallt to
go to wliversilY, but you filld
studying vcry difficuh . Ask your
rriend for advice.
Get into groups 01 four. Find OUI. which
food your lcicnds like and dislike most.
3 Look al these pidures and then read
the story. PlU [he pictmes in IJ,c
corred order. Write the correct
number ( 1-6) under cach picrure.
Ask:
Wbidl food do you like most?
Wh.ich rood do yOll dislike most?
Here are the answers 10 thequesuons above:
Activity Skill/subskill/languoge 1)!pe of activity
I Reading for specific wh- questions (questions begInning with question words:
information e.g. which/whar/how/when/why) for comprehension
2 Listening for specific A Multiple-choice questions (an activity in which you
information choose the best answer from three or more possible answers)
B True/false questions (an activity In which you decide
whether statements are correct or incorrect)
l
Readingfor detail Ordering
4
listening for specific Form filling
information
5
fluency in speaking/ freer Role-play (an activity in which you imagine that you are
practice of new language someone else In a specific situation)
6 Accuracy in speaking/ Survey (finding out the opinions of a group on one topic)
controlled practice of new
language
67
Mod ule 1
68
We can sec that activities can differ in several ways: the skill or subskill they fOCllS on; what
type they are and what interaction patterns they use. The kinds of skills or the language they
locus on and the interaction pa uerns Lhey use are not fixed. So, for example, multiple-dlOice
questions could be used for reading. listening or grammar acrivities and can be dum'
individually. in pairs or in groups. Similarly, form-tilling could be used for reading. listening. or
grammar practice. and done individually, in pairs or in groups.
Activities 5 and 6 both involve learners Ialking [Q one another LO exdlange inronnation they
don't know. This means they are talking in order 10 communicate, not JUSt to practiSe language.
This kind of activi t}. in whidl learners exchange information that only one of Ulem has is called
aJJ inf ormat ion gap or a communi cative activity.
An activhy may focus on accuracy or communication depending on how it is imroduced by
the tead,er or lhe materials. For example. the survey above is focused on accur,1CY because it
liml1s tbe language that learners use to ask and answer two specific questions. II tJi(-
instruClions for the acti vity were 'Find OUI about your friends' likes and dislike:. in food' , this
would not rest rict learners' dlOice of language and the activity would focus on communication.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
When selecting activities for practising language or the skills of speaking or writing, we need
to decide whether to doa controlled practice or a fTee.r practice activity. an activity that
focuses on aCCllracyor on communicalion.
When choosing activities for developing skills. we need 10 decide which skill or subskililO
fOCllS on.
Lessons usually consist of a series of linked activities. There are several different ways 01
linking activiLies in lessons. These are just some of them:
1 PPP: Presentation -" controlled practice activities - . freerpraaice activities
2 TBL: Discussion __ tc1sks --. presentation --- focus on form
3 Skills-based lessons: Wa rmer and leadin -> comprehension tasks _ post-task activities
Example!: A listening skills lesson
Lead-in: discussi ng the IOpic of the listening (lnd learning any itnponam new vocabulary
--- Comprehension tasks: list,ening to the recorded cOllversation and answe.ring multi pll'-
choice gisl questions about it - . listening to the conversation again and completing a form
wilh specific infonnatioD Post-task aCtivities: brief disctlssion of the topic of Ihe
conversation.
You can sec that the comprehension activities (for listening or reading) start with
fOCUSing on more general levels or comprehension berore moving on to subskiJIs that
.require paying more detailed 11r specificattcntjon to the text .
Example 2: A topic-based lesson which develops several skills
l.ead-in: speaking about the topic and doing related language work --> Tasks: listening 10 (i
recording about the topic - reading a text ahOUlthe LI)pic - . Post-task activities:
the topic andlor fOCllS on the language of the topic ....... writing a oomposilion about lht'
topic.
See Unirs 18 and 20 fOf planning activities for lessons and Unlt26 for language useful to the reocherfar
{arrying our activities.
UnIt 16 Practice actillitles and tasks for language and skills dellelopment
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES ()(',' PIJ!Jc 173 I.lr ilHfll'frs)
WhaT do These activities ailllTO develop? PU1Them into the corred column.
I Communication
A choral drilling of pronunciation
B rOlc-play
C dictation
D di scussions
B gap- fill exercise
P story writing
G (Oll),ing words
H repealing new words
I describing pi cllIres
J learning conversations by hC<lrt
K problem solving
I Accuracy
2 Which skill(s) could Ulcse aaivities be llsed to develop?
A story completioll
B form-filling
C information gap
D t.rue/false quesT ions
E role-play
REFLECTION
Think about t11ese learners' comments:
1 1 don'T like doing lots of different activil.ics- it'$ confusing.
2 I like doing a mixture of aClivilies with some focusing on accuracy and some on I'lucncy. Thai
really helps me learn.
DlSCOVERV ACTIVITIES
Look through two pages of your courscbook. Can you rlilme all the dHfercm kinds of
attivilies it' colltains? What is Ihl:: purpose or I::ach activily?
2 Look at bnp:llwww.lcamenglisb,org.uk to see INS of dilfereOl aL, jvilies:ior developing skills
and language.
3 LOok back over this lrnil and nnd a type of activity that you have !lever mug,ht before. Try il
wiT h ()n(' of your ddSses. Did it work well? Was it successful ? WriTe up your thought's in your
TKI-ponfolio.
4 Use the TKTGlossmy to find The meaning 01 these lerm.'>: rJUllll(julllbled I'iaures, labelfill.IJ,
priori/isillg, prtljea wo,*.
69
70 Modulel
- 0
............. ................................................................................ ..........
TKT practice task (Ste pdge 176 forallswm)
For questions 1-7, match the descriptions with the teaching activi1ies listed AH.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Descriptions
Teaching activities
A problem solving
B a role-play
C labelling
D choral drilling
E form filling
F agame
G a survey
H project work
1 The teacher says a word and asks all the learners to repeat iltogether.
2 The teacher puts learners in pairs and asks one of them to act as a lost tourist asking the way,
and the other as a local person giving directions.
3 The learners use maps to work out the best way to get from X to Y.
4 The learners listen to a tape and complete a timetable.
S The learners ask aU their classmates their opinion about something and then note it down.
6 The learners go to the local museum, the library and the Internet to find out about dinosaurs.
They then make an exhibition of wall posters about them.
7 The learners choose names of objects from a list and write the names under pictures of the
Objects .
................... ......................................... ... ..... .. .................................
Unit 17 Assessment types and tasks
What are assess ment types and tasks?
Assessment means judging learners' performance by collecting information about it. We
assess learners for different reasons, using different kinds of tests (types) to do so. Assessment
tasks are the methods we use for assessing learners. We can assess learners informal1r or
fomlaHy. Informal assessment is when we observe ! e a m ~ r s to sec how well iJ1CY are doing
something and then give them comments on their performance. Formal assessment is when
we assess learners lhrough teSts or exams and give their work a mark or a grade.
Key concepts
List all the reasons you can think of lor assessing learners.
There are several reasons why we might want to assess learners:
At lhe beginning of a course we migbt give them a lest to find Qut whal they know and don't
know. This is called a d iagnostic test. Til e infomlation from lhe assessment belps us decide
what to teach and which learners necd help in which areas of language.
2 Wben learners go to a langu,lge school or evening classes. lhe sellOol may want to know whal
level the learners are. so lhcy give them a lest. This is called a placement test. We use the
information [rom a placement lest to deddc whal level of class the learners should go into.
3 Alter we have finished teaching a pan of a coursc we may want to nnd OUt how well learners
have learnt it. This is called fornl ative assessmenLIf we use a tcst for this purpose it is
called a progress test. We use the information from formative assessmcnr 10 dedde if we
need to contiuue lead-ling this area or not, and to give learners feedback on their !j trengths
and difficulties in learning in this area.
4 Allhe end Of a teml or course, we may assess learners to sec how well they have learnt the
contents of the whole course. This kind of assessment is called achievement or summative
tcsting. Learners usually receive a scorc or mark from this kind of testing and :;ometimes
feedback on their performance.
5 Sometimes learners take tests to see ho'v" good they are at a language. This kind orlest is
called a proficiency test. The contents of the test arc 1101 based 011 a course or syllabus that
the learner has followed.
Learners Gill also assess themselves (selI-assessment) or one another (peer assessment) ,
They usually do this infonnally 'w1th dlCcklisls \0 gUide Ill{"I11. The reason for using bOlh of these
kinds of assessment is to belp learners to understand tbeir language lise and performance beuer,
and so become more autonomous,
Tbere a.re many diflerent asscssmcllI tasks. e,g. gap-fill, multiple-choice questions,
true/false questions, ordering, correCiing mistakes, laking pan in interviews, conversations or
role-plays, writillg tellers or compositions. dk1atiOIl . There afC some imponal11 differences
between these tasks:
71
Modul e l
72
Some tasks arc like tasks we liSt: outside the classroom to communicate. e.g. a conversation.
an interview, a leIter, reading a leaflet for prices. These tasks lest communicat ion ski ll s,
Some taskS, e.g. gap-fill, Icst the accuracy of language use. We do 110\ use them to
communicate, and they do not test communication skills.
Some task!;, SUdl as gap-fill or choQsing between pairs o sounds. just lesl one thing, e.g.
Icamers' knowledge of the past lense, or their ability to distinguish between sounds.
Some tasks, such as a oornposition or a conve rsation, tesl many things rogethcr. A
composit ion, for example. tests spel ling. handwriting. punctuation. grammar, vocabulary.
organisalion of ideas and fluency of writi ng. A conve.rsation call lest pronuncialion,
a ppropr iacy, accuracy. fluency and interaction.
The a nswers 10 some kinds of assessment tasks are easy to mark l)c.cause they arc either right
or wrong, e.g. in multiple-choict'. true/false, gapfitl aJld dictation tasks. These are call ed
objective tests.
Marking some ki nds of tasks, c.g. compositions, role-plays, stories, illlerviews, involves
judging many things toget.her. e.g. for writing: spelling. handWriting, PUllduation, grammar,
vocabulary. organisation of ideas. nuency of writ ing. The learner may do some of these
things well but others poorly. The Oiark we give 10 the learnt'f:>' answers in these kinds of
tasks depends on our j udgeme.nt. These tasks arc called subjective tests.
Another kind of assessment method is: a portfolio. This b a colleCtion of learners' work,
which the learner creates him/herself. or with the teacher, during d course. Of len it also
contains {'OllllTIents on tht: work wrillen by the learner or classmates. Portfolios can be Llsed
for fOOlla! or informal aSS{'SSmenL
Some informa l assessment methods are: observing learners' spoken or written work and
answers to comprehension tasks: keeping notes 011 the learners' performance; asking
learners Lo complete sc.lf- ur peer-assessment sheets. We often use informal assessment
methods to assess areas such as attitude and cHon, panicularly with young learners and
tee.nagers. infomlal assessment is often followed up by feedback to Ihe on the
strengths and weaknesses of lhcir per[orm,l l1cc. and suggestions for how to improve.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Assessment can affect what leach. Il(lw we leadl and our lea rners' motivation for
Icaming. It is very imponam lortesrs to have a gOOd influence 011 leaching and learning.
Some assessment tasks are easy ro write and to mark. But do they rellea. what we arc
tcaching and what learners need to usc the language for? We should nOlusc a particular
testing rncthodjust because it is easy to use and easy to mark.
To rea!l y reflect the level of learne.rs' learn.ing, the content and me thods 01 progress and
achievement t. ests should reflect Ihe content and methods of our 1eadling.
Feedback 10 learners on what they got right orwrong, their strengths and weaknesses, and
what they can do to improve. is very impurta m. Tluuugh feedback, asseSSIIlGI1I helps
learning.
Informal assessment is often much more suitable for asseSSing young learners than formal
assessment. This is because their ways of thi n.king and learning aIC based on experi encing
and communicating.
See Unit 21 for including assessment In leaching and Units 28, 31 and 32 for cOTTenlng learners' work ond
giving feedback.
Unit 17 Assessment types and tasks
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITV (St( PiJlj( J"] J I:', mmwrs)
Here are ten assessment tasks. Can you name them and say what they aim to (CSt ?
The learner looks at a siluple picture slory, then tells the story to the teadler.
2 The learners listen !O a recording describing Ule appearance of a girl. Then they complete a
picture of the girl by drawing her.
3 Learners take part in a speaking activity in which they ad out parts.
4 The learners answer some simple questions aboulihemsdves ()rally.
5 The learners complete blanks with ule correct form of the verb to "avt!.
6 The learners choose the correct Ivords for some pictures, and 'Tile them under rhe pictures.
7 The learners repeat words after the teacher.
8 The learners research and wri te about a Wpic.
9 The learners rin in sheeLS about their own progress.
10 The teacher keeps notes on learners' difficu!Lies with the area beillg Taught. then discusses rhem
with the learners.
REFLECTION
How was your English assessed at school? Did assessment help you learn English?
2 Which arc beller assessments 01 a learner's -English: tests Ibat focus on communication or tests
[hal focus on accuracy?
) w!1idl is more belpful [0 [caching and learning: infomml or fonnal assessment?
DlSCOVERV ACTIVITIES
I Look back to UU' reasons for assessmentOll page 71 . Whidl kinds Of assessment la_ke place in
your
2 Look al a [eSl from your eomscbook. Dcdde on its purpose. Does it usc objective or
subjcc,live tasks? Docs it foeus on accuracy or communication? Does it match wha! and how
you leach?
3 Think or olle of your classes.Wh<l1 are y()U leaclling them now? How could you carry alit
SOll1.f' informal of this area of learning? Write your answers in your TKT portfolio.
4. Use tile 'JK'TG/OSSaT}' to find the meaning of these ten;ns: doze test, rantimtGus assessment,
fUt1lcllillg task, oJPeJI ("'()lnl'rehensicm questions, oml test, sentence (Omp/etiol/.
73
Module 1
7.
TKT practice task (See page 176 [or allswers)
For questions 1-5, match the Instructions with the terms listed A-F. There Is one extra option which
you do not need to use.
Instructions
Terms
A labelling
B Jumbled sentences
C picture composition
o matching
E gap-fill
F discussion
Read the sentences and complete the blanks with one word only.
2 What are the names of these things? Write the name beside each picture.
3 Draw a line between the words on the left and their meanings on the right.
4 Exchange ideas on the topic with your classmates.
5 Look at these and write the story they tell .
................ -............. -............ ... ...................... .................................. ..
TKT Module 1
Practice test
A sample answer sheet is on page 168.
For questions 15, match the example language with the grammatical terms listed AF.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Example language Grammatical terms
OJ my, your, our
A subject pronouns
II] that, which, who
B possessive adjectives
@] we, you, she
C prepositions of movement
D relative pronouns
o during, after, until
E prepositions of time
II] through, along, towards
F interrogative pronouns
For questions 6-10, choose the best option to complete each statement about the uses of
grammatical structures.
Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.
[I] We use superlative forms of adjectives to
A describe equal things or people.
S show differences between groups of things or people.
C compare things or people to a whole group they are part of.
o We use will to express
A obligation in the future.
S decisions about the future.
C fixed plans.
m We use the passive to
A say what happens to the subject of the sentence.
S show that the verb is not important.
C focus on the object of the verb.
75
TKT Module 1 Practice (est
o We use tag questions to
A show surprise.
B check that something is true.
C express obligation.
[!Ql We use conjunctions to
A link words or sentences.
B make topic sentences.
C make adjectives stronger.
For questions 11-16, match the examples of words with the lexical categories listed A-G.
Mark the correct letter (A-G) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Examples of words
!II] trees. flowers, grass
[g] two, too; blue, blew; pair, pear
~ down in the mouth. green fingers, a pain in the neck
~ take off, give in, get out
[Il aalmly, nationality, childhood
~ lucky, fortunate; sad, miserable; awful , terrible
A
B
C
0
E
F
G
Lexical categories
idioms
suffixes
synonyms
lexical set
prefixes
homophones
phrasal verbs
For questions 17-24, look at the following questions about phonology and the possible answers.
Choose the correct option A. Bar C.
Mark the correct letter (A, Bar C) on your answer sheet.
(12) Which is the correct phonemic script for weekend?
76
A /wi :kendl
B IWlkendl
C /ji:kcnd/
~ Which option shows the correct word stress for telephone?
A telEphone
S TELephone
e telePHONE
~ What is a phoneme?
A The smallest sound.
S The smallest sound that has meaning.
e A symbol representing a sound.
~ What meaning does the main stress on J.Qbn give to this sentence?
1 gave the book to J..Qho.
A I was the person who gave John the book.
B I only gave a book to John, nothing else.
e John was the person I gave the book to.
@D Which of the following ends with a consonant?
A banana
B carrot
e potato
What is a contraction?
A A shortened form of a word.
B Two words made into one.
C The first letters of several words.
~ Which of these words is stressed on the first syllable?
A reOstricted
B ~ p a r a g r a p h
C substi "tution
~ In which of these words is the first teiter a voiced sound?
A table
B forget
C dark
TKT Modul e 1 Practice teSI
77
TKT Module, Practice test
For questions 2530, match the example language with the funct ions listed AG.
Mark the correct letter (AG) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Example language
~ I' m not sure if I' ll go or not.
~ Please come with me. I really want you to.
What do you think of his idea?
~ I' m 15 next birthday.
~ Can I stay out late tonight?
~ Hey, listen, listen.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Functions
persuading
giving personal information
attracting attention
giving advice
expressing uncertainty
asking for an opinion
asking for permission
For questions 31 35, match the speaker's words with the speaking subskills that he is talking about
listedAF.
Mark the correct letter (A F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Subskills
A connecting your ideas
B interacting
C pronouncing accurately
D using language accurately
E speaking fluently
F using language appropriately
Speaker's words
@II Sometimes I hesitate a lot or speak extremely slowly.
I always try to make eye contact with people when I speak to them.
~ You often need to use polite language when you meet people in formal situations.
~ I was so tired that I made lots of mistakes in my grammar.
~ It' s quite difficult to speak with the right accent, so they often don't understand me.
78
TKT Module 1 PractIce lest
For questions 36-40, match the descri ptions with the reading and writing subs kills listed A-F.
Mark the correctlel1er (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Subskills
A extensive reading
B handwriting
C scanning
0 editing
E skimming
F planning
Descripti ons
~ You read things really quickly - just to find specific information.
~ Before you write long texts, like essays, you work out which order to present your ideas in.
~ You go through some parts of long texts slowly and carefully and through others quickly.
~ You need to learn to shape your letters correctly.
~ You often need to read what you've written and change it to make it easier to understand.
For questions 41-45, match the descriptions of the learners' preferred ways of learning with the
learning styles listed A-C.
Mark the correct lel1er (A-C) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Learning styles
A Conformists: these learners prefer to learn about language
rather than communicate. They like depending on the teacher.
B Concrete learners: they enjoy the social aspects of learning and
learning from experience.
C Reflective learners: they prefer to have the opportunity to think
carefully about their answers before giving them.
7'
TKT Module 1 Practice test
Preferred ways of learni ng
The learner likes:
@.!J doing role-plays and writing letters to real people.
~ having quiet time to analyse problems.
~ working through a grammar book with guidance.
! going to the centre of town to chat to tourists.
~ having time to edit his work betore giving it to the teacher.
For questions 46-50, match the teacher's decisions with the considerations about learning listed A-C.
Mark the correct letter (A-C) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Teacher's decisions
Consi derations about learning
A the role of errors
B motivation
C learning style
~ The teacher decides not to correct the learners during a fluency activity.
~ The teacher decides to sing a song with the class who are disappointed with their test results.
~ The teacher decides to let one learner work by himself as he works better that way.
~ The teacher decides to read the class a story they all really like.
~ The teacher encourages learners to ask for clarification when they don't understand one another.
80
TKT Module 1 Practice test
For questions 51-55, choose the best option to complete each statement about language learning.
Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.
~ Interlanguage is
A a language only learners use.
S a language like English.
C a language just used by children.
~ L 1 learners process language
A after they fully realise what it means.
B until they can use it correctly and appropriately.
C because they try to avoid making mistakes.
~ When l2learners overgeneralise new language they
A need to be corrected quickly.
B are experimenting with language.
C are not paying attention to grammar.
~ Developmental errors
A cannot be avoided.
B block the language learning process,
C help learners understand correct grammar.
~ 80th L 1 and L2 learners
A make errors due to interference.
S focus frequently on the form of language.
C pick up language from their surroundings.
81
TKT Module 1 Practice test
For questions 5663, match the coursebook activities with the terms 1Isted A-I.
Mark the correct letter (A-I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Terms
A information gap
8 free writing
C brainstorming
D roJe-play
E jumbled text
F multiple-choice
G form filling
H prioritising
wh- comprehension questions
Course book activities
~ Read the text and choose the best description of the children.
a) The children played with the ball.
b) The children didn't want to play with the ball.
c) The children couldn't find the ball.
Card A
Talk to your partner and find out
about his/her famil y.
Card B
Answer your partner's questions and
find out about his/her hobbies.
Here is a list of eight objects you might need on a seaside holiday, With your partner,
number them 1-8 for how important they are to take wi th yOli .
toothpaste sunglasses a good book your mobil e phone
a camera your credit card a guidebook a swimsuit
~ The panlF!I'Uplu. in lI u.5 stol'Y are in the \\Tong ord('I". Read lhcrn arid IlI.IInher
Ihem in Ille correc.; 1 order.
82
TKT Module 1 Prilctice test
~ Complete the blanks with information about yourself.
Name: ................. . Age: ................ ..
Address; ................ .. Nationality: ................ ..
Favourite activity(ies) : ................. . Name of best friend: ................. .
@] Listen to the conversation and then write answers to these questions:
a) Where does the boy li ve? ......... ........ .
b) When does he get up? ....... ..... " .. ..
c) Who does he often play with? ...... ... . .
d) How does he get to school? ................. .
e) Why does he like going to school? ..... ........... ..
Card A
You are lost. Ask a passer-by the
way to the National Museum.
Card 8
You are in Nathan Street. A tourist
asks you the way to the National
Museum. Tell him/her the way.
~ I With a partner. makea list of all the words you know about food. I
For questions 6469. look at the following descriptions of assessment activities and three possible
terms for each one.
Choose the correct option A. B or C.
Mark the correct lat1er (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.
~ The learners listen to two classmates carrying out a rore-play and then give them feedback
on their pertormance.
A a subjective lest B teacher assessment C peer assessment
~ The teacher monitors two learners in her class carrying out a role-play. She takes notes on
their pertormance.
A a placement test B informal assessment C a diagnostic test
~ At the end of term the learners look at their writ1en work, select some of it and put it in a folder
for the teacher to grade.
A formative assessment B a progress test
C a portfolio
83
TKT Module 1 PraCtice test
!67] The learners do a gap-fill exercise for which there is only one answer for each gap.
A an achievement test B an objective test C continuous assessment
~ The learners answer questions guiding them to assess and grade thei r own compositions.
A an oral test 8 formal assessment C self-assessment
~ The learners do a test to see how good they are al English in general.
A a written test 8 a cloze test C a proficiency test
For questions 7074, match the teacher's words with the purposes of the presentation activities
listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Purposes of the presentati on activities
A setting the context
B concept checking
C explaining meaning
D focusing on pronunciation
E using aids to convey meaning
F drilling
Teacher' s words
IlQ] Can you give me another word with the same meaning?
rz:I] Listen. The stress is on the fourth syllable: ' accommoDAtion'.
We use it to clean our teeth.
Today we're going to talk about inventions.
~ Look, here's a picture of one.
TKT Module 1 Practice test
For questions 75-80, match the classroom activities with their main teaching purposes listed A-G.
Mark the correct letter (A-G) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Classroom activities
Helping learners to use dictionaries
@ Class discussion
~ Lead-in
~ Vocabulary quiz
~ Jumbled paragraphs
~ Substitution drill
Teaching purposes
A giving controlled practice
B developing understanding of coherence
and cohesion
C developing listening skills
D giving fluency practice
E introducing the topic of a lesson
F developing learner autonomy
G revising
85
Module 2
Lesson p'lanning and use of
resources for language teaching
86
~ - - ~ - - - -
Part 1 Planning and preparing a lesson
or sequence of lessons
Unit 18 Identifying and selecting aims
How do we identify and select aims?
Aims arc what we want learners LO learn or b(' able to do at tbe end of a lesson, a sequence
(i.e. a series) of lessons or a whole course. Aims may focus, for example, on a function or a
grammatical structure, on the vocabulary of a particular lOpic or 011 developing a language
skUI. Aims, especiaJJy for younger leamers, may 001 always fOCllS on particular areas of
language. The aim of a lesson may also be listening to a SlOry for pleasure or encouragi ng a
positive aUitude towards the loreign language. To identiCy and scleCl the mOst appropriate aims.
we need 10 ask ourselves two questions:
Wbat do my learners already know?
Whal do Lhey need to know?
The answers to these questions will help us 10 make sure that U1C aims art' the right ones for a
particular group of learners at a paniruJar time.
Key concepts
Look al the table. Can YOIl work (lUI wbaltbe difference is between main aims, subsidiary
aims and personal aims?
Main aim Subsidiary alms Personal aims
To practise making polite requests Grammar: to revise modal aUXiliary verbs. To improve my
In the context of making holiday Functional exponents: Could/Would you ... ? organisation of
arrangements. Vocabulary: to consolidate texi s for travel. the whi teboard: to
b:ample exponent: Could you accommodatIon. give clearer
give mesome informar/on abour Phonology: to focus on Intonation. examples.
hotels? 5peaklng: to give controlled oral practice.
A main aim, li k(' the- one above. describes the mOSI importanr thing we wam to achkve in a
lesson or sequence of lessons. For example. we may want learners 10 understand and praaise
using new language: 10 reinforce or consolidate ( i . ~ . 10 make sl.ronger) tile use of language
Ihey already know by giving them further practice; or to revise language they have recently
Unit 18 Identifying and selecting aims
leanu. On a lesson plan the main aim should also include an example of the. target language we
are planning to teach.
As well as a main aim. a lesson may also have subsidiary aims. Subsidia ry aims show the
language or skl1ls learners must be able JO use well in order t.o achieve t.he main aim t.,r the
lesson. In the example on p<lge 86. the main aim is to practise making polite the
subsidiary aims dcsnibt lhe language and skill that learners will need to make these requests.
Stating both main and subsidiary aims is a good way of making sure that our lesson plan forus("S
on what we want our learners to learn. or JO be able LO do'. It enables us to see how the les;on
should deve lop, from one stage (or part) to the next. building tip our learners' knowledge or
skills ill the best possible order.
In addition to learning aims [or the leame.rs, we may also want lO think about our own
personal aims as teachers. Personal aims show what we would like to improve or focus on in
our own teaching, Like the ones in the table on page 86, these might be about improving the
way that we handle aids and rnaterials or particul ar tCadling teclllliqut's. or !.hey might be about
our relationship with the learners. Here are some more examples:
to try different cotTcaion techniques
10 rcmember to dleck instructions
to write more dearly on tbe blackboard/whiteboard
to make more Li se o{ the phonemic chart (a pOster with phonemic symbols)
10 get learners to work with difft:rent partners
to get quieter learners 10 answer questiOns.
Identitying and selecting aims are the fim steps in planning a Jesson. Once we have dedded
on the aims, we can design or select the most. appropriate activities, put them in the best order
and cJlOOSC the most sui table teachi ng aids (thit,gs we can usc to support our teadling in the
classroom) and materi<lls. Alter the lesson, we can look back at this pan of the plan TO sec
whether we have acruevL"<i our aims, i.e. whether we have succeeded in teaching what we
planned to teach. This also helps us to select the most appropriate aims for future lessons.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
The syl,labus (i.e, the cours" programme) and lor tbe coursebook will give us a general
direojon for planning om teaching. Tn decide on aims for a particular lesson, however,
we should think abom our learners' needs and the stage they have reached in their !earning,
We can identify and select appropriate personal aims in a simila r way, i.e. by looking back at
earlier lessons we have (aught and thinking about things that worked well and things we
waOlTO improve.
We should nm confuse aims and procedures. Aims describe what the learners will learn or
what lhey will be able to do with \lle language. while procedures - for example, Iisl.ening to a
recording and answering questions about ii -are what the teacher and learners will do al
eadl stage of the lesson.
Aims should not be lQO general. 'To teadlthe paSt simple' or 'to develop learners' reading
skills' do nOt say enough about the purpose of the lesson. More specific aims might be to
inrroduce and practise the paSI simple for tdlking abolll persona! experiences' or ' to give
learners practice in predicting content, scanning for speciric information and guessing
meaning from context' .
87
Module 2
88
We shouldn' t plan 1.0 do 100 much in a lesson. The amOUJ1\ we plan LO cover will depend on
the length oflhe lesson and the leamers' level.
Learners also need \0 know what the lesson is going to be about. It is of len hc!pfulto
announce our aims (or to write them up on Ihe board) al the beginning of the Jesson, andlor
to repeal them at the end.
Learners of all ages find it hclllful to know why they are doing Itlings. For younger lea01ers
the aims of a lesson call be described in very simple language, focusing on the things they will
do in the lesson and the languilge knowledge the\' will take away from il. (FOr example,
'Today we're going to rcad a Story and leaOl bow to describe people in English'.)
See Unir 19 for idenrifying the different components of a lesson plan. Unit 20 for planning all individual lesson
or 0 sequence of lcssons and Units 23-25 for the selectTon ond useof materials, activities and aids.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY
(S''I'I':I. {n (,'r<1l11'llt'f!i)
The procedures in the table below show a sequence of activities for a lesson with the main aim of
developing intermediate s!lldents' confidence and skill in informal conversation. Tbt' subSidiary aims
[or the lesson (A-HI are in the wrong order. Pul them in the right order so that they match the
correct procedures.
Procedure Subsidiary alms
I Students move around the classroom to find
A
to give.studenrs fluency practice
students with matching halves of sentences.

