Sie sind auf Seite 1von 81

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Knowledge is an experience gained in life. It is the choicest possession,which should not beshelved but should be happily shared with others. In this regard We are extremely fortunate inhaving Mr. Vikram Sing as my project guide .It was he ,who provided proper direction in thecompletion of this project work. I have often been guilty of encroaching upon the privacy of this home but not even once We weredisappointed .His willingness to share his experience and spontaneous suggestion on any problem encourage

me tremendously to achieve my goal .We are sure his directive will show usthe light in future also.We are very much thankful to Mr. Kamal Sardana ,HOD ,ECE deptt for his encouragement ,valuable suggestion and moral support provided by

him. At the juncture,We feel at the deepest of our heart to acknowledge the encouragement and blessing of our mother and sister. Last but not the least ,words can hardly express our heartfelt gratitude towards our project coordin ator(Mr. S. K. Jha) ,who stood by us and helped in every way possible during thecompletion of this project. Amit Yadav(08ec058) Rahul Dev(08ec026) Ravinder Kumar(08ec028)Shwetank Singh(08ec041)

ABSTRACT
Irrigation is the key to a successful garden. Long gone are the days of manual watering or relying on a friend to water when you are on vacation or away on business. The Project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation. The circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM324. Op-amp is configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the whether the Soil is wet or dry. The comparator monitors the sensors and when sensors sense the dry condition then the project will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when the sensors are in wet. The comparator does the above job it receives the signals from the sensors. A transistor is used to drive the relay during the soil wet condition. 5V double pole double through relay is used to control the water pump. LED indication is provided for visual identification of the relay / load status. A switching diode is connected across the relay to neutralize the reverse EMF.

This project works with 5V regulated power supply. Power on LED is connected for visual identification of power status.

This project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/18V step down transformer.

CONTENTS
1. ABSTRACT 2. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM 4. INTRODUCTION 5. BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 6. APPLICATIONS 7. ADVANTAGES 8. CONCLUSION 9. REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
In India agriculture is the most important occupation of the people. More than 60% of our total
population depends for their subsistence on agriculture. After independence due to various development projects introduced in the field agriculture, production of food grains has been continuously increasing. The entire Indian economy is depends on agriculture. Any fluctuation in agriculture income will directly affect the Indias national income. In this regard, a thought is given to develop an Automatic Plant Watering System Depending On Soil condition designed.

Irrigation engineering comprises of a full knowledge of sources of irrigation water, their proper preservation and application of this water to the land after conveying it from the source through an irrigation system, consisting of canal and connected works. It also includes a working knowledge of different types of soil and the water requirements of various crops sown in them. In this project work lot of importance is given for the drip irrigation, such that by sensing the soil humidity water supply can be controlled automatically. For sensing the soil condition copper electrodes are used. Irrigation is usually required when the yearly rainfall is either insufficient or ill distributed or ill timed. Yield is much better where irrigation is practiced and fields are watered at the proper time. In countries like India and Egypt, irrigation provides employment for large sections of people. It raises the standard of living and prosperity. Irrigation projects are successful only when sufficient quantities of water are available and the land is suitable to grow remunerative crops. No irrigation is normally required if the total annual rainfall is 100cms. Or more and takes place at correct times. When it is proposed to grow valuation and better types of crops like Rice, Sugar cane, Vegetables, Cotton etc., Irrigation is very essential.

BASIC PRINCIPLE
The circuit presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for a vacation.The circuit comprise a sensor part built using only one op-amp(N1) of quad op-amp IC LM324.Op-amp N1 is configured here as a comparator.Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil containing plants.As long as the soil is wet, conductivity is maintained and the circuit remains is maintained and the circuit remain off. When the soil dries out, the resistance between the copper wire (sensor probes A and B) increases. If the resistance increases beyond a preset limit, output pin 1 of op-amp N1 goes low. This triggers timer IC2 (NE 555) configured as a monostable multivibrator. As a result, relay EL1 is activated for a preset time. The water pump starts immediately to supply water to the plants. As soon as the soil becomes sufficiently wet, the resistance between sensor probes decreases rapidly. This causes pin 1 of op-amp N1 to go high. LED1 glows to indicate the presence of adequate water in the soil. The threshold point at which the output of op-amp N1 goes low can be changed with the help of preset VR1. To arrange the circuit, insert copper wires in the soil to a depth of about 2 cm, keeping them 3 cm apart. When the soil gets dried, adjust VR1 towards ground rail until LED1 turn off and relay RL1 is energized. The motor starts pumping the water. LED1 glows up as the water reaches the probes. For small areas small pump such as the one used in air coolers is able to pump enough water within 5 to 6 seconds. The timing components for IC2 are selected accordingly. The timing can be varied with the help of preset VR2. The circuit is more effective indoors if one intends to use it for long periods. This is because the water from reservoir (bucket, etc.)evaporates rapidly if it is kept in the open. For regulating the flow of water, either a tap can be used or one end of a rubber pipe can be blocked using M-seal compound, with holes pun

List of Components Used:

Sr.no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Equipment Step down transformer Diode Capacitor Resistor IC 555 IC 324 Dew sensor Water Motor IC regulator LED Relay NPN transistor

Quantity 1 5 4 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

WORKING
Irrigation is the key to a successful garden. Long gone are the days of manual watering or relying on a friend to water when you are on vocation or away on business. The project presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for vocation .the circuit comprises sensor parts built using op-amp LM324. Opamp is configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense the weather the soil is wet or dry .The comparator monitors the sensor and when sensor sense the dry condition then the project will switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when sensor is wet.the comparator does the above job it reciees the signals from the sensors. To arrange the circuit,insert copper wires in the soil to a depth of about 2cms,keeping them 3cms apart. For small areas a small pump such as the one used in air coolersis able to pump enough water with in 5 to 6 seconds.the timing components for the timer are selected accordingly. The timing can be varied with the help of preset voltage . The circuit is more effective indoors if one intends to use it for long periods. This is because the water from reservoir(bucket, etc) evaporates rapidly if it is kept in the open. For regulating the flow of water, either a tap can be used or one end of a rubber pipe can be blocked using M-seal compound, with holes punctured along its length to water several plants. The circuit presented here waters your plants regularly when you are out for a vacation.The circuit comprise a sensor part built using only one op-amp(N1) of quad op-amp IC LM324.Op-amp N1 is configured here as a comparator.Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil containing plants.As long as the soil is wet, conductivity is maintained and the circuit remains is maintained and the circuit remain off. When the soil dries out, the resistance between the copper wire (sensor probes A and B) increases. If the resistance increases beyond a preset limit, output pin 1 of op-amp N1 goes low. This triggers timer IC2 (NE 555) configured as a monostable multivibrator. As a result, relay EL1 is activated for a preset time. The water pump starts immediately to supply water to the plants. As soon as the soil becomes sufficiently wet, the resistance between sensor probes decreases rapidly. This causes pin 1 of op-amp N1 to go high. LED1 glows to indicate the presence of adequate water in the soil. The threshold point at which the output of op-amp N1 goes low can be changed with the help of preset VR1. To arrange the circuit, insert copper wires in the soil to a depth of about 2 cm, keeping them 3 cm apart. When the soil gets dried, adjust VR1 towards ground rail until LED1 turn off and relay RL1 is energized. The motor starts pumping the water. LED1 glows up as the water reaches the probes. For small areas small pump such as the one used in air coolers is able to pump enough water within 5 to 6 seconds. The timing components for IC2 are selected accordingly. The timing can be varied with the help of preset VR2.

The circuit is more effective indoors if one intends to use it for long periods. This is because the water from reservoir (bucket, etc.)evaporates rapidly if it is kept in the open. For regulating the flow of water, either a tap can be used or one end of a rubber pipe can be blocked using M-seal compound, with holes punctured along its length to water several plants.

POWER SUPPLY

The most common form of nine-volt battery is commonly called the transistor battery, introduced for the early transistor radios. This is a rectangular prism shape with rounded edges and a polarized snap connector at the top. This type is commonly used in pocket radios, smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, guitar effect units, and radio-controlled vehicle controllers. They are also used as backup power to keep the time in certain electronic clocks. This format is commonly available in primary carbon-zinc and alkaline chemistry, in primary lithium iron disulfide, and in rechargeable form in nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. Mercury oxide batteries in this form have not been manufactured in many years due to their

mercury

content.