to practise using target language in a
meaningful context
2 They talk in pairs about what they find B to develop peer correction skills
difficult in listening to Informal conversation.
3
They hear an informal conversation and
c
to listen for detailed information
identify speakers. place and situation.

to focus students' attention on target
language
4
They listen again and fill in missing phrases D to practise gist listening
in the transcript.

to create a context
5
Repetition drill: students practise key E to get students actively involved
phrases. Pairs practise simple two-line

to put students into pairs
exchanges using key phrases.
6 Pairs write and practise their own F to give students confidence in speaking
conversation from role. cards, using key through controlled practice
phrases where possible. Several pairs perform
and record conversations.
7
Class comment and suggest improvements G to review the whole lesson
to grammar and vocabulary.

to give the teacher feedback
8 Students discuss what they have learnt. H to raise awareness of what the lesson aim
will be
to encourage personal involvement
Unit 18 Identifying and seJwingalms
llEFLECTION
Thillk abOllllhese comments front leachers. Which do you agree with and why?
1 -I often discover what my aims are while 1 am readling lhe lesson. Sometimes I only lind OUI
when the lesson is over.
2 Learners don't want to know about aims. They just wanl to get on with the lesson.
3 My coursebook always tells me what my aims should he.
DISCOVEllV ACTIVITIES
I Look at the leacher's book ror your coursebook. Does it describe Ihe aims of units andlor
lessons? If so. do you think I_.bey are appropria te for your learners? Make notes in yourll(T
portfolio.
2 In your porll'olio, list YQur main aims, subsidiary aims and personalajms lor the last lesson
you laught and the next Olle" YOli are planning for the same class.
3 For useful ide,ls about selecting and describing aims, have a look at:
Chapter 5. Section 2 or Learning Teaching by Jim Scrivener, Macmillan 1994
tbe fi rst sea ion ('Planning') of Adiou Plan/or Teacher.,' -A Guide to Teaching English by Callwn
Robertson with Richard Acklam. downloadable free from:
h ltp:llwww.teac.:hiogellg1isO.urg.uk!download/books_Dotesl Act iqnYlan. pdf
4- Use the TKT Glossary to [ind lhe meani ng of t . h e s ~ terms: h(qlllig/u, stimulate discussion.
5 Can yOu match the verbs and nOLlllS Usted below 1"0 make three phrases that describe
leaching aims? Use the TKTGlossar), to check your al1Swers.
raise c(,Jllfidem.:e
arouse
give
awareness
interest
89
Modulel
90
TKT practice task (See page J 76 for al/slVers)
For questions 1-7, match the lesson summaries with the lesson aims listed A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Lesson summaries
1 Learners put jumbled sections of a text in order. The teacher focuses on conjunctions, time
expressions, pronouns, etc. Learners make notes on a similar topic, and then they produce a
similar text.
2 Learners look at a town map and discuss the best route from the station to a hotel , and then they
listen to a conversation on cassette and compare their route with the one on the cassette.
3 In pairs, learners read different texts about soldiers' duties, and then they exchange information
about them. Pairs work together to complete lists of rules for soldiers. using must, should,
doesn't/don't have to.
4 Learners brainstorm vocabulary and ideas on the topic, and then in groups they draft the text for
a leaflet to advertise their town to tourists. Groups then exchange texts to make corrections
and/or suggest improvements.
5 Learners listen to a dialogue and identify the tense the speakers use to talk about future
arrangements. The teacher checks understanding. Learners do repetition drills, and then they
practise using the structure in a guided role-play.
S Learners work in large groups to brainstorm ideas on different roles, and then form new groups
for a role-based discussion. The teacher monitors the discussion.
7 Learners match words with pictures, and build up word maps, which they compare and
develop. Then they work together to produce entries for a class dictionary.
Lesson aims
A to practise listening for detail
B to practise writing for a communicative purpose
C to present and provide controlled practice of the present progressive
D to revise and practise modal auxiliary verbs
E to train learners to learn autonomously
F to give learners oral fluency practice
G to raise awareness of how 10 join sentences and paragraphs
H to revise and consolidate vocabulary
Unit 19 Identifying the different components of a
lesson plan
How do we identify the different components of a lesson plan?
Choost' the comparison tha! ynu Ibink Dest dl'scribes a lesson plan.
A lesson plan is like ... an instruction leaflet a photograph a story
a computer programmt' a series of roau signs a wtincn summary
a l'(laQ map
something t:'!st:?
A lesso.u pi,lIl is a set of notes thai helps us TO think through what we arc gOingto teach and how
we arc going LO (each it. It also guides us during and alter lhe lesson. We can identify the most
important componen1.S of a lesson plan by thinking carefull y aboLl t what we want our learners 10
do and how we walll them 10 do it.
The main components or a lesson plan show us what the lesson is ror (the aims) and what
tbe teacher and rhe learners will do during the lesson and how they will do it (U1C procedures).
Other help liS to think about possible problems remind us of tJlings we need 10
remember about lhe learners. $0 a lesson plan is most like a road map or a series of road signs.
i. e. something that shows us wbere we are going and how we are going to get there - although
we may sometimes find lhal during the journey we have 10 take a differe.nr route!
Here are some ways a lesson plan helps the teacher.
Before the lesson Writing down the alms and the procedures for each stage of the lesson
helps us to make sure that we have planned the best possible sequence
to enable us to achieve those alms.
During the lesson The plan can also help the teachertc check tlmlng - the amount of
time we plan for each stage - and to check that the lesson is following
the sequence we decided on.
After the lesson We can keep the plan as a record of what happened. making any
changes necessary to show how the lesson was different from
the plan. We can then use the plan and notes to help plan the next
lesson. (At this stage, the plan may be more like a photograph, a
story or a summary, giVing US a record of the lesson.)
91
Module 2
92
Key concepts
A Ics .. lm pl.m GIn incl ude Ihe followi ng headings. Which ont!s do you Ihink should always
.:l PI)ea r? which ones may onl y appear sometimes?
Lesson plan headings
level and !lumber of learners who we are planning the lesson for
Timetable fit how the lesson is connected to the last lesson and/or the next one
Main al m(s) what we want learners to Jearn or to be able todo by the end of the
lesson
subsidiary alms other things we want learners to be able to do during the Jesson
because they lead to the main aim
Personal aims aspects of our own teaching we want to develop or Improve
Assumptions wha t we think learners already know or can already do related to the
alms
Anticipated language things that learners may find difficult
problems
possible solutions action we will take to deal with the anticipated problems
Teaching aids, materials, useful reminders of things to take to the lesson
equipment
Procedures tasks and activities for each stage
Timing length of time needed for each stage
Interaction patterns ways In which learners work at different stages, I.e. Individually, in
pairs, in groups. as a whole class
Homework
II is usuall y J good idea 10 anridpatC possible problems and SOlut ions, bUl in a revision lesson we
may nOi need these headings. Also, we may not have personal aim!> for every lesson. and we
may not always give hOmeworkl
Unit 19 Identi fylng the different components of a lesson plan
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Look carefull y al lhi s t!.xampJc of pan of a Jesson plan whi ch aims to introduce and praaise
language for giving advice. Tbe.n read the pointS below.
Timing Procedure Subsidiary aims Aids and materials Interaaio.- L k - : : ~
5 minutes Ask students WIlo Warmer/leadin: to
they ask for get students talking Pairwor1c:
advice jf they Elnd ImroduCe
have a problem. the topic
10 minutes DiScuss ryprcal To create context Magazine picnJres Teacl1er -
problems for young TO revise modal \Nhiteboard WIlole class
people; eliCIt auxiliary verbs
language to ask for To eliclVintroduce
and give actvice. vocabUlary
5 minutes ShO'w headlines for To get srudems OHP Teacher -
students to guess ready for reading whole class
the content of letters Topredlctcontenl
to the advice page in To use students'
a teen magallr1 own knO'Wledge
15mmutes Students read To check predlctloos PhotOCopies of lSlgroupWl,Jrk
dillerent mlnitexts, Intensive reading six problem page
I
then summarise the To Introduce the letters 200 group work
coment of the letters. structure'lf t were (new groups)
you,I'd, ..
When we make a lesson plan, we need to ask ourselves how the procedures we have
planned wUl help 10 achieve our aims and to make sure there are strong connections
be\.ween the dilferelll stages.
We also need to consider variety, i.e. how we can use different activi ty types, language
skills and int eraction panerns. Learners of all ages need di ffesent activities in a lesson, bUI
this is espcdall y imponant for younger learners.
During Ille lesson we should leadllhc learners, nm Ihe lesson plan! We must be prepared, if
necessary, to dlangc our plan while we an' tcaching. If we have a clea r plan, Wl' will be more
aware of what we are changing and why. We can include some dillercn\ possibilitks in a
lesson plan, c.g. an extra activi ty to use if learners-take less time than expected 10 complete a
task, and this can help if we are n01 slire how well pans of lhe plan will work.
Sec Unit r8 for identifying and seleerlng alms and UnIt 20 for plonnlng on Indlv/duollesson oro sequence of
lessons.
93
Module2
94
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (5Ufllfle 17;
Some of the leacher's nOles for thi s: lesson plan are missing. Put th e nOtes A-E in lht, COrreCt
places in the plan.
Lesson plan heacimgs Teacher's notes
Timetable fit 1
MaIn alm(SJ 2
suDSldlary 8lm(Sj 3 To lISten fordetaH to a mooel story
Personal aim!s)
,
AssllmptlOns 5 Students can al ready form tenses accurately
Anticipated language problems 6 Students may use present tenses
Possi ble soIutJon 7
Procedures 8
A To enable student s to use past tenses accurately and put evenls in order in simple narratives
B Students listen to the model Story, then in groups. pla.n and write their own SlOries
C Usc gestures to remind srudents 10 use. past tenses
o To follow on from work on past tenses and to prepare for the storytelling prOjea
E To make sure Ihat board writing is dear and readable
REFLECTION
Think about lhese comments from teachers. Which do you agree with and why?
1 Written lesson plans are helpful when you first Slart leaching, but experienced teachers don't
need them. I plan all my le5sons in my head.
2 Lesson plans don' t help me teach because I always try to respond [0 learners' needs during [ile
lesson.
3 Writing a lesson plan is the important thing. I always have a written plan. but 011("11 I don' t
look at it while r' m teaching.
Unft 19 Identifying the different components of a l esson plan
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
TTy out different ways of writing lesson plans -c.g. in columns. on cards-IO find out which
style suits you best. Have a louk at Chapter 8 (' Why did I do it like this?') of Children LeamiJlg
F.llglish by Jayne Moon. Macmillan 2000, for some usdul examples.
2 In your TKT portfolio. collect examples of plans you write for different kinds of lessons. Also
wrile comments on wh<u the strong and weaker points of the lesson were, and what you
would change oext lime.
3 For some gQOd ideas about lesson planning, read two short articles on planning by Callwn
Robertson. SBC Bnglish at:
h t rp: Ilwww.tcachingenglish,org,uk/ think/ methodology I pla Jlning 1.5h tm I and
h up: Il w\ vw.1.e8chingenglish.org. LI klthin k Imethodulogy I pia n n i ng2. shtml
4 For more detailed advice on planning and further examples of how to write a plan, look at
Chapler 22, Sections A, B 1-3 and C of The Prac(ia.' O{Ellglish ['aIl8"age Teachil1g (third edition)
by Jeremy Harmer. PearsOo etluC.ltioll Ltd 200 1 and Chapter 8 of TI!achill9 Pradice Handbook
(second edition) by Roger Gower. Diane Phillips and Steve Wal ters. Macmillan 1995.
5 For lesson plans on a wide variety of tOpics that yOll ran download {Tee, visit:
h n p: Ilww\'{, in2english .coml teaching
....... ............ ... ................................... .. ... ...... ... .... .. .... .... .... .. ... .. .... .. ......
TKT practice task (See page 176for answers)
For questions 17. match the stages of the lesson with the subsidiary aims li sted A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Lesson stages
1 Check vocabulary from the last lesson.
2 Introduce the topic and elicit/present new words and phrases.
3 learners reorder jumbled paragraphs of a text.
4 Learners match words in the text with possible meanings.
5 learners answer true/false questions.
6 Learners underline examples of reported speech.
7 Learners exchange texts and give feedback.
Subsidiary aims
A focus on form
B deducing meaning from context
C peer correction
D check detailed comprehension
E contextualise and pre-teach vocabulary
F check learners' awareness of text organisation (pronouns, linking. etc.)
G controlled practice of target structure
H revise language already learnt
....... ................ .............. ................. ........ ..............................................
95
96
Unit 20 Planning an individual lesson or a
sequence of lessons
How do we plan an indi vidual lesson or a sequence of lessons?
When we plan an individual lesson, we need 10 think about ils aims, Ule 'shape' of Ihe lesson
and the kind of techniques that are most appropriate for a panicular gTO'llP of learners. For
example. if we are iJHTOducing a nl'''\' grammatical struqure, we might choose a Presenta tion,
Practice and Production (PPP) approach or a Task-based Learning (TBL) approach. Skills
lessom. tOO, have regular shapes Ih<11 we can use to organise lesson plans: for example. for
receptive skills, we llsually plan tasks or activities for learners to do before, while and after
readi ng or listening; for pfoduct iVt" skills. there is usually an illlrodilcrory slage La set the scene
(i .e. 10 explain lhe conlext ) and a feedback stage after the speaking or writing aclivity.
We also need 10 think about tJle conm'ctions between Ult' aims of the lesson and the
procedures wt will use to achieve thost aims. The available materials, tbe length of 1.IJe les500
and the information we have about our learners wil! all help us to identity possible procedures.
But the most important thi ng is to Ill<lkt sli re that the materials, tasks and activities we select art:
the olles that will help a particular gTOUp of to achieve the aim we have ident ified. f..I
A seque nce of lessons is a number of related lessons thai develop language knowledge
and lor language skills over a period of time. Sequences may develop a single topic or language
area, or may involve topics or la nguage areas that are very dosely connected. Here are three
examplt'"s:
Structllral sequet/a lllll'grated seque/lc Projed work
I revision: paSt simple I vocabulary I reading and listening
2 reviSio!l : present perfect development: describing about free time
3 Contras!: past simple places (function: activilies
vs. present perfen descnuing) 1 class survey and
1 reading: choosing a rcscarcil: sport and
holiday enlenainment
3 writing; lener to,J friend 3 preparation of a pOSler
narrating holiday display to show rcsulLS
experiences (funclion: of surv(:y
narrating)
'.
Unit 20 Planning an Individual
Key concepts
Planlling an individllal lesson
When we plan an individual lesson. we have to ask ourselves a mmlberof
WiIllhe topic be iTucrcsling and mOlivating for my learners?
Are the activities and Icadllng materials al the right level for all the reamers?
Have I planned enough for the time available? Do I need any extra material?
Have I plannt::d 100 much for the time available? Are there any Siages I call CUI if neces-5ar{'
Have I lhoughl about exactly how to si an and emi Ihe lesson?
Does each step in the lesson help to achieve Ihe aim?
Plallllil1g a seque/'tce oJ
Look at these three teache rs' schemes of work (Le. oUlline pl ans) For a sequence of four
lesson!>. Whill dn yOlI Think mi ght bt: the advaotagel; and dba(iva illages vf eodl scheme?
Sc/Jeme A SchemeS SchemeC
week 3
.. Grammar Grammar revIsion Class discussIon of advantages
Vocabulary (past tenses) and disadvantages of living In the city
Vocabulary (free Revise and extend vocabulary
time activities) Focus on comparative and superlative

Practice exercise adjectives and adverbs; practice
(from coursebook) exercise
week 4 listening

Check vocabulary

Reading: personal stories:
Speaking

Reading (emails) students order sections of text

Speaking - fluency Focus on text organisation
activities Writing: students' own stories

Peer correction (where students
correct one another)
WeekS

Reading

Quick revision: work

listening: song - group transctiption

Writing from Weeks 3 and 4
Grammar game (snakes and ladders)

Listening (e.g. holiday to revise work on comparatives and
story) superlat ives

Grammar focus

Pronunciation practice: focus on j.,j
(reported speech)

Writing (report of Story)
Week 6
.. Test

Speaking (role-play) Review of grammar and topic

Feedback Group work: producing sections of
tourist brochure for students' town
A scheme 01 work helps us plan a sequence of lessons in the beSt way to cover the school
sylla bus or the units of a coursebook in m<.' lime available. It also helJ>S us (0 think about
what w(' want to achieve and what materials we mjght need. It also helps us to indude enough
variety across our lessons. Teacher and learners need clear ai ms beyond the singl e lesson and
9 7
Module 2
98
need 10 see how lessons are linked to each other. 1lere are some of the main advantages and
disadvantages of t.he three sdlemes of work on page 97:
Scheme Advanrages Disadvantages
A
Leaves teacher free to Gives no detdils of whdt will happen In these lessons and
respond to ledrners' needs. so does not remind the teacher of generdl dims orwhat
materials to prepare.
S Quite detdlled. Some Probably the most useful of the three schemes of work.
sense of direction. Not too much detail or too little, but the tedcherwjll
probably need to return [0 it and add more detail week by
week to turn It Into a set of lesson plans.
C Very detailed. Gives very Difficult to predict several weeks ahead exactly what
clear sense of direction. learners' needs may be, so the teacher will need to return
frequently to the scheme of work and change it If necessary.
You (<In see That schemes of work are less detail ed than lesson p l a n ~ . Like any individual lesson,
a sequence of lessons should have a logical and learning- friendly progression and a good
oalance of approaches and activities. Li ke a lesson plan, a scheme of work heJps us to identify
our aims and make sure we choose materials and procedures lhat mardI !..hose ai ms.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
(I'S a good idea to make lesson plans look as si.mple as possible, so nores are bener tban [ull
sentences, and there's no need to describe every step in greal detail. However, we may want
to write down some important things in a complete Conn - for example, prompts for drilling,
questions to d leck kamers' understanding, instructions, etc.
A lesson plan should be clear and easy 10 read during the lesson. DifferenT colours, boxes,
underlining, CIC. are useful. It is often helpful to indudt' drawings of Ihe way the blackboard
(or whiteboard) will look al different stages.
Variety is very important ooth in a sequence of lessons and in a single lessO(l. We should
avoid always doing the same kinds of things in the same order, e.g. always beginning the
lesson willl a con versa lion or always ending wilh a role-play. There are several dif[erem
ways of inrrodudng variety into lessons. Here is a lisl of Lhings we can vary:
pace --> quick and fas t-moving or slow and reflective
interaction pattern -- individual, pairs, groups, whole class
skill -> productive or receptive
level of difficulty -> non-demanding or requiring effort and concentration
content -- changing from one language point to another; from one subject
to another
mood -> light or serious; happy or sad: tense or relaxed
exciting or calming dctivities --> 'stirring' (lively and active) or 'senling' (quietening down)
{adapted rom A Courst U/ wlIZ9ua;)c Teachbl!1 by Penny Ur. Cambridge University Press 1996)
Unit 20 Planning an Individual lesson or a sequence of lessons
learners may welt require morc frequent revision than the coursebook provides. A sdleme
of work is a good way to make sure thai we recycle language (Le. liSt' it agai n) and include
regular revision activilies during a sequence of lessons .
Coursebook lInil<; are often arranged around a specific topic (slIcil as spon or relationships I
which may b(' a useful way of linking together a sequence of lessons. This kind of sequence
gives us the dlance to devdop panicu!ar areas of vocabulary, but learners may fed Ihatlhe
lessons are repetitive, so we need plc.nty of variet y Of texts and tasks.
See Units 5-8 for skills-bosed lessons. Unit 18 for Identifying and selecting alms and unlr 19 for identifying the
different components afa lesson pion,
FOllOW-UP ACTIVITIES ( S l ' ~ 1'.7.11t' 174 JiJr I1ItHWrl)
The lesson summaries 1-6 below are pan of a scheme of work 10 introduce and practise lallguag:e
for describing people, clothes and places. Complete the scheme of work with the correct
SWlUnaries (A. B or C) for lessons 1,5 an d 6.
A Project work: groups prepare poster displays (magazine photographs)
Writing: descriptions of people and places (further practice of functional language)
B Listening: descriptions of people
Present new vocabulary and check pronunciation: lexical sets for describing people (flashcards
and board drawings)
Writing: descriptions of students in class
C Video (TV police drama): focus on descriptions of people
Role-play in pairs: police interviews (practice of new language) __ whole-class correction
Scheme of work
I ................. .............. ...................... ......... ............... .................... .......... ....... .......
2 Reading: descriptions of clothes (from teenage magazine)
Vocabulary: dictionary work
Writing: descriptions of people and clothes .... peer correction (palrwork)
3 vocabulary: descriptions of places and peopie (photographs)
Practice exercises (coursebook)
Speaking: describe-and-draw activity (pairwork)
Writing: descriptions of places drawn in speaking activity
4 Vocabulary: pictures of people, clothes and places
Grammar: comparative and superlative adjectives
Practice exercises (coursebook)
Speaking: general knowledge quiz (whole class)
5 ............... ... .... .. ......... ............. . .. ..... . .. .... .... .. .. . ... .. ..... ................. ......... .. .... . .. .
6 ................. .. ... ........... . ..... ..... ...... .... ....... ............ ....... ................. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... .

Module 2
[00
2 In the sdlcme of work in Activi ty I, which lesson or lessons:
A hasJhave a variety of pace?
B use(s) different imeTaoion panems?
C pradise{s} receptive skills?
D pracrise(s) productive skills?
E increase(s) the level of difficulty?
F has/have a dlange of lopic?
G has/have a change of language focus?
1:1 is/arc lively and act ive?
I is/are calm and quiel?
REFLECTION
Think aboul lhesc comments from teachers. which do you agree wilh and why?
1 The coursebook gives me everything I need 10 plan a sequence of lessons.
2 If I do a scheme of work, I don'l have 10 spend so much lime planning individuallessuos.
3 I want to respond 10 my learners' needs [rom lesson to lesson. A scheme of work SlOpS me
from doing Ihal.
DISCOVERY ACTIVlTIES
1 Design a sdlcme of work for your ne.).1 few lessons. Then summarise lhe aims of your
sequence orlcssons as a handout for leamersor a pOSler lor the dassroom wall. PUI a
copy in yourTKT portfolio.
2 601' some very practical ideas on planni ng. look lIt Chapter 7 of Plannin9 alld
(;curses by Tessa Woodward, Cambridge University Press 2001 and PlaH/lillg Classwork:
A Task-based APpror1t'h by Sheila Estaire and Javler Zan6n, Macmillan 1994,
3 Project work is-a good way of planning a motivating sequc.ll ce of lessons wilh plenty of
variety. For ideas 00 ptanningprojcCL work and some good examples, have a lookal this
websire:
1m p:/ / www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/melhodology/projecl_work.sblIn.1
4 Use (be TKT Glossan" 10 find lhe meanings of ulese lenns: ,l}lIided distov<ry, sflldent-cmtri!d.
leadter-a!l"/tred.
Uni t 20 Planning an individual lesson or a sequence of lessons
TKT practice task (See page! 76 for answers)
For questions 1-5, look at the lessons in the project work sequence below and fill in the missing
lessons from the options listed A-E.
A Some learners look for information on the Internet or in the library and make notes; some plan
surveys to find out information from others using questionnaires.
B Groups exchange their work, check it and make final suggestions for editing.
C In each group learners read each other's work. and make suggestions for editing.
o Groups plan their work and decide how to share tasks.
E Learners plan their writing or carry out survey interviews.
Project work sequence
Aim: for learners to produce a class magazine
Explain project aims; whole class decides on Ijst of topics; form interest groups
, ....................... . .
2
3
Learners write their first drafts.
4 ............. .. ...... . .............. .. .. . .. .. .. .
5
Make copies of the magazine for other classes to read.
101
Unit 21 Choosing assessment activities
How do we choose assessment activities?
Assessment means cQUeaing information about learners' prrfonnaoce in order 10 make
judgements about their learning. We mar choose to assess rOnllally (through teSls and
examinations) or infomlally. We can carry out informal assessment during a lesson hy
monitoring (Le. listening carefully) and observing learners while they arc doing ordinary
classroom acl'ivities. In[onnal assessment is an imponam way of checking how our learners arc
gelling on. but 01 course we can', assess all our learners all the time during lessons. To gel more
infom1<lIion about the progress of individual learners
J
we also need 10 car.ry oul forma l
assessment (c.g. a class test).
When plDnning assessment, we need to think firsl about our reasons for assessing learners.
Then we can decide when and how ohen La assess them. and choose what methods of
asseSSIllCIlI we an: going to Llse.
Key concepts
What are I h ~ differences belween ronnal and inrormal assessment?
We can summarise Ih(' differences between (annal and informal assessment under tile headings
of assessment tasks, marking and purpose:
Formal assessmem Informol assessment
Assessment

tests normal classroom teaching and learning
tosks

examInations activities
homework tasks
MarkIng learners receive grades teacher keeps records of progress but does not
(%. A-F, Pass/Fail, etc.) give grades
Purpose

to assess overall language feedback for the teacher (I.e. to find out
ability (proficIency test) how successful our teaching has been)

to assess learnIng at the end to help us Improve our procedures or choose
of a course (achievement test) different materials or activities for future lessons

to assess learning at the end feedback for learners about what they can do
of part of a (ourse (progress test) and what they still need to work on

to decide if learners (an
continue to the next level
102
Unit 21 Choosing assessmenr activities
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Formal assessmel1T
Fonna! assessment can consist of tasks with single answers (e.g. multiple-choice
questions, matching task. t r ue/false questions) lhat arc casy to mark . Objective test
taro like lhese "vill give us information abolltlearners' kuowlcdgl' of parlicuJar language
items and spcdfic areas of Janguag(' skills. Some formal assessmenl makes usc of more real -
life tasks, such as oral interviews, letters and essays, to get information aboUllearners'
genera'i ability to lise spoken and wrinen language.
When we pn:parl' a class test, it is important 10 include a number of different taskS, so lhat we
get a good picture of our learners' strengths and weaknesses, and to test the main tbings 11 e
have taught.
We need 10 choose asscssmelll tasks very carefully for young learners. making sure that the
tasks arc familiar and not 100 difficult or 100 abstract.
Informal assessment
The amOllJlt of informal assessmem we do depends QIl a number of things:
-the size of tbe class
- the age of the learners (informal assessment is especially userul for young leamers for
whom fonnaltcst tasks arc often too absrract)
- the language knowledge or skiDs we want to assess
- the frequency 01 formal tests or examinations.
It is important for learners to know that we are assessing them, and to know how and when
we are doing iL.
To carry oul informal assesSment of productive skills in larger classes. we probably nced 10
assess small nwnbers of !earners in different lessons. We can record our opinions on a record
sheet or fill in a check lis!.
, We can carry out informal assessment of receptive skiUs by checking learners' answers to
reading or listening tasks, and lakillg notes on their performance.
We can make separate assessments of karners' grammatical illJd lexical knowledge by usiug
language games or quizzes, or by monitoring practice a<-1ivities and making a note of frequent
errors. We can then give feedback to individuals or \0 the whole class, or return to the
problems later in a revision lesson.
We may also wish \0 assess otheI things such as motivation and effort. We call do this by
observat ion and also by talking to learners about lheir learning.
It is imponam to keep records of informal assessment, especially in larger classes, SO tJ1at we
have the information we need to report or give feedback on our learners' progress. These
records can be quite simple, with headings for, e.g. vocabulary, language skills.
motivation and general progress against each learner's name.
We need 10 plan informal assessment illihe samc way as we plan our teaming.
Fortnal and informal assessmel1l
We may use. some of the same melhods for both formal and infom1al assessment (e.g.
assessing learners' spokcnlangllage in an interview). [n lhe case ofproduclive skills, whether
the assessment is formal or informal. we need to judge learners' performance against dear
103
lodule 2
..
descriptions of different levels of skill . These may be general descriptions of speaking or
writing. or they may give separate descriptions of different subsklUs. Here are two examples
for speaking. They are designed to assess a wide range of ability.
Example J
5 Speaks very well -very few errors.
4 Speaks quite well- some errors, but message is always dear.
3 Has some difficulties 111 speaking - [requem errors and nOt always clear.
2 Has selious problems in speaking - only vcry limited <,hility to communicate.
1 Almost unable to communicate.
8xamp/e 1
Accuracy Fluency Pronunciation
5
Grammatical and lexical Speaks fluently Without Very dear: stress and
accuracy extremely high. hesitation or searching for intonation help to make
words. meaning clear.
4
Quite accurate: some errors, Some hesitation and Generally clear; reasonabl,e
but meaning is always clear. sometimes has to search for control of stress and
words. intonation,
J
Frequent errors; meaning is Quite hesitant: limited range Frequent errors; not always
not always clear. of vocabulary and structures. clear enough to understand.
2 Very frequent errors; diffkulty Extremely hesitant; very Very frequent errors; often
in making meaning dear. limited range of language very difficult to understand.
available.
I Almost unable to communicate.
See Unit 17 (or assessment types and rasks.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY ()(.<! Im.llt' 174//"
Read the foll owing 5tatCmentS and decide whelher they are true (T) or false (F).
We can usc honu:::work tasks for infonnal aSSeSsment.
2 Objective tests have many different possible answers, and this makes them dirfic:ult 10 mark.
3, In the best rom1<ll tests learners should only have to do a few different tasks.
4 Jt>s impOrtant ror learners lO know when we are assessing them informally.
5 We can sometimes usc games ami quizzes for infornlal assessment.
6 The methods we usc for formal assessmellt are always different from those we usc for inrormal
assessment .
Modul e2
\04
descriptions of different levels of skill. These may be general descriptions of speaking or
writing. or they may give separate descriptions of diffcrent s ubskills. Here are two examples
for speaking. They are designed IO assess a wide range of ability.
Example J
5 Speaks very wcll- very few errors.
4 Speaks qui te wcl1- some crrors, but message is always dear,
3 Has some ditnCLIllies in speaking - frequent errors and 110t always dear,
2 Has serious problems in speaking -only very limited abiJi ty 10 communicate.
Almost u,nable lO communicate.
Example 2
Accuracy Fluency Pronunclorlon
5
Grammatical and lexical Spea k.s fluently without Very clear: stress and
accuracy extremely high. hesitation or search lng for Intonati on help to make
words. meaning clear.
4
Qui te accurate: some errors. Some hesitation and Generally clear; reasonable
but meaning is always clear. sometimes has to search for
control of stress and
words. Intonation.
1
Frequent errors: meaning Is Quite hesitant: limited range Frequent errors; not always
not always clear. of vocabulary and structures. clear enough to understand.
2 Very frequent errors; difficulty Extremely hesitant; very Very frequent errors; often
in making meaning clear. limited range of language very difficult to understand.
available.
I Almost unable to communicate.
See Unit 17 for assessment types ond casks.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (5Cl' page 17"'1 for flIl.lWt"f),J
Read the following statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F).
We can use homework tasks lor inlorma\ assessment.
2 Objcdive tests have many different possible answers, and this makes them difficult to mark.
1 In the best fonnallCStS leamers should only have 10 do a few differenT tasks.
4 [(.'s important lor learners to know when we arc assessing them informally.
5 We can sometimes use games and quizzes for informal assessment.
6 The methods we lise for formal assessment arc always different from those we lise for informal
assessment.
Unit 21 Choosing assess ment. activities
REFLECTION
Think aboUl these comments from teadlcrs. Which do you agree with and why?
1 1 don't have lime: for informal assessment. I'm lar too busy teaching.
2 Most o! my assessmc.nt is informal. It'S mudl better than forma! testing as a way of finding Qut
whal my learners can do.
3 My learners have regular lests. so I don't need 10 do much informal assessmc.m.
DISCOVEHY ACTIVITIES
Look at Ihe next Ihree Ilnits in your coursebook. Wharopportunilie .. a n ~ thert:' for infomlal
assessment? In YOul" TKT ponfolio, keep a record of th{' assessment rasks you use.
2 Por. detailed inforrnation on ways 01 carrying out informal assessment, bave a look al
Chapters 1 and 2 of Assessment by MiChael Harris and Paul McCann, Mac;miJlan 1994 and
'Classroom AsSt'SSnll!lIt" by a l 1 1 i n ~ ReaDickins. Chapler I I in Teaching alld Learning ill the
Lallguage Classroom by Triaa Hedge, Oxford University Press 2000.
3 A language poniolio is a very good way of learners keeping a .record ollheir own progress.
An example- is-downloadable free, together with a TeaclJer's Gl.!idc. Irom:
http://www. nace I [.0 rg. u k/ resou rees/pu b _0 [I/porrfol io. h nn
TKT practice task (See page 176 for answers)
For questions 17, match the instructions for the assessment tasks with the assessment aims listed
A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Assessment aims
A to assess oral fluency
8 to assess accurate pronunciation
C to check knowledge of vocabulary
o to check grammatical knowledge
E to assess writing skills
F to check awareness of stress
G to check knowledge of functional exponents
H to assess gist reading skills
Instructions for assessment tasks
Use the notes to make complete sentences. Put the verbs into the correct form.
2 Choose the correct heading for each paragraph.
3 Reply to the advertisement, explaining why you are the best person for the job.
4 Find the words in the text which match the following definitions.
5 Discuss the problem with your partner and try to find the solution.
6 Choose the most appropriate response for each of the following situations.
7 Usten and underline the word that the speaker says most strongly .
..................................................... .. ......................................................
105
106
Part 2
Unit 22
Selection and use of resources and
materials
Consulting reference resources to help in
lesson preparation
How do we consult reference resources?
Rc.it.'.rence resourceS arc all the sources of information abOLit language and about tcaching that
we can refer to for help in lesson preparation. They inclllde rererence malerials. such as
dl<.lionari cs and grammar books, books and articles about methodology in teachers' lllaga7j nes,
t.he teacher's book accompanyi ng a coursebook thai contains answers and Icaching ideas, and
wcbsilcS on tlie Imcrncl. Reference resources Ulay also include people. for example. the Head of
Department or colleagues who leach roreign languages or olher suhjects. We consult reference
resou rces by knOwing where we can find the informatiOn we need and bow 1.0 find it.
Key concepts
Li st as man)' rcason<; a<; }'()U c.1I1 think of for making usc of refe rence resources.
When we arc plalming a lesson. there are man}' reasons for using reference resources. Some of
the main ones are as follows:
Chrckil19 the/ann and tise o/grammatical structures
Some grammar books arc wrinen for (eachers. with very deta iled explanations. Others.
designed for learnl'rs a l diIIcrcnt levels, use simpler language to give cssentia,J inrormation about
grammalical structures. Grammar books for learners can help us to see what information our
learners need about grammatical SlTUctures and CiIJ] provide llS with suit able ways of descli bing
or explaining grammar. The easiest books LO use are those organised in alphabetical order, or
which have a deTailed index or table of contents. Some grammar books also include practkc
exercist:s, which teachers (a nd learners) often rind usdul.
Checkil1g lite spelling. prollullciation (I ud use of lexical items
The 1110St lIsl'ful dictionaries for te-achl'rs LO use th(,Jnsel vcs arc advanced learners' dktionaries,
which include example sentences. as well as infomlation about the form and use of word!>. Most
of these arc also ava ilable on CO-ROM and online on publishers' websites. Bilingual
dictionaries (whld1 explain the meanings of words in the learner'S own languag('). including
electronic dictionaries. are useful when learners are looking for it word that Lh ey don't know in
English. Bli t these didionaries lIsuaUy give very lin Ie information about how 10 usc a word. so
it's a good idea for learners to check the words they find in a monolingual d.ictionary (Le. Olle
thai explai ns till' meanings of words in the language learners are learning). Learner dictionaries,
like learner grammar books. call help teadlers 10 find the most sui table ways of defining words
and giving examples of their usc.
Uni t 22 ConsultIng reference resources to help In lesson preparation
Developin9 yourolVlI ullderstandillg o/lal1guage
There arc a number of books for teadlers which aim to increase ollr language awareness lour
understanding of how language \\Iorks) and our awareness of how to teach language. Thl'}'
often illclude tasks that we can do by ouc;elves or with a colleague and detailed explanations
and commt"nts as weH as answers.
Amicipatillg leamers' diffiO/lties
Reference materials about learners' errors can help us antlClpal(' particular language
problems that our [earners might have. Many difficuhics with vocabulary or grammar are the
rc...'Stllt of interference from Ll. Books or anides about specific differences between the
learner's LI and English can help to explain these
Lookillg/or new approaches to teachinglessotls and newdassroom aaivities
If we are looking for nt'w approaches or activities, or if we want to give our l(,arners something
different from thei r courscbook. there is a wide range of supplementary materials (Le.
materials you can lise in addition to or instead of your courscbook), focusing on grammar,
vocabula ry and particular skills. There are also very man}' teacher's resource books with ideas
and materials for all kinds of lessons. Some of these provide a wide range of adivitics for extra
grammar or communicative I)ractice, for example. while others focus on a particular IfPC' oI
classroom aClivity, Stich as dictation or storytelling. Most of these books have very dear indexes,
giving information about timing, preparation, level. etc. There is also a growing number of tree
websites with articles for teachers 011 different teaching topics.
Finding om how to use lhe material ill your coursebook
Teacher's books provide suggestions about how to use the material in the courscbook. Even if
tht' lesson planning ideas in the teacher'S book do not suit a parlicuJar teaching situation, it is
stlll userul to look at these suggestions, as it may be possible to adapt them. Some teacher's
books include different possible ways of planning a lesson, as well as explanations of answers 10
exerdses and extra resources (Le. things teachers can use to suppOrt their tcaching in the
classroom), stich as homework tasks and activities for further practice.
Getlin9 advice ahow paniC/dar lessons or reaching materials
Colleagues who have taught at the same level or used the same teaching materials may be able
1.0 offer Il sdul advice. As wi th the stlggestions in teacher's books, a colle<1gue's approach may
not slIilllS, but may hdp us tu think about our Own planning.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Some grammar books and dicti onaries may con lain clearer explanations or examples. So
when checking a language item, we sbould try to took at morc than one reference resource.
Language changes. as new words appear and people StOp using some older words.
GranUllaticalusage, to(}, changes slowly over time. One way 10 kct'p up 10 date is to me the
mOSt recently published grammar books and dictionaries.
Dictionaries on CDROM have many extra feamres, such as praaice aaiviljes, collocation
searches and audio recordings of pronunciation.
107
Modute2
108
We can learn a weal deal from other teachers' experiences. Many reachers' magazines include'
regular an.ic;les by teachers describing successful lessons they have taught .
It may be easier to visit websites than t.o find t11e books and articles we need. There arc many
sites on the. lntemet where we can rind lree resources SUdl as lesson plans, worksheets
(pages with task" and exercises on them that a teacher gives ro learners during a lesson) and
ideas for leaching. Some sites also offer simple programs for making dassroom resources, such
as crosswords and gap-fill c-xerciscs. The best way LO find tbest" materials is LO visit one of the
sites that has li sts of links to usei'ulteaching resources on the Internet.
fOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY
Try to rind resources 1-10 below. Then dedde which type of resource (A-D) they are.
A-Z of HI/gUsh Grammar nnd Usage by Geoftre)' leech. Pearson Education Ltd 2001
2 Cambridge Leamer'S Dictionary, Cambridge University Press 2001
3 Disalssiolls Tltat Work bV Peony Ur, Cambridge University Press 198\
4 Planning[rom Lesson 10 Lesson by Tessa Woodward and Selll Lindstromberg, Pearson
Educa(ion ltd 1995
5 hltp:llwww.ntthvilmi.netlhut/LmgHelp/Grammar
6 Workil1,q with Words by Ruth Gairns and Stuan Redman, Cambridge University Press 1986
7 http: //www.prcschoolrainbow.org
8 Motivari1l9 High-Level Learners by David Cranmer, Pearson Education Ltd 1996
9 Five-Minule Activities by Penny Ur and Andrew Wright Cambridge University Press 1992
10 htrp:Jrwww.pu.zzlemaker.com
A language reference resources
B ideas fur planning lessons
C resources for teachers and learuc.rs producing t heir own ma te.riaJs
D materials for very young learners
REFLECTION
What were tJ lC reference resources you ttsed when YOll were studying English? Do they still
help you?
1 What arc the rcierence resources you lise most oftcn when prepaJing lessons? In what ways
do they help you"?
3 If you had t.o go and leach in a place with very few resources, wbidl three reference books
would. you take will) you?
Unit 22 Consulting reference resources to help In lesson preparation
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 In yourTKT portfoliO, a record of the reference reSOurces you use. Make notes of the
source (tide and author, website ere..), the less-on(S) yon raught and any comments
on tl1e advantages or disadvantages of lhe resource.
2 Carry CUI an infonnal survey amongst your colleagues to find Out whal Me Ihe most popular
and useful reference resources for lhe age(s) and level (s l of learners YOllleadl. Keep a
record 01" the results of your survey in }'ourponfolio.
3 Por somt: good advice on using reference resources for finding Informalion about language,
have a look at Chapler 12 Of ll1e Practice ofb"llgJish Language Teacf1il19 (third edition) by
Jeremy Harmer. PearsOn Education Ltd 200 t.
4 For ideas on.building up rour olVnlibrary-of resources, lookal VWI 12 (' BLtilding a Resource
Bank') 01 LmlguageAssisram by Clare. LweI")', downloadable free from:
h up: Ilwww.bl.itishcouneil.org/languageassistanlman.ual. hUll
5 Two very use[1JI websiles with large numbers of links [0 other sit es witll Jesson plans. games,
ideas aboUlleadtiDg aud many otber re.souJ"ee.<; are; http;!/iteslj,org/links a!1d
hup: llwww.easUllen[.com
.. .................................................................................................. , ..... , ..
TKT practice task (See page /76 for answers)
For questions '7, match the teachers' descriptions with the reference resources listed AH.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Reference resources
A a language awareness book for teachers
B a book to help teachers use one kind of resource
C a teachers' magazine on the Internet
o a picture dictionary
E a learner's grammar book
F a monolingual dictionary
G a book about interference from different first languages
H a bllingual dictionary
Teachers' descriptions
1 Sometimes I just need to check what a word means in my own language.
2 If you teach beginners aU the time, iI's good to have a book that helps you keep up your own
language level.
3 I want my learners to read English definitions of English words.
4 It gives me information about rules and usage, written in language I can use in the classroom, and
there are exercises for learners, too.
5 My school has just gal some new computers, and this book gives me the ideas I need about how to
use Ihem.
B My young learners find il easier to remember new words if they can see what things look like.
7 It has articles by teachers, lesson plans and worksheets you can print out and lots of useful links,
109
110
Unit 23 Selection and use of coursebook materials
How do we select and use coursebook materials?
Courscbook materials are all the materials in a coursebook package thai we lise in the classroom
10 present and practise language, and to develop learners' language skills.
A coursebook package usually includes a student's book, a teacher's book and audio andlor
video recordings. The teadlcr's bookoftcn includes the tapescript (i.e. the words learners hear)
of ,hese recordings. often there is also a workbook or activity book (a book with extra
practice matenal) . and theft' may also be a CD-ROM or extra material 011 a website.
Teachers oflcn base their selection or teaching materials (COllNCbook or supplementary) on
a 'needs analysis', i.e. a study of learners' level, language needs Mid int erests, using
questi onnaires, imerviews or diagnostic tests. This informatiOn helps to build tip a dass
profi.lc (a descripti on of all the. learners in the class) and shows what they have in common and
how lhey differ from each Olher. The It'acher's task is then 10 select the material tilal best
[)latches tJlis profile.
Key concepts
What queslions should we ask when selecting tcaching materials?
We may not be able to choose our courscbook, but we can slill make choices about what
materials in it 10 usc. Oedsians about whether - and how - to use t.he coursebook or pan of it
will depend on lhe answers to a number of questions:
Is the malerial visua ll y atl.ractive? (s it visually dear (e.g. using dirferent colours, different
lonls, headings, Ctc.)? OOes the visual material help learners to understand cOntexl alld
meaning?
[s it well organised? Can you and your learners follow the 'logic' of the material and fiod your
way a round lhe page or the unit quickly and easily?
Is it culturally appropri,nc? Wi ll the conlext (S) be famili ar to learners?
Is it suit able for your learners' age and their needs and interests?
Will the topiCS be motivating to suit the age, gender, expe ri ence and personal interests of your
[ea rners?
Is it at the right level? Does it provide a d ear enough context and for explanations for learners
to understa nd new language?
Does it give learners enough opportunities to use the language?
If the answer to any of these questions is 'No', then we have tWO choices:
to replace the courscbook material with materials wilh the same focusfaim from another
book or resource, such as a teachers' 'websile or supplementary materials
10 adapt the coursebook materiaL i.e. change it in some way 10 make it suitable for our
learners.
Uni t 23 Selection and use of coursebook. materials
There arc a number of ways to adapt material thai is not suitable ror a particular teaChlng
situation. Here are some ideas:
Strategies Problems Possible solutions
Extending

The task or exercise is too short.

Write extra Items, following the same
material

The learners need more practice.
pattern.
Shortening

The task or exercise is too long.

Use as much .os you need. bUt do not
ma terial

The learners don't need so much feel you have to use it alt
practice.

Give different parrsof the text or tClsk
co different learners.
Changing the

The task doesn't suit the learners'

Change the interaction pdttern
form of tasks learning style. e.g. use a matching tdsk as a

You want a change of pace. mingling activity (I.e. one In Wh ich

Thecoursebook ohen repeats learners move around [he class. In
the same kind of task. this case to find their partners).
Changing the

The texts or tasks are coo easy or

Make material more challenging. e.g.
level of the too difficult. learners try to answer comprehension
materidl questiOns before reading.

Make material less challenging, e.g.
break up a long text into shorter
sections.
Reordering The activities in the units in the book

Change the order of the material,
material always follow the same sequence. e.g. ask learners to cover up a page or
The learners need to learn or pdrt of .0 page, so that they focus on
practise things In a different order. what you want them to do first.
Making use of all There is not enough practice

Use extra material from the book:
the resources In ma terial In a particular unit. grammar summaries, word Ilsts,llSts
the book The learners need to revise pa rticular of irregular verbs. etc.
items.