This type is designated NEDA 1604, IEC 6F22 and "Ever Ready" type PP3 (zinc-carbon) or MN1604[1] 6LR61 (alkaline).

Most nine-volt alkaline batteries are constructed of six individual 1.5V LR61 cells enclosed in a wrapper.[2] These cells are slightly smaller than LR8D425 AAAA cells and can be used in their place for some devices, even though they are 3.5 mm shorter. Carbon-zinc types are made with six flat cells in a stack, enclosed in a moisture-resistant wrapper to prevent drying. As of 2007, 9-volt batteries accounted for 4% of alkaline primary battery sales in the US. In Switzerland as of 2008, 9-volt batteries totalled 2% of primary battery sales and 2% of secondary battery sales. [3] [4] Other nine-volt batteries of different sizes exist, such as the British "Ever Ready" PP series and certain lantern batteries.

Connectors

9v Battery Snap. The battery has both terminals in a snap connector on one end. The smaller circular (male) terminal is positive, and the larger hexagonal or octagonal (female) terminal is the negative contact. The connectors on the battery are the same as on the connector itself; the smaller one connects to the larger one and vice versa.[5] The same snap style connector is used on other battery types in thePower Pack (PP) series. Battery polarization is normally obvious since mechanical connection is usually only possible in one configuration. A problem with this style of connector is that it is very easy to connect two batteries together in a short circuit, which quickly discharges both batteries, generating heat and possibly a fire. The clips on the ninevolt battery can be used to connect several nine-volt batteries in series to create higher voltage.

Technical specifications
These batteries are commonly named 9-volt, and also colloquially named PP3, Radio battery, Square (sic) battery, and Japan "006P". They all have a rectangular shape; the dimensions are height 48.5 mm, length 26.5 mm, width 17.5 mm (or 1.9"x1.0"x0.68"). Both terminals are at one end and their centres are 12.7 mm apart. Inside an alkaline or carbon-zinc 9-volt battery there are six cells, either cylindrical or flat type, connected in series. Some brands use welded tabs internally to attach to the cells, others press foil strips against the ends of the cells. Rechargeable nickelcadmium (NiCd) and Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries have between six and eight 1.2 volt cells. Lithium versions use three 3.2 V cells - there is a rechargeable lithium polymer version. There is also a low self-discharge NiMH version. Formerly, mercury batteries were made in this size. They had higher capacity than carbon-zinc types, a nominal voltage of 8.4 volts, and very stable voltage output. Once used in photographic and measuring instruments or long-life applications, they are now unavailable due to environmental restrictions.

IC LM324
LM324 is a 14pin IC consisting of four independent operational amplifiers (op-amps) compensated in a single package. Op-amps are high gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. The output voltage is many times higher than the voltage difference between input terminals of an op-amp. These op-amps are operated by a single power supply LM324 and need for a dual supply is eliminated. They can be used as amplifiers, comparators, oscillators, rectifiers etc. The conventional op-amp applications can be more easily implemented with LM324.

Compretor

Here electrodes acts as a sensors. For different conditions we have different voltages The different voltages are sensed by the comparator Here we are using LM324 as a comparator the water/liquid comes in contact with the electrode tip, a conductive path is established between the sense electrode and the tank wall/reference electrode. This current is sensed, amplified and made to operate a relay whose contacts in turn can be used for annunciation/control.

Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:
Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Function Output of 1st comparator Inverting input of 1st comparator Non-inverting input of 1st comparator Supply voltage; 5V (up to 32V) Non-inverting input of 2nd comparator Inverting input of 2nd comparator Output of 2nd comparator Output of 3rd comparator Inverting input of 3rd comparator Non-inverting input of 3rd comparator Ground (0V) Non-inverting input of 4th comparator Inverting input of 4th comparator Output of 4th comparator Name Output 1 Input 1Input 1+ Vcc Input 2+ Input 2Output 2 Output 3 Input 3Input 3+ Ground Input 4+ Input 4Output 4

RESISTOR
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Resistor

A typical axial-lead resistor A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:

where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher

power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. In a high-voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor. Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance; these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp, the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. [1] A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and the position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.

LED

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light sources. The light emitted from LEDs varies from visible to infrared and ultraviolet regions. They operate on low voltage and power. LEDs are one of the most common electronic components and are mostly used as indicators in circuits. They are also used for luminance and optoelectronic applications.