GIve whole-book tasks, e.g. sedfchlng
You want to preview material in through the book for texts, pictures,
a future unit. language examples.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
There may be good reasons tor leavi.ng OUI pan-of a unil. or even a whole unit. bUl remember
lbat the coursebook is one of lhe main sources of learning (and revisiOn) for our leamers. So
liley m,lY find it confusi ng if we do this lOa often .
The courscbook will nOfmaUy provide the main contem for a lesson, while malerialthal
needs 10 be more personaLised for Ihe learners will probably cOlUe from lhe leacher (or Irom
Ihe learners themselves). When planning lessons. think aboul whal the collrscbook gives
yOll, and whal youlleed 10 aUd. For example:
l11
Modute2
112
Coursebook provides: Teacher can provide odditianal:

situation/context warmer

pictures instructions

dia logues (conversations between two

rote-play
people) and texts

tasks and exercises

homework tasks
IJ w' e plan lO reorder tbe material in the coursebook, we mUST make sure that this is possible,
I.e. mat a task/exercise does not depend on a previous one.
We can change the order of activities in the cOllIsebOok in order 10 imrodu.ce variet y in One
of the rollowing areas: pace, imcrClnion pallern, sequence of skills practice, level of diHicuit y,
coment, mood, etc.
We should thi nk aboul how LO make malerial more alLTaclive and interesting for learners and
how to bring material 'oU the page', e.g. using mime, pict'ures, .eaHa (real objeCls such as
dothes Or foocl), CIC.
See Units 13 and 14 for iearnercharacrerlsr/cs and needs. Unit 24 for [he seleerlon and use ofsupplemenrary
materials and Unir 25 Forthe seJectlan and use of aids.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES
Select a unit [rom your coursebook that you haven' l used yel and answer the questions 0 11
page 110.
2 In whal wayts) will you need to adapt Ihe material? Make notes in yourTKT portfolio.
REFLECTION
Think about these commems from teachers. Which do you agree wi th and why?
I I plan my lessons 10 respond to my learners' needs, so I never usc a cOLUsebook.
2 1 always plan my lessons following the suggestions in the teacher's book.
3 [ use aJ! the O1aTcdaJ in every unit i.1l the order given in the book.
4 I use a coursebook, bUI I change most of il so that learners don't get bored.
5 I've got a good coursebook and r havcn' t gOI lirne 10 adapi any of it.
Unit 23 Selection and use of coursebook materials
DISCOVERV ACTIVITIES
1I yOll have colleagues who have used tile same courscbnok, find OLII from Ihem wha!
workcd well in their (lasses, wbat was less successful and what Lhey bad lO change. Jf yOll
are the fiJ-st leacher in your schoo! to use the book, keep a 'coursebook diary' in yOUf TKT
portfolio, and make notes about its advantage:) and disadvamage-s.
2 For furthef ideas on using coursebooks, have a look aJ Chapler 4 of Teaching Practice
Halldbook (second edilion) by Rogcr Gower, Diane Phillips and Steve Walters. Macmillan
1995 and Chapter 5. Pan 2 of Pial/fling Lessons and Courses by Tessa Woodward, Cambridge
Universily..Press 2001. For ideas on using olher materials, look at Chapter 43 of
Leamil1.9 Teaching by Jim Scrivener. Maanillan 1994 and Module 13. Units One. Two and
Tbree of A Course ilt Lal1.'1u(I.ge Teaching by Penny Vr, Car:nbridge University Press \996.
3 You can find some very interesting ankles. discussion and rtsourceson teaClling without a
course book at hUp:l/www.teachins-unplugged.com
..................................................................................... ... ... ........ ....... .. .
TKT practice task (Sce page 176 for answers)
For questions 17, match the coursebook instructions with the activity aims listed A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Course book Instructions
Acti vity aims
A accurate use of a specific structure
B finding collocations
C reading for gist
D oral fluency practice
E finding connections in a text
F listening for detailed information
G writing a short story
H listening for gist
1 Look quickly through the text and choose the picture that matches the situation.
2 Complete the sentences below using one of the following modal verbs.
3 Play the cassette again and answer the true/false questions.
4 Underline all the pronouns and draw arrows to show the nouns they refer to.
5 Choose the words that go together.
6 In groups of three, discuss the problem and decide on the best solution.
7 Look at the photographs and decide who you think Is speaking .
.......................... .................................................................................. .
113
Unit 24 selection and use of supplementary
materials and activities
How do we select and use supplementary materials and acti vities?
supplementary mate rials are books and other materials we can use in <lddition 10 the
c()Ufschuok. They include skills development m<lleriais. grammar, vocabulary and phonology
practice materials, colleclions of communicative activities and teacher's resource materials.
Supplementary materials may also come from a uthentic sources (e.g. newspaper and
magazine articles. vieleo. etc.). Some coursebook packages include 5uppiememary materials and
activities specially designed (0 fit the coursebook syUabus, and there are also many websiles
where you can download supplementary materials. We select supplementary materials and
activities firsl by rccognisitl Ihat we need something morc lhan (or different from) the malerial
ill the coursebook and then by knowi.ng where to find the most appropriate kinds of material.
Key co n cepts
Make a list of aJithe reasons you can think 01 lor using supplementary materiaJs and
acti vities. Whclt are-the advantages and disadv,1ntages of using the supplementary matcri,,\s in
the box below?
a class library of graded readers (storybooks that use simple language)
skills practice books
teacher's resomce books
websites
videos
language practice books (grammarJvocabulary/phonology)
electronic materials (CD-ROMs, computer programs)
games
There arc various reasom: why we might want to use supplementary materials and adivities.
Some of the main reasons are as foHows:
to replace unsuitable material in the cOllrsebook
to fill gaps in the cOllrsebook
to provide sui table material for learners' particular needs and interests
114
to give learners extra language Qr skills pral1i<:e
10 add variety to our teaching.
Coursebooks are organised according to a syllabus, and they are often carefully graded (Lt.
grammatical structures. vocabulary, skills, etc. arc presented in a helpful sequence for
learning) , so that learners' knowledge of the language builds up step by step through the book.
Supplementary materials and acti vities can proVide variety in lessons and useful eXira practice,
Unit 24 Selection and use of supplementary materials and activities
bUI il is imponant to make sure that Ibey fit into the learners' programme, are suitable for the
d a s ~ and match the aims for panicular lessons. Here are some 01 the possihlc ad\amages and
disadvantages of different kinds 01 supplemem3ry materials:
Possible odyantages Possible disadvantages
Class library of readers encourages extensive reading

language sometimes too
gives learners confidence simple

may not be challengIng
skl/ls practice books .. focus on individual skills

may not fit coursebook
Teacher's resource books

new ideas for lessons may not suit lesson alms
websites

variety of lesson plans.

sometimes difficult to find the
teaching materials. other right material for the learners
resources
Video

provides visua I context

eqUipment may not always
source of cultural information be available
shows body language

language may not be graded
Language proctice books extra practice
repetitive exercises
learners can work alone

little or no context
without teacher's help
Electronic materials motivation

difficult for reacher to control

familiar technology for how learners are working
learners

little or no human feedbilck
Games

enjoyment

may not be suitable for older

language practice learners
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Selection ofsuppiemmrary marerials and activities
Get 10 know what supplememary materials are available in your school. Use a questionnaire
or interviews for needs analysis (sec page ItO) at the beginning of the course to find ou! what
you wilt want to add 10 the courscbook when yOu a n ~ planning yOur scheme of work.
Supplementary language practice materials arc not always accompanied by tcacher's books.
and the aims of activities may not be dear. when selecting material, u1crefore, you need LO
think aboul exactly how it will replace or improve on material in your coursebook.
It may be lIsefullo ust' authentic material (which is not designed for a particular levc.1), in
order to give learners the experience of working with more challenging texts and tasl,s.
The activities in Ill.aterials designed to develop Indi Vidual skills often include the use of other
skills. e.g. learners need to read a text before they carry out a listening task. or 10 do some
writing as a follow-up activit y after a !.l,caking activity. When selecting materials and
adivities, think carefully about all the skills that iI re required.
Man}, publishers produce materials rorpractising separate language skills at dHfcreIH levels.
Teacher's resource books. too. usually list tasks and ,1Clivities according to level. Before
deciding to LISt' these materials, however. you should check how appropriate the It-vei ls [or
your learners. Think about the language they will need 10 understand or to produce.
115
Module 2.
Use of supplememary male rials and activities
Learners gel used to tbe methodology in their coursebook. If YOll are using supplememary
materials wilh very different procedures. you may Hced to give special alll:'nlionlO
instructions .
.. You can adapt many supplementary materials for usc with classes at dilkrent levels. The
texts u'\ed in lhese materials may not be graded. bUl you can grade the activilies by making
the learners' tasks more or less challengiJlg .
Games and eXIra communicative activit ies can provide variety and mak(' kaming fun. But
you need 10 Ihink about your reasons for using them, so that your lesson still has a dear
purpose. Older learners may want to know why they are doing Ihese activities.
See Unit 22 fOfconsu/rlng reFerence resources ond Unit 23 for (he seleerlon and use of materla/s.
FOLLOW-UP ACnVn"V (S,'i' '''',',1.' J fl.1r .",_f1(','1'\')
Here arc len sels of instructions for lhe kinds ofactivilies you might find in a book of
supplemcntalY material s. For each one, decide:
- what [('vet (s) it is s ui table- for (i.e. elemcm<t ry. intermedia Ie. advar1Ccd)
-wbat yOll think the aims are
- what materials (if any) the teacher needs to prepa re
116
- if it focuses on p<lrticttlar language.
-In l>airs, compare your li.'\t of ideas for
sla ying healthy. Then agree on lhe six mOSt
useful ideas. Next. get together with
another pair and decide on a group List 01
the six best ideas. Put t.hese ideas io order
accordiJtg 10 their usefulness.
2 Describe the picture to your panner so tbat
s/he can draw il. when you have finished.
comparc your pictures and discuss the
reasons for <ln y differences.
3 Send onc member of \'cur group outsi de
the classroom to read the next semcnce. He
or slle must rel11ernb('( the semence
\vithout writ,ing it. down, then come back
and dictal(' the sent ence to tll!:- group.
4 Use your dictiollill1' to find as mud1
information as you can about your word.
Discuss wi th the otht.'r in yOllr
group how the meanings or your words arc
conot'Clcd and then explain the
connections 10 the class.
5 Decide which stories arc true ancl which
are false. T11I:=n choose onl! to telito the
feSI of the class for them to make the same
decision.
6 Read the del1nition to the class for them to
guess the word.
7 Usten to the words on tJ1e recordi ng and
check whether yOll have underlined the
correct syUal>les.
8 Correa the tcxt so that it matches the
inlom1atioll in the picture.
9 Write tile next pa rt ot the story on lh"
compuler. When you havc I1 nished. move
10 the next computer and continue the
story yOll see on ule screen.
lO Go to the blClckboard and rllb out one
word in the sentence, so Ihat the words
that arc left on the board still form a
correct sentence.
Unit 24 Selecrlon and use of supplementary materials and activi t ies
REFLECTION
Tbink about lht:sc COllllllCnlS Irom teachers. Which do you agree with and why?
I There's more than enough material in my coursebook. I don't have time to use suppl ememalJ
materials.
2 My stltdenls gel bored Ivith lhe S<lJllt' book in every lesson. so I usc supplementary as
ohen as [ can.
3 I'd like 10 llSC supplementary materials more often, but J find it diUiculL to fit them int O my
syllabus.
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
Keep a record of the supplemt:ntary materialsytju use during One week's leaching. Make
note!. on the reasons for using the ma1erial. how it worked and wlla1 changes you would
make if you used it agaiu. Put y()ur notes in yourTKTponfolilJ.
2 Choose tWQ or three supplementary activities you have used recemly. Make nOtes on the
changes you would n.eeq 10 make to use the material at different levels.
3 For ideas on using -and making -suppl ementary materials. ha ve a look at Module 13. Units.
Four and Five of A C(lurSl'ill LaIl.<Juagf Teaching by 'Penny Ur, Cambridge Univt:'rsil y Press
1996, Chapter 1 J, Sections 2-7 of Let/fIlill9 Teadlill9 by Jim SO'jvener, Macmillan 1994. and
Chapler 4 of Teachillg Prm:ria H(I/1dboflk (seC()nd e:d iljOn) b}' Roger Gower, Diane Philli ps and
Sieve Walt ers, Macmillan 1995.
4 'You can ('ind more ideas for using supplementary materials at Dave's ESL Cafl;
IU1lJ;/ {www. cslcafe.com/ideasfinde ... hunl and a vccy usefttl list of links to other websites
where: you can lind supplementary matt:riaIs al Imp:llwww.eastmcnLcomllinks.hlmi
117
Module 2
... .......................... .. ..... .. ... .............................................. .. ......... .. .. ..
118
TKT practice task (Sit pagt 176for answers)
For questions 1-7. choose which book listed A-G could help a teacher who made the following
comments.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Books
A The Intemet and the Language Classroom Gavin Dudeney. Cambridge University Press
B Developing Listening Skills Shelagh Rixon. Prentice Hall
C Sounds Like This Katie Kitching, Belair Publications Ltd
D Simple Speaking Activities Jill Hadfield and Charles Hadfield, Oxford University Press
E Elementary Language Practice Michael Vince, Macmillan
F Literature In the Language Classroom Joanne Collie and Stephen Slater, Cambridge
University Press
G Words in Their Places: Graded Cloze Texts and Comprehension Exercises Lynn Hutchinson,
Hodder Arnold
Teacher's comments
1 I've been teaching for a long time, but I really need some fresh Ideas tor teaching grammar to
low-level learners.
2 I'm not sure how to use websiles for teaching English.
3 I'm looking for activities 10 help my teenage elementary learners develop their fluency, but I
haven't got lime to do a lot of extra preparation.
4 I'm interested in using poems and short stories in my language classes.
5 I want a book that explains pronunciation and gives me some ideas about how to teach It.
6 My learners need lots of extra tasks for reading practice. but I haven't got time to search for
supplementary materials at the right level.
Unit 25 Selection and use of aids
How do we select and use aids?
Aids are Ult" resources and equipment available \0 us ill the classroom. as well as lhe resourct's
we can bri ng into the classroom. They include cassette recorders. CD players, video recorder"
and ove rhead projectors (i.c. equipment with a light in it Lhal Gill make images appear larger
011 a screen), visua'J aids (pictures thai can help learners understand) , realia and the teacher
hitnseHlherself! We select and use aids by thinking carefully about tlw mai n aims and the
!'iuhsidia r y aims of a lesson. and then choos ing the most appropriate C'Hll'S.
Key concepts
Look at the following list of classroom equipment. What other teadling purposes can vou
think of for ~ a c l 1 item?
Classroom equipment Main teaching purpose
b lac kboa rdJw h ite boa rd writing up plan ned vocabulary, grammar examples and
explanations
overhead projector (OHP) displaying prepared exercises on t ransparencies (plastic
sheets)
cassette recorder/CD player list ening pract ice
vide0 recorder listening practice with added visual information
computer grammar exercises
language laboratory grammar drllls
(i .e. a room where learners can listen
to recordings and record themselves)
AJI or these aids can he used ror many difrerent purposes. Some examples of these purposes are
on the next page.
119
Module2
120
Blackboard/wI! iteboa ril Video recorder

writing words and ideas Ul(lt come up

for informa tio n ga p ta.;;ks (with onc
during the lesson learner viewing and one just listening)

drawing or displaying pictures

viewing wit.hout sound and guessing

building up ideas in diagramS. word the Jauguage
maps. etc.

pausing and predicting the language

for learners to wrile answers (Le. what you think is coming

for whole-class compositions ncxt)

with a camera, filming learners'
performance
Owrllead projrctor Complltfr

displJying resul ts of group wurk

narrative building with a word

buildi ng up inronnalion by pUlling onc processor
transparency on tOp of a(lot her

supplementary ma terials for

covering up or gr,lduaJJy uncovering coursebooks
parts of Ihe transparency

online languagt:: tests

displaying piclllres and diagrams on

using onlim' dict ionaries
phOlocopiable transparencics

USing CD- ROMs

email exchanges

online communication (chatung)

online newspapers and magazines

prOject work using the Internet
Cm'st'tle reaJrderlCD player
J,allgllage laboratory