Based on semiconductor diode, LEDs emit photons when electrons recombine with holes on forward biasing. The two terminals of LEDs are anode (+) and cathode (-) and can be identified by their size. The longer leg is the positive terminal or anode and shorter one is negative terminal.

The forward voltage of LED (1.7V-2.2V) is lower than the voltage supplied (5V) to drive it in a circuit. Using an LED as such would burn it because a high current would destroy its p-n gate. Therefore a current limiting resistor is used in series with LED. Without this resistor, either low input voltage (equal to forward voltage) or PWM (pulse width modulation) is used to drive the LED. Get details about internal structure of a LED.

Pin Diagram:

14839 reads

TRANSISTOR

Transistor is a active electronic component and a semiconductor device. Transistors are made from semiconductor materials and have three or more terminals. In general, NPN and PNP are two types of transistors. P and N refer P-type (holes are majority carriers) and N-type(electrons are majority carriers) semiconductor materials formed from silicon or germanium.

Three terminals of a transistor are Base (b), Emitter (e) and Collector (c). The doping concentration or impurities added in terminal of base is very less and in collector is high. The impurities or doping in emitter is slightly greater than collector. The three regions of Base,Emitter and Collector are separated by junctions. Since the transistor have two junctions, It is known as Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT).

For the analysis of NPN transistor, it can be thought of two diodes with common anode. As positive voltage is given between emitter-base junction, it forward biases that junction and Reverse bias is applied to collector-base junction.The current flows from collector to emitter.

To make the transistor in conduction state, voltage between base and emitter (VBE) should be in minimum value and that minimum possible voltage is known as cut in voltage. The total transistor current, that is nothing but emitter current, is sum of other two terminals currrent. IE = IB + IC The symbol of a NPN transistor :

In PNP transistors,base-collector junction is forward biased and base-emitter junction is reverse biased.Current flow takes place from emitter to collector. Transistors, especially Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), depend on both electrons and holes to current flow.

The symbol of a PNP transistor :

A transistor circuit can be connected in three ways. Common base (CB), Common emitter (CE) and Common collector (CC) configurations are three types of connections. Most of the transistor circuits are connected in Common emitter configuration (CE) where ground terminals of power source are connected to emitter.

Transistors are used for various functions like switching and amplifying. In switching, base and emitter voltage is same and current is either off or on depending on base voltage.It is used for high power application like switched mode power supply and low power application like logic gates.

VARIABLE RESISTOR

A variable resistor is a potentiometer with only two connecting wires instead of three. However, although the actual component is the same, it does a very different job. The pot allows us to control the potential passed through a circuit. The variable resistance lets us adjust the resistance between two points in a circuit. A variable resistance is useful when we don't know in advance what resistor value will be required in a circuit. By using pots as an adjustable resistor we can set the right value once the circuit is working. Controls like this are often called 'presets' because they are set by the manufacturer before the circuit is sent to the customer. They're usually hidden away inside the case of the equipment, away from the fingers of the users!

Variable resistors consist of a resistance track with connections at both ends and a wiper which moves along the track as you turn the spindle. The track may be made from carbon, cermet (ceramic and metal mixture) or a coil of wire (for low resistances). The track is usually rotary but straight track versions, usually called sliders, are also available. Variable resistors may be used as a rheostat with two connections (the wiper and just one end of the track) or as a potentiometer with all three connections in use. Miniature versions called presets are made for setting up circuits which will not require further adjustment. Variable resistors are often called potentiometers in books and catalogues. They are specified by their maximum resistance, linear or logarithmic track, and their physical size. The standard spindle diameter is 6mm. Some variable resistors are designed to be mounted directly on the circuit board, but most are for mounting through a hole drilled in the case containing the circuit with stranded wire connecting their terminals to the circuit board.

CAPACITOR

A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance,

measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called plates, referring to an early means of construction. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies, in electric power transmission systems for stabilizing voltage and power flow, and for many other purposes.

555 TIMER IC

[[ The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one package. Introduced in 1972 by Signetics, the 555 is still in widespread use, thanks to its ease of use, low price, and good stability. It is now made by many companies in the original bipolar and also in lowpower CMOS types. As of 2003, it was estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year.