presenting new language in

pronunciation practice
dialogues and stories

extensive listening

giving models for promlllcialion

monitoring ond giving feedback 10
practice individualleamers

H.cording le,lrtle.rs' oral performance

developing speaking skills

li stening for pleasure
Other aids arC: rca lia. flashcards (cards small enough to hold up one afler another. with
silllpk dr<lwings (lr si ngl e words or phrases on tbem), puppets (models of people or animals
Il1at you (<I ll move by put ung your hand inside them), charts (di'lgra ms Ihat show
information) and the tcacher.
What different u.;;es can YOllthink 01 [or these ai ds?
Ikre arc some or Ihe most importam lISes:
Realia
Real objects thai we can e<l sily bring imo the classroom can be used to teach vocabulary, as
promplS for pract isi ng grammatica l structures ur for building dialogue!! and lIarra tives, for
gal'llt."S and qui17.t.'S. Realia also incl ude such as menus. timetables. lea[]ets, elc.
Uni t 25 Selection and use of aids
Flashcards
Lfke realia. flashcards can be used for teaching inclivldll.11 words or as prompts for prddising
grammatical struaures.
Puppets
Puppets are an excellent resourCi! for leaching young learners. For example. we ca n introduce
new language in dialogues between pairs of puppets (or between one puppet and l ile teacher .
Children can also make tludrown simple puppets.
Charts
We can use posters and wallcharts (dra\vings or graphs that can be put on the wall llf a
classroom) to display larger. more detailed picrures, or a series of pictures telling d ,"ory pr
showing related objects in a lexical set. A phonemic cha rt shows the phonemiC symbols
and the positions in the mouth where the different sounds are made. teadler GIll pt.)int .'If
the symbols (0 prompt !earners 10 correct lheir prol1llTlciatjon. We can also use charts to
diagrams, preparl'd drawings and tables of irregular verbs, or lU build up a class di cti onary.
The teacher
The teacher can lise hand gestures, facia.l expressions and mime 'actions which express
meanjng withoul words) 10 e licit vocabulary items, clarify meaning and crealc context. We
ca n also build up a set of signals. such as finger correa ion, which leamel"s recognise as prompts
to correct their own mistakes.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
It is a good idea 10 divide the blackboard or whilcboard into dHferent sections for dHfereOf
purposes, as in this example:
Reference rnaterial {e.g. Lesson materials (e.g. ricltlres, key Vocabulary notepad
key lexis. model grammatical structures, dia logues, for noting all new
grammar rules, etc. ) etc) at different stages of the le .... son words
YOli can indude d.iagrams like this in your lesson plan for different stages of the JeSSOI1.
Aids that yOll can prepare in advance, like charts. flashcards and transparencies lor the
overhead projector, will help you to make sure thai lesson procedures matcll your aims.
Another advantage is thaT you GIn save sud, aids and rellse them in future lessons.
Make sure thal YOll check any equipment before [he lesson. Use the coulllers on cassette
recorders a.n(l video recorders toma1<e a note. of when' begin, so that you can rind
the plac(O easily when you rewind.
J.f you use COlll ]1ll lcrs ()I" I he language labormory. advance prep<lfaljon is essential. You need 10
plan aU your instructions very carefully. as well as lhe seque nce of activities for lile lesson.
See Unit 23 for the selection and use of reaching materials and Unit 24 far the selection and useaf
supplementary materials.
121
Module 2
L22
POLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (See p.t.!lt /7.I,Ior
which aids do you think these teachers are talking about?
I I <:an prepare lots of material in advance. and I don't have 10 make lots of photocopies.
2 It gives me a chance 10 listen 10 alllhe learners individuall y.
3 Whenever I travel abroad, I collect all kinds of things to use in class.
4 I use them as prompts [or a dialogue with the whole class. then give them out 10 p<,irs so Ihey
can practise.
5 I always use o ne pMt of il as a kind of notebook for new words.
6 It gives karners the most realistic kind of listening practice.
7 This helps wi th tests. grammar and vocabulary exercises. dictionary work, research - j US!
about evcrythil1g.
REFlECTION
Think about Ihe aids yOLi usc most often. Whallearncr char,1CtcriSlics make some aids more
successf ul than olhers in different classes?
2 What arc the advantages and di sadvantages of lLsi ng l('elmic;!1 equipment in the classroom?
(For ex,1mpk:. Think about planning, motivation and techni cal problems.)
3 Which aids are the mosl motivating [or your learners? (For example. younger learners may
learn best throllgh playing games. while teenagcrs may enjoy working with computt' rs.)
OISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 In your TKT pon(olio, keep a record of the aids that you USt'. Make! notes in a grid lik(' the
one lJe10w ollhe aids you use. tbe lesson aims, comments on how success(ulthey have
been and any changes you might need to make in fUlUre.
Aids used Lesson alms Comments Chonges for future lessons
2 Jf y()u a\wi.I\'s lise the same aids for a particular teadling PlU110St' (e.g. always using a
recorden dialogue or a reading text to introduce a new grammatical 5Iructurc). 1I'Y dOing it
dilferell!.Jy, ano make notes in your ponloHo abollt the advantages clnd disadvclntages of
using Ihese difkrcnI techniques.
3 Fvr some veq' usdul ideas on the lise {If aids, have a lu()k ilt Chaprcr 10 of The Practice of
English 7edcllillf} \Ihird editioll) by Jccemy Harmer, Pearson Educali(1Il Lid 2001.
Chaplcr 3 of Trtaching Practice Handbook (second edition) by Roger Gower. Diane Phillips
and Stcve W.1lters. Maollillan 1995 and Chaplel' 10 of Childrm Learning EHtJlish by Jaynf"
Moon, Macmillan 2000.
4 You ca,n also Hnd some Interesting anides 011 using aids on this website:
hll"p:llwww.leachingenglisb.org.uk/ think/ resources.shunl
5 Use Lhc= TKTGlas.fary 10 find the meaning of these Icrrns for aids: ('rOSS\lI()rd puzzle. flip"harl,
{tafler, video dip. Ask coUeagues what Ihey havc u:;ed thclII for.
Unit 25 Selection and use of aids
TKT practice task (See pagr 176 for al/swers)
For questions 17, match the teaching purposes with the aids listed A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Teaching purposes
Aids
A realia
B OHP
C puppets
o video
E seff-access centre
F computer
G phonemiC chart
H blackboard/whiteboard
to show learners pictures or answers to tasks prepared before the lesson
2 to remind learne,rs about pronunciation
3 for learners to work by themselves and improve their performance
4 to give learners listening practice with visual context
5 to note down new vocabulary items throughout the lesson
6 to bring small things from the world outside into the classroom
7 to ask learners to find information for project work independently
................ .. ................................................... ............................. ... ........
123
TKT Module 2
Practice test
A sample answer sheet is on page 168.
For questions 1-8, match the lesson aims with the learner group profiles listed AI.
Mark the correct letter (A-I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Lesson aims
m to practise answering enquiries on the telephone
o to practise note-taking skills
[I] to provide learners with basic vocabulary for tourism
m to develop strategies for planning and doing limed essays
m to practise giving clear explanations and instructions
ill to revise spelling and basic sentence patterns
ill to diagnose learners' language needs
~ to make connections with other school subjects
Learner group profiles
A a group of office workers
B a class of advanced learners who have to take a test of writing
C a large class of mixedlevel 13-yearolds in a secondary school
D a small group of adults planning a holiday in Britain
E a ctass of beginners aged four
F a new group of learners whose level is not known to the teacher
G a group of primary teachers preparing for an oral test
H an individual learner who has difficulties with writing in English
a group of university students who need English to listen to lectures
124
TKT Modu!e 2 pracrtcetes;:
For questions 9 -18, match the teacher's instructions with the aims for different lesson stages
listed A-F.
Mark the correct tetter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once,
Aims
A reading for gist
B identifying features of connected speech
C listening for gist
o listening for specific information
E grouping vocabulary according to meaning
F focusing on structures
Teacher' s instructions
o Find aU the words and phrases you can think of which are connected with keeping fit.
[IQl Listen to the story to get a general idea of what it is about.
[I!] With your partner, read the words and decide which one is different from the others, and why.
~ Listen again and mark the correct route on the map.
~ Listen to the pairs of sentences and say if they are stressed on the same or a different word.
[HI Listen carefully. and mark each sentence with an arrow going up or down.
I}] Choose the past simple or the present perfect to complete the sentences.
~ Underline alilhe examples of the passive in the text and say why the writer chooses this
form.
5lJ When you have finished the story, decide on the best title for it
B]] Decide which words go together in texica! sets.
125
TKT Module 2 Practice test
For questions 19-28, match the teacher's notes with the lesson plan headings A-E.
Mark the correct letter (A-E) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Lesson plan headings
A Timetable fit
B Main or subsidiary aim(s)
C Personal aims
0 Assumptions
E Procedures
Teacher's notes
~ to practise talking about daily or weekly routines, e.g. in the context of journeys to school ,
hobbies, sports activities
~ learners will remember the form of the present simple
learners listen to a recording of someone talking about her morning routine and fill in the
information on a diary page
~ learners carry out a class survey
to try to speak louder
~ put a simple chart on the board to remind learners of differences between the adverbs
~ learners will probably not remember the different meanings of the adverbs
~ to use different forms of encouragement when learners give correct answers
~ the first in a sequence of grammar revision lessons
~ to revise the present simple; to revise adverbs (e.g. sometimes, usually, always)
.126
TKT Module 2 Practice test
For questions 29-34, read the stages of the lesson plan about giving warnings and advice and fill
in the missing stages from the options listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
A Individually,learners answer true/false questions to check comprehension.
S learners underline examples of warnings and advice in the text
C Learners display their posters on the classroom wall.
o Ask learners to talk in groups about thei r holiday experiences.
E Individually, learners write different sections of the poster.
F In pairs, learners guess the content of a text about holidays from the headlines.
Aims: to practise giving warnings and advice; to develop writing skills
Warmer: Find your partner - students mingle to find partners with matching sentence
halves.
29 ...................................... .. ..
In pairs, students brainstorm vocabulary connected with holi days.
30 . .. ........................................
Individually, students read the text to check their predictions.
31 ...........................................
In pairs, students check their answers and report back to the class on any
disagreements.
32 .............................. .. ..... ......
In groups. students brai nstorm ideas for a poster.
33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Students correct and make suggestions for improving each other's writing
34
....................................... .. ..
L27
TKT Module 2 Practice test
For questions 35-40, match the instructions with the assessment focuses listed A, B or C.
Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.
Instructions
Assessment focuses
A language items
B oral skills
C writing skiHs
Share the information with the other members of your group, and decide which of these
people you think should get the job.
f361 Describe your picture to your partner and find out what your pictures have in common.
~ Complete each sentence with a word from the box.
~ Fill in the form with your personal information.
I39l Order these ideas to make a plan for a composition.
~ Match the words in the lefthand column with the definitions in the right-hand column.
128
TKT Module 2 Practice test
For questions 4148, read the following dictionary entry. Match the extracts from the dictionary
entry with the information it provides listed A-I .
Mark the correct letter (A-I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Dictionary entry
performance /p;:l'fo:m;Jn/s/@/p:y.(:>:r-/ noun [C] 1 the action of entertaining other people
by dancing, singing, acting or playing music: a performance of Arthur Miller's play 'The
Crucible' 0 She gave a superb performance as Lady Macbeth. 2 MAINLY UK INFORMAL a
performance an action or behaviour that involves a lot of attention to detail or to small matters
that are not important: Cleaning the oven is such a performance. 0 What a performance!
Please stop shouting! 3 repeat performance when an event or a situation happens again: The
police hope to avoid a repeat performance of last year, when the festivities turned into rioting.
(from the Cambridge Advanced Leamer's Dictionaty)
Extracts from the dictionary entry
~ /p;d:):Jn<IDrs/
~ @
~ n o u n
J IC]
~ the action of entertaining other people by
dancing, singing, acting or playing music
~ gave .. , performance
~ INFORMAL
~ repeat performance
A
B
C
0
E
F
G
H
Information
American English
noun-noun collocation
definition
part of speech
pronunciation
old word
countable noun
register
verb-noun collocation
l29
TKT Module 2 Pract ice test
For questions 49-55, match the teachers' statements with the reference resources listed A-H.
Mark the correct letter (A-H) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Reference resources
A advanced learner's grammar
B picture dictionary
C language awareness book for teachers
o CD-ROM with pronunciation activities
E elementary grammar practice book
F dictionary of collocations
G dictionary of language and culture
H practice book accompanying a coursebook
Teachers' statements
~ I often find it difficult to know which words go together.
~ I'd like to find a book that helps me to understand and use English better.
~ I"m looking for ways of explaining new structures to my class of beginners,
~ I teach a lot of different classes, so I can't prepare homework exercises for all my learners.
~ I need a way of helping my young learners develop their vocabulary.
~ My advanced learners often want to know about people, places and events in newspapers
and films.
~ My higher-level learners sometimes ask me questions about language that I find very difficult
to answer.
130
TKT Module 2 Practice test
For questions 56-65, match the comments from teachers about their coursebooks with the
appropriate strategies for adapting materials listed A-D.
Mark the correct letter (A-D) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Strategies
A Shorten the material.
B Reorder the material.
C Change the level of the material.
o Change the form of the tasks.
Comments from teachers
~ All the units in the book begin with pairwork, but my learners are not very confident about
speaking.
~ The exercises In the book are quite good, but they' re a bit too simple.
~ An the reading tasks in the book are very similar - my learners need more variety.
~ The reading tasks in my book don' t challenge my young learners enough.
~ Some of the exercises in the book are too difficult for my class,
~ The revision exercises in the book come at the end of every unit, but I like to begin my
lessons with some quick revision.
~ The mingling activities make my class too excited so I do them as group work instead.
~ Every unit sets the scene with questions about a picture, but I sometimes like to use a
brainstorming activity about the picture instead.
~ Some of my learners are making good progress and find the exercises too easy.
~ My young learners can't concentrate on such long listening passages.
HI
TKT Module 2 Pract ice test
For questions match the supplementary materials with the teaching aims listed AG.
Mark the correct letter (A-G) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Supplementary materials
grammar book with team games and group activities
class library of graded readers
audio cassettes with short examples of different kinds of English
computer program with multiple-choice reading tests and answers
website for short stories
IBJ supplementary writing skills book
workbook with gap-fill and multiple-choice grammar exercises
flashcards with pictures of objects and their names
l supplementary vocabulary book wilh pholocopiable worksheets
teacher' s resource book with lois of short fun activities
Teachi ng aims
A encouraging extensive reading
B providing resources for
C providing ideas for warmers
o developing the subskills of organising. planning and accuracy
E developing lexical knowledge
F improving learners' accuracy
G giving learners the opportunity to hear a variety of accents
132
TKT Module 2 Pr<lctice test
For questions 7680, match the classroom aids with the classroom activities listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Classroom aids Classroom activities
~ overhead projector A drafting and redrafting
~ computer 8 mingling to complete a survey
~ role cards C learning the meaning of new vocabulary items
~ cassette recorder D guessing how a conversation will continue
~ flashcards E less controlled speaking practice
F showing pictures on coloured transparencies
133
Module 3
Managing the teaching and
learning p'rocess
134
Part 1
Unit 26
Teachers' and learners' language in the
classroom
Using language appropriately for a range of
classroom functions
How do we use language appropriately for a range of cla ssroom
functions?
Using language appropriately means we use language in the classroom which best suits the
learners and the siLUaliOll. Classroom functions are U1C purposes for which teachers and
learners use language in the classroom. For leachers, these purposes include, for example, to
manage activit.ies and learning, to explai n learning poinis and 10 move smoOthly from one stage
of a lesson \0 the next.
Key concepts
What are some common classroom (unctions used by the teacher?
Here arc some classroom fW1Clions tbat are often Llsed by Ihe teacher:
Instructing. We give instructions (i.e. tell learners what [0 do) a1 different stages of the
lesson. for example at the beginning of an activity. The language of instrunions is: orten the
imperative. pa n icutarly for YOWlg learners and for beginners, as in 'Open your books at page
L2 '.For learners at higher levels, we might use other language fonns, for example: ' For this
<lctiviry, you're going to work in pairs.'
Explai ning. We might explain to learners how to do an activity. how to organise a project
Lhey are dOing, the meaning of vocabulary or why a correction is needed. For example, when
explaining about project work we might say: 'We'll pUI the project work on the walls so you
need to make sure Ihat everything is easy to read and that il looks wonderful:
Narrat ing. Narrating is telling a STOry or talking abOLlt something that 11a5 happened. In the
primary classroom we orten tell stories to learners. In secondary and adult classrooms we may
tell stories tOO, but we might more of len talk about past experiences and things Lhal have
happened in our lives.
Eliciting. Eliciting is when we gel inf.onnation from Ollr learners rather \ban giving it to
them. This information can be about IOpics or language. For example, we can show learners a
picture and ask ' What can yOll see in the picture?' We ("an also ask learners to give us general
infomlation, e.g. what a certain animal eats.
Unit 26 Using language appropriately for a range of classroom functions
Prompting learners. Prompting is wben we say somelhing lO help learners think of ideas, ur
to remember a word or phrase by giving them part of it. FOt' example, we could say to leamcrs
at the stan of a stQryteliing activity 'You could stan the story with this picture' , or if a learner
can't remember a word. we could help lhem with the first sound. such as com for C"Omperiril1l1.
Correcting. We can correct learners by uSing language to indicate where or how the}' haw
made a mistake.
Checking learning. We check teaming all lhe time during OUf lessons, but we do Ihis mosl
often after we have presented new language, and at the end of a lesson to give us inform.alion
for planning tbe next lcsson(s). We can use concept questions to check learners
understanding, [or example: 'Can anyone give me a sentenCi.:' lIsing this word?'
Conveying the meaning of new language. When we convey meaning we shoH the
meaning of new words or structures. We can do this in a number of ways. such as bringing in
rcalia, using mime or by aski.ng coucept questions. We may wanl 10 explain the meaning. to
demonstrate iL or in some situations where the meaning is very difficult 10 explain in English.
10 translate it.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
The language we use in the classroom must be appropriate for the claioisroQm function ilnd for
the level and age of the learners. Por example, we should 110! lise language thai is 100 fomlal
with primary learners or language lhal is 100 babyish with older leame.rs .
We need to grade Ollf language to suit the language level and age of lhe learners. Grading
language means choosing to use classroom language that is al or below the language level of
the learners. Por example, wilh beginners we use simple words and phrases, bUl wilh higher
level learners our language can be more complex. Grading means that OLlr language is at the
right level ror the learners 10 undersland.
We need to sequence our language appropriately to provide learners with learning
opportunjties. Sequencing rneallS using language in a logical order. This is particularly
ilnponant for ex-planalions and instructions, for example: ' ListCJ1. Work with <1 parmer. '
rathC!r than 'Work with a p.nrtner. Listen.'
Learners can learn classroom language, jusl by hearing it again and again. So it is imponant
lO use the same dassroom language for dassroom fUl).{.tions at the early stages of learning, for
example: 'Open your books and look at page .... ' We can then build up tllese phrases to suit
the learners' level and age.
We: need 10 think about the language we are going to usc for different classroom fUllc[ iolls
and make sun:' the language we usc is appropriate. Appropriate language will use the right
degree of formality for thc learners, be well graded and sequenced and dear. If we do not
plan or thi nk about me language. we. use, we mighluse the Ll , or language Wllidl is tOO
complex, which would not be helpful to learning.
See Unit 4 for functions.
135
Module 3
L36
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (."St'l PUBl' /74 Ji,r 'l!b"Wl'r):)
Look at the Hst of classroom fum.1ions in Key (.'Onceptsabove, and al fhe activities carried out by
a teachcr below. At which stage of a lcsson might YOllUSC the difrcrent classroom functio)1S?
YOIl will find that you ('.an use more than one classroom function at each stage.
Stages of a lessoll
A Presenting new vOQlbulary
B Telling lhe class a story and encouraging them to join in
C Brainstonning ideas for a writing task with the whole class
o MonitOring learners during a controlled practice activity
E Giving feedback after a task
2 Read this teadler'S inStructions to children on how to make a rabbit (bullny) puppet. Whicl!
language form does the teacher use for each instrucTion and which conjunctions does she use
to sequence the instructions?
NOW watch me first. Take the SCissors and cut. Start WIth tile bunny's head. OK, be careful. Cut round
the head and now illS big ears ... his big ears that go flop, fl op. flop. And up the ear and down agatn
and round his head. Then. cut here round the bunny's face and round his shoulder and down round
his body and now down to his feet.
(MlaplCd From Eng/ish Ivr Primmy Te(lch(r"S oy Mary Slaw;:ry and J(ll1C Willis. Oxford UniVl'r.iity Prcss 200 I)
REFLECTION
Think about these comments from teachers. Which do you agree with and why?
I I don 't need to plan the language I use for giving imilnJoions. i jllSt think of what to say at
the time and I know when my learners understand.
2 My learners speak the same Ll as t do. $0 iI's mudl better 10 ust' the mother tongue for
setting up aaivities and checking understanding.
3 I havea colleoion of different phrases that i use for managing my classes. lchoose fTom these
phrases when J am planning my lessons. Ileacll different levels. bU! I find f can use the sallle
language for each leveL
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
] Por useful exalllplcS;'OI differem classroom functions and language, haw a look at
Chaph:r2 of eaminf} Teachill9 by Jim Scrivener. Maanillan 1994.
2 Look through your nc.xt lesson plan and cry and match lhl! differCltt classroom functiOns
you have read about In lhis uuiLwith the stages of YOllriesson.
3 II)r \Vriting a set of instnlaions for an activity for your learners. You can chQOSt' from
act ivi ties at hnp: II www.smic.be/sm i c5022/ teacherha ndOll tS.hun
4 Usc 11K' TKTGloSSfITY ora dictionary 10 lind lhemcanin g of these [emlS for classroom
functions: define, model. nomillate.
Unit 26 Using language appropriately for a ra nge of classroom funCti.ons
.................................................................................... ........ .............. .. .
TKT practice task (See pagt J 76 for QlIswm)
For questions 15. look at the following situations and three possible things a teacher could say.
Choose the most appropriate option A, B or C.
1 In a class of primary children of 9- 10 years of age, the learners are finishing a pairwork task. The
teacher wants to check the answers with the class.
A What' s the answer to number 1? Hands up, please.
S Can any of you possibly tell me what you think might be the answer tor the first question?
C Answer?
2 In a class of teenagers in their second year 01 English, the teacher has just presented a new
grammatical structure and wants to check that the learners understand the meaning.
A Does everyone understand?
S Who can give me an example sentence?
C Please explain the meaning.
3 A group of businessmen are doing a discussion activity. The teacher notices a learner has made a
mistake and says:
A That's wrong.
S A bad answer.
C Is that quite right?
4 In a class of adult learners of mixed levels, the teacher is giving the first instruction for a complex
group activity.
A You all know what to do so you can start.
S First, get Into the groups you were in yesterday.
C Here's the handout for the activity. You can start.
S The teacher is telling a story to a class of very young primary learners who have only been learning
English for one month.
A Here is a little boy. look. One day . ..
S This Is a story about a little boy who used to live in the city.
C Stories afe very Important for you. They will help you learn new grammar .
.......................... ................................................ .... ...............................
137
138
Unit 27 Identifying the functions of learners'
language
How do we identify the functions of learners' language?
The functions of learners' language are Ihe purposes [or whidl learners use language in tht'
classroom. These purposes include taking pan in tasks and activj ri es, asking questions of
the interaning with each Olher. Examples of the functions of lealll ers' language are
a sking for clarification from the lcadler Or other learners, and checking in formation or
understanding.
Key concepts
Can you think of some commou iUllClioll s of learners'
Read lhrough this description of a lesson. 'There are examples of learners' language functions for
each stage.
Learners'language funct ions Teacher's ood learners' actions
Greeting The teacher enters the classroom and the learners say 'Good
morning'. The teacher hands out a reading text and gives learners
Instructions for the reading task.
Asking for clarification The learners check the instructions with the teacher by asking
'Can you explain that again please? What do we have to do?'
Checking information The learners complete the reading task individually. The learners
and understanding check thei r answers in pairs. They say, e.g. 'What answer do you
have for number 4? I dont understand the meaning of this word.
Do you know what it means?" The teacher checks the answers.
Saying goodbye The lesson ends. The learners say 'Goodbye' to each other and to
the teacher.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
Learners need a range o[dassroom language so that they can interact appropriately with
eacb other and with tlle teacher. The language thaI learners need for interacting with each
other may sometimes be quile fomlaL and at other limes 1110re relaxed, depending on who is
in the group. The language they need for interacting with the teacher is often neutral or more
formal.
Unit 27 Identifying the functions of learners'
Learners need to know slx:dai words and phrases games and acLivilies. For
example, It s my tum I Ii s your lUm I 1'111 Jim I After yolt I rve WOII .
We need to teach our [camers the language for a range o(learncrs' classroom functi ons. \,,'c
also need w teach them w understand the language for a range of te<lChcr classroom
funCtions. This language is not usually taught in the cuurscNok. Wben we plan tasks and
activities we need to think about what language the learners need to do the lasks. If learners
do nOt know how 10 ask (or an explanation or clarification, they will usc their Lt .
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES (Sf!( 174 {ctr an.111'r'1 f)
Here arc eight examples of learner language. which function docs caell one express?
A Can you say that again. please?
B I don't have the same answer.
C Sec you tomorrow.
D Is it page 25 or )5?
E WhaJ do you lhink?
F Yes, I Imally agree with you.
G Well. J think this is the best answer .
.H Hi!
2 Each of the (ollowing Sl'ts of exponellls A-O expresses Olll' function of learners' langllage.
Which function does each set express?
A B
How about start ing with number five? Can you give an example for llumber4?
Let 's do this togClher. Can I use this word 10 talk aboUI myself?
Why don' t we ask one of the other groups? Does this mean the same thing?
C 0
U's great 1.0 see you again. My answer's the smue as yours.
How arc you? Yes, that's right.
Good morning. That's my opinion, too.
REFLECTION
Think abOutlhcsc commcms from teachers. Which do you agree wilh and why?
1 I don't think learners need English for classroom functions. They can use their LI.
2 My learners usuaUy use their Ll when \bey work in groups and whellthey ask me qucstions.
I don't think they know how 1.0 S<l y thesc things in English.
3 r put examples of appropriate language for classroom functions on the walls of my classroom
to prompt my leamers.
l19
Module3
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
I If you leach d l ildrcn, bave a look at the cxamples 01 classroom la nguage for young
learners on pages 17-19 of Tt!aclling Euglish to Cltildrm by Wendy ScOtt and lisbeth
Yt rebcrg, Pcar50n Education l.td 1990.
2 Choose:: t wo functjolls of learner language. In your TKT portfolio. lisl fOUf examples of
eXpO/l l' nts of appropJiatc Janguage yOur learners ('ould use lor each Olle.
1 Use an activi ty from this websit't' with your learners:
hit p: I fwww.leamenglish. 0 rg. uk Iwelcome_engli sb ,11 tm I
Make sure they are:: worki ng in pairs or threes and listen to Ihe langua ge they uSc as they
work. which languagefull Cti ons did thcy /Iced to do the activit y?
4 Use ul e TKTG1Qssary W find till' mea ning of these terms: hesitllfl!. respond.
TKT practice task (See page 176 for a/1swers)
For questions 15, look at the situations and three possible functions. Choose the correct option
A, B orC.
1 A learner does not hear the instructions the teacher gives. He needs to:
A ask for repetition.
B express agreement.
C offer an opinion.
2 A learner does not understand the meaning of a new word. She needs to:
A express doubt.
B gi ve advice,
C ask for clarification.
3 A learner has an idea about how to begin a pai rwork activity. He needs to:
A make a suggestion.
S make a comparison.
C express disagreement.
4 A learner thinks she has misunderstood a word. She needs to:
A give an example.
S check meaning.
C ask for an opinion.
5 A learner wants to encourage a shy learner in group work. He needs to:
A check information.
B invite him to speak.
e explain his meaning .
........... ...... , ........... .. .. .. ........ ... ....... , .. ... .. ... .. .... .. , .... , ...... ... ... , .. ,., ....... .
[ 40
Unit 28 Categorising learners' mistakes
How do we categorise learners' mistakes?
J\1.iSlakcs show problems eithe.r wi th accura<:y, i.t.' . using the correct form of the language, or
with communication, i.e. sharing information dearly. learners can makf' oral or wrinen
mistakes. Oral mistakes are miStaKes learners make when they are speaking. They make
miSlnkes in the accuracy of. for example. grammar, pronunciation or vOGlbulary or in The
degree of formality of the language they use. 1..11 wriuen language, learners may make mistakes.
for example. in grammar, spelling, paragraphing, ordering 01 information or punctuation.
Learners' mistakes can be ermrs or slips. Learners 3re Ll sually able to corred slips them.selves.
Key concepts
Oral misrakes
Look at Ihe following examples of learners' oral mistakes. There arc mistakes of accuracy
(gmmrna(, pronunciation, vocabulalY) and appropriacy. Can YOIl identify tht:"m?
She like lhis pinure. (T(I lking ahom present habit )
2 ShUl up! (Said 1"0 a classmate)
3 I wear my suit in the sea.
4 Do you know where is the post office?
5 The dog Ibi :t / me. (Talking about a dog attacking someone)
6 What Ih<epa n cdl?
Accurm.y
Exampks I, 3.4, 5 and 6 a ll comain examples of inaccurate language.
[n Example I there is a grammar mista ke. Tite learner ha:; rrtissed the third person s from the
verb. The learner should have said 'She likes this pidure'.
In Example "3 there is a vocabulary mistake. The learner has used slIil instead of The
learner should have said 'I wear my swim$uit in the sea'.
In Example 4 there is a grammar mistake. Tue learner has put the subjcCI and verb in the
wrong order in the indired question. The learner should have said ' Do you know where the
p OSt office is?'
In Example 5 there is a pronunciat iOll mistake. Tht: Icamer has used (hl" long l i: 1 sound when
she should have used the shan 11/ sound. The learner should have said The dog I bn l tne' .
In Example 6 there is a pronunciation mistake. The learner has stressed the final syllable of
(he word happened. making i( into a three-syllable word when it is in fact pronounced as a
two-syllable word I' h<cpond/.
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142
Appropriacy
Example 2 contains an example of inappropriate language. Although Example 2 is accurate.
[here is a problem with appropriacy. It is rude [0 say 'Shut up!' ill the d(lSSfOOtn. The learner
should have siljd 'Can you be qujet, please?', or something similar.
Wrilten mistakes
As with oral mistakes, the;:se can also be categorised into slips ()r errors in accura<:y or
appropriacy, or errors in comm1lnication.
Have a look at thiS story wril!eo by a learner. In the margifl, there is a (ode written by the
teadH.,-r to show dillerem kinds lit mistakes. Can yotl work out what the code means?
My Best Friend
I going to tell you about my best friend. Her name is Betty. She is tall
and has got long hair dark. Her favourite food is chocolate and hN
favourite drink is cola. Her hobbies are writting short storiE'S and
looking at TV. At the weekend we go shopping in the man and meet our
friends . Its fu n!
The [eadler has used a correction code to indicate the types of mistakes in accuracy tbat
tbe learner has made. This enables learners to m<lke their own corrections. Here is an
explanation of t.he letters and symbols:
= word missing
There is a word mi ssing in Lhe first line. The learner has written 'I going' when it
shouJdbe 1 am going'.
= wrong word order
Thert: is a word order mistake in line 2. The sentence ' She is tall and has got long
hair dark' should be 'She is tall and has got long dark hair'.
= wrong spelling
There is a spelling mistake in line 3. The word 'writting' should be 'writing'.
= wrong vocabulary
There is a vocabulary mistake in line 4. The learner has used 'looking at' when
the correct word is watching' .
= p unctuation (comma, full stop, elc.)
The learner has used the wrong pWlctuaUon til line 5. The learner has wriltcn
'Its' when the correct version is 'It's' .
Oilier common categories in a correction code are:
o = good sentence or expression [I] = Ask me (I doot understand)
iprep l -= wrong preposition ITJ = wrong verb tense
~ 0: wrong agreement, for example Size like [1J -= tuo many words
Unit 28 Categorising learners' mIst akES
It makes learners lost" moti vation i f we correa every mistake they make. We need 10 make
sure our corrections are appropriate for the level and learning style of lhe learner and for the
focus of the task.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
There are differem rcasons fortbe mistakes that learncrs make. Por example: they may not
bave learnt the word or the StruClure yel; they may be usi ng a word or S!1l1cture from their
first language by mistake; they may have been introduced to the language but may still need
mOre lime to process it or practise using it; they may have great difficulty making cen ain
sounds; [hey may have writing or spelling problems in t.heir (iIst language; they may need
more time to check and edit Lhcir writing. The reason why a mistake is made influences Ihe
way we correct it.
There are differe nt tedmiques we can lise to correCl oral a nd wrinen mistakes.
Mistakes can be a very posit ive aspect of learning. They show us that learning is taking place
and that learners are taking risks with the language.
See Unlr II forthe role of error and Unir 31 for correcting learners.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (51:'(' pa.'11.: 174 for .mswcr.>J
Here is another example of a learner's writing. Look at the underlined words and decide whidl
symbol in tbe correction code you would use for each one.
In tne. past. peopte, lAsed. w b-o..vel. on b-o.i.n or an toot.. Now t : n ~ lA$lAo.J.4i b-o..vel. b!:j plMe. o.nd.
b!:J w.r . I like. b-o.i.ns . Tro.i.n o.re. vetH conforto.bt.e. o.nd.!P'" C4rI to read.. or truk to !;jOl.\r
friwd..s . P!.o..ne.s <ll'e fo..st o..nd.. tne.y were. more. exPQ\$we..
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
REFLECTION
Thi nk about these comments from teachers. Wh idl do you agree with and why?
I It's very difficult to ignore mistakes in spelling or grammar. Tbey seem to be the most
importam thing so J feel I ha ve to correCt them.
2 Learners th ink we're not doing our job if we don' t correct al1 thei r mistakes.
3 It's easier to corred mistakes in accuracy than in communication.
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144
DISCOVE'{V ACnV'TIES
1 "fr}1 using il simple c.:orreaion code for correcting learners'written work ill yourdass.
Remember you wiIJ have 10 demonstrate to learners what they dft' meant to do and show
thcmwhallhc different symbols mean. write about yOur leamer.,' reaaions to tht' (:ode
in yourTKTponfolio.
2 For more infOnnation on how tocorreCi wrinen work, have ,1 look al pages 159-162 of
J..<!amillg Teachilf:J by Jim SCrivener, Macmillan 1994.
3 YOtlng leamers love wriling stories andlhis is agood chance for you to tryout a
correction code. Have a look dtIHrp:lltqjunior.t.hinkqucsLorg/51 [5/s_writing.htm for
some SI()ry ideas .
..... .................... ... ..... ................................................................. ......
TKT practice task (Su page f76 for answers)
For questions 16, match the examples of learner mistakes in written work with the types of
mistake listed A G.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Learner mistakes
1 She arrived to the station early.
2 We li stened the music before we went out.
3 I live In very cheap accomodation near the schoof.
4 This is a picture of my uncles sister.
S He hurt one of his foot fingers.
6 He wore a coat black.
Types of mistake
A wrong punctuation
B wrong spelling
C wrong word order
D wrong preposition
E word missing
F wrong agreement
G wrong vocabulary
.......... ...................... ... .......................... .................... ................ ...... .
Part 2
Classroom management
Unit 29
Teacher roles
What are teacher roles?
During a 11:55011 the teacher needs to manage the aClivilit's and the learners in the classroom in
different ways. This means he or she needs to behave in different ways .11 different stages of the
lesson. Thc:.c diflcrCni kinds of behaviour ,1fe called 'teacher roIL'S'.
Key concepts
Which roles doc!> a ICilcher usc in a lesson?
EvelY tcacher changes r Q I ~ during a lesson. These roles will be appropriate to the Iype of
lesson, acrlvitics. lesson a ims and the level and age of the lcamcI"S. Al different limes we may.
for example. act .15 a planner. an infonner. a manager. a parent or friend. or a monitor. For
example. when leamers arc doing a role-play, one role we have L ~ 10 make SUfe thai they are
doing what we want them 10 do. This is called monitoring. When we presem new language 10
t h ~ class, uur rote is 10 illform and explain 10 our learners. Hcre are some rolt's leachers
ohen usc.
Role The reacher:
1 Planner prepares and thinks through the lesson In detail before teaching It so
that It has variety and there are appropriate activities for the different
learners in the class.
,
Informer gives the learners detailed information about the language or about an
activity.
1
Manager organises the learning space. makes sure everything in the classroom is
running smoothly and sets up rules and routines (I.e. things which are
done regularly) for behaviour.
4 Monitor
goes around the class during Individual. pair and group work activities,
checking learning.
5
Involver
makes sure all the learners are taking part in the activities.
6 Parent/Friend
comforts learners when they are upset or unhappy.
7
DiagnoStician is able to recognise the cause of learners' difficulties.
8 Resource can be used by the learners for help and advice.
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Module 3
146
ThCrC are certain roles that we usuaJly use at certain stages of the lesson. For example, we
are planners before the lesson and may be monitors during group work and pairwork acLivities.
Sometimes we take on more than one role at the same. Lime. Por example, we might monitor
and explain if -a pair of learners is having problems with an activity: we monilOr 1O sec how well
Ihey arc dOing and we t!xplain 10 help them do better. There are various names for the different
roles of the teacher. The ones above are very common.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
II We need to choose teacher roles which are appropliate to thl:! age and level of Ihe learners,
rhe stage of the lesson and Ihe purpose of the activity. This means we ne.ed to think about our
roles whl:!n we are planning lessons and be ready 10 use different roles during Ollr lessons .
The correct choice of appropriate teacher roles will help ollr lessons run more smoothly and
will make learning and teaching morc effective .
.. 50nw roles are more suitable for young learner classes than for adult classes, e.g. parent or
friend .
Our roles change at diffe.rent stages of our teaching;
Before tbe lesson
- We are pla nners of (JUT materials to make sur(' that the lesson is suitable for the learners and
for the learning purpose.
- We are also diagnosticians of Our learners' problems.
During Ule lesson
- When we are presenting new language or new vocabulary to the learne rs, we are
informers.
- Wben we are selting up activiti es, we arc managers.
- When learners are doing aa'ivilies, we arc monitors, diagnosticians, managers and a
resource.
- When there are problems with discipline, \ve arc managers and someLimes a parent or a
(dcnd.
Afte! the lesson
- When we think about how successful the Jesson was, what ule learners understood and
were able to do and what they had problems with, we are diagnosticians and planners. We
look at our scheme of work 10 check if lhe next lesson is appropriately planned.
fOllOW-UP ACTIVITY (5l.'i' PrJ/fl' t 7.111J1' I1IlIWI'H)
Here are some examples of teacher language at different stages of a lesson. What do you think is
the teacher's role In each one?
Teacher t.o a pair of leamers doing pairwork: 'How are you doing? Is everytl1ing OK?'
2 Tearucr to the whole class: ' We add er lOmake the comparative [arm of one-sy!lable
adjectives.'
3 Teacher to a young learner: 'Docs your finger burt? LeI me have a look.'
4 Teacher 10 the whole class: ' Right. everyone sland lip and turn La face your partner:
5 Teacher to tbe whole class: 'I Think I know wby you are havlng problems:
Uni t 29 Teacher roles
REFLEC"nON
Think aOOm these comments from teachers. Whid, do you agree with and why?
1 I like my class 10 be organised and I like to be in control. I thi nk my main roles are to infonn .md
man age. ThaT'S what the leamers want.
2 f belleve that my role is 10 enable the learners to learn for i.hemsel ves, so 1 involve everyone and
f ry nOt to control the learners and t he alliviti es too much.
3 J teach young children. Mosl of the time I am more a parent thall a tead1cr. BlIt. in my opi nion,
the most impon am teacher role.s arc planning a1)(1 organising, espeaally witb d lildren.
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
J Think aboUJ a lesson you have ta ugbt recendy. Which of tbe teacher roles disrussed above
do yOll think you used in the lesson? Whtch teacher rol es do yOll thin k were missing froll)
your lesson? Can you rbink Qf limes i u t b ~ lesson w)Jen they ulight have been suitable?
2 For ideas on how different teachers manage their dassrooms. have a look at section 2 ill
Chapter I oLLeaming Teachin!:J by Jim Scrjvener, MacmiUan 1994.
J Choose a worksheet which ~ appropriat,e lor one of your cl asses from lilis website:
wwws mic.be/smi('5022/teacherhandouts.hlm
u s ~ if with me class and then wri te in yourTKT ponloli o which teacher rol es you adopted
for the activit)' and why. What effect did fhey have on the IC'amers aod the lesson? Had you
used them before? Will you use them again?
TKT practice task (See page 176 for (/nswers)
For questions 1-5, match the descriptions of the teacher's roles with the roles listed A-F.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Descripti ons of the teacher'S rol es
Roles
A an informer
B a monitor
C a diagnostici an
D an involver
E a planner
F a manager
1 Before the lesson, she is ... .. .. .... when she thinks about and prepares what she is going to teach.
2 She is .... ......... when she presents new language to learners.
3 She is ... .... ...... when she organises group work or pairwork activities.
4 She is ....... ....... when she goes around the class and helps learners when they are working on
activities.
5 She is ........ ... . .. when she encourages all the learners to take part in the activities .
.......... .. .. .......... ... .. ... ... .. ...... ... ... ... .. ... ... .. ... ......... .......................... ... ......
147
148
Unit 30 Grouping students
How do we group students?
Grouping studcnlS is lIsing dirferenl ways to organise our s!udcms when uley are working iII
the classroom. We usually organise them to work in differem ways during each lesson. The
groupings we choose depend on the type of activily, the students and the aim of the activity.
Key concepts
Wbat are the different ways we grour studenl s in the c\ cl ssroom?
There arc twO different ways in whidllhe teacher can group students in the classroom. The first
is when she chooses paniclltar interaction pauerns for the sLUdenTs. i.e. ways in which
students work logetber and wit h the wacher in class. They include open d(lss, group work.
pairwork and individual work. and the teacher to studcnl(sj and student(s) to lcadler.
In this table you Gill sec examples of dilferent interanlon patlerns.
Teaching purpose: Whyi' AcUvi ry: Whar? Interoctlon pattern: How?
Review students' knowledge Brainstorming 1 Groups: students to students
of vocabulary and/or structure
(55 - . 55)
and the topic or context 2 Feedback: students to teacher
(55 - 1)
Check students' understanding Bingo game whole class: teacher to students
of new vocabulary (T .55)
Give students practice In ReadIng and filling In a chart 1 Individuals
sc;mnlng
2 Pairwork: student to
student (5 .... 5)
In our lesson plans we usually use shan (omlS for showing imeraction patterns. (or eX<lInple
'T 5s' ra ther Ihan wriling out 'teacher (0 slUdems'. We use ' S' to mean one student, and 'Ss'
10 mean mon.' than one studenl.
The second way in which the teache.r groups studellls is when she decides which sllldents
will work together in pairs, groups or (eams. Tbe tcadler considers tile st udents' levels,
learning styles, learner needs, personalities and rclauonships with olhers in the class before
asking SllldenlS 10 work together. She needs to think which students will work togethl'r best in
order \0 learn bes!.
148
Unit 30 Grouping students
How do we group students?
Grouping swdelllS is using different ways to organise our students when they are working in
the classroom. We lIsually organise them 10 work in different ways during each lesson. The
groupings we choose dept:nd 0111he type of acrivity. the students and the aim of the aaivity.
Key concepts
WJ1<1t are the different WilyS we group student s in the classroom?
There are twO different ways in which the teacher can group students in the classroom. The first
is when she d100SCS particu.lar interaction patterns for the students. Le. ways in whidl
students work together and wiu, the teacher in class. They include open class, grol1p work,
painvork and individual work. and U1C teacher to studcnl{s) and sludclll(S) LO tcacher.
In this table you can see examples 01 differClll imeraC'lion pauerns.
Teaching purpose: Why? Activity: What? Interaction patrern: How?
Review students' knowledge Bra inst orming 1 Groups: students to students
of vocabulary and/or structure (Ss 4--10 Ss)
and the topicor context 2 Feedback: students to teacher
ISs - T)
Check students' understanding Bingo game Whole class: teacher to students
of new vocabulary
IT - Ss)
Give students practice in Reading and filling in a chart 1 Individuals
scanning 2 Pairwork: student to
student (S <-+ S)
In our lesson plans we usually use shon forms for showing lmeracrion paHerns, for example
'T --+ 55' ralher lhan writing QlIt ' tcacher 1.0 students', We use '5' to mean one slUdclH, and '55'
10 mean more than one studem.
Tbe second way in w!"ud , Ibc teacher groups students is when sbe decides whicb students
will work tOgether in pairs. groups or teams, The teacher conside.rs the stUdcms' levels,
learning styles, learner needs, personalities a.nd relationships wilh others in the. class before
asking students to work together. She needs 10 think which sllJdems wil l work LOgclher best in
order 10 learn best.
Unit 30 Groupil'lg s;: ude.t' !S
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
When deciding how to group student s, we need to consider a number of dUferelll factors:
The teac.hing aim. It is much easier to c.hoose how to group swdems whe.ll we have decided
on the aim of Ihe lesson and rhe aim of eadl activity.
The learning styles of the students. For example, somt: students prefer 10 work as individuals.
others in groups. Students also have dHferent personalitjes and rind it easier to work wirh
some partners or groups than with 01 hers.
The ability and level of the students. Most dasses arc ' mixed ability', i.e. they indude smdems
of diUerent abilities. We can group swdems for some activities so that Sl'Lldents oflhc same
abilit y work together, and for other activilies so that students of different abilities work
toget.her.
The personalities of our students. Most of Ihe lime swde.nts will work weJllOgelhcr, bu!
sometimes there are students who do no! work tOgether posi ti vely, e.g. wb.en one student is
shy and another is quit e d ominant (i.e. always talking and slopping otbers from taking
part). We need to think carefull y about how 10 group these students.
The dass size. With a class of between 20 and 30 sluctcms, we can manage pair and group
work qui te easily. With classes of more than 30 students, pair and group work are possible,
but need more careful planning.
The previous experience of the students. When students arc nOI used to pair and group work
we need to plan how 10 iml'octuce this way of working. We ca n start by doing short pairwork
actjvities and graduall y introduce longer and more varied groupings.
The activities that we have dlOsen. For example. a discussion activity can be done in groups, a
rol e-play can be done in pairs. Bl11. we can also choose 1.0 do t.hese activities differcotl y,
depending on the needs of the group and t.he aims of the lesson. So. for example, a discussion
activity can be done in pairs or as a whole class, and a role-play can be done in groups.
The balance of int eraction patterns in a lesson. A lesson where learners are doing painork
for the whole lesson will probably DOl be successful Icamers will become bored and there
mjghl be diSCipline problems. A lesson where learners are doing individual work for Ihe
whole lesson will probably not be successful either: learners willlos(' concentration and
become hored. Equally, a lesson whidl is wholl y teacher-led is unlikely to be successful:
learners need a balance of dillercm imeranion patterns within one lesson.
The group d ynamics of the class. i.e. the relations!lips beweCll Ihe students and bow
5t11dents will behave towards cadl other.
Tbe [irSI pan o[a lesson plaD [rom a methodology book f.or primary learners is Oil tbe n eXT
page. In l'ach act ivity learners are grouped in difrerem ways: Ihey work as a whole class, in
groups andin<\jviduall y.
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Time Teacher's activity pupils' activity
5-10 1 Warmer: bnef revision of colours. using a Puplls stand In lines behind flags of
minutes team game. different colours. 1M teacher says
a colour. pupils behind the flag of
that colour put up their hands.
10 minutes 2 Bnng In a goldfish or a picture of a fish to
pupils gattler round the tank and
introduce the tOPIC to pupils. DISCUSS the fish
say What they know about fish.
- '#I1at It looks like, Its colour, its parts. Check.
They tell eaCh other something
INhO haS a fiSh at nome. about their own fish.
3 Tell pupils you are gotng totell them a story. in pupils talk together to try and guess
groups PUPils predict what the storywW be. what Will be In the Story.
Get feedback from tfle groups.
4 Explain tl")e actiVIty, l.e. pupils have to colour
their fish as the story requests. Give out Group monitors give out crayons
colours and photocopies of a fish drawing. and blank sheets.
10 minutes 5 Tell the first part of the story With actions and PupilS colour In the fish drawings
pictures. Continue the story with instructions fOllowing instructions.
for colouring.
!adaj)ted from Otildrm uami"g FJlglish b ~ ' JaYI1t' Moon, Macmillan 20(0)
The ill1eraaion paltems in the lesson are:
Activily I: lWO large groups/leams
Al1ivitics 2, 3 and 4: whole class and groups. In Activities 2 and 3 tile teacher is working wiliJ
the whole class. The teacher Lhen divides the pupils Into groups for Lhe prediction activity.
Aa..ivily 5: individual work. In lhis activity Ihe teacht.'r is tclling the stol)' and the pupils are
working on lheirown. listening and colouring.
5ee UnIt 13 for more: Information on learning styles and other learner charocrerfsrfcs.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (S(e P(lg" 175 ii, ,mw-er;j)
1lere is the second pan of the same lesson. Foreacb aClivil Y, idcnlify the inleraclion pallerns
and (Jleir purpose for Ihe Slagc of the lesson.
Time Teacher's activity pupil s' activity
5 minutes 6 Get the pupils to compare drawings. Pupils compare drawings in pairs.
5 minutes 7 Class feedback.. Elicit from oifferent learners the
Pupils talk about the colours of the
colours of the little fish. Use sentence prompts,
fish to the wflote class, e.g. His face
e.g. His face is ... is .
5 minutes
8 Ask pupils wtlat they thought about the story; in Pupils give their oplnrons to the
l1 if necessary. Ask w'hether the big fish was class.
fight not to give the little fish colour for hiS lips.
(adapted from Chi/dun LranllN9 EllgllsII b)' Jayne Mooll. Macmillan 2000)
Unit 30 GroupIng students
REFLECTION
which of the following Statements do you agree with and wily?
1 Ilry to have a balance of difkrent interaction panerns in a lessOI1.
2 It 's besllO separate weak/slrong or shy/ dominant learners inlO differelll groups or pairs.
3 The agt' of icaflu:rs that I leadl makes soUle interaction dirficult.
4 My leamcrs don't like group work, 50 I don'l do it.
S When learners work in pairs or groups, lhcy have more opponunitics 10 speak than when
work alone.
DISCOVERV ACTIVITIES
Try out some different groupings and interaction patterns and write up the results iJl your
TKT portfolio.
2 You ,vili find .!:iom(J useful infomlation on grouping yOlmg in Chaplcn:. 7 and 8 of
Children Leamill.lJ j;l1glish by Jayne MOOll . Macmillan 2000.
3 FOr more infonnalion on practical aspectS of grouping ancl interattion paltem:., have a look
ar Module 16 of A COllrse ill Langudgt Teachillg by Penny Ur, Cambridge Universit y Press 1996,
................... .... ... .. ............ ..... .. ........................... ........ . , . , .. , .. , .... ...... , .. ... .
TKT practice task (See page 176/or a/1swers)
For questions 1-6, match the different activities with the most suitable interaction pattems listed A, B or C.
Activities
Interaction pattems
A pair or group work
B individual work
C who!e-class work
1 learners do an information-gap activity with two sets of information.
2 Learners write their own stories.
3 Learners decide together how to report their conclusions to the rest of the class,
4 All the learners act out a play for the parents.
5 Learners do a written test.
6 Learners take part in a choral dril l.
.............. ...... ....... ... ...... .. .... ..................... ..... ... , .. , .......... .... .. .. ... ........... . .
15I
152
Unit 31 Correcting learners
How do we correct learners?
When we correct learners we show them that something is wrong and that they have made a
mistake. We may also show them how to put their mistake right. when learners make ntislakes
in speaking or writing, we correct these mistakes in different ways. We use oral correction
techniques LO correct oral mistakes and wriuen correaion techniques to correct wri tten
mistakes. We also use different techniques when we correct clifferem kinds of mistakes, l.e.
errors or sUps.
Key concepts
What ways can you think 01 for correcting lcilfllcrs' oral and \vritten mistakes?
Ora! correction
Here are some ways that we can corrcct oral mistakes:
Drawing a time line on the board. Time li nes show learners the relationship between the lise
of a verb (ense and lime. This technique is pankularly useful for mistakes such as '[ have seen
that film twO weeks ago'. Tbe time line to show t . h i ~ mistake mighllook like this.
Past.