Design
The IC was designed in 1971 by Hans Camenzind under contract to Signetics, which was later acquired by Philips.

Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes 25 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8).[2] Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip), and the two 558 & 559s (both a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally, and TR is falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range, 0 C to +70 C, and the SE555 part number designated the military temperature range, 55 C to +125 C. These were available in both high -reliability metal can (T package) and inexpensive epoxy plastic (V package) packages. Thus the full part numbers were NE555V, NE555T, SE555V, and SE555T. It has been hypothesized that the 555 got its name from the three 5 k resistors used within,[3] but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary.[1] Low-power versions of the 555 are also available, such as the 7555 and CMOS TLC555.[4] The 7555 is designed to cause less supply noise than the classic 555 and the manufacturer claims that it usually does not require a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a decoupling capacitor on the power supply. Such a practice should nevertheless be avoided, because noise produced by the timer or variation in power supply voltage might interfere with other parts of a circuit or influence its threshold voltages.

Pin Diagram:

Pin Description:

Pin No 1 2

Function

Name

Ground (0V)

Ground

Voltage below 1/3 Vcc to Trigger trigger the pulse

3 4

Pulsating output

Output

Active low; interrupts the Reset timing interval at Output

Provides access to the Control internal voltage divider; Voltage default 2/3 Vcc

The pulse ends when the Threshold voltage is greater than Control

Open collector output; to Discharge discharge the capacitor

Supply voltage; 5V (4.5V Vcc - 16 V)

Modes
The 555 has three operating modes:

Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on.

Astable: free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms,pulse position modulation and so on. The 555 can be used as a simple ADC, converting an analog value to a pulse length. E.g. selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and even provide calibration means.

Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce-free latched switches.edit

RELAYS

Relay is an electromagnetic device which is used to isolate two circuits electrically and connect them magnetically. They are very useful devices and allow one circuit to switch another one while they are completely separate. They are often used to interface an electronic circuit (working at a low voltage) to an electrical circuit which works at very high voltage. For example, a relay can make a 5V DC battery circuit to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. Thus a small sensor circuit can drive, say, a fan or an electric bulb.

A relay switch can be divided into two parts: input and output. The input section has a coil which generates magnetic field when a small voltage from an electronic circuit is applied to it. This voltage is called the operating voltage. Commonly used relays are available in different configuration of operating voltages like 6V, 9V, 12V, 24V etc. The output section consists of contactors which connect or disconnect mechanically. In a basic relay there are three contactors: normally open (NO), normally closed (NC) and common (COM). At no input state, the COM is connected to NC. When the operating voltage is applied the relay coil gets energized and the COM changes contact to NO. Different relay configurations are available like SPST, SPDT, DPDT etc, which have different number of changeover contacts. By using proper combination of contactors, the electrical circuit can be switched on and off. Get inner details about structure of a relay switch.

Pin Diagram:

In a relay's most basic function, the switching of a load circuit is controlled

by a low power, electrically isolated input signal. In the past,

Electromechanical Relays (EMRs) have been the component of choice, largely

due to price, function, and availability. Now, however, the emergence of

semiconductor technology has provided the means to manufacture solid-state

relays (SSRs), which in many applications outperform their predecessors.

Solid-state relays provide the advantages of almost infinite switching lives,

bounce-free operation, and immunity to EMI, higher operating speeds, low-

level control signals, small package size, and multi-function integration. These

advantages can save the design engineer board space, component count, time

and

money

while

improving

product

life,

performance,

and

reliability.

Solid State Optronics, Inc. has been a leader in the design, development, and

production of low cost, high performance SSRs over the past 15 years. SSO

offers a wide range of MOSFET & SCR based relays, complemented by a

growing selection of multifunction telecommunication components. By reducing

cost and package size while increasing function and performance, solid state

relays from SSO now serve as a viable and superior option to electromechanical

relays. This application note will compare the operation of a typical EMR to that

of a solid state relay, and examine advantages of each in different types of

applications. The Electromechanical Relay

Figure 1 shows the topology of a typical electro-mechanical relay. An input

voltage is applied to the coil mechanism. The input voltage magnetizes the core

which pulls the arm towards it. This action causes the output contacts to touch,

closing the load circuit. When the input voltage is removed, the spring lever will

push the contacts away from each other, breaking the load circuit connection.