Now

Future
x
x = two weeks ago
This shows learners that, because the event is in the past and the time is specified, Ihey
cannOl use the present perfect. The correct sentence is 'I saw that film two weeks ago' .
2 Fingc.rcorreclion. This shows learners where they have made a mistake. We show one hand
to the dass and pOint 10 each Ullger in turn as we say each word in thescmence. One finger is
llsually used for each word. This technique is particularly useful when learners have left OUI a
word or when we want them to use a contract ion, for example I'm working rather thallI am
working. We bring twO fingers together \0 show Ihat we want them to bring the two words
logcthcr.
3 Gestures andfor facial expressions are useful when we do not want to interrupt learners
lOO much, but still want to show them that I.hey have made a slip. A worried look from the
teacher can indicate to learners that U1ere is a problem. It is possible to use many dHferent
gestures or facial expressions. The ones you usc will depend on what is appropriatc for your
cult ure and your teaching si tuation.
4 Phonemic symbols. Pointing to phonemic symbols is helpful when learners make
pron unciation mislakes, ror example llsing a 10llg vowel lu:/ whe.n they shouJd have used a
short one lof, Or when they mispronoull.ce a consonant. You can only use this tedmique wit h
learners who are familiar with the relevant phonemic symbols.
Unit 31 COrll"ctingleamel'$
5 Echo correcting means repealing. Rcpeating whm a learner says with rising intonation will
show the learner that there is a mistake You will find this tCdlOique works well
when learners have made small slips whidl you feel confide.nt Illey can correa themselves.
6 Identifying the mistake. Sometimes we need to idetllHy the mistake by focusing learners'
aue.nlion on it and telling them that there is a problem. This is a lIsc[ullechniquc for
correcting errors. We. might say things like You tCln'l S<lY it like tha" or 'Are you sure?' 10
indk-ate thallhey have made. a mistake.
7 NO! correcting atlhe time when Ihe mistake is made. We can use this technique 10 give
feedback afrer a fluency activity, for example. It is beller not (Q carrcer learners when they
an' doing rluency activities, but we (an make notes of serious mistakes they make. AI ilie end
of the activity, we can say the mistakes or write them on (he board and ask learners whal the
problems arc.
S Peer and self-correction. Peer correct jon is when iearm.'rs correa cach Qther's mistakes.
Self-correction is when learners correct Iheir own mistakes. Sometimes we need to indicate
lhat there is a mistake for the learners to corrcCl it. Sometimes they notice tht' mistake
t hemselves and quickly correct il . Peer and self-correcTion belp learners 10 become
indcpendem of the teacher and lUore aware of their own learning needs.
9 Ignoring mislakes. In Iluency activi ties we often ignore aJlthe mistakes while the acovil), is
in progress, as the important thing is for us to be able to understand the learners' ideas and
for (be !tamers 10 geT fluency practice. We can make a note of (requcot mistakes and correct
them with the whole class after the activity. We often also ignore miSTakes which are above
uU.' leanters' current level. For example, an elementary learner telUng us about what he did
at tJle weekend might make a guess at how to talk about past time in English. We woul(l nOt
correa his mistakes because the past simple is a STTllcture we have nQI yet ,aug!)T him. We
may also ignore mistakes made by a particular learner because we think lhis is best for Lhat
learner, e.g. a weak or shy learner. Finally, we often also ignore slips as learners can usually
correct these themselves.
Written correction
I.n Unit 18 we saw how we can use a correction code to show learners where some of their
mistakes are and what kind they are. Other techniques for maki ng written corrections are:
Teach<!r corrcniOJl. The teacher corrects the 1e.1rners mistakes by wrjling the CO'rrect word(s),
instead of symbols [rom a correction code.
2 Peer correction. The learners look at each other's work and l'orrc<."1 it Or discuss possible
corrections.
3 Self-correction. The learners, with (he help of a guidance sheet, look for and correct
mistakes in their own work.
4 Ignoring the mistake. As in point 9 above, sometimes we choose to ignore mistakes that
learners make.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom
In the classroom, we use a mix of teacher correction, peer correction and self-correction.
Sometimes we need to correCilcamers. Sometimes we indicate to them ThaI the re is a
mistake and they arc able to correct themselves or other learners can help them. Sometimes
we ignore learners' mistakes. We choose whal is appropriate for the learning purpose, lhe
It!amer and the situation.
153
Module3
154
The technique we use for correcting mistakes dl'pcnds on the type of mistake the [carner bas
made. For example. we can use echo correction for slips, and lime lim's for errors.
We do not correct every mistake our learners make. We corrt'ct mistakt's according to the
purpose of tbe aClivhy. lhe stage in the lesson. IJ1C seriousness of the mistake ilnd the
learner's needs. II is inappropriate to correct all the mistakes learners make, and it can make
learners lose motivation. When learners are doing a fluency activity. correction after the
activity would be more appropriate.
Some correajon techniques are more suitable ror cenain Iypes of mistake. For example,
finger correction is useful for pronundanon mistakes and time lines art' useful for mistakes
widl lenses.
Techniques such as gestures and fadal expressions give opportunities for pl'cr and c l f ~
correction. This is because we sbow the learners thai there is a mistake but we do not COrrect it.
See Unl/n for the tOle of error.
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (<Ie''' ragl'/75/ilf uIIJWc'r.r)
Look at the following pairs of sentences. Learners oftcn make mistakes and confuse Ihe
mea ning 01 /\. and B in each pair. Draw twO timt.: lines for each pair which dearly show tbe
differences in meaning.
/\. Cinderella danced with Ihe prince when the dock muck midnighl.
B Cinderella was dancillg with the prince when lhe clock st ruck midnighl.
1 A r play tennis on Fridays.
B I played tt'nnis on Friday.
REFLECTION
Think about these commCnlS [rom teachers. Which do you agree with and why?
I When learners make mistakes it means thai they are not learning.
2 It is beuer to correa aJlthc mistakes karners make.
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
Try using some diUen'nt correction techniques with Y(lurciasses and wri tl' up your
rcllcctions on tlleir success in YOtuTKT ponlolio.
2 Por S0111e morc practical ideas on differenT correction techniques, have a look at Cbapler
12 in Tasksfor Teacher Education by Rosie Thnner and Catherine Green. Pearson EduGl1ion
Ltd 1998.
3 Obst:rve a colleague using correction teclUliques and make notes 00 the Observation
Sheet on page 249 of A Cour:re il/ Language Teaching by Penny Ur, Cambridge University
Press 1996.
TKT practice task (See pa.qe 176 for answers)
For questions 1-6, match the teacher' s behaviour with the correction techniques listed AD,
You need to use some options more than once.
Teacher's behaviour
Correction techniques
A ignore the mistake
B use selfcorrection
C draw a time line on the board
o use finger correction
You have used a correction code to show learners where they have made mistakes in their writing.
You now ask them to correct their own mistakes.
2 You are working with a class of elementary tenyear-olds who are doing a fluency activity. One of the
learners is tal king to the class about her pet. She says: ' My rabbit eat lettuce.' You let her continue
talking.
3 You are doing a controlled practice activity. One of the learners says: 'I have been working last
week.' You show her a diagram.
4 A learner is repeating the instructions for an activity and says: 'Then we choose It ri:1 (three) objects,'
You just listen.
S You are focusing on spoken language and the use of contractions, A learner says: ' j am going
swimming tomorrow.' You want to show her where the mistake is. You use your hand.
S An advanced learner asks you: 'Can you borrow me a pencil. please?' You ask him to think about
what he has said and to try again.
155
156
Unit 32 Giving feedback
How do we give feedback?
Giving feedback is giving inlomlalion to learners about their ]".'arning. Feedback can focus on
learners' language or skills, the Ideas in their work, their behaviour. their aniwd{' 10 learning or
their progress. Sometimes we give feedback \0 the whole class, at alber limes we give feedback
to small groups or individual1eamers. The purposes of feedback are to motivate and to
help them understand whallheir problems are and iww they can improve.
Key concepts
Think of three ),Oll vflen give 10 yOur Iearllt:rs as ft:edba ck. What do they focus on?
Wby do you give them?
Here are some examples of teacher feedback to 1c<lmers.
Example Focus Purpose
Oral: 'Well done. This is much better:
Progress. Praising the learner and telling her she is
language and doing well; encouragement.
Ideas
Oral: 'Have another look at number Language and Telling the learner there is a problem with
four. There's a problem with spelling
ideas one of the answers and that she needs to
and I think there are more than two look at it again.
I people:
Oral: 'Let's look at the new structure
Language Inviting learners to look again at language
on the board again. I think some of that they are having problems With.
you have misunderstood how we use
It.'
Written: 'What an amazing story!
Ideas, language, Praising the learner on her good level of
You' ve used adjectives very well this
attitude and work. and the effort she has made and in
t ime. Your work is much better this
progress particular on one part of her writing
time. You have tried very hard: (adjectives) .
Oral: 'You've made good progress in Language and Informing the learner of her progress;
all your work this month. Your progress encouragement.
written work Is much more accurate.'
Written: 'B /70%, Have a look at Language Giving a grade and Informing the learner
grammar section 5 at the back of the
of what the problem was with her work
coursebook and check again the and telling her exactly what she needs to
difference In meaning between the review and how.
past simple and the past perfect:
UnIt 32 GivingfwJbad.
Example Facus Purpose
Oral: 'You all did [he pairwork activity language. Ideas EncouragIng learners but also Informing
quite well but I heard too much and behaviour [hem that they did not behave
SpanIsh and not enough English: appropriately during pairwork.
We can giveJeedback La individual learners {individual feedback) or grours of learners (group
feedback) . When learners give feedback to one another. this is called peer feedback. Feedback
am be oral or wrirten_
Feedback can be linked to formal or informa l assessmen t and can bt, given to learners in
Lhe classroom or during individual meetings. We can also write regular feedback in the (arm of
comments, grades or marks all a learner's record sheet. The learner can keep this sheet in the.ir
portfolio or we might keep it with our records of thdr overall progress and achievement We ca n
use this feedback wben we make our end-of-course aSSeSsment.
Peer feedback is use.lul for all learners. The learners who give the feedback reflect on the. work
their classmates have done. The learners who receive feedback arC' given information on how
they can improve. The learners are often guided by a feedback observation sheet. Young learners.
though, are not able to give very dewiled peer feedback because Ibey are 1101 yet able to think
abOut their classmates' work very carefull y. Peer feedback can have a positive effed on classroom
dynamics and can help to train lcamers in skjlJs they need to become autonomous.
Learners can also give teachers reedba('k about lbe lessons. (lctivities and materials. They can
tell uS when they like what they Me doing and when they arc nOt so interested in the materials
or aCtivities, or when they are having problems Ivith the language. They can also make
suggestions for malerials and activities to use.
Key concepts and the language teaching cla ssroom
Feedback should be positive. We should I.elllearners what is gOOd, what they doing well.
whal they need 10 do to improVl.' and how. This is panicularly imponanl for weaker or less
confident learners.
We can givt' leedback in the classroom during an acrivity, while we are monitoring learners
doing p<,invork or group work or at the end of or after the lesson.
During feedlJack we can revisit or recycle language that learners are having problems wi th.
Lea rners will need training in how LO give leedback to each Other.
We can organise small-group feedback sessions, where tile teadler and the learners can give
and receive feedback on the dasses and on their learning.
Feedback which is particularl y personal or should be given 10 leamers in individual
meetings and not in from of the whole class.
It is useful 10 give learners written or oral feedback afLer assessment in addition to giving them
a score - to provide encouragement and guidance for how to improve.
See Units 17 and 21 for assessment
157
Module 3
158
FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY (Sri Jltlll<: 175 IN UfI$Wel"S)
Here are some examples of feedback. For each one identify its focus and purpose.
Feedbock Focus Purpose
t You have sat nicely for the whole lesson.
Well done)
2 I'm not sure that's right. Can anyone help?
3
That was very thoughtful of you to help the other
group.
4
This is great. but not allyour work has been so good
this month. Some of it was rather careless.
REFLECTION
Do you agree with tbese tcachers' comments about giving feedback" Why?/Why not?
I My ieamers are only interested in the marks they get for their work. Tbey are nOt interested
in my comments. They don't even read them.
2 My group of adult learners are always asking me for feedback on their levels and want to
know how they <'Ire doing in every lesson. I think it's very difficu lr for the learners who arc
making slowcr progress. They don' t like il when r tell them tbey are not doing as well as the
ot bc.rs.
3 When I get my learners 10 give feedback 10 each other, they just say 'That's fine' and don't
say any more.
DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES
1 H you tead,1 younger learners, try the feedback chat on page 11 1 of ElIglishfur Primary
1'eadtm by Mary st,mery and Jane Willis, Oxford Universit y Pre,ss 2001. No!e down what
happened in your TKT portfolio.
2 For more ideas on how to give feedback, !lave a look at Units Three and Four Of A CouITe
ill Lan,quage Teaching by Penny Ur, Cambridge University Press 1996.
3 Try introducing peer feedback stssions in sQme of your classes. L ~ it eIfedive? How do the
learners feel about this appr6ach? Note tl own what h a p p e n ~ and the learners' reactions
in yourTKT portfolio.
4 Use the TKTGlossary [Q find the meaning of these Lerms:gt'l srudenls' allemion, one-t(l-Ulte,
sealing arrangement,
Unit 32 Glv1ng feedb<lCK
........... ..................... .... .............. ... .................................... ....... .............
TKT practice task (See page 176 for ansII'm)
For questions 15, match the situations with the kinds of feedback listed A-C.
The teacher notices that all the learners are having problems with the new language. She notes the
problem down and discusses it later with the learners.
A peer feedback
B teacher feedback to the class
C teacher feedback to an individual
2 A young learner has just finished talking to the class about his hobby. The teacher says: 'Thank you
very much. Thai was very interesting.'
A feedback on language
B feedback on attitude
C feedback on Ideas
3 A teenage learner has written a story for homework. The teacher has written: 'This is so much better
than last week's homework. Well done.'
A specific instructions on what to do
B identifying problems
C encouragement
4 The teacher writes on the first draft of a learner's composition: ' Look at this website for more ideas.'
A feedback on grammatical mistakes
B instructions on planning
C help with using reference resources
5 The teacher is talking to a group of primary-school children at the end of a group work activity. She
says: 'You talked a lot today and I was pleased to see everyone working so well together.'
A feedback on pronunciation
B feedback on behaviour
C feedback on progress
159
TKT Module 3
Practice test
A sample answer sheet is on page 168.
For questions 1-8, match the examples of teacher language with the classroom functions listed
A-I.
Mark the correct letter (A I) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Examples of teacher language
IJJ We don't say ' good in' we say 'good at' .
W You two, how are you getting on?
@] What can you see in the picture?
8J Once upon a time there were two boys.
W Practise the dialogue in pairs for five minutes.
o That's all for today. See you tomorrow.
12] Good morning. everyone. How are you today?
I1J Can you remember the meaning of these words?
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Classroom functions
monitoring
eliciting
correcting
greeting
setting up an activity
checking learning
narrating
disciplining
ending the lesson
For questions 915, put the teacher instructions listed A-G in order. The teacher is telling some
young learners how to make a sock puppet.
Mark the correct letter (A-G) on your answer sheet.
III
[i] .... .... ..
[i1J ......
@]
@]
I!]
[!] ..........
160
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
Now, take it off your hand and stick the eyes in the right places.
Now your puppet is ready to use.
Pick up the sock and put it on your hand.
Next, stick the nose under the eyes.
Put it back on your hand when everything' s ready
Then, take a pen and mark where you're going to stick the eyes and nose.
Put your sock, your pen, the eyes and the nose on your desk.
TKT Module 3 Pr<lctice rest
For questions 1620, match the teacher's instructions with the comments on them listed A, 8 or C,
Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.
Comments
Teacher's instructions
A language not well graded
B language not well sequenced
C language too formal/informal
[I] The teacher says to a class of beginners at primary school: 'You'd better finish quickly as
we're really short of time.'
~ The teacher says to a group of teenage intermediate learners: 'That was extremely wel l done.
I do congratulate you.'
[!.ID The teacher says to a group of adult elementary learners: 'Do the exercise on page 52. Open
your books and check your answers with your partner.'
~ The teacher says to a group of teenage elementary learners: 'Use scientific lexical terms to
define these words. '
~ The teacher says to a group of adult intermediate learners: 'Prepare your roles. Get into pairs.
Here are your role cards. '
For questions 21-25, look at the following examples of learner language and three possible
functions.
Choose the correct option A, B or C.
Mark the correct letter (A, B or C) on your answer sheet.
~ Can you say that again please?
A showing interest B asking for repetition C greeting
I don't think that's right. I think it's number six.
A complaini ng B advising C disagreeing
What do you think about this idea?
A checking meaning B asking for opinions C persuading
~ What do you mean?
A asking for help B asking for advice C asking for clarification
~ Is this another word for 'beautiful'?
A checking meaning B making a suggestion C agreeing
.161
TKT Module 3 Practice test
For questions 26-30, match the teacher language with the teaching activities listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Teacher language
Usten and repeat together.
What do you have for the first one?
That' s not quite right.
Whose turn is it?
@] No, it begins with ' c'. We Jearnt it last lesson.
Teaching activiti es
A playing a game
B starting a drill
C prompting
o commenting on performance
E setting up pairwork
F checking answers
For questions 31-40, match the circled mistakes in the learner's composition with the types of
mistake listed A-G.
Mark the correct tetter (A-G) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Ci rcled mistakes
@!l lo..sto we w""to on "'- hoiid.o.y. (AU- w""to)
<ogciher <0 "'- hwse <he seo... My '5 horribly
Then "ere /ow""ty of so we renWe"'- big "wse <ho..< wo..s h"'-vi.ng )
woogn room(for till. of LAS , There were) m!:l brotrle.rs o..nd. si..sters ,
rYl!:l pru-ents, m!:l(c.osins o..nd. tnci.r po..rents ) lt NelS greo.l:,!
We ("cui oJ,w"'!Js someone <0 pl"'!J wi.tl1)or somcihi.ng dJ,ffe,-ento <0 do - it
@Z] NelS slAci1 fv.n. Thw in trle. evenings (0e. cooked.. GL Dls cli.sn )
] We o..U-(to.ke it i.n wrns <0 do) <he cooki.ng o..nd. <he wo..s"i.ng
Someti.mes trle mwls were. fo..nt:o.st.tc..) wl1i.d1 were norrtbte,)
w""" bro<hus) cookea. chid"".
162
Tlcr Modul e 3 i)-acl';:E ~ 5 :
Types of mistake
A wrong vocabulary
B wrong tense
C word missing
D wrong word order
E wrong spelling
F wrong punctuation
G too many words
For questions 41-50, match the teaching actions with the teacher roles listed A -F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Teacher roles
A planner
B parent
C monitor
D diagnostician
E manager
F resource
Teaching actions
ETI The teacher goes round the class in pairwork. checking the learners' speaking.
~ The teacher prepares a lesson that suits her learners' learning styles.
~ The teacher makes sure that the class is well disciplined.
] The teacher speaks kindly to a child who is crying.
~ The teacher answers the questions that learners have about the topic.
~ The teacher finds out which topics the learners need to learn about.
@II The teacher tells the learners what the new words mean.
~ The teacher is able to understand what the learners' language problems are.
~ The teacher makes sure that all the learners are taking part in the activities.
~ The teacher decides before the lesson which learners wil! work in which groups.
163
TKT Module 3 Pr<lctlcetest
For questions 51-55, look at the following incomplete statements about interaction patterns, Two
of the options (A-C) in each question are appropriate ways of completing the statements. One of
the options is N.QI appropriate.
Mark the option which is NOT appropriate (At B or C) on your answer sheet.
I!] Pairwork is helpful for
A checking accuracy.
B practising fluency.
C encouraging shy learners.
~ Whole-class work helps the teacher to
A get everyone's attention.
S decide who will answer.
C train learners to help one another.
~ Group work gives learners the opportunity to
A learn from one another.
S get clear guidance.
C practise their skills.
~ Mingling activities allow learners to
A get individual help from the teacher.
S relax when speaking.
C have a change of pace.
~ Individual work allows learners to
A practise their fluency.
B have time to think.
C work at their own speed.
164
TKT Module 3 Pf.lctlce test
For questions 56-60, match the descriptions with the correction techniques listed A-C.
Mark the correct letter (A-C) on your answer sheet.
You need to use some options more than once.
Descriptions
Correction techniques
A echo correcting
B peer correction
C ignoring the mistake
~ In a class discussion a learner makes a pronunciation mistake. The teacher does nothing.
~ Pairs exchange posters and work with a checklist to guide their proof-reading of the other
pair's grammar and spelling.
~ A learner Is confusing the pronunciation of the words ship and sheep. The teacher repeats
what he says.
~ One of the learners says light when she means right. The teacher says both words.
~ The teacher records learners doing a role-play. Then they watch the video and talk about the
mistakes in their groups.
165
TKT Module 3 Practice test
For questions 61-65, match the classroom management problems with the possible planning
solutions listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Classroom management problems
@}J Some learners start walking around the class, pointing and laughing at each other's work.
~ Eight-year-old learners are working in pairs, dOing role-plays of job interviews. They are
having problems with thinking of what to ask and answer.
~ A class of 30 learners has just done a listening activity. As the teacher is checking the
answers of every learner in the class in turn, the learners are getting bored.
~ Some adult learners are having a discussion. But one is very quiet while the others talk a lot.
~ The learners are doing a ten-minute individual reading task. Some learners finish after six
minutes, other learners take 15 minutes.
Possible planning solutions
A Organise groups so that learners who work well together are in the same group.
e Plan how to make feedback interesting.
C Make sure learners understand the rules of behaviour in the classroom.
o Plan extra activities for different abilities in the class.
E Use routines to set up activities.
F Plan an activity which is more suitable for the learners' needs.
For questions 66-75, match the teachers' comments with the focuses of feedback listed A, B or C.
Mark the correct letter (A-C) on your answer sheet.
166
Focuses of feedback
A language
8 behaviour
C progress
TKT Module 3 Practice test
Teachers' comments
~ You used some lovely adjectives in your story today.
~ Stop talking.
~ Your work has really improved this month.
~ I am pleased to see you helping the other learners.
IZQ] You have expressed yourself well.
~ Your mark in this lest is worse than last time.
~ You are such a quiet class today.
That was very clearly explained. Well done.
~ I'm not sure what you mean.
~ Good, you remembered to put your hands up.
For questions 76-80, match the terms with the comments on their uses for classroom
management listed A-F.
Mark the correct letter (A-F) on your answer sheet.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
Terms Comments
~ Aules and routines
IitI lnteraction patterns
A provide different ways that teachers and learners
can work together.
~ Positive learning atmospheres
~ Balance and variety of approaches
~ Supplementary materials
S are useful when the coursebook is not suitable for
the learners.
C mean that learners know what is expected of
them in class.
D encourage learners to work autonomously.
E mean that there is something to suit every learner.
F help make learners feel confident.
167
H UNMRSITYofCAMBRIDC'E
V ESOL fucami!uuions
Supervisor'
"
Use a pencil.
Mark ONE leUer for eacn questlon.
Rub out any answer YOtJ wish to
charoge with an ef'B5er.
1
2
3
4
5
v
, . ,
,
6 F <
7 Ae. 111
.12. L
9 'IOP.f'fI,JI1
10
11
12
13
14 >
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
168
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, .
I t;: 0
'1
,
o "
, . ,