Inherent in its design, the EMR must make mechanical contacts in order to

switch a load. At the point of these contacts, oxidation breakdown occurs over

extended life cycling (typically 106 operations), and the relay will need to be

replaced. When an EMR is activated, bounce occurs at the contact site. Bounce

creates a window of time where the load circuit is flickering between open and

closed, a condition which may need to be considered in load design. Because

there are internal mechanical components with physical dimension restraints, the

package size of an EMR can limit the size of a PCB design. Isolation voltage is

another area where EMRs are limited. Most EMRs are typically rated for

minimum input to output isolation voltages of 1500 to 2000 VAC.

Figure:1electromechanical Relay (EMR) The Solid State Relay

Figure 2 shows the topology of a typical 1 Form A, MOSFET based SSR. An

input current is applied to the LED, which in most cases is a Gallium Arsenide

(GaAs) infrared LED. The emitted light is reflected within an optical dome,

generally constructed of a gel-like lensing material, onto a series of photo

diodes. The photodiodes generate a resulting voltage which, through driver

circuitry,

is

used

to

control

the

gates

of

two

MOSFETs.

All of the components are fabricated out of semiconductor material and as a

result, the solid state relay combines many operational characteristics not found

in other types of devices. Because there are no moving parts, solid state relays

have established switching lives of more than 1010 cycles, and exhibit bounce-

free operation. The input LEDs require low signal levels (<5mA) to guarantee

operation, making SSRs ideal for TTL and CMOS controlled circuits or

products where low power consumption is a necessity. The input to output

isolation of solid state relays is determined by material properties of the molding

compound and lensing material. These properties allow for minimum isolation

voltages of 2500 VAC and up to 5000 VAC in some cases. As semiconductor

technology has developed smaller and smaller components, the overall package

size of solid state relays has shrunk, allowing the designer to conserve PCB

space, and makes them valuable in PCMCIA applications.

Solid State Relay (SSR) SSR Output Types

The most common SSR output type is the low threshold MOSFET. Low

threshold devices are more easily controlled by the driver circuitry, and allow

for fast turn-on times (<500mS). Design of the driver circuitry also permits fast . MOSFET gate discharge, translating into quick turn-off times (<100mS). Two

MOSFETs inversely connected in series allows for bi-directional control of DC

and AC signals with frequencies into the RF range. Typical blocking voltages

range from 250Vpp to 400Vpp, with continuous loads of up to 300mA.

A second type of SSR output is the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). This type

of output is designed for AC loads only, and exhibits tight, zero-volt switching.

High dV/dt characteristics allow this type of device to control highly inductive

loads (PF > 0.3), and driver circuit design prevents false triggering. Typcial

blocking voltages range from 400Vpp to 700Vpp, with continuous loads of up to . 12Amps.

SSRs

vs.

EMRs

By the nature of design, one can see the differences between an

electromechanical relay and a solid-state relay. In an effort to demonstrate

inherent advantages of each type of relay, the following characteristics should

be examined: Service Life, Reliability, Isolation Voltage, On Resistance,

Capacitance and Package Dimensions.

Service Life: Because of solid-state technology, the SSR definitely exhibits

a longer operational life. Since there are no moving parts to jam, degrade or

warp, the life span is virtually infinite.

Reliability: During initial operation, both types of relay will exhibit similar

levels of reliability. Over time, however, the solid state relay will gain the edge

for the same reasons it has a longer service life, there are no moving parts.

Also, bounce free operation increases reliability and ensures consistent load

control.

Isolation Voltage: Again, by the characteristics of construction, the solid-

state relay will almost always exhibit higher input to output isolation voltages

than an electromechanical relay. For many telecommunication applications, a

minimum of 3750VAC is desired, clearly making the SSR the optimal choice

in telecom design.

On Resistance: Electromechanical relays have an On Resistance in the range

of 100 milliohms, whereas SSRs have an On Resistance in the range of 10

Ohms. The higher On Resistance of SSRs is due to the nature of the MOSFET.

The low On Resistance of the EMR allows for greater load current capability

and less signal attenuation.