c
, ,
o
o

"
,
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 A If
44
45
46
47
48
4.
50
51
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P I f t4
F
It JOn
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, E r
,
",,""
o.-
,

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
5.
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
6'
70
71
72 n
73
74 A
75
76
77
78
7'
80
,
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-
Exam tips for TKT
T b \ ~ TKT ICSI is divided into three modules which can be laken separately or Togerber.
Each module contai ns 80 questions.
Tbe task types used in TKT are: matching, mu.ltiple choice, sequencing (i .e. pUl!ing Ihingsin tht'"
righl order), categorising errors (i.e. puning IJu;,m into gruups) and finding the odd m1e OUI.
Each module lasts 80 minutes.
Before rite exam
I Know and unde.rstand the necessary ffi.T terms and concepts well. Read the rclevam parts of Ihis
book, do the Follow-up and Discovery activities and think about the paims in the Reflection
sections .. Doing lhis will give you confidence and familiarity with the sllbjca.
2 Look at the list o[ tefms in lhis bOOk and in the TKTGlossary
(Imp:l/www.cambridgeeso!.org/TKT). Make sure YOllllnderstand tllem, because they might
-appear in the exam.
3 Don't just learn the meaning of the tem1S. Think about the ideas behind the terms and what they
mean for Teaching and learning, TOO.
4 00 some TKT practice tests 10 help you get ramiliar with the task types, and get used to working
within the time limit. Remember thai the number of questions in each module is fixed at 80,
There is one mark for each question.
5 Have a good night"s s lcep before the tCSt!
169
Exa mt ipstorTKT
Dllrill9lhe exam
I Don't worry aOOm your English. Remember lhal TKT docsn'\ ask you 10 speak, listen 10 or
wrile English. Youjusl need 10 read the lest and shade (make darker) with a pendllellers
(e.g. A. H, C, D) on your answer sheet. There is a sample amwcr she('\ on page 168.
2 Quickly skim through the whole test when YOll receive it 10 gCI a general idea of ils conlcnl.
The layout ofTKT is clear and simpit': and all the task I Y 1 ~ are of similar kind:..
"3 Work through the leSI from question I to question 80 if you ca n. In this way, you won'l forgel
10 do any questions. BLlt. if you really can'l answer a quest ion, leave ii, pm a cross against it in
the tllilrgin all your qllestion paper, and come back to it when YOLi have completed the olhers.
4 Read each quest jon very carefu.lIy - both the inSlnlCtions and the questions. Make sure that you
understand exactly whal you need to do and that YOllll ndersli1 nd each question.
5 Sometimes the tasks contain eXira options. Make sure you sec and understand this informati on.
[1 makes a difference to how YOli answer,
6 When you answer ma tching tasks, tick each option when )' OU arc confident it is the right answe.r
to a question. Tbis helps you 10 see which options are left for the other questions.
7 Don' t forget 10 transfer your answers to the answer sheel and make sure you have answered the
question you mean to answer. For example, don' t write your answer 10 qucslion 20 in Ihe place
lor answer 19, and don' t shaue ieller A when you mean to shade Ic-ucr B,
8 In the matching tasks, if yOll fcclunsure of an answer to one question, go to lil(' nl'''1 question,
then the next. ete. You may rind that. at the end of the task. the answer to your problem
qUC5tion then lx'comes clear.
9 Oon'l spend 100 long on anyone pan of The test. If yOIl do, yOll will <;poil your chances on the
other pans of The tcst. Divide your time equally across all the questions. Leave five minutes at
liTe end of the ICSt to check your answers .
10 If yOLL are gett ing 100 worried to answer properly. take a very shOrt break. Relax.
Good luck!
170
Answer key for Follow-up activities
Unit I
110UIIS: box, walk. \I'd!, waler
verbs: box, I\'alk. dmde, 'Wllt'r
adjt'cdvcs: )'(J/III!/i'r, wtll, dnr
adverbs: well
dcumninc:rs: aff
prCl'll..lSitiuns: durin!)
pronllun.\: \w. hmd/
conjunctions: btcoIIsr. IhOll9h
wow
N.B. Slln1C of these words mn operate as diflcrem
parts or speech, e.g. box and W/ller (an lJe verbs,
IV/Ilk C.1n be a !loun. well can he an adjective, all can
l>c <I pronoun.
2 newer, Il ewest. news. newly. renew, renewal;
impossible, impossibly, impossi bi lil Y. l}I)Ssibly,
rossibility: running. nml1cr, runs. runny
UNIT 1
1 A Icxical5('ls B .1ll1onyms C collocations
D synonyms Ecoml}()Und words F words with
suffixes G words with prefixes
2 A dCIlOliuions B synonyms C alllonyms D Ic:-.ical
setS E prdix -+ base word r bd5e word + su[fix
G compound words H collocations
UNIT3
2 book: 3 phoncml'S Ibl lulll:J
f1nshmrd: 7 phoncllles tr/IV {rei ([Ilk! / 0;1 fdf
IIllmlJt!r. 5 phonemes IniIA/lml fbi /a!
thimm: 5 phonemes 10113:1111 l i:llni
mOn/illg: 5 phonl'mcs fml h:llni hI /gl
3 llYmty. Jll.Illlkey. iliffieull. fOTi!.:L rellJ..C.J.libcr
4 P(lssible IIl1nVl'll:
My namt: isJ..ul.i.a, rlotJanct,
Br,lS!lia Is in Ihe Oli.l.l.d.k of Br,uil, nOI Qn t!w CQaSI.
111e girl was m.u.dltallcr than her older brother. He
was reall y ili.Qn.
SA .B ""C .......
UNIT 4.
I Possible O/lSWirs'
Introdudn)! yoursell A My name'S X.
B I'mX.
C Lei me introduce
mysel f -I'm X.
D Call mcX.
Suggesting A Lt'!'s ..
n Wh y don't w(' ... :
C IImv auoul ... 7
0 11111;8hl be a good Idea
to ...
Asking for A Could YOIl explain a
clarirication ltllie lurtht:r?
B What do you Olean?
C Sorry ?
D 501'1)'. 1 don't quite
understand.
Thankillg A Thallk you.
13 Thanks a 101.
e Ta.
o 11lal was most kind of
you.
2 Possiblt Olll'\\'I'rs:
Introducing yourself: A:N 13:1 C:F 0:1
Suggesting: A:N B:N C:I n :F
Asking for clarification: A:F B:N C:l D:N
Thanking: A:N B:N or [ C:I D:f
3 Possibll! answers:
Introducing YOllfscll: A and B
Suggesting: 1\ and C
Asking for clarificalill!l: B
Thanking: A
UNIT '
Before 1(1 rdale Ihe lext lO our world
knowledge. and tQ illlroouce tll!'! topic
Alter Reading A: 10 practise reading for specific
inlormatioo
Alter Readi ng B: 10 relate the text to our world
knowledge
171
Answer key for Follow-up activities
UNIT6
1 A 2R 3A 4B SA 6U
UNIT 7
rontrnctions: I'd
repetitions: SlIrt. SUfi
hl'Sitations: Enn, nil!, Ii/tl/, eml, er
interruptions: i1!clIIJ )\1/1 bi happy?
2 The tWO learners an: probably Irlends as they are
talking about quite peoonal things. It's nu[ dear

3 A gist B dC11'1i1 C spt:cificinformation D altitude
UNIT 8
JA.l ndB 2CandIi K andE 4E SA6AandB
7CandE 88 90 10D
UNIT 9
Possiblt mlSlI'trs:
A6or8 850r[0 C2,30r ; 07 E9()rlO Flor4
G2.30r; H2.4.7orB 12,40r5 Hor6 K6or8
UNIT 10
A< uisition Imeraction focus on form
1.2,7.8 2.7,8 3.4.5.6,9.10
UNIT I I
TIlis conversation shows Ihal the learners manage to
communicate with onl' another although they.make
many mistakcs. They SCl' llI 10 be'cxpcrimeming with
languag(' and rea II)' using all their knowledge of it to
getlheir message across 10 each Other.
As Ihis a nuenq.o activity. i[ would probably be
bener lor the teacher not 10 correct these learners,
ami to 1111lkc notes of impon<lnl ill istakes and (Offect
them aft"r the conversation.
UNIT 12
I Possible aflswtn:
Child playing with l>aren15
The child is individUdl attention.
The learning lime is nOllimitcd.
The child is interacting with his parents.
The child is enjoying coUlOlunicating and
interacting.
TIle parents can rt"spend to the child's inte.rests
and needs.
Tht! alOlosllhere is relaxed.
172
Teacher with class
Learners GUillot get much indh'idual attention.
TIle bell will ring after e.g. 30 minutes and end
the lesson.
wacher is lelling Ihe learners ')olJletbing.
There may be no interaction.
The pupils may not be t"IlJoying the lesson.
TIle. teacher cannot easily respond to each
leamer's intercsts and
2 P(fSjiblt' QIl511-\'TS;
For Fatima, B is probably the best, !x'cause in Ihis
way She could pick up English through playing. U
she went [0 England, she might Icel lonely and
IOSI. Doiug lOIS ufhomcwork would IHobably nOi
(')(pose her to much language or help her use it,
bUilt cuuld help her and remember
things learnt In class and make her [eel more
con.lidenl.
It is hard 10 know what might be best for
Rlcardo,.Is we dOIl't know how he prefers to learn,
the Jevt"J of his mOTivation orthe time he has
availahle for1c .. ming. A ur C lIught hc.hest, or a
combination ofthese. Billa)' hdp him (0
understand grammar rules bUl won't giv(: him any
practia.> in communic.lIion or learning vocabulary.
UNIT 13
Possiblt mlswtn.
As a refl&1:ive young learner who sct'ms intcrested
in Tht target allill res of Pablo might leam
well by readIng canOOIl books in and
looking at websites aOOlll Travelling in the USA. In
class, he may [ike time 10 think before he answt:rs.
J[ his motivation continucs, then in the right
drCUl1lstances he could be., succcssfullearncr of
English.
Pdin seems!O h.,ve" problem with tllll!ivation.
She might respond welt If1 IC.1ming in a
conullunicmive classroom which has loIS of pair
and group wurk. Her teaChCfcould try and find OUt
why she is notluterested in English. 11t!r
mQtivation needs to improve to make her [earning
successful.
Chen seems to be very wcil motivaTed. He
probably respond well to studying lbe
English he needs in order [0 teach, to individual
work and posSibly to grammar, He seCJJlS likely to
besucccssful In his leaming if he has enough lime
tolcam.
2 Possiblt Q//SIWr1:
A reOeClivc B kinaCSlhclieor group C group or
visual D refiooive E auditory Fvisual or
individual G visual or individual Ii impulsive
These 3ct.ivilies could also be useful for Olher
ki nd:. ol1camers clcpcndiJlN on the karuCI:5' age,
learning needs and holV lhl:' anivilics are carried
QUI in class.
All tht.'St" activities could bt ciUricd OUI wil b
bQlh children's and adulls' classes, depending on
Ihe charnCler n ll he class. SomeaciuiLS, Ihough,
miglll 001 lVam 10 do team running ganws, and
discussing pronundaliOTl wi lll a class nf dlild.rcn
mUSI he done in a very pl'aClicaiway.
UNIT 14
I Possible
Talyana is a young learner who prouably needs to
learn in.1II ,1cti VC and 50dable way. Gul has
limclabti ng needs wh ich mean he probably can'T
come to a regular class and may need to slUdy a 101
by himself. lIis course probably needs 10 focus on
h(llcJ Ellglish, 1)11 illl proving his speaking skills and
possibly his skills In listening 10 people with a
range of foreign accents.
2 Possible answrn:
A age: imerests B It'arninggall C learnjngstyle
D iIllCt!:SIS, languagt' requircmellls for future.
professional nl.'is E ia.nguagegap, future
proressionalneeds and le<lming goals F age.
learning G leamcraulOnolllY H icaming
goals I motivation J motivation. Jeamer
aUlonomy
UNIT 15
1,3,4,7
UNIT 16
I c.ommunicaTi on: 13, D, F, 1. K
Accuracy: A. C, E, G, FI , J
Rule-plays and descri bi ng piClllrC"l eQuid aim 10
(Icvc1op e.il her coT1l1l1llnication or accuracy
dq>cnding nn Ihe instruClions for the anivity. If
they ask the learners 11) use onl y cenain language,
Ihey aim at accuracy.
Answer key for Follow-up activities
2 Possible atl.l"lwn:
A: SI>t'aking, wril ing
B: reading. lislelung. sr ..
C: speaking. Ivriling
D: reading. limning
E: speaking
UNIT 17
Pinure roml""lSillon. storytelling: rnwat
l
, Uk' (.!
v()Qbu]ary a nd grammar. pronunciau.1r.
linking, interacti on. fluency, accuraC)
2 liSTen ,md draw: probabl y ror ::ol'ttihc
informaTion.
} ROI("play: IHubably nuency, specific \ 'ocanular)'.
cen,lin fUllclions and grammar.
4 Interview: spe.1klng - probably lise of
vOGlbulary and gmlll ll\ar, prolll ili datiun,
imeraclion. nucnC)'. accuracy.
S Gap/ hlankfill: The fom1 (If the verb to llavt.
accuracy.
6 Labelling: word and meaning recognition and
possibl y handwriting.
7 Rcpr"litiol) drill: prollund3ljon.
8 Project work: prooobl y a range 01 reading skills,
problem w iving and speaking and writing skills.
9 CllmlJlcung a self-asSt.'SsmcnT sheet : leamers'
abilit y 10 judge ludr own prOgress and/or
pctfomlance.
10 ObservaTion. Seeing whal diflict lhies Ihe
learners have had in Ihi s area. and which areaS
may need runhcneaching.
UNIT 18
IE 21'1 )D 4C Sf 6A 78 BG
UNI1' 19
10 2A <IE 7C 8B
173
Answer key for Follow- up activities
UNIT 20
I Lesson I:B Lesson S:C Lesson 6:A
2 A va riery of pace: kssons 5 (video. role-play) and
(j (project work, Writing)
B different intcractionl><ll1erns: lessons 2.3 and S
(pairW<lrk) and 6 (group 1V0rk)
C rcccptiveskills: lessons I (listening).
2 (reading) and 5 \vidco)
o productive skills (writing andlor speaking): all
the lessons
E increitic of level 01 dHficulty: lesson 5 (extract
from .l Ul hlmic TV dra rn.1)
F chilnge of topic lesson 4 (qtliz)
G cha nge of language focus: lesson 4 (grammar)
H lively ,md active: I (f[ashlards).4 (qUil),
S \role'l)la y) and (; (prOject work)
ca lm and quiet (wi th listening. reading and
writi ng act ivities): alll essl)tl s except 5 and (with
pr,1('lice exercises): lessons 3 and 4.
UNIT 2 1
JT2F3FITST6F
UNIT 22
IA2A3B4B5A6B7086 9B IOC
UNIT23
Answers for these activities will depend on the
teachi ng material used.
UNIT 24
Passiblt all$lVfrs:
Intermediafl' UI)Wards; oral fl uency practice; li ttle
or no prel>ara tion; e:q>ressing opini ons,
COtll parative aujccl.ivcs.
2 [mermccl iat,{, upwards; Qrill fluency pract ice; litt le
or no prepara tion; prq )oSit ions of place, repOrTed
speech.
1 Any level; speaking and writi ng: t eacher
provides text; no particul ar lilliguage.
4 Any level; dictIonary pmCli ce, exploring
coUoca tions and connOlOltions; teacher provid5
words; no particular language.
S Intern1l'diatt' upwards; oral flue ncy practice; no
prel>aration; question fomls. expressing opi nions,
past lenses.
6 Any level; dictjonary practice. extending
vucabulary; no preparation; no partioliar
language.
174
7 Any level; ide.milying word suess; tcacilcr
provides Iludil) recording; no panicula r language.
8 AllY level; intel1sive reading practice; tCadler
provides pictures and teXIS: no panicular
language.
9 Any level; practising writi L1 g narratives; little "r no
preparation; past tenscs.
10 Any level; grammar practice; teacher provides
sentcnces; no panicular language.
UNn 25
I OHP 2 language lauori\lOry 3 rcalia 4 flashcards
5 blackboard/whiteOOard 6 video 7 the Intcmet
UNIT 26
I Possiblf allswtn:
A elici ti ng, correcti ng. conveying meaning.
explaining
B narraTing. eliciting. prOmpting
C expl.1ining. n<lrrating. proml)ting. corrcaing,
elici[ing
D explaining. prompting. correcting
E elidling. correCting, Proml}li llg. checking
It'ami ng
2 language lonn: imperative. for exampk: walch, t1f1.
/IIkt. COnj unctions: Now. And, 117m.
UNIT 27
I A asking fOr repetition B disagreeing C saying
goodbye D asking for clarification E asking (or an
01.11111011 F agrceing G oIlcring an opiniOn
H greeling
2 A making a suggestion n checking meaning
C greeting D agreeing
UNIT 28
on Iprepl wrOL1 g prcposilill n (uYI
Train arc wrong agreement (Tra ins are)
confonablc wrong spelling (comfortab[e)
can [0 tcad []] tOO many words (can readl
were IT] wrong tellSe (arc)
UNI T 29
Possiblt allswtn:
1 moni tor 2 informer 3 pacem and friend 4 manager
5 diagnostidan
UNI T 30
Activit)' 6. hUeraru(nl Pai rs. 10 gel
leamers to check thClr answers wit h each Olller
lJH:yshow their drawings 10 Ihe [cachero
Activity 7. Interaction pilllern: whole class. PU'lJOS":
[0 dlcek Il'ilTllCrS' ability \(J idrll[il y the colours and HJ
lise the tilrge! Slrll CI I)re 10 talk OOLl! )heir pictu re.
ACti vity 8. Inl craClion paHeTll: whok class. PU'l)o,)se:
to give learners the OI)I>onunity 10 lalk meaningfully
,1boulli1e Story ancltheir resp()nst: t() il. A whole-class
discussion al this stage is a good balann' for the palr
and individual work ea rlier in the lesson.
UNIT 3 1
Possible IlIInwrs:
I A Cindercl l., d,l nced with the princl' when the
clock struck midnight.
PaM Now
Future
.