Output Capacitance: Electromechanical relays typically have an output

capacitance of less than 1 picoFarad, whereas SSRs typically have a

capacitance of greater than 20 picoFarads. Capacitance becomes an issue in

high frequency signals, and EMRs are a better option for HF applications.

Package Dimensions: The internal components of the relays control the

overall package dimensions. Because there are mechanical parts (coil, core,

arm, contact lever arms, spring mechanism) within the EMR, the package size

is limited to the physical dimensions of functional internal components. The

SSR on the other hand, is limited to only the size of the semiconductor

components, and is clearly capable of being manufactured in a much smaller

package.

Why

Solid

State

Relays?

Although there are advantages to using both types of relays, solid-state relays are fast

becoming the better choice in many applications, especially throughout the

telecommunication and microprocessor control industries. The high reliability and

long life mean less field failures and better product performance. Low input signal

levels are ideal for TTL or CMOS applications, and less power consumption

translates to longer batter life in potable devices.

The overwhelming advantages of solid-state relays lie in the isolation voltage,

package dimensions and multifunction capabilities. These advantages are

increasingly

becoming

apparent

in

the

telecom

industry.

For most tele-communication applications, especially those in Europe, high

input to output isolation voltage is required. Typical standards require a

minimum input to output isolation voltage of 2500VAC. Not only do solid-

state

relays

meet

these

requirements,

most

far

surpass

them.

Figure 3 shows a comparison between the package volumes and footprints of

an EMR and an SSR.

Figure 3: Package Comparison

From the figure, it is evident just how much using a solid-state relay can save

board space. The lower height lets the solid-state relay easily fit into PCMCIA

applications, making it ideal for laptop and palmtop modems. The smaller footprint

means less board space, allowing more real estate for other components, and

creating

fewer

design

restraints.

Finally, multifunction capabilities place SSRs in a class by themselves.

Semiconductor technology has allowed the fabrication of small, multi-purpose

telecommunication relays where one device can handle both hook switch and loop

current or ring detect functions. Even more complex is a device, which combines a

1, Form A relay, Opto-coupler, Darlington Transistor, and Bridge Rectifier all

within a small, 16 pin SOIC package. These multifunction relays give the design

engineer unparalleled flexibility in developing new and innovative fax/modem

products.

Cost Issues

In the past, there has been a rather large gap between the price of an

electromechanical relay and the price of a solid-state relay. For a basic 1 Form A

SSR, the price was as high as several dollars more than an EMR. With continual

advancement in manufacturing technology, this gap has been reduced dramatically

making the advantages of solid-state technology accessible to a growing number

of

design

engineers.

Relay

Applications

In general, the point of a relay is to use a small amount of power in the

electromagnet -- coming, say, from a small dashboard switch or a low-

power electronic circuit -- to move an armature that is able to switch a

much larger amount of power. For example, you might want the

electromagnet to energize using 5 volts and 50 milliamps (250 milliwatts),

while the armature can support 120V AC at 2 amps (240 watts).

Relays are quite common in home appliances where there is an electronic control

turning on something like a motor or a light. They are also common in cars, where

the 12V supply voltage means that just about everything needs a large amount of

current. In later model cars, manufacturers have started combining relay panels into

the fuse box to make maintenance easier. For example, the six gray boxes in this

photo of a Ford Windstar fuse box are all relays:

in places where a large amount of power needs to be switched, relays are

often cascaded. In this case, a small relay switches the power needed to drive a

much larger relay, and that second relay switches the power to drive the load.

Relays can also be used to implement Boolean logic. See how Boolean logic

works more information.

DEW SENSOR

Dew (condensed moisture) ad- versely affects the normal per- formance of sensitive electronic devices. A low-cost circuit described here can be used to switch off any gadget automatically in case of excessive humidity. At the heart of the circuit is an inexpensive (resistor type) dew sensor element. Although dew sensor elements are widely used in video cassette players and recorders, these may not be easily available in local market. However, the same can be procured from authorised service centres of reputed companies. The author used the dew sensor for FUNAI VCP model No. V.I.P. 3000A (Part No: 6808-08-04, reference no. 336) in his prototype. In practice, it is observed that all dew sensors available for video application possess the same electrical characteristics irrespective of their physical shape/size, and hence are interchangeable and can be used in this project. The circuit is basically a switching type circuit made with the help of a popular dual op-amp IC LM358N which is configured here as a comparator. (Note that only one half of the IC is used here.) Under normal conditions, resistance of the dew sensor is low (1 kilo-ohm or so) and thus the voltage at its non-inverting terminal (pin 3) is low compared to that at its inverting input (pin 2) terminal. The corresponding output of the comparator (at pin 1) is accordingly low and thus nothing happens in the circuit. When humidity exceeds 80 per cent, the sensor resistance increases rapidly. As a result, the noninverting pin becomes more positive than the inverting pin. This pushes up the output of IC1 to a high level. As a consequence, the LED inside the opto-coupler is energised. At the same time LED1 provides a visual indication. The opto-coupler can be suitably interfaced to any electronic device for switching purpose. Circuit comprising diode D2, resistors R5 and R6 and capacitor C1 forms a low-voltage, low-current power supply unit. This simple arrangement obviates the requirement for a bulky and expensive step-down transformer.

DC MOTOR

In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization).

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that BEAMers will see), the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets. The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to

the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue rotating. In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. You can imagine how with our example two-pole motor, if the rotor is exactly at the middle of its rotation (perfectly aligned with the field magnets), it will get "stuck" there. Meanwhile, with a two-pole motor, there is a moment where the commutator shorts out the power supply (i.e., both brushes touch both commutator contacts simultaneously). This would be bad for the power supply, waste energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque "ripple" (the amount of torque it could produce is cyclic with the position of the rotor). So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the workings of one via an interactive animation (JavaScript required):

'll notice a few things from this -- namely, one pole is fully energized at a time (but two others are "partially" energized). As each brush transitions from one commutator contact to the next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will rapidly charge up (this occurs within a few microsecond). We'll see more about the effects of this later, but in the meantime you can see that this is a direct result of the coil windings' series wiring: There's probably no better way to see how an average DC motor is put together, than by just opening one up. Unfortunately this is tedious work, as well as requiring the destruction of a perfectly good motor Luckily for you, I've gone ahead and done this in your stead. The guts of a disassembled Mabuchi FF-030PN motor (the same model that Solarbotics sells) are available for you to see here (on 10 lines / cm graph paper). This is a basic 3-pole DC motor, with 2 brushes and three commutator contacts

. The use of an iron core armature (as in the Mabuchi, above) is quite common, and has a number of advantages2. First off, the iron core provides a strong, rigid support for the windings -- a particularly important consideration for high-torque motors. The core also conducts heat away from the rotor windings,

allowing the motor to be driven harder than might otherwise be the case. Iron core construction is also relatively inexpensive compared with other construction types. But iron core construction also has several disadvantages. The iron armature has a relatively high inertia which limits motor acceleration. This construction also results in high winding inductances which limit brush and commutator life. In small motors, an alternative design is often used which features a 'coreless' armature winding. This design depends upon the coil wire itself for structural integrity. As a result, the armature is hollow, and the permanent magnet can be mounted inside the rotor coil. Coreless DC motors have much lower armature inductance than iron-core motors of comparable size, extending brush and commutator life.

ADVANTAGE
Simple to design and install This is very useful to all climatic conditions and it is economic friendly. This makes increase in productivity and reduces water consumption. Low cost. Reduce soil erosion and nutrient leaching. Reduce the chance of plant disease by keeping foliage dry. Fit and forgot system Highly sensitive Works according to the soil condition Fit and Forget system Low cost and reliable circuit Complete elimination of manpower Can handle heavy loads up to 7A System can be switched into manual mode whenever required

APPLICATION
Roof Gardens Lawns Agriculture Lands Home Gardens

CONCLUSION
The project work Automatic Plant Watering System Depending On Soil

Condition is successfully designed tested and a demo unit is fabricated. Since it is

a demonstration unit, facility is provided only for two solenoid valves, but for real

application hundreds of valves may be used depending upon the area of the field.

In this project work the required power supply for the entire circuitry is derived

from the main source, since the circuitry to be installed at fields, and availability of

conventional energy at fields may be difficult, therefore this supply can be generated

using solar energy. For this purpose suitable solar panel can be utilized for charging

the battery and the stored energy from the battery can be utilized to generate required

power supply for the circuitry.

REFERENCE