B Ci nderella was dandng with the prince wllt'n
the clock SImek midnight.
Pas! NolY Future

= Sl rike = dance
Answer key for Follow-up activities
2 A I play tenni s on Fridays.
Past Now
I
Future
B [played tennis on Frida}'.
Now Future

= play lennis
UNIT 32
Focus Purpose
I Behaviour Praising a learnerl
learners and showing
them yOIl haw: l1oli<'ed
an
2 Language, idt'as Tclling the kamer theCl"
a probkm and giving
I)Jlpommities tor peer
feedback.
3 Behaviour, altitude Praising a kamer}
learners for [he Wily Ihey
helped olher learners in
tbe class .
4 hmguage Praisi ng a learnerl
and ideas learners (or we mUSt
recent \\'ork done but
telling them Ihal earlier
work needed more
carelul dlccki ng.
]75
Answer key for TKT practice tasks
UNIT
IC2E3D4F5G6A 30 lA 28 3A4C SB6C
2 lF2B3A4ESD 31 18 2A 3C4A 50613
3 lB1C384A5C 32 lB2C3C4CSB

ID2A3G4B5E6C
,
IOl( )B4FSA
6 lC2E3A405B6G
7 ID1C3G4DSE6A
8 l e28 3A 4C 58 6A 7C
9 IA2G 3D4B5C6H7E
\0 lA 1C)C4C58
11 IC2A}A4B5C6A7B
12 IA lA)A 48 SB6C 7A 8A 9C
13 IB2AJA4C5B6D7C
I. 11-l2D3G4E5C6A7B
1 ,
IE2C384A5F6G
16 lD1B3A4ESG6H7C
17 JE2A3D41'SC
18 IG lA 3D 48 5C 6F 7H
19 11:I2E)F4B506A7C
20 I02A 3E4C 58
21 ID2H 3E4C5A6G7P
22 1I1 1A3P4E5B6D7C
23 I e 2A 3F 4E 58 60 711
24 l E2A 304f5C6G
2'
1 B 2G 3E 40 'i ii 6A 7F
26 IA2BK413'5A
27 1A2(3A4858
2. ID2E384A5G6C
2'
IE2A1F48SD
\76
Answer key for TKT practice tests
TEST I
lB2D3A4ES(
6C 78 SA 98 lOA
J lD 12F I3A 14G 158 16C
17A I Ra 191UOC21B22B21B24C
2SE 2M 27F 28B 29G 30C
JIE l2B 33F 340 3SC
36C 37F 3SA 39B 400
41B42C 43A 44H4 5C
46A47B 48C49B50A
SIA S2B 538 54A sse
56F 57 A 58H 598 60G 6 11, 620 6lC
64e 658 66C 678 68C 69C
70B 7 1 D 72C 7JA 74E
7SF 76D 77E 78G 798 BOA
TEST 2
I A 21 3D 48 5G 6H 7F Be
9E IOC liE 120 IJIl 148 15F 16F 17A IBE
19B 200 2 [E 22B 23C 24 250 26C 27A 2SB
290 lOP 31A 32B )3E 34C
3583613 37A lSC 39C 40A
41 E 42A 4}[) 44G 45C 46147H 48B
49F soc 5 J E SUI 53B 54(; 55A
56B 57C 580 59C 60C 61 B 620 6JD 64C 65A
66F 67A 6SG 698 70A 7 1 D 72F 73E 74E 75C
76F77A 78E79D80C
TEST)
le2A 3B4G 5E617D8F
9G JOC I IF 12A 130 14E I SS
16A 17C 18B 19A20B
2J B 22C 23B 14C 2M
26B 27F lSD 29A 30e
), Ie 32A 33B 34f 35E 360 37A J8B 39G 40C
41e 41A 43E 4413 45P 46D 47P 480 49 50A
51A 52C 53B 54A 55A
S6C S7R S8A 59A 608
61C61F63B64A65D
66A 678 68C 698 70A 7lC 728 7lA 74A 7SB
76C77A78F79E 80B
177
Alphabetical list of terms
All these tenus are related 10 English language teaching (ElT). They appear in lhe TKTGlossary
compiled by Cambridge ESOLand are first defined and discussed ill this book un the page gh'cn
below. Terms in italics are given but 110t defined on the page mCllIioned.
aCcuracy 26
achieve aims 87
adlicvcmcnt leSt 71
acquisition (noun), acquire (verb) 4j
active/passive l'oice 8
aaivity-based teaming 51
activity book J J 0
adapt 110
adjective 6
adverb 6
affix 12
aid 119
aim 86
3111idpate langu<lge problems 92
alUonym 10
apprupriacy (noun), appropriaLe (adj) 18
arOllse [merest 89
ask for clarification 17
assessment (noun). assess (verb) 71
assumption 92
mtmrion spall 56
auditory (learner) 52
authentic malcrial23
3l110nomous 53
brainstorm 27
c!1a'" 69
dl(lr( J 20
choral drill 63
class profile 110
clause 8
doze (est 73
rogllitiVf47
coherence 21
cohesion 21
collocation 10
178
communicative ilaivity 68
communicative approach 41
compound word 10
concept question 63
amelusion 29
conjunction 6
conneaed speech 14
consolidate 86
consol/ant 16
COni ext 10
CQllIcxmalise 63
COlllillUOUS assessment 73
cOntraction 7
controlled practice 35
convey meaning 135
correction code 142
crossword puzzle 122
deduce meaning/rom amrar 25
deductive leami,,:} 51
define 136
definitiol1 65
dcterminer 6
developmental error 44
deve/opskilfs 33
diagnostic test 71
dialogue 112
dictionary. monolingual/bi!ingllal [06
di phthong 13
dominant 149
draft 27
drill 66
ccho correct 153
edit 27
elicit 63
enqJ/iring 19
eUQr44
exponenl 17
exposure 41
extensive reading/ listening 22
facial expression 30
feedback 58
flashcard 120
fTipcltarr 122
fluency 34
focus on form 41
formal 18
formal assessment 71
formaljve assessmem 7 1
freer practice 63
IUIlCl ion 17
gestllrc 30
get swdmls' allmiiOIl 158
9ive con/idfllCf 89
goal 39
grade (l anguage) 114
graded reader 1 14
grammar- translation method 41
grarrunatica1 StrUCl'ure 6
group d}lnamics 149
9l1ideddiscol,(ry 100
Irrsi{ate 140
11(..,11/(9
11189
homophone 12
icebreaker 65
idiom 12
ignore (errors) 45
il!ustrilfe IIIlaltilt9 65
inappropriate 18
illdllaiw learniJ19 51
illfer attilllde or mood n
infoOllai 18
informal aSSCSSIlit'1ll 71
informat.ion gap 68
instrua 134
intensive reading/listening 22
imeraaion (lioun) 34, interact (vt:rb) 138
imeraaion pattero 58
Alphabetical list of terms
lntcraaiv{' strategies 34
interference 44
interlanguage 44
intonation 14
jumbled piau res 69
kinal!Sthetic (learner) 52
L144
l2 45
labelling 69
language awareness 107
language laboratory I 19
lead-in 35
leaflet 122
learnera ut onomy/ independcnce 38
leamer trainifIg 56
learning stralegy 52
learning style 52
less cOIliTolled practice 63
It-vel of fonnality J 8
laical aT/proa," 65
lexical set 10
le,xis 10
lillkilt9 16
main aim 86
main stress 14
maldzi1l9 task 73
meaningful 30
mime 12 1
mingle III
minimal pair 14
mixed ability 149
modal verb 8
model 136
monitor 102
motivation tnoun)38, motivate (verb) 156
multiple-choice qllesti ons 67
narrate 134
negotiating 19
neutral 18
ITomil/ate 136
lIoli!-takill9 29
noun 5
179
Alphabetical list of terms
objective test 72
one-fo-one [58
open comprehmsio/l questio/ls 73
oral resl73
ovcrgcncraiisarion 44
ovc(head projector 1 19
pace 58
para9raph 19
paraphrase 53
part of speech 5
peer asscssmem 71
peer correction 97
pc r.sonal <lim 87
personalis3tioll (noun) 62, personalise (verb) 39
phoneme l3
phonemic chart 87
phonemk script 13
phonemic symbol 13
phrasal verb 12
phrase 8
pick up 41
placement test 71
porrfolio 72
praise 49
predictill9 19
predictioll25
prefix 7
preposition 6
presentation (noun), presem (verb) 61
Presenlation, Practice and ProduCtion (PPPJ 63
priorilising 69
procedure 87
process writing 29
product ive ski ll 26
proficiency test 7 1
progress test 7 1
project work 69
prompt 135
pronoun 6
proof-read 27
punctualion 142
puppet 120
qllestion ti1g 8
180
raise awareness 89
read/listen for detai l 22
readllisten for gisl22
read/listen for specific information 22
reaHa 112
receptive skill 21
recycle 99
refereuce materials 106
regisTer 12
rcinforct' 86
resource 107
respond 140
restricted practice 63
rhythm 14
role-play 67
routine 145
stan 22
scheme of work 97
semillg arrangement 158
selfaccess remre 56
self-assessmcut71
seJr-confidence 38
self-correction 153
smtmcl' completion 73
sentence stress 14
sequence (noun) 86, (verb) 135
sel the scene 96
sil ent period 41
situaTiolJal presentaTion 65
skill 21
skilll12
slip 44
speCllhl1il'l9 19
stage 87
srimulate discussion 89
st ress J 3
studelU-cemred 100
subject ive test 72
subsidiary aim 87
subskil! 22
suffix 7
!ilIII1mary29
supplementary materials 107
survey 67
syllable 16
syllabus 87
synonym 10
rapescript 110
target iangltage culture 38
task 63
"Task-based Learning (TBL) 63
teacher-centred 100
teacher's book 106
teaching aid 87
tense 8
TeSHead1-lest 64
text strlwure 25
time line 152
liming 91
wpicseme/1ce 25
lransparency 119
truetralse questions 67
Alphabetical list of terms
unstressed 13
vMiety (noun) 93, vary {verb} 96
verb 5
video clip 122
ViSUill aid 1 19
visual (learner) 52
voicedllll1voiced ~ l l m d 16
vowel 16
wallchan 121
warmer 62
weak (Ionn) J 3
word stress 13
workbook 110
worksheet 108
l SI
Unit by unit list of terms
The following remlS are used in Ihe units, aldlOugh they arc nOI all defined each time. Terms in
italics are mentioned only in lhe Discoveryaaivitics.
MODULE I Unit 3 neUlral
Unitl connected speech prediail19
active/passive voice COI /SOllafll speclliminf}
adject ive comraction
adverb dipht hong Unlt5
clallse intona tion au!llt.'lllic materia l
conjunction Iinkillg coherence
contraclion main str ess cohesion
detennincr mi nimal pair dedllct lIleal1illg/rom context
grammatical strudure phoneme extensive readillg
modalwr/J phonem..icscript int.ensive readi ng
noun phollemicsymbol predidiolt
pan of spcedl r hythm rcad for detail
phrase sentence stress read for gist
prcnx stress read for spedfic information
preposition syllable receptive skill
pronoun unst ressed
scan
qutS(ion rag voiced/uI/voiced SOl/lid skill
sullix vowel skim
lel/se weak (form) !>ubskill
verb word stress ((xl sln/Clure!
Unit2
topiCSfmtnre
Unil4
afJu
appropriacy (noun), Unil 6
antonym
appropri ate (adj ) accuracy
coUocalion
ask for clarification l) rainSlonn
compound word
conle;.:t COl/elusion
context
draft enqutrlllg
homopl/ollt'
exponent edit
idiom
lonnal note-taking
lexical SCI
function paragraph
lexis
grammatical strudure process IVn1il19
phrasal verb
inappropriale
productive skill
prefix
infonnal proof-read
register
level of fomlality
skill
suffix
lIegotiating
subskill
synonym
summary
182
Unit 7
aUlhcmic
COllneCled speech
context
develop skills
extensive lislcning
fadal expression
gcslUre
infl!r attitude or mood
intonation
lislen for alliwde
listen for detail
[iSl eo for gist
listen for spedHc information
meaningfl11
receptive skill
skill
stress
subskill
Unit8
accuracy
appropriacy
ask for clarification
conncCled sJ)Cech
controlled practice
fadal e)'1>ression
fluency
function
interaClion
interactive st rategies
intonation
lead-in
productive k i l 1
Unit 9
goal
learner autonomyl
independence
motivation
personalise
selI-confidence
targcllanguage cuhurt
Unit 10
acquiSi tion (noun), acquir('
(verb)
communicative approach
exposure
focus on form
grammar-translation method
interaCtion
pick up
silent period
Unit II
coglfitive
developmental error
error
ignore (errors)
interference
interlanguage
LI
L2
overgencra lisation
sli p
Unit 12
aaivity-based feaming
context
deduGive feaming
e:<posure
locus on form
inductiw learning
intcranion
LI
L2
motivation
personalise
pick up
praise
silc11I period
Unit 13
atlemioll span
audilOry (learner)
autonomous
kinaestlletic (learner)
lea mer (milling
Unit by unit list of terms
learning slrategy
learning slyle
paraphrase
sdfaccess WIlTi
visua l (lcc1rllcr)
Unit 14
feedback
goal
interaction pattern
learner alltonOm}'
learning strategy
lcarning style
motivation
pace
skill
Unit 15
choral drll1
conCept qucstion
context
conlexlualise
controlled praCtice
definitioll
elidt
freer practice
icebreaker
ilIl/stratt' meaning
lead-in
learning style
less controlled practice
lexical approach
mcaningful
pcrsonalisation (noun).
personalise (verb)
PresenlaUon, PTilClice clnd
Production (PPP)
presemalion Inoun). pr("5c11l
(verb)
rCSlrictl'd practke
sill/atiollal preselllation
[ask
Task-based learning (TBL)
Test-teach-lest
warmer
183
Unit by unit li st of terms
Unit 16
accuraqr
,!tam
communicative activity
controlled practice
drill
exponent
fluency
freer practice
grammatical stTUC!Urt:
information gap
interaction pallern
jllll/bled piell/res
labelling
lead- in
less controlled praC'tice
multiple-choice questions
PPP
priori/isillg
project work
read fordetail
readIHsten for spedfic
infllfluation
restTicted practice
role-play
subskill
survey
task
TBI.
tTueJraJse questions
warmer
Unit 17
accuracy
achievement test
appropriacy
autOnomous
assessment (noun). assess
(verb)
doze lesl
COIIfillllOIiS IIssessmem
dlagnostk test
feedback
fluency
formal assessmem
184
formative assessment
infOnnal assessment
imeraction
matchillg task
multiple-choice questions
objective test
open compreJzeflSio/1 questiolls
oral test
peer assessment
placemenr test
portfolio
proficiency leSI
progress test
rOle-play
completio/l
self-assessment
subjective test
true/false questions
MODULE 2
Unill8
achieve aims
aim
interest
consolidate
context
exponel1l
funCtion
give confidence
grammatical Sl.rucrure
higltliglll
intonation
lexis
main aim
personal aim
phonemic chart
phonemic symbol
predicting
procedure
raise awart'ness
reinforce
scan
sequence
,kill
stage
srin/II/ate discussion
subsidiary aim
syllabus
teaching aid
Uni t 19
achieve aims
aim
anticipate language problems
assumplion
interaCtion partem
lead-in
main aim
personal aim
procedure
sequcnce
skill
stage
subsidiary aim
(ask
teaching aid
timing
variety
warmer
Uni t 20
aim
feedback
nucncy
function
guided discovery
lntcraction pattern
pace
peer correcti on
Presentation. Pradicc and
Produ<. 1Iun (PPP)
procedure
productive
receptive
recycle
role-play
scheme of work
sequence
set the scene
skill
Unit by unit list ofterms
Siudel1l-Cflllred task skill
survey
Icach{:r's book supplementary materials
syllabus
timing syllabus
task
worksheet task
Taskbased Learning (TaLI
varicty
tencher-cell/red Unit 23
variety (nolln), vary (\'crb) activity book Unit 25
adapt aid
Unit21 class profile chan
accuracy comext context
achievement lest diagnostiC test crossword pllzzle
assessment dialoguc dialogue
error interaction pattern elicit
reedback mingle eXlcnsivt.: li stcning
formal/inrOrI1wl asst.:SSllIenl pace faci al expression
intonation personalised reedback
matching task present n.lshcarci
monitor rcalia flipclrarr
motivation role play gestUre
multiple-choice questions sequclKe s raJlll'naticalslructure
objective leSI skill information gal>
procedure
supplementary materials language laboratory
productive skill tapescripi /elifler
proficiency test task Icxical sct
progress lest
tead1er's book lexis
receptive skill varici y main aim
Stress
wamlcr mime
subskill workbook monitor
truc/false questions
overhead projectOr
Unit 24 phont.:mic chan
Unit22 adapt phonemiC symbol
ilnticipate language problems aim predicting
coll ocation
autilenlic material present
dictionary. monolinguall communicative activity procedure
bilingual context puppet
error exwnsive rl'ading fC<llia
grammalical structure feedback resource
interference grade (l<lnguage) sequence
LI graded reada skill
language awareness grammatlcalslructurc subsidiary aim
reference materials m()[jvation tra nsparency
resource procedure verb
skill resource vidtodip
supplemt.'ntil.ry materials
scheme I)f work visual aid
sequence wallcharl
185
Unit by unit list of terms
MODULE 3 error
Unit}1
Unit 26 ill appropriate contraCiion
concept question motivaLion echo correct
convey meaning punctuation error
defille
slip fadal expression
elicit fluency
grade language Unit 29 ge!>tufe
instruct aim ignore (' rrors)
LI
monitor intonation
model resource peer correction
mime role-play phonemic symbol
narraTC routine sel f- corrCdion
nomiNate scheme of work slip
presel11 stage time linc
prompt variety
rcaliil Uniln
sequence
Unit }O autonomous
aim Icedback
Unit 27 brainstorm rormal assessment
ask for clarification cbart ger sludenlS' allenlion
function context informal assessment
lIesilale dominant monitor
interact feedback 1ll0livaie
LI group dynamics 01l/!-IO-One
respond interaction pal1ern praise
stage leamingstyle recycle
mixed abili ty sealillg arrangement
Unit 28 fole-play skill
accuracy sca n
appropriacy wamler
correction code
186
Phonemic symbols
Here is a lisl of phonemic symbobi taken from {he IPA (Intcmalional Phonetic AJph.lbcll which
show the sounds of British English.
VOWEL SOUNDS
Short vowels Long vowels Diphthongs
,
as in ph
"
as in see c,
as in day
c as in wei
"'
as in arm ao as in my
re as in cat
"
as in saw
"
as in boy
A as in run
"'
as in 100 au as in low
o as in hot 3: as in her au as in how
u as in P UI 10 .15 in near
,
as in ago eo as in hair
'"
as in poor
CONSONANT SOUNDS
b as in bee n as in nose
dS
as in general
d as in d o p as in pen
Q as in hang
r as in fal
,
as in rcd 0 a<; in thai
9
,15 in go
s as ill sun e as in thin
h as ill hal as jl] l en
f
a ~ in ship
J
as in yel v as in vat
S
as in measure
k as in k ey w as in wei
If as i n chin
as in led 7. as in zip
m as in map
187
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank all Ihe people who reviewed a draf, of these materials:
Mick Ashton Philip Prowse
Jon BUll
Heather Daldry
Monica Mabel Galllml'i
Clare Harrison
Laura Renan
Amanda Thomas
ScotrThornbury
Frances Watkins
Their conunems were very helpfu1. OUf special thanks to our editor, Bngi! Viney, for all her help and
SliPPOrt.
The aul hOTS <lnd publishers afC gratdu 1 lO the following for permission to usc copyright material in
TJu TKTCOlme. While every effon has been made. it has nOi been possible to idcllIify the sources
01 all lhe material used and in such cases [he publishers would welcome inlomlalion from II Ie
copyright owners:
For lhe extract on p. 16 with permission of Maanillan Education frolll Simon Greenan, Reward.
1995. Macmillan Publisbers Ltd; lor the extraa on p. 24 from Sl/pa Goa! 2 Q 2001. by Dos SanlOS.
Manuel. page 33. ISBN 970 103340X. Adapted with permission of McGraw-Hill; (or the extract on
p. 27 from SyllabusfS/or Primary' Schoob. English l..l1l1guage, Primary 1-6 (CDC, 1997). pp. 178-89
and for the extracl from a listening syllabus on p. 31 from Syllabuses/or Secondary Schools. English
lA1I9/1ll91!, Secondary /-5 (CDC, 1999), pp. 241-54, with pennission of Education and Manpower
Bureau olthe Hong Kong Special AdministrativeRegion: for the eXlrad on p. 39 1rom 'Ten
commandments for motivating language learners: resultS of aD empirical study' by Zoltan Domyci
and Kal a Csizer, published in LallguQgl!TeaciJill9 Resl!arch 2 1998. pp. 203-15 Wilh permission of
Hodder Arnold: for the ext racts on p. 50 with permission of Macmillan Education from Children
Leamin9 English by Ja ynt' Moon, Macmillan Heinemann English Language Teaching, 2000; lor lhe
ext:ra(1 on p. 57 ad,1pted from 'What do teachers really want from courscbooks?' by Hitomi
Masuhara, published in Mareriais Development i'l Lm1911age Thachil!9 edited by 13lian Tomlinson, 1998,
I'll . 240-\; for \hc \ab\c on p. 98 adap\cd trom A CtHlm ill LDlIYll1lge TeacltilJ,q: Praclice mId t/ieory by
Penny Ur. 1996, I). 217 and for the dictionary entry extract on p. [29, from Ihe Cambridge Advanced
Leamer's Dictionary, 2003. p. 921 edited by Patrick Gillard e Cambridge Univtrsity Press reprilltt'd
with permission 01 the publisher and amhors.
p.50 lap left, &1BananaSlOck/Alamy, top righl. &1 PowcrslOck ph010 library, bottom left. ClManin
Paquin/Alamy, boltom right eEl Heraldo; p.55 left, CUlm Sugar/Corbis, centre, CGiall BerlO
Vanni/Corbis, right, Olack HuJljngswonl1/Corbis: p.59Ieh, OAlan Oliver/Alamy, righI, OJagdish
Agarwal/SCPh010SI Alamy
188
The""""LI Course
MIlA'!' ':IrRAn- ALAN PUI '1Efll'l(SS MElANIE WliliflMS
This is t/leteacher training course for teachers and
trainee teachers preparing for the Cambridge ESOL TKT
(Teaching Knowledge Test). The TKTCourse is written in
collaboration with Cambridge ESOL by a team of writers
who share a wealth of experience in teacher training and
materials writing. All three authors have been closely
involved in lhe development of the TKTwith Cambridge
ESOL. This ensures that the course is highly relevant.
comprehensive and reliable.
An extensive introduction to ELT methodology, a range
of tasks and three complete practice rests in one book
provides a comprehensive package forTKT candidates.
Ell terms and concepts are dearly indicated and
explained using Ilon-specialist language.
Model practice tests help candidates to become
familiar with the formal, level and styleofTKT.
Reguiarconcept checking tasks and full answer keys
make the course very suitable for self-study.
The material is also suitable for othertnitial teacher
trai ni ng qllalifications as well as in-service tr aini ng.
We recommend the following titles for use with The TKTCoufse: