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LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING
CHINESE-ENGLISH

WITH INTRODUCTION, TRANSLITERATION, AND NOTES

By DR.

PAUL CARUS

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REQUITE HATRED WITH GOODNESS

LAO-TZE,

63

CHICAGO
THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY
(London
:

Kegan Paul, Trench, Truebner & 1898

Co.)

W&m

-;

\>

39433
The
copyright by Open Court Publishing Co.
1898.

iT04-3
CXaA.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
:

PAGE

Lao-Tze and His Philosophy

The Old Philosopher The Fundamental


The
Principle of Lao-Tze's Philosophy.
.

9
17

Ideal of Lao-Tze's Ethics

Taoism Before and After Lao-Tze


(Quotations in the Tao- Teh- King 30-34; Lao-Tze
>

30

and Confucius, 34-38


38-41-)

Taoism After Lao-Tze,

The Present Edition


Pronunciation

of the

Tao-Teh-King

42

48
in

Lao-Tze's Tao-Teh-King

Chinese

49
51

S]JISJtB5&*4g

m*mmm
English Translation
Sze-Ma-Ch'ien on Lao Tze

53

93 95
.
.

The Old

Philosopher's

Canon on Reason and Virtue


.

97 139
141

Transliteration of the Text, Chinese-English.


Sze-Ma-Ch'ien on Lao-Tze

The Old
Index

Philosopher's

Canon on Reason and Virtue

147

Notes and Comments


t

275
,
,

...

325

INTRODUCTION

THE OLD PHILOSOPHER.

* *
1AO-TZE, 1
or "the old philosopher/'
is

the desig-

j nation of one of the most remarkable thinkers of mankind. He was a Chinese who lived in the sixth century B.C., and left to the world the Tao-Teh-King, a small book on Reason and Virtue, winch not only exercised a powerful influence upon his countrymen but is also worthy to be compared with the sacred scripIt is tures of the Buddhists and the New Testament. on account of the similarities which, in spite of many differences, obtain between the teachings of Lao-Tze and those of Buddha and Christ that the Tao-TehKing is an indispensable book and no one w ho is interested in religion can afford to leave it unread.
T

The date of Lao-Tze' s birth 2 is the third year of the Emperor Ting-wang of the Cho dynasty, w hich
T

corresponds to the year 604 B. C. (Li), means PlumLao-Tze's family name, tree. His proper name, Jf (Er), 3 means Ear. His

appellation was if | (Po Yang), viz.,


1 The diphthong ao sounds like ow in " how," the the short u in " but." On pronunciation see page 48.
2

"Count
"Tze
"

of the

e in

resembles

Mart. Martin's Hist. Sinica,

p. 133

and Duhalde L,

p. 248,

Other transcriptions are Ur, Err, and 'Rk,

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

Positive Principle," representing manliness, the sun,

and the South

2
;

his

posthumous

title

was

Jffc

(Tan)

long-lobed, long lobes being a sign of virtue. But the

people called him simply


philosopher.

^t^

(Lao-Tze),

the old

He

is

also frequently

named

^^(Lao

and 5T 5il (Lao Er), the old child, which means, " he who even as an old man remains childlike. His followers, the Taoists, speak of hirru as >fcJL^f| (t'ai shang lao chiin), the greatly eminent ancient master, or simply jfcJt (t'ai shang), the greatly Eminent One. Lao-Tze was born in f3Hl2 (^Ch'u-Jhren,) a village in (Li-county) belonging to the (K'u province) of the state J| (Ch'u). Abel Rmusat 2 states on the authority of Kwang-Yu-Ki (VI. ,15) that
Chiin), the ancient sire, master, or prince;
,
'

^M

"Ch'u-J/iren
province Ho-nan

is

situated in the vicinity of the present city of

Lu~i, a town of the third order, belonging to Kwei-te-foo of the


(lat.

34

north, long. o 54' west of Peking)."

Robert K. Douglas, professor of sinology at Oxford, England, calls attention to the strange coincidence that the name of the hamlet Ch'u-Jhren, LaoTze's place of birth, means "oppressed benevolence "; Li, the parish to which it belongs, means "cruelty";
K'u, the
C/i ( u,

name

of

the district,

the philosopher's native state,


3

means "bitterness "; means "sufferCity of

ing."

He

adds

"If these places were as mythical as John Bunyan's

Destruction' and 'Vanity Fair,' their names could not have been

who was

more appropriately chosen to designate the birthplace of a sage driven from office and from friends by the disorders of
the time."
1

Society in China, p. 403.


36, p. 10

For yang see the K'anghi, Vol.

A.

MSmoire sur

la vie et les opinions de Lao-Tseu, p. 4.


is

Professor Douglas's method of transcription

Chujen, Li, K'u, and Ts u


y

INTRODUCTION.

Considering tne denunciations which Lao-Tze hurled against both " oppression " and " false benevolence "; and the " bitterness " and " sufferings " which

he had to endure, the meaning of these names seems startling enough, and were these places not actually in existence they would suggest that Lao-Tze's birth and life were a myth. But Professor Douglas might have added that the coincidence, interesting though it is, is not as remarkable as it appears to Europeans who are unacquainted with the peculiarities of the Chinese language which make such a play of words
possible and quite
in

common

for

puns are

far easier

Chinese than even in French. Let us look at each name more closely.
iffi

(C/i'zi)

bend," then
finally, in

means "crooked" or, as a noun, "a "scheming," "false," "forced," and

the sense of the

German phrase

gebundene
ditties,

Rede,

it

denotes "verses," especially "songs,

(JC1, Vol. 17, p. 12 B; W. S. >., p. 458.) iZ (y/iren 1 ) means "that which is enclosed, or the kernel of a thing"; then "the essence of man's heart or humaneness"; it also means "the humane or good man." (K. Vol. 6, p. 1 A.) Should the name Ch'uJhren be translated according to its proper meaning, it probably ought to be "Good Man's Bend," that is to say, a bend in a valley named after a person whose epithet w as "the good man." Jji| (Li) means "whetstone; grinding; oppression; danger; disorder." As a verb it means "to grind; to chide to goad." The name might be translated in English as "Grinding," and Li Hsiang would be "grinding county." It may have been called so on
y T
;

and ballads."

1 Jhr is a peculiar r-sound. Jhren (commonly transcribed Jen) nounced almost like the English word " wren." (See page 48.)

is

pro-

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

account of being a place where whetstones were found,


or made, or sold.

(K'anghi, Vol.

^
dition,
ing. "

{K
As
;

u)

is

the

name of

7, p. 47 A.) the common-thistle.


;

In ad-

the word means "


a

bitter

unpleasant

mortify-

hasten
7 A;

to

means "affliction"; as a verb, "to be sick." K'u Hien, accordingly, might be


noun
it

translated " thistle province."

(K'anghi, Vol. 29, p.

Williams's Syl. Diet., p. 436.)


(C/t'u)

means "a bramble bush" or " a clump As an adjective it means "full of spines, of trees." full of thorns," denoting at the same time "distress"

tS

and "pain." If we can translate the name Ch'u at all we might call it "the state of the bramble-bush" or "the state of briars." In addition to all these meanings, the word Ch'u means "orderly; well done;
properly finished." 1

What

a choice of allusions can!

not be had in Chinese names

As

to the authenticity of the

Tao-Teh-King and

life, there can be Sze-Ma-Ch'ien, the Herodotus of pj HjH 2 Chinese history, has embodied a brief account of LaoTze's life in his famous j fjj (Sht-Ki), or Historical Records, which were completed in -91 B. C. Sze-Ma-Ch'ien's report of Lao-Tze's life is very It consists only of two hundred and forty-eight terse. words, but is full of interest and very important as the most reliable account that has been handed down to For these reasons it has been inlater generations. corporated in the present edition as a kind of preface which will splendidly serve as an authentic historical introduction to the Tao-Teh-King.

the historical reality of Lao-Tze's

no doubt,

See Williams's

S. JD., p. 94,

and K'anghi, Vol.

18, p. 28

B.
I.,

About

136-85 B. C.

See Mayers's Chinese Readers' Manual,

No.

660.

INTRODUCTION.

But even before Sze-Ma-Ch'ien, Lao-Tze has been mentioned, commented upon, and largely quoted by
a
is

number

of his disciples,

the oldest,

among whom Lieh-Tze 1 and Chwang-Tze 2 the most ingenious

and most famous. Literal quotations from the TaoTeh-King in the writings of Lieh-Tze, of Han-FiTze, 3 of Chwang-Tze, of Liu-An, 4 of the historian Sze-Ma-Ch'ien himself, and of other authors are so frequent and at the same time so accurate that they verify more than two-thirds of the whole Tao-TehKing. Professor Legge says
:

" I do not

know
of

Tao-Teh-King

of any other book of so ancient a date as the which the authenticity of the origin and the gen5

uineness of the text can claim to be so well substantiated."

While the Tao-Teh-King as a genuine production and Lao-Tze's authorship of the book are beyond dispute, its very existence is a historical problem which has not as yet found its solution. Were Lao-Tze not six hundred years older than Christ, and a hundred years older than Buddha, we should be inclined to believe that he had borrowed his main
of the age,

ideas from either


is

Buddhism

or Christianity

but that

which is impossible. Nevertheless, Professor Douglas believes he finds traces of Brahmanical influence in the Tao-Teh-King, and argues that LaoTze was a descendant of one of the Western nations of the Chinese Empire, which may have been in cona theory
iMayers's Chinese Readers" Manual,
fourth century by Chwang-Tze. 2330 B.
3
I.,

387.

His works were edited


No.

in the

See Mayers's Chinese Readers' Manual,

I,

92.

Schott mentions him as a contemporary of the Emperor (401-374 B. C), while according to Legge he died 230 B. C
4

Ngan-Wang
is

best
5

A philosopher on the throne, for he was the King known as Hwai Nan Tze he died 122 B. C.
;

of

Hwai Nan and

Sacred Books of the East, XXXIX.,

p. 9.

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

nexion with India since olden times. Taking for granted that the name Er, i. e. Ear, was a sobriquet given to Lao-Tze on account of the unusual size of
his ears, Professor
"It
tribes
is

Douglas says

remarkable that the description of his large ears and

general appearance tallies accurately with those of the non-Chinese

on the western frontiers of the empire. His surname, Li, reminds one of the large and important tribe of that name which was dispossessed by the invading Chinese, and was driven to seek refuge in what is now South-Western China. But however that may be, it is impossible to overlook the fact that he imported
also into his teachings a decided flavor of Indian philosophy." {Society

in China, p. 403.)

Douglas goes so far as to find a strong resemblance between Lao-Tze's Tao and the pre-Buddhistic Brahm of the Indian sages, which, however, I am unable to discover. No doubt there are similarities between Indian and Chinese doctrines, but they are too vague and do not prove a common origin and we must
;

bear in mind that certain similarities of doctrines,


nay, also of superstitions, arise naturally in the course
of evolution.

We

must

grant, however, that

when

Lao-Tze resigned his position as custodian of the archives of Cho 1 he went West, which seems to indicate that his sympathies were bound up with those Western people whom his parents may have praised to him as models of simplicity and virtue.
cannot say that the Brahmanical origin of Lao-Tze's philosophy has been proved. The whole proposition remains a vague hypothesis whose main
right to existence consists in the fact that

We

we know

too
l

little

either to substantiate or to refute


(Eitel),

it.

and Chou (Wade).

Other transcriptions are Chau See page 48.

Chow

(Mayers), Cheu (Williams)

THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF


LAO-TZE'S PHILOSOPHY.

idea THE Tze's philosophy

that constitutes the corner-stone of Laois

contained in the word Tao,

which, however,

is

so general and comprehensive a

term, that his propositions naturally would appear to

have existed

universal use of the

vague form long before him. The word gives to his thoughts the appearance of an old doctrine, yet it seems improbable that such an original and extraordinary thinker, as was Lao Tze, could, like Confucius, have been a mere transmitter of traditions. {tad) is a remarkable word. 1 It means The term "path, way, method, or mode of doing a thing," then also, the mode of expressing a thing, or "word " and thus finally it acquires its main meaning, which is reason." As a verb, it means "to walk, or to tread; to
in a

'

'

speak or to declare to argue or to reason." Considering the religious reverence in which the term is held, the expression Tao, meaning "word" and "logical thought" at the same time, presents a close analogy to the Neo-Platonic term \6yoS. The Buddhists use the word Tao as a synonym of (ming), enlightenment,
;

IK'anghz, Vol.

34, p. 21 B.

Williams,

S. D., p. 867.

Eitel, Ch. D., p. 743.

io

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

to translate the Sanskrit

^s

(bodhi),
of

tians

employ

it

in the version

and the Christhe New Testament

term Aoyos, "word." The term "word" in the sense of Logos as used in the New Testament occurs also in the Rig-Veda where the fourth hymn is devoted to the Vdch (latin, vox), "pervading heaven and earth, existing in all the worlds and extending to heaven." Still another striking parallelism is found in the Zoroastrian creed which proclaims that Ahura Mazda, the Lord Omniscient, had created the world by pronouncing the excellent, the pure, and stirring word {Ahwia Vairyo, Honovef), "the word that existed before everything else." The same difficulty which translators encounter in their attempts to find a proper rendering of the term \6yoS, exists for the term Tao. We might translate it "word," or (as does Stanislas Julien) "path," or (as does Gabelentz) "logos;" or we might (as do Chalmers, Legge, and Victor von Strauss) retain the Chinese word Tao. After a long deliberation the author of the present edition has come to the conclusion that the simplest and most ordinary English analogue for Tao, which is "Reason," would be preferable. But in order to remind his readers of the more comprehensive significance of the word, he has in his
for the

translation capitalised

it

throughout.

The Tao
is

is

Kant's

"purely formal."
35).

Thus

it

called

Jf^ {ta chwang), the great form,

{ta hsiang), the great

image 1 (Chap.

and >^f Other expresvacancy,

sions of a similar significance are

(tiao),

or a condition of not being occupied, (see Williams,


S. >., p.

of activity.
1

528) and |t {fhi'), noiselessness, or a void It is the Absolute whose essence is not
means image
or picture.

Plato's term elSos (idea) also

'

INTRODUCTION.

II

concrete being, but abstract law. To characterise the former, the absence of all the concrete reality, it is
called $E (wu), or the non-existent
latter,
;

to characterise the
all

the abstractness of this highest of


it

generali-

sations,

is

called J^ (ch'ung), hollowness, or

(ksu), emptiness, or the void. 1

As the ultimate ground

of existence

it is

called i (hsilen), abyss, an expres-

sion which reminds one of the Neo-Platonic /3v$oS,


of German mystics. (ckwang), form, and Jp. (hsiang), imThe terms age, are commonly used to denote material or concrete forms, but Lao-Tze means pure form, which in his paradoxical mode of speaking is expressed in the terms

and the Urgrund


7

form of the 1 hsiang (wu chih' hsiang), the ^u^.^.^ image of that which has no image, i. e., no concrete shape. In a word, " the form of the formless " means
3i& !fc^v2l !$ (

wu chwang

chih chwang), the

formless, or

the ideal, the abstract, the universal.

Lao-Tze distinguishes two kinds of Tao or Reason (i) the Tao that was in the beginning, that is eternal and immutable, the divine presence, which can be on the right hand and at the same time on the left hand, which is bodiless, immaterial, and not senseand (2) the Tao that is individualised in perceptible
:

lFor chwang see K., Vol. 33, liao(a. vacuum, or void), ib., Vol.
voice
is

p. 6

for shiang,

ib.

Vol.

22, p. 10

A; for
21, p. 8

11, p. 13
ib.,

B
7,

for chih (a state in

which no

heard, perfect stillness),


ib.,

Vol.

p. 10

for wzl,

ib.,

Vol.

for ch'ung,

Vol.

7, p. 8

B.

Compare

also

K., Vol. 30, p. 2 A. Williams defines hsu (-p. 227) passions and able to receive, quiet; a vacant, abstracted, contemplative condition such as Buddhists aim to reach; space." Empty space is to both the Taoists and the Buddhists the symbol of absolute rest. (See, e. g., in Samuel Beal's Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, p. 157, the simile of the restlessness of

W. S. D., p. 109. For hsu see as "empty; vacant; empty of

dust particles in space, while " the nature of space is rest.' Hsu, vacancy, is a synonym of k'ung (IV. S. D., p. 464), ecstasy, trance, transport, which is a favorite term with the Buddhists.
2

The word

chih

is

pronounced ze
it

in

Shanghai, in Canton

chi.

Mr

Candlin of Tientsin transcribes

tzU.

; '

12

LAO-TZE'S TAO-fEH-KING.

living creatures, especially in


i

man. The
is is

latter

denotes

the reasoning powers of


tad),
i*PrJill

man and

called

A jM (Jhren

human Reason

the former

characterised as

(ch'ang tad), the eternal Reason, or

^^

(J Hen

tao),

Heaven's Reason.
it

It is identified

the mysterious abyss of existence.


existence
is

with j (hsiieri), As the mystery of

called

$S^

(wu-ming), the Ineffable


the Root from which

or Nameless.

It is ^J| (ken),

everything proceeds and to which everything returns.

Although the source

of all things,
i.

it

is

itself

^t?M
sui.

(wu-yuen), the Sourceless,

e.,

Spinoza's causa

difference between the eternal Reason, ch'ang and the Reason individualised in man, Jhren tao, is emphasised again and again in the Tao-Teh-King and Chwang-Tze says 1 (Book XL, last paragraph):
tao,

The

or

There is the Tao, or Way, of Heaven and there is the Tao, of Man. Practising non-assertion 2 and yet attracting all honor is the Way of Heaven asserting oneself and being embar'
'

Way,

rassed thereby,

is

the

Way

of
;

Man.
it

plays the part of the lord


part of the servant.
far apart.

is

The Way of They should be clearly

Way of Heaven that Man that plays the Heaven and the Way of Man are
It is

the

the

Way

of

distinguished from each other.

Says Chwang-Tze
"The Tao
is

always one, and yet

it

requires change,"

which means, the Tao is sameness in difference. The same law produces under different conditions different
results.

The Tao
;

is

the world-former, not the world-

creator

it is

not action but law.

Yet

it is

not merely

immanent, it is supernatural and prenatural. It is omnipresent in the world but would exist even though the world did not exist. Says Chwang-Tze (Book VI.):
Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXXIX., p. 306. replace "Doing nothing," which is a misleading translation, by Practising non-assertion for reasons given further on.
I

We

11

'

'

INTRODUCTION.

"If you could hide the world in the world, so that there was nowhere to which it could be removed, this [Tao] would be the grand reality of the ever-enduring thing." {Sacred Books of the
East, XXXIX.,
p. 242.)

of Lao-Tze, which places the Tao beginning of the world, is the echo of a thinker who was engaged with the same problem as the author of the Fourth Gospel. We read in the Tao-Teh-King that the Tao, far from being made by God, must be prior even to God, for God could never have existed without it, and that, therefore, the Tao may claim the
at the

The philosophy

right of priority.

Lao-Tze says

"I know not whose


;

son Reason

(i.

e.,

the eternal Reason) can be. It seems

and, following the to be prior to God " (chapter 4) precedence of the fourth Gospel, Christians will feel inclined to add "uaiSeds rjv 6 \6yos," that is to say, "the Word, the Tao, the Logos, is uncreated, and it is part and parcel of God's being."
:

What

a strange contrast

The Logos

or

Tao

(i.e.,

the eternal rationality that conditions the immutable


is, according to Lao-Tze, God's ancestor or father but according to Christian doctrines, it is the son of God, not created but begotten in eternity. At first sight both statements are contradictory, but is not after all the fundamental significance in either case the same? The highest laws of reason are universal and intrinsically necessary; we cannot even imagine that they ever had been or ever could be non-existent or invalid they have not been fashioned or ordained, they have not been made either by God or man, they are eternal and immutable.

laws of the world-order)

prior to

God

it is

The
nature.

eternal

Reason manifests Chwang-Tze says

itself in

the laws of

14

lao tze's tao-teh-king.

"When

the

body
,

of

man comes from


is

its

special

mould
;

[the

ever-enduring thing]

even then occasion for joy but this body undergoes a myriad transformations, and does not immediately reach its perfection does it not thus afford occasion for joys incalculable ? Therefore the sagely man enjoys himself in
there
;

from which there is no possibility of separation [viz., the and by which all things are preserved. He considers early death or old age, his beginning and his ending, all to be good, and in this other men imitate him how much more will they do so in regard to That Itself on which all things depend, and from which
that

Tao]

every transformation arises!"

{Ibid., p. 243.)

Human
ch'ang-tao,

reason, Jhren-tao, or the reason that can


tao-k'o-tao,

be reasoned,

which

is

contrasted to the
itself

or the

eternal

Reason, shows

in

man's interference with the natural course Chwang-Tze says (Book XVII.):

of things.

'Oxen and horses have four feet. That is what is called the When horses' heads are haltered, and the noses of oxen are pierced, that is called the man-ordained. Therefore it is said: Do not by the man-ordained obliterate the heaven-ordained;
heaven-ordained.

do not for your purposes obliterate the decrees of heaven do not bury your fame in such a pursuit. Carefully persevere in and do not lose it (the Tao). This is what I call reverting to your true
;

(Nature)."

(Ibid., p. 384.)

Man's aspiration should not be to follow that which is merely human in him, but that which is eternal and eternal is alone the Tao, the Reason, the Ultimate Norm of Existence. Thus we find a contrast between (Jhren hsiri), the human heart, and

A^

H^

{tao hsiri), the Rational heart

the former being per-

verse, the latter a realisation of right feeling, right

thinking, and right doing.


1.,

We

read in the Shu-King,

p.

3,

A>i>mfe

m^mWL

*-

Affejn*.

Jhren hsin wei wet, tao hsin wei wei, wei ching wei yi, yun chih chileh chung, "-the human heart is jeopardised;

INTRODUCTION.
but the rational heart
;
;

15
it is

is

subdued [attenuated];

genuine is unified thus it keeps its middle (path). " * Lao-Tze's whole philosophy can be condensed in these words: "Men, as a rule, attempt for personal ends to change the Tao that is eternal they endeavor to create or make a Tao of their own. But when they make, they mar; all they should do is to let the eternal Tao have its way, and otherwise be heedless of
;

consequences, for then


presses the

all will
:

be well."

Christ ex-

same sentiment "Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness and all these things (the necessities of life) shall be added unto you. The Tao is not merely a logical principle, it is not "reason" as we commonly use the term; it is clothed with all the awe and reverence of the highest religious idea. Says Chwang-Tze
;
:

"This
It

is

the

Tao

there

is

in It

does nothing and has no bodily form.

emotion and sincerity, but It may be handed down


It It

(by the teacher), but

may

not be received (by his scholars).

may be apprehended
.

(by the mind), but

cannot be perceived

[by the senses] It has Its root and ground in itself. Before there were heaven and earth, from of old, there It was, securely existing. From It came the mysterious existences of spirits, from It the mysterious existence of God. It produced heaven It produced earth. It was before the T'ai Chi [the primordial ether]." 2
;

is

IThis famous passage which is frequently quoted in Chinese literature, adduced by Victor v. Strauss (p. xxxix) to prove that the ancient Chinese
is

possessed of a heart. He transTao's Herz ist fein, ist lauter, ist eins. in ihm." His interpretation of Tao hszn, which reflects his theosophical preferences, is against the sense in which the passage is commonly quoted (see the K'anghi s. v. Tao, Vol. 34, p. 21 B). The last sentence "Wollt euch erhalten in ihm "instead of "Thus it keeps its middle" is undoubtedly a mistake. Otherwise Strauss's translation is not incorrect. But what shall we say of Legge who (in the S. B. of the E., Vol. " The mind of man is restless, prone III., p. 50) translates this same passage (to err); its affinity to what is right is small. Be discriminating, be uniform (in the pursuit of what is right), that you may sincerely hold fast the Mean "? 2 For an explanation of the T' at Chi see the author's article "Chinese Philosophy in The Monist, Vol. VI., No. 2.

regarded the Tao as a sentient being that


lates "

Des Menschen Herz Wollt euch erhalten

ist gefahrvoll,

16

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

The Tao

is

a principle, not a personal being

it is

an omnipresent feature of reality, a law fashioning things and events, not a god, nor an essence or a
world-substance.
Nevertheless, Taoists personify
it

and use the term as if it were a synonym of God. Thus Lao-Tze himself speaks of the Tao as 5cHF~B (tHen hsia mu) "the world-mother,'' 1 or % L #" (^## wu chih mu, "mother of the ten thousand things, 2 (tsung), the ancestor, and and calls it (chiiri),
9

the master, 3 viz., the ultimate authority of the philos-

opher's words and deeds.

"the author of all transformations in whom there is no element of falsehood" (Book V.). Besides, he calls the Tao "the great and most honored Master" (Book VI). Lao-Tze mentions the word *$? (27)> God, only once (Chap. 4) 4 calling him (wan wu tsung), ^j "the ancestor" or "arch-father of the ten thousand things." But while Lao-Tze distinguishes God from the Tap and claims that the Tao takes precedence before God, his disciples identify the Tao with God and (C/ien-Tsai) 5 have coined a special designation ia a term which is the common i. e., the True Ruler,
of the

Chwang-Tze speaks

Tao

as

appellation of
1

God among

Taoists even to-day.

Chapter
Chapter

52.
1.

3Chapter 70. For tsung see K., Vol. 11, p. 6 B; for chun (supreme; one who has land; king; lord; master; a title of respect), ibid., Vol. 8, p. 6 A.
4

Compare the note

to

word

40 in the transliteration of Chapter

4.

hChen means "true, pure, real" (K., Vol. 24, p. 32 B, W. S. D., p. 15), and Tsai, "ruler, responsible master" {K., Vol. 11, p. 9 A, W. S. D., p. 941). The character Chen is composed of the signs "upright" and "man," the character Tsai shows the sign "bitter," and the sign "roof," which indicate that it means him who bears the burden and cares of the house; its ruler, master, and owner.

THE IDEAL OF LAO-TZE'S ETHICS.

UPON
his faith in the seasonableness, goodness,
of

and unfailing Tightness

the Tao,

builds his ethical system, trusting that

Lao-Tze through the Tao

the crooked shall be straightened, the imperfect shall

be made complete, the lowly shall receive abundance as sure as valleys naturally and without any effort of Thus the Tao their own fill themselves with water.
resembles water. 1 Lao-Tze demands the surrender of personal ambition and all selfish strivings. His aim is
not to fashion, not to make, not to push or force things,

but to

let

them develop according

to their
is

own

nature.

simply the imitation of the Tao. The Tao acts, but does not claim it directs it begets and quickens, but does not own 2 rule. The sage will not and arranges, but does not make a show of virtue, of benevolence, of justice, of propriety; his virtue is /f{% (pu teh), or unvirtue. 3 He will make no pretense of being virtuous, but sim;

Virtue, according to Lao-Tze,

ply imitate in

all

things Heaven's Tao.

In a word,

the ideal of morality consists in realising fSl^^L^f* (wu tning chih p'u), the simplicity of the Ineffable, of
the nameless or
1

unnamable Tao.
2

See Chapters

78, 66, 8.

Chapter

10, 51.

Chapter

38.

18

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

Thus, according to Lao-Tze, he who acts a part on the stage he who endeavors to bring about artificial conditions he who meddles with the natural growth of society, will fail in the end, and virtue is simply ifejUfc (wu-wei), 1 or "not acting, not making, not doing." Non-action or wu wei cannot mean inactivity, for it is with LaoTze a principle of action. He never tires preaching 2 i- e., to act non-action; he jljjflffi^ ( wet wu wet),
in the world, as a player does
;
;

expressly declares that


(chap. 30)
;

"an

able

man

acts resolutely "

M J|

fftl

and he assures us (chaps. 37 and 48) that $H ^y J| (wu wei er wu pu wei), "through

non-action everything can be accomplished.

Lao-Tze's propositions "to act non-action " and "to accomplish everything by non-action/' appear paradoxical, but his idea is simple enough. He who
attempts to alter the nature of things will implicate
himself in a struggle in which even the most powerful
creature must finally succumb.
forcing

But he who uses things


can do Build strong walls

according to their nature, directing their course, not

them or trying

to alter their nature,

with them whatever he pleases.

and heavy dams to prevent the landslide caused by the waters that sink into the ground, and the waters will break through and carry your dam down into the valley but provide the under-ground water with outlets in the places where it naturally endeavors to flow, and there will be no danger of a catastrophe. The same is true of the social conditions of mankind. Lao-Tze requests the government not to govRulers should not inern, but simply to administer. terfere with the natural development of their people,
;

but practise not-acting, not-meddling, non-interfer1

W,

S. D., pp. 1059

and

1047.

Chapters

3, 10, 37, 57, 63,

etc.

INTRODUCTION.
ence, or, as the

French

call

it,

laisser faire, so that

the people shall scarcely

know

that they have rulers.


are,

The
ple
is

less laws

and prohibitions there

the less

crime will there be.


forced by
their wealth

The

less the welfare of the peo-

artificial methods, the greater and prosperity.


'

will

be

Lao-Tze's principle of 'not-acting" is accordingly not inactivity ; it is simply not acting a part not doing things in an artificial way it is not forcing the The term 3|Ji5 wu wet) * s best nature of things. explained by its synonym ^W< (wu yu), i. e., " being without desire." Man is requested not to have a will of his own, but to do what according to the eternal and immutable order of things he ought to do. It is the surrender of attachment to self, and the utter omission of Alft (Jhren tad), i. e., of man's Tao, the pe;
;
(.

culiar

and particular Tao of oneself and following the course prescribed by the eternal Tao, $ aH (ch'ang
It is, briefly,

tao).

not "non-action," but "non-asser-

tion,"

and

this is the translation

by which wu-wei

is

rendered in the present translation as coming nearest to the original meaning.

Chwang-Tze, Lao-Tze's most accomplished

dis-

ciple, characterises wu-wei, or non-action, as follows

Non-action makes one the lord of all glory non-action makes one the treasury of all plans non-action makes one the burden of all offices non-action makes one the lord of all wisdom. The range of the true man's action is inexhaustible, but there is nowhere any trace of his presence. He fulfils all that he has received
1

'

from Heaven, but he does not see that he was the recipient of anything. A pure vacancy (of his own and private affairs) characterises him. When the perfect man employs his mind, it is a mirror. It conducts nothing and anticipates nothing it responds, but does not retain. Thus he is able to deal successfully with all things and injures none."
;

: ;

20
$Kr;i
It

LAO-TZE'S TAO TEH-KING.

(wu-wei)
#[*

is

the condition of genuine virtue


l 9

leads to

{p'u) or g (p u)

simplicity, to Jjf ;&


Jp {chili), sincerity

(Jisii hsiri),

emptiness of heart, to
?jlff#?

to Jff (ch'ing), or

(ch'ing-ching),

and
^f

(ch'uri)

purity, to

j|f

(cheng), righteousness, to

(?#),

plain-

ness, to m. {chert), truth, 1 and the. application of LaoTze's ethics is tersely expressed in the sentence
WlL

W &* Wi (P au y uen

i te li)

"Recompense hatred

with goodness."

(Chap. 63.)

Lao-Tze further characterises his ethics as ^p|i "revert(jfuh kwei), "wending home," or jx (fan) 2
,

ing" 3 ff)f|c {kwei ken), returning to the root. We read in Chapter 40: JxM (fan c ^e, tao chih tung), "returning is the Tao's movement;" and by reverting

MWl

homeward

rest. There is no idea (except perhaps the ideas of simplicity and purity) on which Lao-Tze dwells with more emphasis than upon the ideal of pacification, which he calls jrjp {cliHng), stillness, 4 and C (ngan), ^p (J> ing), f|| (J'ai), i. e., peace, equanimity, and ease. 5 (Chapter 35.)
is
c

meant

lFor p u and p u see K., Vol.


{ l

18, p. 2

A and W.
; ;

for hsu, K., Vol. 30, p. 2


S. D., p. 68;

W. W.
%

S. D., p. 227

S. D., pp. 710 and 711 for chih, K., Vol. 33, p. 20 A
;

for ch'ing, K., Vol. 20, p. 25


S.

B and
;

27

W.

S.

p. 995; for

ch'un, K., Vol. 20, p. 26 B; W. S. D., p. 73; for sh, K.

D.

p. 783;

Vol.

27, p. 4

for cheng, K,, Vol. 33, p. 14 B; IV. S. D., p. 816; for chen, K.,
;

Vol. 27, p. 4

IV. S. D., p. 15.


;

Williams transcribes/'^, not pu


see K., Vol.
13, p. 28
;

tsing, not

ching\ chan, not chen

shun, not ch'un.

ZForfuh

(to return, to reply),


19, p. 12

A; for kwei
7, p.

(to

return

homeward), K., Vol.


3 4

for fan (to revert), K., Vol.

38 A.

See

also IV. S. D., pp. 151, 480, 126.

See Chapters

16,28, 34, etc* Cf.


16, 26, 37.

Gen.

iii. 19,

Psalm

xc.

3,

Eccl.

iii.

2o;xii.7

See Chapters
20, p. 15

For ngan see K., Vol. n,


A.

p. 5

for fi'ing, K., Vol. 13, p.

for t'ai,

K., Vol.

D., pp. 620, 701, 848; the character ngan consists of the radicals "shelter " and "woman,' signifying the contentment
S.
'

Compare W.
is

the place where a woman is sheltered. P'ing (representing scales in equilibrium) means ease, tranquillity, satisfaction, and t ai is composed of "water," and "great," denoting: (1) that which is slipof being at
l

home, which

pery;

(2)

that

which

is

in

abundance; and

(3)

that

which moves without

fric-

INTRODUCTION.

21

The
different

ideal of non-action as the basis of ethics in


it, is very from the expressions and moral preachings

the sense in which Lao-Tze understands


that the

Western people, the energetic children


to.

of the

North, are accustomed


in

Nevertheless, there are re-

markable coincidences with Lao-Tze's ethics not only Buddhism but also in the Bible and the literature of Western saints and sages. The virtue of the Taoist, which is "tranquillity,"
"quietude," "rest," corresponds to the Biblical in"Rest in the Lord!" (Psalm, 37, 7) and "In quietude and in confidence shall be your strength!"
(Isaiah, 30, 15), or, as the Apostle has it:

junction:

"We

be-

seech you, brethren, that ye study to be quiet." This tranquillity, if acquired by all, would become

peace on earth to the

men

of good-will.

The Bible
1 '

characterises
to

God

in

words that would

have been very congenial

Lao-Tze.

We
;

read
;

He maketh

wars

to cease

unto the end of the earth

breaketh the

bow and

cutteth the spear in sunder


(Ps. 46, 9.)

he he burneth the

chariot in the fire."

And

the ethics of this God,


is stillness.

on earth,

who is the ideal of peace The Psalmist continues


:

"Be

still

and know that

am God."

That God should be conceived as non-action was same who for the first time used the term Logos in the sense in which it was adopted by the author of the Fourth
a favorite idea of Philo, the Neo-Platonist, the

Gospel.

Philo calls

in the sense of
tion,

God anoios, the non-actor, not being passive but as absolute existence,

i. e., a state of ease. Thus ngan is peace as opposed to strife; filing equilibrium, as opposed to an unbalanced state Vai, smoothness, as opposed
;

to irritation.

22

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
is
i,

as the ovtgoS or.

Indeed, "activity
all.,

as natural to
3),

God

as burning is to fire" {Leg.


is
it

but God's

activity

of a peculiar
is

kind

it is

efficiency, not ex-

ertion

not a particular work that he performs,

but an omnipresent effectiveness which Philo finds


difficult to

characterise without falling a prey to mys-

ticism.

Philo was a mystic, and

God

to

him

is

the

Unnamable and Unspeakable, axarovojAaGTOS uai apprjros, which is the same as (wu tning).

^^

Stillness, that is to say, self-possessed tranquillity,

or quietude of soul

is

the condition of purity.


it,

Any-

thing that agitates the mind disturbs

for troubled
:

waters cannot be limpid.


'
'

Chwang-Tze
;

says

Sadness and pleasure show a depraving element in virtue

joy and anger show

some error in their course love and hatred show a failure of their virtue. ... It is the nature of water, when free from admixture, to be clear, and, when not agitated, to be level while, if obstructed and not allowed to flow, it cannot pre;

being an image of the virtue of Heaven. be guileless and pure, and free from all admix ture to be still and uniform, without undergoing any change; to be indifferent and not self-asserting to move and yet to act like
serve
its

clearness
said to

Hence
;

it is

Heaven

this is the

way

to

nourish the spirit."

Christianity and Buddhism are classified by Schopenhauer as the religions of pessimism, because they recognise the existence of evil in the world from which we must seek salvation, and in addition to several other similarities the Taoist philosophy would fall under the same category. Chwang-Tze lets the robber Chi express his view on happiness in these words which apparently voice the author's opinion:

The greatest longevity man can reach is a hundred years; medium longevity is eighty years the lowest longevity is sixty. Take away sickness, pining, bereavement, mourning, anxieties,
1

'

and

calamities, the times when, in

any

of these, one can

open

his

INTRODUCTION.

^3

mouth and laugh, are only four or five days in a month. Heaven and earth have no limit of duration, but the death of man has its
(appointed) time."

The world

is

full

of anxiety

and misery

and

sal-

vation consists solely in a surrender of that selfish

craving for pleasures which, in


the main-spring of action.

common

people,

is

Lao-Tze's ethics of returning, and becoming quiet, remind us of Isaiah's word "In returning and rest
:

shall ye be saved. "

(30, 15.)

And

the Psalmist says:


(116, 7.)

"Return unto thy

rest,

O my

soul."

The Taoist term


of heart,

JyflAj) (Jisil hsiri), i. e., emptiness reminds us of the poor in spirit. Lao-Tze insists on faith as much as St. Paul, say-

ing
"

He whose

faith

is

insufficient shall receive

no

faith." (17, 23.)

Further Lao-Tze says (Chapters 43 and 78):

"The softest overcomes "The weak conquer the


St.

the world's hardest."


strong, the tender conquer the rigid."

Paul uses the same expression


(1 Cor.,

"God

hath chosen the weak things of the world


1,

to

confound

the things which are mighty."

27.)
(2

"When I am weak then I am My (God's) strength is made


1
*

strong."

Cor., 12, 10.)


"

perfect in weakness.

(lb.

v. 9.

As the Tao is the same to all people, so the sage same to all people. He makes no discrimination. Lao-Tze says: ^5g^# (shan die wu shaft chih; puh shan die wuyih shan chiht) "The good I meet with goodness; the not-good I meet also with goodness !" (Chapter 49.)
is

the

7999^ $2

Since genuine merit can be accomplished only through non- assertion, the condition of greatness is

"

24

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

modesty or lowliness.
abhors self-exaltation.

As the water
As Christ

that benefits

all

the world seeks always the lowest places, so the sage


says,

"Whosoever

be abased, " and "he that shall humble himself shall be exalted," so Lao-Tze compares the Tao of Heaven to a bow (Chapter 77) he says: "It brings down the high and exalts the lowly." Lao-Tze says that the imperfect will be restored, the crooked shall be straightened, the valleys shall be filled (Chapter 20), which reminds one of the words of Isaiah (40, 4):
shall exalt himself shall
;

shall

Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill be made low and the crooked shall be made straight and the rough places plain."
'
'

Christian philosophers of the Middle Ages, espe-

even more striking analLao-Tze's terminology than St. Paul. As Lao-Tze speaks of "Tao's course " as a " regress or "a return homeward " (Chapter 40), and of man's necessity of returning to the root, " so Scotus Erigena in bis book De divisione naturce, 519 D, declares
cially the Mystics, present

ogies to

' i

Deus in unum colligit omnia et ad se ipsum ineffabili regressn resolvitur." [God gathers all in one and resolves them in
'
'

Himself

in

an ineffable regress.]

Master Eckhart's sermons contain many passages that might have been written by Lao-Tze so especially his praise of the virtue of simplicity, which he
;

calls Einvaltekeit

(edition Pfeiffer, II., 600, 31), his


of quietude

recommendation
rouwe
{ibid.

and

rest,

601, 4) the importance

which he calls which he attrib-

utes to unity which he calls eineheit

{ibid., 517 L), height with the and his identification of the highest

deepest depth of humility

{ibid.,

574, 22

and

26).

INTRODUCTION.

25

There is no doubt, the Taoists could claim Eckhart as one of their own. Johannes Scheffler, called Angelus Silesius, a born Protestant, who was so much affected by mystic sen timent that he turned Roman Catholic, says
Es gescheh', mein Herr und Gott, dein Wille, "Wir beten Und sieh, Er hat nicht Will', Er ist em' ew'ge Stille." [" Thy will be done O Lord, my God " we pray, But lo God has no will stillness he is for aye.]
:
' ! !
1

11

Run'
[Rest

ist

das hochste Gut, und ware Gott nicht

Ruh\
zu."

Ich schlosse vor


is

Ihm

selbst mein'
;

Augen beide

the highest good

indeed were

God

not rest

I'd turn

away from Him,

as being no longer blest.]

The Tao-Teh-King
Tolstoi.
1

exercised a strong influence on

He, too, speaks of non-action, le non-agir. Labor, in his opinion, is no virtue labor is useless, nay, pernicious, for labor, such as keeps men too busy
;

to leave

them time for thought, is the curse of the Most of us, says Tolstoi, have not time for the consideration of truth and goodness, because we are rushed. An editor must arrange his journal, the genworld.
eral organises his troops, the engineer constructs
Eiffel tower,

men

of affairs arrange the

an World's Fair,

the naturalist investigates heredity, the philologist

must count the frequency of various phrases in certain authors, and no one has leisure enough for a moment of rest no one has time for finding that peace of soul which the world cannot give. They do anything except that which they ought to do first.
;

Tolstoi

is

right,

for thinking reforms the world,


is

not laboring.

Thought

the rudder that changes the


making
a Russian

1 Tolstoi informs the author that he contemplated translation of the Tao-Teh-King.

26

lao-tze's tao-teh-king. the energy of


is

course of the ship of toiling mankind


only so long as

the steam that labors in turning the wheels


it is

useful

controlled by thought in the right


ideal that will guide us in

way.

For acquiring the right

the right direction,

we need

not labor, nor need

we

we must abandon all exertion and become calm. If all men would only employ the tenth part of the energy that is wasted on the acquisition of purely material advanexert ourselves, on the contrary, says Tolstoi,
tages, to settling the questions of their conscience,

the world

would soon be reformed.

peculiar parallelism of Lao-Tze's

Taoism with

Christianity consists in Lao-Tze's belief in an original


state of

innocence and paradisial happiness.

He attrib-

utes all the evils that

now

prevail to a deviation from

the original simplicity enjoined by the eternal Tao.

The conscious discrimination between good and evil, the studied wisdom of the age, the prevailing method of teaching virtue which does not make men good, but
merely induces them to be hypocritical, the constant interference of the government with the affairs of the people are the causes of all disorders. His ideal state would be a return to the paradisial innocence and simplicity, a society of simple-minded people who seek (Chapter 80.) their happiness at home. There are many more remarkable passages in the Tao-Teh-King, such as the trinity in unity (Chapter
42); the preservation of
;

him who

will not perish

when

he dies (Chapter 33) that the weak conquer the strong (Chapter 43); that we must become like little children (Chapter 28 and 55); that the holy man knows
himself as a child of the

Tao (Chapter

52); that the

Tao can be had


63)
;

for the

that the son of

mere seeking for it (Chapter heaven (viz., the king or empe-

INTRODUCTION.
ror)
etc.;

27

find

must bear the sins of the people (Chapter 78), but we must leave them to the reader who will enough in Lao-Tze s little book that will set him
!

to thinking.

The
jhre?i)}

natural result of Lao-Tze's philosophy

is

the

ethical ideal of the sage, the saintly

man, jg
it,

\
A

[sheng

who

is

also called ff^-^*

(chun tze),
jit

the su{chen

perior sage, or, as later Taoists have


j'/iren),

the Truth-Man,

i.

e.,

the

man

of truth or the

true man.

Chwang-Tze says (Book XV.):


all directions, flowing on heaven above, and wreathing round the earth beneath. It transforms and nourishes all things, and cannot be represented by any form. Its name is "Divinity (in man)." It is only the path of pure simplicity which guards and preserves the Spirit. When this path is preserved and not lost, it becomes one with the Spirit and in this ethereal amalgamation it acts in harmony with the orderly operation of Heaven. "There is a common saying, 'The multitude of men consider gain to be the most important thing pure scholars, fame those who are wise and able value their ambition the sage prizes essential purity.' Therefore simplicity is the denomination of that in which there is no admixture purity of that in which the spirit is not impaired, It is he who can embody simplicity and purity whom

"The human
limit,

spirit

goes forth in

without

reaching

to

we

call

the

True Man."

Sacred Books of the East, XXXIX.,

P. 367.

An
'
'

exhaustive description of the True

Man

is

given by

Chwang-Tze
is
'

in

Book
Man

VI.,
'

w here we read:
T

What

meant by the True

11

The True men

of old did not reject (the

views

of)

the few

they did not seek to accomplish (their ends) like heroes (before
others); they did not lay plans to attain those ends.

Being such, though they might make mistakes, they had no occasion for relFor Chen, see
p. 15
;

for sheng, p. 773, in Williams's Syllabic Dictionary

28

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

pentance; though they might succeed, they had no self-complacency.

Being such, they could ascend the loftiest heights without fear they could pass through water without being made wet by it they could go into fire without being burnt so it was that by their knowledge they ascended to and reached the Tao. "The True men of old did not dream when they slept, had no anxiety when they awoke, and did not care that their food should be pleasant. Their breathing came deep and silently. When men are defeated in argument, their words come from their gullets as if they were vomiting. Where lusts and desires are deep, the springs of the Heavenly are shallow.
; ;
'

' '

The True men


it

of old

knew nothing

of the love of life or of


;

the hatred of death.

the exit from

Entrance into life occasioned them no joy awakened no resistance. Composedly they went

and came. They did not forget what their beginning had been, and they did not inquire into what their end would be. They accepted their lot and rejoiced in it they forgot fear of death and returned to their state before life. Thus there was in them what is called the want of any mind to resist the Tau, and of all attempts by means of the Human to assist the Heavenly. Such were they who are called the True men. "The True men of old presented the aspect of judging others
;

aright, but without being partisans

of feeling their

own

insuffi-

ciency, but being without flattery or cringing.

Their peculiarities

were natural to them, but they were not obstinately attached to them their humility was evident, but there was nothing of un;

reality or display

about

it."

lbid.

p. 237, 238, 240.

Lao-Tze declares that the True Man is not hurt by or water, and that he need not fear either the rhinoceros or tiger, which is explained by Chwang-Tze in Book XVII.
fire
1
'

Fire cannot burn him


;

who

is

perfect in virtue, nor water

drown him

neither cold nor heat can affect

him

injuriously

This does not mean that he it means that he discriminates beis indifferent to these things tween where he may safely rest and where he wi!l be in peril that he is that he is tranquil equally in calamity and happiness
neither bird nor beast can hurt him.
;

careful

what he avoids and what he approaches;

so that nothing

INTRODUCTION.
can injure him.

29
is

Hence

it is

said

'What

heavenly

is

internal;

what what what

is

human

is

external.'

"Virtue is in what is heavenly. If you know the operation of is heavenly and what is human, you will have your root in
is

heavenly and your position in virtue."


is

Ibid., p. 383.

The sage
'
'

above death

he

is

one with the Tao

Death and life are great considerations, but they could work no change in him. Though heaven and earth were to be overturned and fall, they would occasion him no loss. His judgment is fixed on that in which there is no element of falsehood and, while other things change, he changes not. The transformations of things are to him the developments prescribed for them, and he keeps fast hold of the author of them."
;

The same
ode Integer

ideas are expressed by


(I.,

Horace

in his

vitce

22) in

praises the perfect and faultless

which the Roman poet man who needs no

arms of any description, who may roam through mounand will not suffer from the heat of the desert. Horace exclaims in another ode that the virtuous man would remain firm even if the world broke down upon him: "Si
tain wildernesses without fear of the wolf

fr actus illabatur or bis, imp av idum fer lent ruinae."


It was natural that in the course of the further development of the Taoist movement the old philosopher was more and more regarded as the True Man, beside whom all the others were mere aspirants for saintliness. His life was adorned with tales which remind us of Buddhist legends, and he became the central figure of a triune deity called the Three Pure Ones, which are even in appearance very similar to the Buddhist Trinity of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

TAOISM BEFORE AND AFTER LAOTZE.


QUOTATIONS IN THE TAO-TEH-KING.

LAO-TZE

is

commonly
is

called the founder of Tao-

ism, but this

a very doubtful statement, for

on the one hand, there appears to have been Taoism before Lao-Tze, and, on the other hand, Lao-Tze's philosophy is too lofty to be identified with the Taoism which at the present day is practised in the innumerable temples of modern Taoism. The Taoists claim Lao-Tze as the revealer of the Tao, the divine Reason, but apparently there are few Taoist priests

who

are at

all

able to grasp the significance of the

Tao-Teh-King. Lao-Tze is to the Taoists what Christ is to the Christians and Buddha to the Buddhists but if he came unto his own, those in charge of his temples would not know him, neither would they receive him.

The existence of Taoism before Lao-Tze is evidenced by the numerous quotations, mostly in verse, which are commonly introduced with the word jjjj^ (kti), 1 "therefore," which may be translated "for it T'u-T'au-Kien, a commentator (quoted by is said."
Stanislas Julien,
1

p.

133) asserts that the

passages

Williams,

S,

D.

p. 434.

INTRODUCTION.
introduced by the words "Therefore the holy
says/' are quoted from the Fen-tien.
ity of
It is

man

a peculiar-

Lao-Tze's that he never quotes an author by name and makes no personal allusions whatever. He is abstract in his thought as well as in his relations to mankind. We may safely take the existence of a popular
Tao-religion and also a current literature of rhymed proverbs and wise saws in the times of Lao-Tze for

granted and the ancient sages of whom he speaks appear to him deep though timid in their expressions (see chapter 15); they were hazy and lacked clearness, yet they were suggestive, and the ideas which their words suggested to him, he is inclined to attribThe main purpose of his book is to ute to them. make their wisdom, which none could understand, intelligible to the people. But no one who, having perused the whole Tao-Teh-King so as to be familiar with the character of Lao-Tze's thoughts, will, when rereading the fifteenth chapter, fail to understand the situation. The philosophical literature before LaoTze probably did not contain anything the loss of which we should have to regret, except for historical
;

or anthropological reasons.
ligible,

It

w as
T

confused, unintel-

and full of mystical hints. Its morality appears to have been of a homely character, but not without practical wisdom, such as is found in the
proverb literature of all nations as the natural product of the people's experience. Lao-Tze apparently poured new wine into old bottles, and gave to the
sages of yore, at whose feet he had
sat,

more

credit

than they deserved.

The motions

Lao-Tze declares that emptiness is inexhaustible. of the vacant space between heaven and

32

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

man of many words is soon exhausted. In this connexion he quotes (ch. 5) a Chinese doggerel, probably a proverb of his time:
earth do not cease, while the

"How

soon exhausted

And should we

is a gossip's fulsome talk not prefer on the middle path to walk? nl


!

The
which

sixth chapter contains a curious quotation 2

(as says the

Tze

attributes to the mythical

Emperor. 3 worship of or "the mysterious mother."


spring which, because
to
it

commentator T'u-T'au Kien) LiehHwang-Ti, the Yellow The verses may have had reference to the some local deity called " the valley sprite"

She presided over a

never ran dry, was supposed

be a direct emanation of the root of heaven and

earth.

verses

But how much more significant these homely become w hen the ever-enduring, mysterious
T

mother

conceived to symbolise the eternal Tao! The quotation (in Chapter 1) of the desireless who
is

comprehends the secret meaning


passionate
lar tale or

of things while the

man

allows himself to be beguiled by ex-

ternal appearance

may have had reference to a populegend similar perhaps to the story of the three caskets in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice.
The quotation
ence
nese
is,

in

Chapter

2,

which

sets forth the

co-existence of contrasts and their mutual depend-

more than
in their

to other nations, natural to the Chi-

of contrasts to

word combinations use compounds denote what is common in both. Thus a combination of the words "to be" and "not to be" means the struggle for life or the bread question;
IThe middle path
2
is

who

the path of virtue.


p. 133.

See Stanislas Julien,

3Lieh-Tze's full name is Lieh-Yu-K'ow. He belongs to the generation that immediately succeeded the age of Confucius. The Yellow Emperor is commonly assigned to 2697 B. See Meyer's Ch. R. M., Nos. 387 and 225.

INTRODUCTION.

33
;

"the high and the low" means altitude " much and means quantity, etc. But what originally seems to have been the trivial observation of a grammarschool teacher, acquires a philosophical meaning when embodied by Lao-Tze into the Tao-Teh-King. These are mere guesses at the original meanings they may be right, of some of Lao-Tze's quotations they may be wrong who can tell? But the quotations seem to my mind to tell their own story.
little "
;

Some

quotations, such as those in chapters 13, 14,

and even the remarkable lines in 78, are simple enough and need no explanation the quotations in chapt. 12 smack of Chinese schools. The first three lines remind us of sentences contained in the San-Tze-Ktng 1 (the classic of three characters), and the other two lines reflect the practical spirit of the Chinese way of moralising. Others (such as in Chapters 2 [the last lines], 4 [repeated in 56], 13, 17,
27, 29, 39, 44, 54, 73,
19, 21, 23, 28, 35, 37, 40, 41,

42,

44, 45, 47) are

so

peculiarly characteristic of

Lao-Tze that we

feel in-

clined to believe that they were either written

by the

author of the Tao-Teh-King himself, or adapted by him through a slight change in words to their present

more than probable that the author of the Tao-Teh-King was himself a poet of hymns and of philosophical contemplations. If he shows at an advanced age so much emotion and also love of pouse, for
it is

etry,

could he in his younger years have abstained from expressing his sentiments in verse? Moreover,
the frequent repetitions 1 in the
1

how

Tao-Teh-King prove
:

Here is a list of the repetitions in the Tao-Teh-King " Quickens but owns net, works but claims not," 2, 10,

in yy.
56.

" Quarreleth (or striveth) not " is

The verses " Blunts

51,

partly repeated

its

own sharpness

are quoted twice, 4 and repeated with variations in 8, 22, 66, 81.
'

'

etc

"Attends

to the inner, not to the outer,

abandons the

latter

and chooses the

34
that he

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

was inclined to quote sayings of his own. However, onie of Lao-Tze's most remarkable quotations, found in Chapter 22, is expressly stated to be a saying of the ancients, and Lao-Tze adds that it

"was not vainly spoken." The quotations in the Tao-Teh-King do

not prove

a lack of originality in Lao-Tze, but they are unequivocal evidences of aspirations before Lao-Tze, which,

although less

definite,

tended in the same direction.

LAO-TZE AND CONFUCIUS.

Taoism

is at

present,

and probably was from time


;

immemorial, certainly long before Lao-Tze, a religion of China. But it is not the only religion it is one
of the three great religions that are officially recog-

nised.

Besides Taoism, there

fucianism.

There
;

Taoism, for
similarities

Buddhism and ConBuddhism and Buddhism and Taoism present many but between Taoism and Confucianism
is is

a rivalry between

there has obtained since olden times an outspoken

antagonism, for Lao-Tze's philosophy stands in strong contrast to the Confucian view of life. do not

We

speak now of the objections which educated Chinese scholars who hold high offices in the State have to the superstitions that obtain among the less educated
former,"
i7i 23.
48.

"This

"He

12, 38, 72.

" He whose
makes mars,"

faith is insufficient shall receive


etc., 29, 64.

that

"Asserts

no faith,"
3, 37,

non-assertion,"
30,

is

called unreason; unreason soon ceases,"

"One 55.

who

has reason has nothing to do therewith," 24, 31. "If princes and king could keep reason," etc., 32, 37. "With non-diplomacy he takes the empire," 48. 58." Closes his mouth and shuts his sense-gates," 52, 56. "Thus he becomes world-honored," 56, 62. "Therefore even the holy man regards it as diffi-

cult," 63, 73.


1 For a translation and exposition of the contents of the San-Tze-King, see The Open Court, Vol. IX., No. 412. A Latin translation was made by

Stanislas Julien, a

German

translation by

Neumann.

INTRODUCTION.

35

Taoist priesthood and also against the religious frauds

name of Taoism. simply speak of the antagonism that obtains between the two sages and their moral maxims. While ^p (Lao-Tze) endeavored to reform the heart of the people without moralising or fussing, and left all externalities to fate, ^L^ (K'ung-Tze) or Confucius, proposed to teach propriety. If the people would only observe the necessary rules and ceremonies prescribed by piety and good manners, he expected that all human relations would adjust themselves, and the heart would be reformed by a reform of the habits of life. While Lao-Tze was self-reliant and almost solitary in his way of thinking, 1 Confucius sought the favor of kings and princes. While Lao-Tze stood up for natural spontaneity and independence, Confucius represented paternalism. While Lao-Tze was an anarchist, not in the sense of being against kings, but against governing, Confucius was a monarchist and a regulator of affairs in their details, endeavoring to extend the government into the very hearts of families
that are frequently practised in the

We

and the private affairs of the people. Further, Lao-Tze with all his clearness of thought had a mystic inclination. He wanted wisdom, not scholarship Confucius wanted scholarship and hoped Lao-Tze wanted simto gain wisdom by learning. plicity of heart, not decorum Confucius expected to Confucius affect the heart by the proper decorum.
; ;

preferred conscious deportment, the product of artificial

schooling, but

Lao-Tze wanted goodness

raised

in freedom.

could be but
1

Under such conditions it was natural that there little sympathy between Lao-Tze and
Chapter 20
is

a pathetic description of Lao-Tze's isolation.

36

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

K'ung-Tze, the two greatest leaders of Chinese civilwho happened to be contemporaries. Indeed, the Tao-Teh-King contains passages which must be interpreted as direct criticisms of the views of Conisation,

fucius. 1

Sze-Ma-Ch'ien's story of Lao-Tze's life which has been incorporated in the present edition of the Tao-

Teh-King contains the report

of Confucius's inter-

view with the old philosopher, which, for all we know, may be an historical fact. We possess another account of the same meeting by Chwang-Tze (Book XIV, 6), which, however, although older, can in its lengthier details scarcely be considered more reliable, for Chwang-Tze writes as a litterateur, while Sze-MaCh'ien is conscious of the historian's duties. We need not reproduce Chwang-Tze's account, because it has become accessible through the translations of Victor von Strauss and James Legge. 2

The Taoist
terly
literati,

writers are in the habit of censuring bit-

both Confucius and the Confucian scholars, the who down to the present day fill the offices of

the Chinese government.


istic

The

best instances of Tao-

satires are the stories of the

madman

of

Ch'u

who rebukes Confucius for his ostentatious manners the old fisherman who lectures him on simplicity; and the robber Chi who criticises his view^s on ethics. 3 The last-mentioned story, viz., of the robber Chi,
seems
of sufficient interest to deserve a

remarks.
leader of

few further To be brave and courageous and to be a


in battle
is,

men

according to Confucius, the

IK'ung-Tze's ideal of justice is replaced in the Chapters 49 and 63 by the higher command (which is inculcated by Christ in the Sermon on the Mount) of meeting, not only the good, but also the bad, with goodness.
2 3

Strauss, Tao-Teh-King, pp. 347-3^7; Legge, S. B. E.,

Sacred Books of the East, XXXIX.,

p. 221

ft.

XL., pp. 166

XXXIX., pp. If., and

357
192

ff.

ff.

INTRODUCTION.

37

lowest virtue, while offering sacrifices to one's ances-

The tors is the greatest merit one can accomplish. robber Chi rejects the views of Confucius as the arbitrary opinion of an arrogant hypocrite whose lack of success in life proves his inability; and he explains to him that neither he, Confucius himself, nor any one of
the old heroes admired by him, were truly virtuous

men. Chwang-Tze, in telling the story, claims that the proper procedure in life cannot be laid down in general rules, such as Confucius propounds, but that every creature has its own nature, and every business
has
its

own

principles.

He

only

who

applies

them

as

suits the peculiar conditions of


cessful.

each case can be sucartificial

He

looks upon the virtuous and unvirtuous


distinction

man
;

of

Confucian ethics as an
T

which has no value and is rather a hindrance in real life at least one prince w ho followed his maxims lost throne and life. As to principles, however, even robbers must adopt them in order to be successful. Says

Chwang-Tze
' '

What

profession

is

there which has not

its

principles

That

the robber in his recklessness comes to the conclusion that there are valuable deposits in an apartment shows his sageness
is
it
;

that he

the

first to

enter

it

shows
;

his bravery

that he

is

the last to quit

that he knows whether (the robbery) shows his wisdom and that he makes a division of the plunder shows his benevolence. Without all these five qualities no one in the world has ever succeeded in becoming a great robber. Looking at the subject in this way, we see that good men do not arise without having the principles of sages, and that Chih could not have pursued his course without the same principles. But the good men in the world are few, and those who are not good are many; it follows that the scholars (viz., the Confucian literati) benefit the world in a few instances and injure it in many."

shows

his righteousness

may be attempted

or not

Lao-Tze's ethics were rejected by the schools, but

38

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

the doctrine of Confucius appealed to the rulers of

apparent practicability and became thus the established philosophy of the empire.
its

China on account of

How much different would the development of China have been had Lao-Tze in the place of Confucius exercised the dominating influence upon the thought of the people
!

TAOISM AFTER LAO-TZE.

Although the Tao-Teh-King


its

is

no popular book,
but
it is

author, the old philosopher gained, nevertheless,


;

the universal admiration of the masses


ural that the people's

nat-

Taoism differs greatly from LaoTaoism, for while Lao-Tze opposed learnedness Tze's and the pretentious show of scholarship, popular Taoism is reported to oppose all learning and with it genuine science and true wisdom. There is no place in China but has one or more Taoist temples, and at the head of all of them stands
the Taoist pope, the vicegerent of
fessor

God on

earth.

Pro-

Legge says

"Taoism came

into

prominence under the government of the

recorded that the Emperor Ching (156-143 B. C.) issued an imperial decree that Lao-Tze's book on the Tao
dynasty, and
it is

Han

onical book or King, hence

and the Teh, on Reason and Virtue, should be respected as a canits title Tao- Teh- KING."

Among

the Taoist literature, the books of

Chwang-

Tze are the most philosophical, while the Book of Rewards and Punishments {Kan - Ying-PHen) and the Book of Secret Blessings (Yin-Chih- Wen) are the most popular. Chwang-Tze's writings are a noteworthy monument of deep thought in elegant form, and the two other works are moral injunctions which in the Kan-Ying-PHen are illustrated by stories that bring

INTRODUCTION.

39

home

to the reader the

need

of charitableness, piety,

universal kindness, and other virtues. 1

When Buddhism

was introduced

into China, the

Taoists invented legends to prove that Lao-Tze had been the teacher of Buddha, and the Buddhists reciprocated by inventing other legends to prove that Buddha had been the teacher of Lao-Tze. In order to make these claims good they had, however, to alter their chronology, and this is the reason why Buddha's life dates considerably further back according to the Northern traditions than is warranted by the original
historical records.

the elixir of
into gold,

Later Taoists became engaged in the search for life, the transmutation of baser metals

and similar aberrations.

They were some-

times persecuted by the government, sometimes protected,

but they always remained a great power in China on account of the belief of the common people, who never failed to employ and support Taoist priests as soothsayers and astrologers. When in 208 B. C. the founder of the Han dynasty, Lin Pang, then still the Duke of Pei, took possession of the Empire, he was greatly aided by Chang Liang, who opposed the last successors of the Ts'in dynasty but when peace was restored Chang-Liang refused to accept any rewards and withdrew, devoting himself to the study of Taoism. A descendant of this
;

hero in the eighth generation became the patron of


the Taoist sect.
ual, I.,

Mayers

(in his Chinese Reader's


:

Man-

No. 35) says about him


title

Julien under the

translated into French by Stanislaus Le Livre des Recompenses et des Feines, etc. Paris and London. 1835. For a good account of both the Kan-Ying-P'ien and the YinTzu-W2n see Prof. R. K. Douglas's Confucianism aud Taouism. London.
1889.

IThe Kan-Ying-Pien has been

Pp., 256-274.

40

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

"He
the
to

is

reputed as having been born at T'ien


of Chekiang,

Muh

Shan, in

modern province

and

is

said at the age of seven

have already mastered the writings of Lao-Tze and the most

recondite treatises relating to the philosophy of divination. Devoting himself wholly to study

and meditation, he

steadfastly declined

the offers

wished

to

made him by the Emperors Ho Ti and Chang Ti, who attract him into the service of the State. The latter
Retir-

sovereign ennobled him, from respect for his attainments.

ing to seclusion in the mountain fastnesses of Western China, he

devoted himself there to the study of alchemy and to cultivating the virtues of purity and mental abstraction. His search for the
elixir of life

was

successful, thanks to the instruction conveyed in

a mystic treatise supernaturally received from the hands of Lao-

Tze himself. The later years of the mystic's earthly experience were spent at the mountain called Lung Hu Shan in Kiangsi, and it was here that, at the age of 123, after compounding and
swallowing the grand
elixir,

he ascended

to the

heavens

to enjoy

the bliss of immortality.

Before taking leave of earth, he be-

queathed his secrets

to his son,

Chang-Heng, and the

tradition of

his attainments continued to linger

about the place of his abode

until, in A. D. 423, one of his sectaries, named K'ow K'ien-che, was proclaimed as his successor in the headship of the Tauist fraternity and invested with the title of T'ien-She, which was reputed as having been conferred upon Chang Tao-Ling. In A. D. 748, T'ang Hsuan Tsung confirmed the hereditary privileges of the sage's descendants with the above title, and in 1016, Sung Chen Tsung

enfeoffed the existing representative with large tracts of land near

Lung Hu Shan. 1 The Mongol emperors were also liberal patrons of the family, who have continued until the present day to claim
In imitation, probably, of the Tibetan doctrine of heirship by metempsychosis, the succession is perpetuated, it is said, by the transmigration of the soul of each
successor of the headship of the Taoist sect.

Chang Tao-Ling, on

his decease, to the

infant or youthful

member

of the family,

body of some whose heirship is supereffected."

naturally revealed as soon as the miracle

is

The Rev. Hampden

C.

Du Bose
2
:

says about the

Taoist Pope, pages 373, 374


IThe Dragon and Tiger Mountains.
2

Bose, The Dragon Image

and Demon.

New York.

1887.

INTRODUCTION.

41

"The name of Chang, the Heavenly Teacher, is on every lip China he is on earth the Vicegerent of the Pearly Emperor in Heaven, and the Commander-in-chief of the hosts of Taoism. Whatever doubts there may be about Peter's apostolic successors, the present Pope, Chang LX., boasts of an unbroken line for threein
;

(f.

He, the chief of the wizards, the "true man" "the ideal man"), as he is called, and wields an immense spiritual power throughout the land."
score generations.
e.
,

The

present emperor respects the rights of the

Pope and makes all his appointments of new deities or new titles conferred upon Gods or any other changes in the spiritual world through this head of the Taoist sect, whose power is based not only upon wealth, nor upon his priestly army of one hundred thousand men alone, but also and mainly on the reverence of the masses who are convinced of his magical accomplishments and spiritual superiority. When the reader has finished reading the TaoTeh-King, so as to have in his mind a clear impression of its grand old author, let him think of the official
hereditary Taoist
representative of Lao-Tze's philosophy of the present

Bose informs us that the scenery of his rural he lives in pomp and luxis most enchanting ury, has courtiers and officers, assumes a state whose splendor is scarcely less than that of any sovereign in the world, he confers honors like the emperor of China, and controls the appointments and promotions to the
day.

palace

various positions of the Taoist priesthood,


T

many

of

which are very remunerative, investments being made by written document w ith official seals. What a contrast between Lao-Tze and the "vicegerent on earth of the Pearly Emperor in Heaven" And yet, is it not quite natural ? Should we expect
!

it

different

It is

the world's

way

of

paying

its

tribute

to greatness.

THE PRESENT EDITION OF THE


TAO-TEH-KING.

CONCERNING
'

the manuscripts of the Tao-Tehfol-

King, Prof. Stanislas Julien translates the lowing passage from a Chinese authority 1
i
'

The text of Lao-Tze known under the title of Hiang-in-tsie pen was found in the tomb of Hiang-in in the fifth year of the period of Wu-p'ing of the Northern T'si dynasty (which is the year 574 A. D.), by an inhabitant of the village of Pong. The text called Ngan-k'ien-ivang-fen was found by a Tau-sse named Keutsien in the period of T'ai-ho of the Wei (which is in our chronology the years 475 and 500 A. D.). The text of the Ho-shang-kong was handed down through Kieu-yo, a sage of the kingdom of T'si.

of these three texts contain 5,722 words. The passages quoted from Lao-Tze by the philosopher Han-fei are found therein

Each

exactly

and without variations. There was an official text at Loyang called Kuan-fen containing 5,630 words. The text Wang-fi (the commentary of which was composed under the Wei, and according to others under the Tsin), contains 5,683 words, and in

certain editions 5,610 words."

Chao-Hong
tions of the

reports that there are sixty-four edi-

It has been commentated by twenty Taoists, seven Buddhists, and thirty-four

Tao-Teh-King.

literati.

The present
to

text-edition

is

based upon a comparirefers

lSee Stanislas Julien, Lao Tseu Tao Te King, p. xxxiv., where he Lao Tseu Tsi Kiai (ed. Sie Hoei), Book III. fol. 10.

INTRODUCTION.

43

son of five versions in the translator's possession, the


titles of
I-

which are as follows


,

*^JB*!S WK*

ffiKB'HJKXA

[Lao~Tze's Tao- Teh- King, commented by Wang Pi, edited by Uke, published by Suharaya, Tokio.] Two volumes. 1
2.

2figSli*iIlS

feUlfi.ffiK

[Lao-Tze's Tao-Teh-King, commented by Su Cheh, edited by Kiyama, published by Shozando, Tokio.] Two volumes. 1

[Lao- Tze Expounded.


shobo, Tokio.]
4-

By Nishimura,

text-edition with

published by the Ninumerous comments.

Jg^-lil8

**$ "**#*
i.

Lao-Tze's Tau.
the Philosoph-

Teh-King.

[Published by Tetzugaku Kwan,

e.,

2 ical Institute.]

etc.

Lao Tseu Tao Te King. Le livre de la voie et de la vertu, Par Stanislas Julien. Paris. 1842. (Chinese-French, with comments.)
5.

Those chapters which M. Abel-R6musat quoted


the original Chinese have also been consulted. 3
*

in

The
f]jfi;!ll

original text of the old philosopher's

life

by

(Sze-Ma-Ch'ien), which in the present edi-

tion of Lao-Tze's
cal introduction,

Tao-Teh-King serves as an historihas been reproduced from Georg von

der Gabelentz's edition of this interesting chapter as

appears in his Anfangsgriinde der Chinesischen Grammatik, pp. 111-115. The sole liberty taken with Gabeit

lWang Pi is a famous Chinese commentator who lived 226-247 A. D. under the Wei dynasty, and although he died very young, has the reputation of being a great authority. Su Cheh is one of the two celebrated sons of Su Sun, a prominent author under the Sung dynasty. He lived 1039-1112 and distinguished himself, like his brother Su She, as a statesman and commentator. See Mayers' s Chinese Reader's Manual, Part I Nos. 812 and 624.
,

contains a brief Japanese introduction and Chalmer's English translation, but is otherwise without any comments.
2

The Tetzugaku Kwan

SMemoire sur

la vie et les opinions de Laou-Tseu.

Paris, 1823.

44

laotze's tao-teh-king.

lentz's text is the restitution of

(p'eng) to

H| (fcng), 1

which obviously
words.

is

in consideration of the close similarity of these

mere misprint, quite pardonable two

The

first

translation that

was made

of the

Tao-

Teh-King by Western scholars is in Latin. It was made by the Roman Catholic missionaries. 2 Considering the difficulties that had to be overcome, this first
venture appears to have been remarkably good, but
is
it

now superseded by the first French


Julien.

translation

made

by Professor Stanislas
Julien's edition
still

is very carefully made and may be regarded as the most diligent and comprehensive work of its kind. It contains the Chinese text mainly based upon Edition E of the Royal Library of

Another French translation has been made by is published in the Annales du Musee Guimet, Vol. XX. It is based on a careful revision of the text and commentataries. It contains some new
Paris.
C.

De Harlez and

interpretations, but enters little into textual criticisms,

and as

it

serves another purpose,

it

does not render

Stanislaus Julien's edition antiquated.

Chalmers's translation is, so far as we know, the first English version. It is very readable and agrees closely with Stanislas Julien's translation but stands
in

need

of a revision.

in a limited edition,

As Chalmers's booklet appeared it is now out of print, and I


which appeared
in

could only with difficulty procure a second-hand copy.

James Legge's

translation,

the

fi'eng is " a species of rubus or raspberry,

S. D,, p. 158), while growing sporadically among hemp"; also described as " a weed that the wind roots up and drives across the wastes." Williams spells p^ang and fung,

lFeng means "to meet unexpectedly" (Williams,

Not being

in possession of a

copy

have not been able

to consult

it.

INTRODUCTION.

45

Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXXIX., is no great improvement on Chalmers's translation on the con;

trary,

it is

in several respects disappointing.


it

With

its

many

additions in parentheses,

makes the impresit is

sion of being quite literal, while in fact

a loose

rendering of the original.

There is a very good German translation by Victor von Strauss, which might be better still had the translator not unduly yielded to his preconception that Lao-Tze was the representative leader of an ancient theosophical movement. In addition we have two paraphrases of the TaoTeh-King, one in German by Reinhold von Plaenckner, the other in English by Major-General G. G.
Alexander.

Plaenckner deviates greatly


all

in his conis

ception of Lao-Tze from

other translators, and

very bitter in denouncing Stanislas Julien especially. Alexander's main contention is to translate the word

Tao by God. For the present

translation

have freely availed

myself of the labors of

my

predecessors, to

whom

hereby express my gratitude publicly. Most valuable of all has proved to be Prof. Stanislas Julien's work. Five dictionaries have been used, (i) the Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language by Prof. S. Wells
Williams, (2)
Dialect

The

Chinese Dictionary in the Cantonese


Eitel, (3)

by Ernest John

Kwong Ki

Chin's

English- Chinese Dictionary, (4) Chalmer's Concise Dictionary of Chinese on the Basis of K'anghi, and (5) the orginal anghi. x Williams's dictionary, which was

in the author's possession

from the beginning of his

lln various references throughout this book the title of Williams's dictionary has been abbreviated in TV. S. D., and the K'anghi has simply been written K.

46

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

work, proved most convenient but was in many instances insufficient for the present purpose, in which case the K'anghi had to be resorted to.
In addition
I

am

indebted to Mr. K. Tanaka, a

young Japanese student of the University of Chicago, and especially to Mr. Teitaro Suzuki, a young Buddhist of Kamakura, Japan, who assisted me in both the comparison of the various editions at my command and in the transliteration of the text. Further,
I have to thank Dr. Heinrich Riedel of Brooklyn, N. Y., and the Rev. George T. Candlin of Tientsin, China, for good advice and suggestions. The purpose of the present translation is first to bring the Tao-Teh-King within easy reach of everybody, and secondly to offer to the student of com-

parative religion a version which would be a faithful

reproduction not only of the sense but of

all

the char-

acteristic qualities, especially the terseness

and the

ruggedness of

its style.

was to reproduce the original in a readable form which would be as literal as the difference of languages permits and as intelligitranslator's ideal

The

ble to English-speaking people as the original ought

be to the educated native Chinese. While linguistic obscurities have been removed as much as possible, the sense has not been rendered more definite than Stock phrases which are the original would warrant. easily understood, such as, " the ten thousand things," meaning the whole world or nature collectively, have
to

form but expressions which without a commentary would be unintelligible, such as "not to depart from the baggage waggon," meaning to preserve one's dignity (Chap. 26), have been replaced by the nearest terms that cover their meaning.
been
left in their original
;

INTRODUCTION.

47
is

The

versification of the

quoted poetry

as literal

No atas possible and as simple as in the original. tempt was made to improve their literary elegance. The translator was satisfied if he could find a rhyme which would introduce either no change in the words at all or such an indifferent change as would not in
the least alter the sense.

The

transliteration of the several

words which conwill enable almost

stitutes the fourth part of this

book

everybody

to fall

back upon the original Chinese and


the text have been relegated to the

to verify or revise the translation here proposed.

Comments on
critical notes.

Observations which on account of their importance should be consulted also by those readers who are not interested in Chinese philology have been marked by a hand, thus JSSP*. Only a few terse explanatory additions, and such only as are indispensable for an immediate elucidation of the sense, were

admitted in brackets into the text. Standing upon the shoulders of others, and having

compared and

re-translated the original text, the

author feels confident that he can offer to the public


a translation which
is

a sufficient

improvement upon

former translations to justify its publication. It lies in the nature of this work that the number of those men who can judge of its merits and demerits is very limited. In handing the book over for publication
I

crave their indulgence, but, at the same time,

it with all the severity that would be necessary for its improvement in a second edition for there is a need of a popular edition that will help the English-reading public to appreciate the philosophical genius and the profound religious spirit of one of the greatest men that ever trod the earth.
;

ask them to judge of

48

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

PRONUNCIATION AND METHOD OF TRANSCRIPTION


It must be regretted that no system of transcribing Chinese sounds has as yet been commonly accepted nor can any of them be regarded as satisfactory. In the beginning the author of this book adopted Prof. S. Weils Williams's method exclusively, but he has allowed himself to be influenced by Gabelentz, Bridgman, Eitel, Stanislas Julien, and especially by Wade whose system appears to be much used at present. The transcription employed in the Introduction (pp. 3-47) deviates from the traditional methods only where they are positively misleading. For instance, the spelling Cho is preferred to Chou, because no unsophisticated reader would pronounce ou as long o. The diphthong which sounds like ow in how has been so commonly transcribed by ao that Western eyes have become accustomed to the spellings lao and tao. It would now be difficult to introduce another transcription of the diphthong in lao and tao, for English readers would be puzzled with either form, low and low, the former would probably be pronounced lo, and
;

the latter

loo.

If it

probably be pronounced law.

were transcribed, after the German fashion, lau, it would For these reasons no change has been made

in the traditional spelling of ao.

The Rev. Mr. George T. Candlin of Tientsin, China, whose advice was solicited in matters of pronunciation, writes that the vowels of all the systems that follow Wade adopt the continental pronunciation of vowels. However, o sounds somewhat like oak, and ou has the sound of o in " alone."
As to the sound which is transcribed by Williams and Wade by/, and declared by Gabelentz to be equivalent to the French/, (e. g., uije lejure, which would be the English zh), Mr. Candlin writes: "It is an initial to which I "have given much attention, and if I had to choose I would simply write r "instead of/. The fact is, if you listen to a Celestial you hear distinctly the "three letters/, h, and r combined into one but the r predominant. Jen = "'man,' is hardly to be distinguished from the English word 'wren'; jeu = "'flesh' is nearly 'row,' i. e., to row a boat. But jhrou would be right, as
a suggestion of both a /and an A." spiritus asper or an inverted comma is used to denote that strong aspirant which is characteristic of the Chinese language. The transcription of the transliteration on pages 141-274 follows strictly Professor Williams's method, adding in each case the page of his Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language on which the word will be found. The Rev. Mr. Candlin's transcription, wherever it deviated, has been added in parenthesis. Intonation which plays an important part in the Chinese language has been neglected in transcriptions of the Introduction, where it was commendable to avoid complexities that are redundant for those who speak Chinese

"there

is

The Greek

not.

to all the others who do In the transcription of the transliteration, however, the intonation has been marked, according to the Chinese fashion, by little semicircles and dashes placed in the four corners of the word, thus: | the upper monotone and J the lower monotone the rising tone, |' the departing tone, and J, the entering tone. As to the printing of the Chinese text we must add that for obvious rea sons commonly accepted by sinologues we have followed the usage of ar ranging the lines, and in quotations the words, according to the Western mode of writing, from the left to the right, not as the Chinese would have it, from the right to the left, nor starting from that page which in Western books would be the last one.

and would be useless and unnecessarily puzzling

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?E

THE OLD PHILOSOPHER'S CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE

SZE-MA-CH'IEN ON LAO-TZE.

LAO-TZE
(Good
ble land).

was born
Man's

in

the

hamlet Ch'ti-Jhren
(Grinding

Bend),

Li-Hsiang

County), K'u-Hien

(Thistle District), of

Ch'u (Bram-

His family was the Li gentry (Li meaning


His proper name was Er (Ear), his posthis appellain

Plum).

humous title Po-Yang (Prince Positive), tion Tan (Long-lobed). In Cho he was
the secret archives as state historian.

charge

of

Confucius went to Cho in order to consult Lao-

Tze on the

rules of propriety.

[When

Confucius, speaking of propriety, praised

reverence for the sages of antiquity], Lao-Tze said

"The men

of

whom you
still
if

speak, Sir, have,

if

you

please, together with their bones mouldered.

Their

words alone are


time he
like a
rises,

extant.

If a

noble

man
I

finds his
drifts

but

he does not find his time he

roving-plant and wanders about.

observe

that the wise


if

merchant hides

his treasures deeply as


of perfect virtue as-

he were poor.

The noble man


airs,

sumes an
Sir,

attitude as

though he were stupid.


your

Let go,

your proud

many

wishes, your affectais

tion

and exaggerated plans.

All this

of

no use

to

96
you, Sir.

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

That

is

what

have

to

communicate

to

you, and that

is all."

Confucius

left.

[Unable

to understand the basic

idea of Lao-Tze's ethics], he addressed his disciples,

saying

"I know

that the birds can


I

fly, I

know

that

the fishes can swim,

know

that the wild animals

can run.
for the

For the running, one could make nooses


;

swimming, one could make nets

for the flying,


I

one could make arrows.

As

to the

dragon

cannot

know how he can


heavenwards
rises.

bestride

wind and clouds when he


I

To-day

saw Lao-Tze.

Is

he

perhaps like the dragon?"

Lao-Tze practised reason and


trine

virtue.

His doc-

aims in self-concealment and namelessness.


in

Lao-Tze resided
the frontier.
"Sir, since
it

Cho most

of his life.

When

he

foresaw the decay of Cho, he departed and came to

The custom house

officer
I

Yin-Hi said:

pleases you to retire,

request you for

my

sake to write a book."

Thereupon Lao-Tze wrote a book


consisting of five thousand and

of

two parts
in

odd words,
and

which

he discussed the concepts he departed.

of reason

virtue.

Then

No

one knows where he died.

THE OLD PHILOSOPHER'S CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


I.

i.

REASON'S REALISATION.
that can be reasoned
is

THE

REASON

not the

eternal Reason. The name that can be named is not the eternal name. The Unnameable is of heaven and earth the beginning. The Nameable becomes
of the ten
is

thousand things the mother.

Therefore

it

said

"He who
The

desireless

is

found
will sound.

spiritual of the

world
is

But he who by

desire

bound

Sees the mere shell of things around."

These two things are the same


ferent in

in source but dif-

name.
it is

Their sameness

is

called a mystery.

Indeed,
uality

the mystery of mysteries.

Of

all spirit-

it is

the door.

2.

SELF-CULTURE.
all

When

in the

world

understand beauty to be

beauty, then only ugliness appears.

When

all

un-

98

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

derstand goodness to be goodness, then only badness


appears.

For
the easy, are mutually definitioned.

"To

be and not to be are mutually conditioned.


difficult,

The The

long, the short, are mutually exhibitioned.

Above, below, are mutually cognitioned.

The

sound, the voice, are mutually coalitioned.

Before and after are mutually positioned."

Therefore the holy


in his affairs

man

abides by non-assertion
his instruction.

and conveys by silence

When
them

the ten thousand things arise, verily, he refuses


not.

He
it.

quickens but owns not.

He

works

but claims not.


not dwell on

Merit he accomplishes, but he does

"Since he does not dwell on


It will

it,

never leave him."

3.

KEEPING THE PEOPLE QUIET.


rivalry.

Not exalting worth keeps people from

Not prizing what


from

is difficult

to obtain

keeps people

committing

theft.

Not

contemplating what
There-

kindles desire keeps the heart unconfused.


fore the holy

man when he
fills

governs empties the peo-

ples hearts but

their souls.

He weakens

their

ambitions but strengthens their backbones.

Always

he keeps the people unsophisticated and without desire.

He

causes that the crafty do not dare to


is

act.

When

he acts with non-assertion there

nothing un-

governed.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

99

4.

SOURCELESS.
its

Reason
its

is

empty, but
it

use

is

inexhaustible.

In

profundity, verily,

resembleth the father of the

ten thousand things.

"It will blunt


Will
its

its

own

sharpness,

tangles adjust;its

It will

dim

own radiance
its

And be one
Oh,

with
to

dust."
!

how calm
it is.

it

seems

remain

know

not

whose son
cedence.
5.

Before the Lord, Reason takes pre-

THE FUNCTION OF EMPTINESS.


exhibit no benevolence
;

Heaven and earth


holy

to

them

the ten thousand things are like straw dogs.

The

man

exhibits no benevolence

to

him the hun-

dred families are like straw dogs.


Is not the

space between heaven and earth like


?

unto a bellows

It is

empty; yet

it

collapses not.

It

moves, and more and more comes

forth.
is
!

[But]

"How soon A gossip's

exhausted

fulsome talk

And should we not prefer On the middle path to walk?"


6.

THE COMPLETION OF FORM.


valley spirit not expires,
'tis

"The

Mysterious mother

called

by the

sires

IOO

LAO-TZE

TAOTEH-KING.

The mysterious mother's door, to boot, Is called of Heaven and earth the root.
Forever and aye
it

seems

to

endure

And

its

use

is

without

effort sure."

7.

DIMMING RADIANCE.
earth
is

Heaven endures and

lasting.

And why

can heaven and earth endure and be lasting? Because


they do not live for themselves.

On

that account can

they endure.

Therefore the holy


his person

man puts

his person

behind and

comes

to the front.
is

He

surrenders his perIs


it

son and his person


seeks not his

preserved.

not because he

own?

For

that reason he can accom-

plish his own.

8.

EASY BY NATURE.

Superior goodness resembleth water.

Water

in
it

goodness benefiteth the ten thousand things, yet


quarreleth not.
the multitude of

Because

it

dwells in places which


it

men

shun, therefore

is

near unto

the eternal Reason.

For

a dwelling goodness chooses the level.

For a
giving,

heart goodness chooses commotion.

When

goodness chooses benevolence.


chooses
der.
faith.

In words, goodness

In government goodness chooses orability.


It

In business goodness chooses

In

its

motion goodness chooses timeliness.


not.

quarreleth

Therefore,

it is

not rebuked.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

IOI

9.

PRACTISING PLACIDITY.
full,

Holding and keeping


left

had that not better be


the hall no one can

alone?

Handling and keeping sharp, can that


If

wear long?
protect
it.

gold and jewels

fill

Rich and high but proud, brings about


misfortune.

its

own

To accomplish

merit and acquire fame,


is

then to withdraw oneself, that


10.

Heaven's Way.

WHAT CAN BE

DONE.
em-

He who

sustains and disciplines his soul and

braces unity cannot be deranged.


to his vitality
like a little

Through

attention

and inducing tenderness he can become

child.

By

purifying,

by cleansing and
faults.

profound intuition he can be free from

In loving the people and administering the country

he can practise non-assertion.

Opening and closing

the gates of heaven he can be like a mother-bird


bright,

and white, and penetrating the four quarters,

he can be unsophisticated.
feeds them.

He

quickens them and

claims not.

He He

quickens but owns not.


excels but rules not.

He

acts but
is

This

called

profound
11.

virtue.

THE FUNCTION OF THE NON-EXISTENT.


in'

Thirty spokes unite in one nave and on that which


is

non-existent [on the hole


utility.
is

the nave] depends the


into a vessel

wheel's
that

Clay

is

moulded
its

and on

which

non-existent [on

hollowness] depends

102

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
utility.

the vessel's

By

cutting out doors and winis

dows we build
istent
utility.

a house

and on that which

non-ex-

[on the empty space]

depends the house's

Therefore,
able,
it

when

the existence of things

is profit-

is

the non-existent in

them which renders

them

useful.

12.

ABSTAINING FROM DESIRE.


notes the

"The
The The

five colors the five

five tastes

human eye will blind, human ear will rend. the human mouth offend."
will

" Racing and hunting


Objects of prize

human hearts turn mad, make human conduct bad."

Therefore the holy


not to the outer.
the former.
13.

man

attends to the inner and


the latter and chooses

He abandons

LOATHING SHAME.

"Favor and disgrace bode awe.


Esteeming the body bodes great trouble."

What

is

meant by "favor and digrace bode awe?"


Its

Favor humiliates.
bodes awe.
This
is

gain bodes awe;

its loss

meant by "favor and disgrace

bode awe."

What
I

is

meant by "Esteeming the body bodes


? I

great trouble "

have trouble because

have a body.
?

When

have no body, what trouble remains

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


Therefore,
if

103

one administers the empire as he

cares for his body, he can be entrusted with the empire.


14.

PRAISING

THE MYSTERIOUS.
it;
its

We
its

look at Reason and do not see

name

is
it

Colorless.

We
it
;

listen to

Reason and do not hear

name

is

Soundless.
its

We
is

grope for Reason and do

not grasp

name

Incorporeal.

These three things cannot further be analysed.

Thus they
which on
obscure.

are

combined and conceived


is

as a unity

its

surface

not clear but in

its

depth not

Forever and aye Reason remains unnamable, and


again and again
it

returns

home

to

non-existence.

This

is

called the form of the formless, the

image

of

the imageless.
struse.

This

is

called transcendentally ab-

In front

its

beginning

is

not seen.

In the rear

its

end

is

not seen.

By
stood.

holding
is

fast to the

Reason

of the ancients, the

present

mastered and the origin of the past underis

This
15.

called Reason's clue.

THE REVEALERS OF VIRTUE.


who have succeeded
in

Those

of yore

becoming

masters are subtile, spiritual, profound, and penetrating.

On

account of their profundity they cannot be

understood.
therefore
I

Because they cannot


endeavor to make them

be understood,

intelligible.

104

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

How

they are cautious!

Like

sing a river.

How

reluctant!

Like

men in winter crosmen fearing in

the four quarters their neighbors.

How

reserved!

They behave like guests. semble ice when melting.


semble unseasoned wood.
ble the valley.

How elusive! They reHow simple! They reHow empty! They resemtroubled

How obscure! They resemble

waters.

Who
the
still?

by quieting can gradually render muddy

waters clear?

Who

by

stirring can gradually

quicken

He who
filled.

keeps this Reason


is

is

not anxious to be

Since he

not

filled,

therefore he can

grow

old and need not be newly fashioned.

16.

RETURNING TO THE ROOT.

Attain vacuity's completion and guard tranquillity's fulness.

All the ten thousand things arise,


return.

and

see

them

Now

they bloom in bloom, but each one


to its root.
rest.

homeward returneth

Returning to the root means

It signifies

the

return according to destiny. Return according to destiny

means the

eternal.

enlightenment.
sions to rise
;

Knowing the eternal means Not knowing the eternal causes pasis evil.

and that

Knowing the eternal renders comprehensive. Comprehensive means broad. Broad means royal. Royal means heavenly. Heavenly means Reason. Reason

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

105

means

lasting.

Thus

the decay of the body implies

no danger.
17.

SIMPLICITY IN HABITS.

Where

great sages are [in power], the subjects do

not notice their existence.

Where

there are lesser


;

sages, the people are attached to

them

they praise

them.

Where
;

still

lesser ones are, the people fear lesser ones are, the people des-

them

and where

still
it is

pise them.

For

said

"If your faith be


ceive no faith."

insufficient, verily,

you

will re-

How

reluctantly sages consider their words! Merit


;

they accomplish

deeds they perform

and the hun-

dred families think:


free."
18.

"We

are independent;

we

are

THE PALLIATION OF VULGARITY.


the great Reason
justice.
is

When

obliterated,

we have

benevolence and
tion appear,

Prudence and circumspec-

and we have much hypocrisy.

When
filial

family relations no longer harmonise,


piety and paternal love.

we have

When

the country and the


loyalty and

clans decay through disorder,


allegiance.

we have

19.

RETURNING TO SIMPLICITY.
saintliness; put

Abandon your
and the people

away your prudence;

will gain a hundred-fold!

Abandon your benevolence; put away your

justice;

106

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
will return to filial devotion

and the people


ternal love!

and pa-

Abandon your scheming; put away your


and thieves and robbers
will

gains;

no longer
for

exist.

These are the three things


ture insufficient.

which we deem
said
:

cul-

Therefore

it is

"Hold fast to that which will endure, Show thyself simple, preserve thee pure, Thy own keep small, thy desires poor."
20.

DIFFERENT FROM THE VULGAR.


learnedness, and you have no vexation.

Abandon
they
differ!

The "yes" compared with

the "yea,"

how

little

do

But the good compared with the bad,


dreadless!

how much do they differ! What the people dread cannot be


great
is

How

their desolation.

Alas!

it

has not yet reached

its limit.

The multitude
in

of

men

are happy, so happy, as


feast.

though celebrating a great

They
I

are as though

springtime ascending a tower.

alone remain

quiet, alas! like

one that has not yet received an enI

couraging omen.
not yet smile.

am

like

unto a babe that does

Forlorn

am

I,

O, so forlorn
I

It

appears that

have no place whither

may return home. The multitude of men all have plenty and I alone appear empty. Alas I am a man whose heart is
!

foolish.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


Ignorant

107

am

I,

O, so ignorant
I

Common
I

people

are bright, so bright,

alone

am

dull.

Common
Desolate
like

people are smart, so smart,

alone

am
!

confused, so confused.

am

I,

alas

like the sea.

Adrift, alas

one who has no place where to stay. The multitude of men all possess usefulness. I I alone differ alone am awkward and a rustic too.

from others, but


mother.
21.

prize seeking sustenance from our

EMPTYING THE HEART.


virtue's

"Vast

form

Follows Reason's norm.

And Reason's
Is

nature

vague and eluding.


eluding and vague

How How

All types including.

vague and eluding

All beings including.

How
It

deep, and

how

obscure.

harbors the spirit pure,

Whose truth is ever sure, Whose faith abides for aye From of yore until to-day.
Its
It

name

is

without cessation.

watches the world's formation.''


I

Whereby do
formation?

know

that

it

watches the world's


!

By

this

same Reason

108

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

22.

HUMILITY'S INCREASE.

"The deficient will recuperate. And the crooked shall be straight.


The empty find their fill. The worn with strength will
thrill.

Who Who

have

little

shall receive.
will

have much

have

to grieve."

man embraces unity and becomes for all the world a model. He is not self-dis playing, and thus he shines. He is not self-approving, and thus he is distinguished. He is not self-praising, and thus he acquires merit. He is not self-glorifying
Therefore the holy

and thus he
fore

excels.
in the

Since he does not quarrel, there-

no one

world can quarrel with him.

The saying
recuperate/'

of the ancients:

"The

deficient will

is it

in

any way vainly spoken?

Verily,

they will recuperate and return home.

23.

EMPTINESS AND NON-EXISTENCE.


is

To be

taciturn

the natural way.

hurricane does not outlast the morning.

A cloud-

burst does not outlast the day.

Who
If

causes these

events but heaven and earth?

even heaven and

earth cannot be unremitting, will not


less so?

man

be

much
Rea-

Therefore one
son, the

who pursues
Reason,
is

his business with

man The man who

of

identified with Reason.


is

pursues his business with virtue

iden-

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


tified

IOg
his business

with virtue.
is

The man who pursues

with loss

identified with loss.

When

identified with
;

Reason, he forsooth joyfully embraces Reason


identified with virtue,

when

he forsooth joyfully embraces


loss,

virtue
fully

and when identified with


loss.

he forsooth joy-

embraces

"

He whose
24.

faith is insufficient shall not find faith."

TROUBLES

IN [THE

EAGERNESS TO ACQUIRE]

MERIT.

A man
not walk.

on tiptoe cannot stand.

A man

astride can-

self-displaying

man

cannot shine.

self-approving
praising

man cannot

be distinguished.

self-

man

cannot acquire merit.

self-glorying

man cannot
is

excel.

Before the tribunal of Reason he

like offal of food


all

and

like

an excrescence in the sysTherefore,

tem which

people are likely to detest.

one who has Reason does not rely on him.


25.

IMAGING THE MYSTERIOUS.


is

There

is

Being that

all-containing,

which pre-

cedes the existence of heaven and earth.


it

How

calm

is

How

incorporeal

Alone
it

it

stands and does

not change.
a risk,

Everywhere

goes without running

and can on that account become the world's


I

mother.

know

not

its

name.

Its

character
it

is

deI

fined as Reason.
call
it

When

obliged to give
I

name,

the Great.
I

The Great

call the

Evasive.
I call

The
the

Evasive

call the Distant.

The Distant

Returning.

"

no
The
great,

saying goes:
is

"Reason

is

great,
is

Heaven

is

Earth

great,

and Royalty also

great.

There

are four things in the world that are great, and Royalty is

one of them."
is

Man's standard
is

the Earth.

The
is

earth's standard

Heaven.

Heaven's standard

Reason.

Reason's

standard

is intrinsic.

26.

THE VIRTUE OF
is

DIGNITY.

The heavy
tion' s master.

of the light the root,

and

rest is

mo-

Therefore the holy


depart from dignity.

man

in his daily

walk does not

Although he may have magsits

nificent sights, he calmly

with liberated mind.

But how
chariots?

is

it

with the master of the ten thousand

In his personal conduct he makes light of

the empire.
vassals.

He makes
is

light of

it

and

will lose his

He

passionate and will lose the throne.

27.

THE FUNCTION OF

SKILL.

"Good Good
Good

travellers leave not trace nor track,

speakers, in logic

show no

lack,

counters need no counting rack.


lockers bolting bars need not,

"Good
Good

Yet none their locks can loose.


binders need not string nor knot,

Yet none unties their noose.


Therefore the holy
of

man

is

always a good saviour

men,

for there are

no outcast people.

He

is

always

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

Ill

a good saviour of things, for there are no outcast


things.

This

is

called concealed enlightenment.

Therefore the good


tor,

man
is

is

the bad man's instruc-

while the bad

man

the good man's capital.

He
is

who does

not esteem his instructor, and he

who does

not love his capital, although he


greatly disconcerted.
ality.

may be

prudent,

This

I call

significant spiritu-

28.

RETURNING TO SIMPLICITY.
his

"Who

manhood shows And his womanhood knows Becomes the empire's river.
Is

he the empire's
will

river,

He

from virtue never deviate,


turneth to a child's estate.

And home he

"Who
And
Is

his brightness
his blackness

shows

knows

Becomes

the empire's model.

he the empire's model,


he'll

Of virtue never

be destitute,

And home he

turneth to the absolute.

"Who

knows

his
his

fame

And guards
Becomes
Is

shame

the empire's valley.

he the empire's valley,


e'er his virtue will sufficient be,

For

And home he

turneth to simplicity."

112

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

By

scattering about his simplicity he

makes

[of

the people] vessels of usefulness.

The

holy

man em-

ploys them as officers

for a great administration does

no harm.
2g.

NON-ASSERTION.
in

When
make
it,

one desires to take


see

hand the empire and

vine vessel
it,

mars

it.

The empire is a diwhich cannot be made. One who makes One who takes it, loses it. And it is
him not succeed.
:

said of beings

"Some Some Some Some

are obsequious, others

move

boldly,

breathe warmly, others coldly,


are strong
rise

and others weak,

proudly, others sneak."

Therefore the holy

man abandons

pleasure,

he

abandons extravagance, he abandons indulgence.


30.

BE CHARY OF WAR.
His

He who
methods

with Reason assists the master of man-

kind will not with arms conquer the empire.


[are such as] invite requital.

Where

armies are quartered briars and thorns

grow. Great wars unfailingly are followed by famines.

good man acts resolutely and then by


force.

stops.

He

ven-

tures not to take

He

is
;

resolute but not resolute but not


it
;

boastful

resolute but not haughty


;

arrogant

resolute because he cannot avoid

reso-

lute but not violent.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


Things thrive and then grow
un-Reason.
old.

113
is

This

called

Un-Reason soon
31.

ceases.

QUELLING WAR.
among
tools,

Even

beautiful arms are unblest

and

people had better shun them,

Therefore he

who has

Reason does not

rely

on them.
residing at

The
the
left.

superior

man when

home honors

When

using arms, he honors the right.


tools
it

Arms
man's
them.

are unblest
tools.

among Only when

and not the superior


unavoidable he uses

is

Peace and quietude he holds high.

He

con-

quers but rejoices not. Rejoicing at a conquest means


to enjoy the slaughter of

men.

He who

enjoys the
his

slaughter of

men

will

most assuredly not obtain

will in the empire.


32.

THE VIRTUE OF HOLINESS.


it

Reason, so long as
able.

remains absolute,

is

unnameprinces

Although

its

simplicity seems insignificant, the


to suppress
it.

whole world does not dare

If

and kings could keep


of

it,

the ten thousand things would

themselves pay homage.

Heaven and earth would


and the people with no
of

unite in dropping sweet dew,

one to
eous.

command them would


as

themselves be right-

But as soon
nameable.

Reason creates

order,

it

becomes
turn acto stop.

Whenever

the nameable in

its

quires existence, one learns to

know when

By knowing when

to stop,

one avoids danger.

114

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

To

illustrate
it

Reason's relation to the world we

compare

to streamlets

and creeks

in their

course to-

wards great
33.

rivers

and the ocean.

THE VIRTUE OF DISCRIMINATION.


others
is

One who knows


knows himself
is

clever,

but one

who who

enlightened.

One who conquers


conquers himself
is

others

is

powerful, but one

mighty.

One who knows sufficiency is rich. One who pushes with vigor has will, one who loses not his place endures. One who may die but will not
perish, has life everlasting.

34.

TRUST
it

IN ITS PERFECTION.
is

How all-pervading
on the
left

the great Reason


right.
life,

It

can be

and

can be on the
it

The
and

ten thouit

sand things depend upon

for their

refuses

them

not.

When

its

merit
it

is

accomplished

it

assumes

not the name.

Lovingly

nourishes the ten thousand

things and plays not the lord.

Ever

desireless

it

can

be classed with the small.


return

The

ten thousand things


It

home

to

it.

It

plays not the lord.

can be

classed with the great.

Therefore, the holy

man unto death does

not

make

himself great and can thus accomplish his greatness.

35.

THE VIRTUE OF BENEVOLENCE.


holdeth fast to the great Form,
will

"Who

Of him the world

come

in quest

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


For there they never meet with harm,

115

But

find contentment, comfort, rest."

Music with dainties makes the passing stranger


stop.

But Reason, when coming from the mouth,


tasteless
is
is it
!

how
at,

It

has no

flavor.
;

When

looked

there
is

not enough to be seen

when

listened to,
its

there

not enough to be heard.

However,

use

is

inexhaustible.
36.

THE SECRET'S EXPLANATION.


is

That which
[first]

about to contract has surely been

expanded.
[first]

That which
been

is

about to weaken has

surely been

strengthened.

That which

is

about
is

to fall has surely

[first] raised.

That which
[first]

about to be despoiled has surely been

endowed.

This

is

an explanation

of the secret that the tender

and the weak conquer the hard and the strong.


[Therefore beware of hardness and strength
:]

As

the fish should not escape from the deep, so with the
country's sharp tools the people should not

become

acquainted.
37.

ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT.

Reason always practises non-assertion, and there


is

nothing that remains undone.


If

princes and kings could keep Reason, the ten

thousand things would of themselves be reformed.

While being reformed they would yet be anxious


stir
;

to

but

would

restrain

them by the simplicity

of

the Ineffable.

Il6

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

"The

simplicity of the unexpressed


lust.

Will purify the heart of

Where there's no And all the world

lust there will

be

rest,

will thus

be

blest.

II.
38.

DISCOURSING ON VIRTUE.
is

Superior virtue
virtue.

un-virtue.

Therefore

it

has

Inferior virtue never loses sight of virtue.


it

Therefore

has no virtue.

Superior virtue

is

non-

assertion and without pretension.


serts

Inferior virtue as-

and makes pretensions.

Superior benevolence acts but makes no pretensions.

Superior justice acts and makes pretensions.


superior propriety acts and
it,

The

when no one responds to Thus its arm and enforces its rules. one loses Reason and then virtue appears. One loses virtue and then benevolence appears. One loses benevolence and then justice appears. One loses justice and then propriety appears. The rules of proit

stretches

priety are the semblance of loyalty

and

faith,

and the

beginning of disorder.
Quick-wittedness
is

the [mere] flower of Reason,

but of ignorance the beginning.

Therefore a great organiser abides by the solid

and dwells not


fruit

in the external. in the flower.

He

abides in the
dis-

and dwells not

Therefore he

cards the latter and chooses the former.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

117

39.

THE ROOT OF ORDER.


have obtained oneness

From

of old these things

" Heaven through oneness has become pure.


Earth through oneness can endure.

Minds through oneness

their souls procure.

Valleys through oneness repletion secure.

" All creatures through oneness to


called.

life

have been

And

kings were through oneness as models


stalled."

in-

Such

is

the result of oneness.


it

" Were heaven not pure

might be

rent.

Were earth not stable it might be bent. Were minds not ensouled they'd be impotent. Were valleys not filled they'd soon be spent.
u

When

creatures are lifeless

who can

their death

prevent ?

Are kings not models, but on highness bent,


Their
fall,

forsooth,

is

imminent."

Thus, the noble come from the commoners as their


root,

and the high

rest

upon the lowly

as their foun-

dation.

Therefore, princes and kings call themselves

orphans, widowers, and nobodies. Is this not because

they [representing the unity of the commoners] take


lowliness as their root
?

The

several parts of a carriage are not a carriage.

Il8

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

Those who have become a unity are neither anxious to be praised with praise like a gem, nor dis-

dained with disdain like a stone.


40.

AVOIDING ACTIVITY.
is

"Homeward
Weakness

Reason's course,

is

Reason's force."
the ten thousand things

Heaven and earth and

come from
existence.

existence, but existence

comes from non-

41.

SAMENESS IN DIFFERENCE.
Reason he enand sometimes
of

When
of

a superior scholar hears of


it.

deavors to practise

When an

average scholar hears


it

Reason he
it.

will

sometimes keep

lose

When

an inferior scholar hears


it.

Reason he
it

will greatly ridicule

Were

it

not thus ridiculed,

would as Reason be
says 1

insufficient.

Therefore the poet

" The reason-enlightened seem dark and black,

The reason-advanced seem going back, The reason-straight-levelled seem rugged and
" The high
in virtue

slack,

resemble a vale,

The purely white in shame must quail, The staunchest virtue seems to fail.
" The solidest virtue seems not
alert,

The The

purest chastity seems pervert,


greatest square will rightness desert.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


" The largest vessel
is

Iig

not yet complete,


not speech replete,

The The

loudest sound

is

greatest form has no shape concrete."


as
it

Reason so long
able.

remains hidden
is

is

unname-

Yet Reason alone

good

for

imparting and

completing.

42.

REASON'S MODIFICATIONS.
unity; unity begets duality; duality
trinity begets

Reason begets
begets trinity
things.
;

and

the ten thousand

The

ten thousand things are sustained by

Yin [the negative principle]; they are encompassed


by Yang [the positive principle], and the immaterial
Ch'i [the breath of
life]

renders them harmonious.


find odious, to be

That which the people

an

orse-

phan, a widower, or a nobody, kings and princes


lect as their titles.

Thus, on the one hand, loss imloss.

plies gain,

and on the other hand, gain implies


I

What

others have taught

teach also.
;

The
but

strong
I

and aggressive do not die a natural death

shall

expound the doctrine's foundation.


ITS

43.

UNIVERSAL APPLICATION.

The
est.

world's weakest overcomes the world's hardenters


into

Non-existence
I

the

impenetrable.

Thereby
tage,

comprehend

of non-assertion the

advanin the

and

of silence the lesson,

There are few

world

who

obtain the advantage of non-assertion.

120

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

44.

SETTING UP PRECEPTS.
which
is

"Name

or person,

more near?
is

Person or fortune, which

more dear?

Gain or

loss,

which

is

more sear ?

"Extreme dotage Hoarded wealth

leadeth to squandering,
inviteth plundering.

"Who is content incurs no Who knows when to stop

humiliation,
risks

no

vitiation,

Forever lasteth his duration."


45.

GREATEST VIRTUE.

"The
But

greatest perfection seems imperfect,


its

work undecaying remaineth.


is

The
But

greatest fulness
its

emptiness-checked,

work

's

not exhausted nor waneth."

"The
The

straightest line resembleth a curve;

greatest sage as apprentice will serve


will

Most eloquent speakers


Motion conquers
cold.

stammer and swerve.'

Quietude conquers heat

Purity and clearness are the world's standard.


46.

MODERATION OF DESIRE.

When

the world possesses Reason, race horses are

reserved for hauling dung.

When

the world

is

with-

out Reason, war horses are bred in the

common.

No greater

sin than yielding to desire.

No

greater

misery than discontent.


acquisitiveness.

No

greater calamity than

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


Therefore, he

121

who knows contentment's

content-

ment

is

always content.
47.

VIEWING THE DISTANT.


of the gate

"Without passing out

The

world's course

prognosticate.

Without peeping through the window

The heavenly Reason The further one goes, The less one knows."
Therefore the holy

contemplate.

man does

not travel, and yet

he has knowledge.
yet he defines

He does not see the things, and them. He does not labor, and yet he

completes.
48.

FORGETTING KNOWLEDGE.

He who
who
ish

seeks learnedness will daily increase.

He
non-

seeks Reason will daily diminish.

He will
is

diminat

and continue

to diminish until

he arrives

assertion.

With

non-assertion there

nothing that
it is

he cannot achieve.

When

he takes the empire,

always because he uses no diplomacy.

He who

uses

diplomacy

is

not

fit

to take the empire.

49.

TRUST

IN VIRTUE.

The holy man


hundred

possesses not a fixed heart.

The
I

families' hearts
I

he makes his heart.


;

The good

meet with goodness


for virtue is

the bad

also

meet with goodness;

good [throughout].

122

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.
faithful
I

The

meet with
;

faith; the faithless I also

meet with

faith

for virtue is faithful [throughout].

The holy man


ises his heart,

dwells in the world anxious, very

anxious in his dealings with the world.

He
fix

universal-

and the hundred families


eyes.

upon him
all

their ears

and

The holy man

treats

them

as

children.
50.

THE ESTIMATION OF
is life
;

LIFE.
is

Going
Three

forth

coming home
;

death.

in ten are pursuers of life

three in ten are

pursuers of death; three in ten of the


pass into the realm of death.

men

that live

Now, what
life's intensity.

is

the reason

It is

because they

live

Indeed,
of his
life,

understand that one

who

takes good care

when

travelling on land will not fall in with

the rhinoceros or the tiger.


diers,

When coming among


The
its

sol-

he need not fear arms and weapons.

rhi-

noceros finds no place where to insert


tiger finds

no place where

to

find
is

no place where

to thrust

The lay his claws. Weapons their blades. The reason


horn.

that he does not belong to the realm of death.

51.

NURSING VIRTUE.
all

Reason quickens
Therefore

creatures. Virtue feeds them.

Reality shapes them.

The

forces complete

them.
is

among

the ten thousand things there

none that does not esteem Reason and honor

virtue.

Since the esteem of Reason and the honoring of

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


virtue
is

23

by no one commanded,
Therefore
it is

it is

forever spontaall

neous.

said that

Reason quickens

creatures, while virtue feeds them, raises them, nur-

tures

them, completes

them, matures them, rears

them, and protects them.

To quicken
virtue.
52.

but not to own, to

make but
is

not to

claim, to raise but not to rule, this

called profound

RETURNING TO THE ORIGIN.


its

When When
that he
is

the world takes

beginning, Reason be-

comes the world's mother.


he who knows his mother, knows
her child, and
in turn

when he who

is

quickened

as a child, in turn keeps to his mother, to the


life,

end

of

he

is

not in danger.

When

he closes his mouth,

and shuts his sense-gates,


encounter no trouble
;

in the

end

of

life,

he will

but

when he opens
the end of
life

his

mouth

and meddles with


be saved.

affairs, in

he cannot

Who beholds his smallness is called enlightened. Who preserves his tenderness is called strong. Who
uses Reason's light and returns

home

to its enlighten-

ment does not surrender


is

his

person to perdition. This

called practising the eternal.

53.

GAINING INSIGHT.
little

If

have ever so
Reason.

knowledge,

shall
I

walk

in the great
fear.

It is

but assertion that

must

124

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

The

great Reason

is

very plain, but people are

fond of by-paths.

When

the palace

is

very splendid, the fields are

very weedy and granaries very empty.

To wear ornaments and gay clothes,


have a redundance of costly
of robbers.

to carry

sharp

swords, to be excessive in drinking and eating, to


articles, this is the pride

Surely, this

is

un-Reason!

THE CULTIVATION OF INTUITION. "What is well planted is not uprooted;


54.

What's well preserved cannot be looted !'

By

sons and grandsons the sacrificial celebrations

shall not cease.

Who
genuine.

cultivates

Reason

in his person, his virtue is

Who cultivates it in his house, his virtue is overflowing. Who cultivates it in his township, his Who cultivates it in his country, virtue is lasting. his virtue is abundant. Who cultivates it in the world,
his virtue
is

universal.

Therefore, by one's person one tests persons.


one's house one tests houses.
tests townships.
tries.

By

By

one's township one

By

one's country one tests coun-

By

one's world one tests worlds.


I

How
Reason.

do

know

that the world

is

such?

Through

55.

THE SIGNET OF THE MYSTERIOUS.


possesses virtue in
child.
all its

He who
unto a
little

solidity is like

Venomous

reptiles

do not sting

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


him, fierce beasts do not seize him.
not strike him.

25

Birds of prey do
ten-

His bones are weak, his sinews

der, but his grasp is firm.

He

does not yet

know

the

relation

between male and female, but his

virility is

strong.

Thus

his metal

grows

to perfection.

whole

day he might cry and sob without growing hoarse.


This shows the perfection of his harmony.

To know the harmonious is called the eternal. To know the eternal is called enlightenment. To increase life is called a blessing, and heartdirected vitality
is

called strength, but things vigorI call

ous are about to grow old and

this

un-Reason.

Un-Reason soon ceases


56.

THE VIRTUE OF THE MYSTERIOUS.


not
talk.

One who knows does


does not know.

Therefore the

One who talks sage keeps his mouth

shut and his sense-gates closed.

"

He He

will blunt his

own

sharpness,

His own tangles adjust


will

dim

his

own

radiance,

And be one with


This
is

his dust."

called profound identification.


is

Thus he

inaccessible to love and also inacces-

sible to enmity.

He

is

inaccessible to profit and inis

accessible to loss.

He

also inaccessible to favor

and inaccessible
honored.

to disgrace.

Thus he becomes world-

126

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

57.

SIMPLICITY IN HABITS.
;

With

rectitude one governs the state


;

with

crafti-

ness one leads the army


takes the empire.

with non-diplomacy one


I

How

do

know

that

it

is

so

Through Reason.

The more

restrictions

and prohibitions are

in the

empire, the poorer grow the people.

The more weapis

ons the people have, the more troubled

the state.

The more

there

is

cunning and

skill,

the more start-

ling events will happen.

The more mandates and

laws are enacted, the more there will be thieves and


robbers.

Therefore the holy


tion,

man

says

practise non-asserI

and the people

of themselves reform.

love

quietude, and the people of themselves


eous.
I

become

right-

use no diplomacy, and the people of themrich.


I

selves
of

become

have no

desire,

and the people

themselves remain simple.

58.

ADAPTATION TO CHANGE.
is

Whose government
perous.

unostentatious, quite unos-

tentatious, his people will be prosperous, quite pros-

Whose government
!

is

prying, quite prying,

his people will be needy, quite needy.

Misery, alas
alas
!

rests

upon happiness.

Happiness,
catas-

underlies misery.
?

But who foresees the


!

trophe

It will
is

not be prevented

What

ordinary becomes again extraordinary.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

27

What

is

good becomes again unpropitions.

This be-

wilders people, which happens constantly since times

immemorial.
Therefore the holy
strict

man

is

square but not sharp,

but not obnoxious, upright but not restraining,

bright but not dazzling.


59.

HOLD FAST TO REASON.


As
to

In governing the people and in attending to heaven


there
it

is

nothing like moderation.


it

moderation,
If
it is

is

said that
it

must be an early

habit.

an
If

early habit,

will

be richly accumulated virtue.


is

one has richly accumulated virtue, then there


ing that cannot be overcome.
If

noth-

there

is

nothing that
limits.
If

cannot be overcome, then no one knows his

no one knows his


If

limits,

one can possess the country.


[viz.,
is

one possesses the mother of the country

modcalled

eration],

one can thereby

last long.

This

having deep roots and a firm stem.


lasting

comprehension
60.

this is the

To long Way.

life

and

HOW TO

MAINTAIN ONE'S PLACE.


you would
managed,
fry small

Govern
fish:
If

a great country as

[neither gut nor scale them].

with Reason the empire

is

its

ghosts

will not spook.

Not only

will its

ghosts not spook,

but
its

its

gods will not harm the people.


its

Not only
holy
will

will
will

gods not harm the people, but

men

also not

harm the people. Since neither

do harm,

therefore their virtues will be combined.

128

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

61.

THE VIRTUE OF HUMILITY.


The
wife
al-

great state, one that lowly flows, becomes the

empire's union, and the empire's wife.

ways through quietude conquers her husband, and by


quietude renders herself lowly.

Thus

a great state
will

through lowliness toward small states

conquer

the small states, and small states through lowliness

toward great states

will

conquer great

states.

Therefore some render themselves lowly for the

purpose
conquer.

of

conquering

others are lowly and therefore

A
to

great state desires no


;

more than

to unite

and

feed the people

a small state desires

no more than
;

devote

itself to

the service of the people

but that

both

may

obtain their wishes, the greater one must

stoop.
62.

PRACTISE REASON.
is

It

is

Reason that
beautiful

the ten thousand things' asy-

lum, the good man's wealth, the bad man's stay.

With
If

words one can


still

sell.

With honest

conduct one can do


a

more with the people.

man be
;

bad,

why should he be thrown away?

Therefore, an emperor was elected and three ministers

appointed

but better than holding before one's face

the jade table [of the ministry] and riding with four
horses,
is

sitting still

and propounding the eternal

Reason.

Why

do the ancients prize

this

Reason

Is

it

not,

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


say,

I2g
sin-

because when sought

it is

obtained and the

ner thereby can be saved?

Therefore

it

is

world-

honored.
63.

CONSIDER BEGINNINGS.

Assert non-assertion. Practise non-practice. Taste


non-taste.
little.

Make

great the small.

Make much

the

Requite hatred with goodness.

Contemplate a
a great thing

difficulty
it is

when

it is

easy.

Manage

when

small.

The

world's most difficult undertakings necessarily

originate while easy, and the world's greatest under-

takings necessarily originate while small.

Therefore the holy


ture to play the great,

man

to the

end does not venhis

and thus he can accomplish

greatness.
his word, so

As one who
he to

lightly promises rarely keeps

whom many
many

things are easy will

necessarily encounter

difficulties.

Therefore, the

holy

man

regards everything as

difficult,

and thus

to

the end encounters no difficulties.

64.

MIND THE INSIGNIFICANT.


at rest is easily
is

What
still

is

still

kept quiet.

has not as yet appeared


feeble
is

easily prevented.

What What is
scant
is

easily broken.

What
exist.

is

still

easily dispersed.

Treat things before they


before disorder begins.

Regulate things

The

stout tree has originated


is

from a tiny

rootlet.

tower of nine stories

raised

130

lao-tze's taoteh-king.
of] clay,

by heaping up [bricks

thousand miles'

journey begins with a foot.

He
not.

that

makes mars.

He
not
;

that grasps loses.


;

The holy man does

make

therefore he mars

He

does not grasp

therefore he loses not.

The

people when undertaking an enterprise are always


near completion, and yet they
to the
fail.

Remain

careful
fail in

end as

in the

beginning and you will not

your enterprise.
Therefore the holy

man

desires to be desireless,

and does not prize


learns, not to

articles difficult to obtain.

He

be learned, and seeks a

home where

multitudes of the people pass by.

He

assists the ten

thousand things in their natural development, but he


does not venture to interfere.

65.

THE VIRTUE OF
who were

SIMPLICITY.

The

ancients

well versed in Reason did

not thereby enlighten the

people

they intended

thereby to
If

make them

simple-hearted.

people are

difficult to

govern,

it is

because they

To govern the country with smartness is the country's curse. To govern the country without smartness is the country's blessing. He who knows
are too smart.

these two things

is

also a
is

model

[like the ancients].

Always

to

know them
it is

called profound virtue.

Profound

virtue, verily, is deep.

Verily,

it is

far-

reaching. Verily,
it

to everything reverse.

But then

will procure great recognition.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

131

66.

PUTTING ONESELF BEHIND.


and oceans can
of the

That
be kings

rivers
is

hundred valleys

due

to their excelling in lowliness.

Thus

they can of the hundred valleys be the kings.

Therefore the holy man,

when anxious

to

be above

the people, must in his words keep underneath them.

When

anxious to lead the people, he must with his

person keep behind them.


Therefore the holy
ple are not burdened.
suffer alting

man

dwells above, but the peois

He

ahead, but the people

no harm.

Therefore the world rejoices in extiring.

him without

Because he

strives not,

no

one

in the

world will strive with him.

67.

THE THREE TREASURES.


me
great
;

All in the world call


unlikely.

but

resemble the

Now a man
would

is

great only because he resemlikely,

bles the unlikely.


lasting, indeed,
I

Did he resemble the


his mediocrity
I

how

be

have three treasures which

preserve and treas-

ure.

The

first is

called compassion.

The second

is

called

economy.
in the

The

third

is

called not daring to

come

world to the
;

front.

The compassionate
;

can be brave

the economical can be generous

those

who dare not come to the front in the world can become perfect as chief vessels. Now, if people discard compassion and are brave

132
if

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
if

they discard economy and are generous

they dis-

card modesty and are ambitious, they will surely die

Now, the compassionate


torious,

will in the attack

be vic-

and

in the

defence firm.

Heaven when about

to save

one will with compassion protect him.


68.

COMPLYING WITH HEAVEN.


is

He who
who
cels in

excels as a warrior
is

not warlike.

He

excels as a fighter

not wrathful.

conquering the enemy does not

He who exstrive. He who


This
is

excels in employing

men

is

lowly.

This

is

called the virtue of not-striving.

called utilising men's ability.

This

is

called comply-

ing with heaven

since olden times the highest.


"I dare not
act as

69.

THE FUNCTION OF THE MYSTERIOUS.

military expert used to say:

host [who takes the initiative] but act as guest [with


reserve].
I

dare not advance an inch, but

withdraw

afoot.'

This

is

called

marching without marching, threat-

ening without arms, charging without hostility, seizing without weapons.

No
enemy!

greater misfortune than

making

light of the

When we make
we had

light of the

enemy,

it

is

almost as though
sion].

lost

our treasure

[compas-

Thus,

if

matched armies encounter one another,


is

the tenderer one

sure to conquer.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

33

70.

DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND.
to

My

words are very easy

understand and very

easy to practise, but in the world no one can understand, no one can practise them.

Words have an
[viz.,
I

ancestor;
is

Deeds have

a master

Reason].

Since he

not understood, therefore


are

am

not understood.

Those who understand me

few,

and thus

am

distinguished.

Therefore the holy


his

man wears

wool, and hides in

bosom

his jewels.

71.

THE DISEASE OF KNOWLEDGE.


that
is

to

To know the unknowable know the knowable that is


Only by becoming sick

elevating.

Not
with-

sickness.

of sickness

we can be
is

out sickness.

The holy man

is

not sick.

Because he

sick of

sickness, therefore he
72.

is not sick.

HOLDING ONESELF DEAR.

If

the people do not fear the dreadful, the great

dreadful will come, surely.

Do
then
it

not render their lives narrow.

Do

not

make

their lot wearisome.


will not

When

it is

not

made wearisome,
himself but does

be wearisome.

Therefore, the holy


not display himself.

man knows

He

holds himself dear but does


latter

not honor himself.

Thus he discards the

and

chooses the former.

134

laotze's tao-teh-king.

73.

DARING TO ACT.
;

Courage,
age,
if

if

carried to daring, leads to death


life.

cour-

not carried to daring, leads to


is

Either of

these two things

sometimes

beneficial,

sometimes

harmful.

" Why

't

is

by heaven

rejected,
?

Who

has the reason detected

"

Therefore the holy

man

also regards

it

as difficult.
it is

The Heavenly Reason


conquer.
It

strives not, but


it is

sure to
It

speaks not, but


it

sure to respond.
It

summons
tiently but

not, but
is

comes

of itself.

works pa-

sure in
is

its

designs.
It is

Heaven's net
but
it

vast, so vast.

wide-meshed,

loses nothing.

74.

OVERCOME DELUSION.
how can
they be

If

the people do not fear death,

frightened by death?
If

we make people
[still]

fear death,
if

and supposing some

would

venture to rebel,

we

seize

them

for

capital punishment,

who

will dare?

who kills. Now to take the place of the executioner who kills is taking the place of the great carpenter who hews. If a man takes the place of the great carpenter who hews, he
There
is

always an executioner

will rarely, indeed, fail to injure his hand.

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

35

75.

HARMED THROUGH GREED.


;

The people hunger because their superiors consume too many taxes therefore they hunger. The
people are
are too
difficult to
;

govern because their superiors


it is

meddlesome

therefore

difficult to

govern.
in-

The people make


light of death.

light of

death on account of the


life
;

tensity of their clinging to

therefore they

make

He who
esteems
life.

is

not bent on

life is

worthier than he

who

76.

BEWARE OF STRENGTH.
life is

Man
dies he

during
is stiff

tender and delicate.

When

he

and

stark.

The

ten thousand things, the grass as well as the

trees, are

while they live tender and supple.

When

they die they are rigid and dry.

Thus

the hard and

the strong are the companions of death.

The tender

and the delicate are the companions


Therefore, he
quer.

of life.

who

in

arms

is

strong will not conit is

When

a tree has

grown strong

doomed.

The strong and

the great stay below.

The tender

and the delicate stay above.


77.

HEAVEN'S REASON.

Is

not Heaven's Reason truly like stretching a

bow?

The high it brings down, the lowly it lifts up. Those who have abundance it depleteth those v/ho
;

are deficient

it

augmenteth.

"

136

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

Such

is

Heaven's Reason.

It

depleteth those
deficient.

who

have abundance but completeth the

Man's Reason

is

not

so.

He

depletes the deficient


is

in order to serve those

who have abundance. Where


for serving the

he who would have abundance


It is

world?

the

man

of

Reason.

Therefore the holy

man

acts but claims not

merit

he accomplishes but he does not linger upon

it,

and

does he ever show any anxiety to display his excellence?


78.

TRUST
is

IN FAITH.
tenderer and more delicate

In the world nothing

than water.

In attacking the hard and the strong


it.

nothing will surpass


takes
its

There

is

nothing that herein


the strong, the
is

place.

The weak conquer

tender conquer the rigid. In the world there

no one
it.

who does

not

Therefore the

know it, holy man

but no one will practise


says
:

"Him who

the country's sin

makes

his,

We

hail as priest at the great sacrifice.

Him who
As king

the curse bears of the country's failing

of the

empire we are hailing.

True words seem paradoxical.

79.

KEEP YOUR OBLIGATIONS.


is

When

a great hatred

reconciled, naturally

some

hatred will remain.

How

can this be made good?

CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.

137

Therefore the sage keeps the obligations of his


contract and exacts not from others.
virtue attend to their obligations
virtue attend to their claims.
;

Those who have

those

who have no

Heaven's Reason shows no preference but always


assists the

good man.

80.

REMAINING

IN ISOLATION.
let

In a small country with few people

there be
of

aldermen and mayors who are possessed


over

power

men

but would not use

it.

Induce people to

grieve at death but do not cause


distance.

them

to

move

to a

Although they had ships and carriages,

they should find no occasion to ride in them. Although they had armours and weapons, they should find no
occasion to don them.

Induce people

to return

to [the old

custom

of]

knotted cords and to use them [in the place of writing], to delight in their food, to be

proud

of their

clothes, to be content with their


in their

homes, and

to rejoice

customs

then in a neighboring state within


of

sight, the voices

the

cocks and dogs would be

within hearing, yet the people might grow old and


die before they visited one another.

81.

PROPOUNDING THE ESSENTIAL.


;

True words are not pleasant


not true.

pleasant words are


;

The good

are not contentious

the conten-

138

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

tious are not good.

The wise

are not learned

the

learned are not wise.

The holy man hoards not. The more he does for others, the more he owns himself. The more he gives to others, the more he acquires himself.
Heaven's Reason
is

to benefit but not to injure;


is

the holy man's Reason

to act but not to strive. >

TRANSLITERATION OF THE TEXT

SZE-MA-CH'IEN ON LAO-TZE.

m
imj
i7g:

sz* 835, (ssu)

Jizang 189, (hsiang) county,

<ma

571,

pfg
'IHI
gft

'#A

458, (o&'#)
287, [jgn]

/s'z'en 980, (ck'z'en)

*>

[of] the good man's bend

PlI
|jp.

'skz 760, (shzh)

Historical

'#5*8, village,
286, (/?) a

^z"340, [cki) Records


lao 508, [of] the old

/^ Jan
4g, Q >/

man,

^
Jjf^

1079, (>w*)

indeed.

te'

1030, (tzu)

philosopher
tradition

chw'en

119, a

sing' 810, (hsing) [His] family [was]


'//

520,

the

Plum

|JJ

,?'
'

835, [szu)

J^
^5?J

***"'

763, gentry.

jnzng 600, His proper name


"rk
720, (^rr) [was]

J
pgb
t

ma57i

>

TBT
ts'z'en 980, (ch<zen)

Ear.

1130,

says

^5^ ^2" 4 AtX & ^


'

1032, (As)

His appellation
[was]

77y

Prince
principle

[War

yang
**

1071, Positive

~J.

'lao 508,

The

old

/^
|-*j

JZ+

pM

764,

[By

his]

posthumou

'r^z' 1030, (tzu)

philosopher

title

yueh

1130, [he is]

called
lobed.

,che 38, [was]


'/&'#

one
the bramble state,

jtan 849, the

Long

94, [of]

tel

,^'
'j^^

/Hi

47, (chou)

In the state of

Plenty
755,

-W*

436, [of] the thistle

r^

g?

(shou)

41
hzen' 201, (hszen) province,
522, [of]

he was in charge of

Jj||

Js'angg^o, the secret


-f/^zA,

/z*'

grinding

fcgj

770,

archives

142

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

j^
Jbj

chi

53, [chih)

as their
historian,

j{R
jnA

'^z 2ii, [hsiu) mouldered.


l

'j/zz*

760,

(s/zz7z)

i 279, [a final particle]


921, (/)
342,
(<r/zz*)

4tt

'^

1079, [yeh)

indeed.

^6S
~f-f*

tuh
JcH

Alone
their

J|j

'<- 465,

^^
Confucius

.yen 1083, words


tsai' 941, exist

JZ

'tag' 1030,

(Z#

I
to

/E
"HI

j^z'/z,

768,
47,

went

no "^
the state Plenty
of

720, {err) only.

<:^

[chou)

tsiangqfy, [chiang) in order to

R
Jf
*

'^'z/974, (<r#zVA) Further,


kiiin
418, (ckun) the
(* 2 ^)

wan

1042, [wdn) consult

superior

Hi 520, on ceremonials
"tfe

JHZL

'^ 2 1030*
'

sage
obtaining

yu

1118,

with
the old

41!.
"H"*.

r> 872,

when

7*
- fT

'/<z<?

508,

'z 342, (chi) his

'^2' 1030, (/s)

philosopher.

JjS:

t^z 759, time


rV/k, 956,
(/**)

IV.

0||
old q||?

then

,rK J3L

'/a<?

508,

The

zV

353, [chia)

he rises;

'^2' 1030, itzu)

philosopher
:

^K
j@EL

/. 7i7 [when] not


teh 872, obtaining
/

pf
J3L
tjjl

yue/i t

130,

said

*tsz' 1030, [tzu)

You,

sir,

*Bl

^' z"34 2

>

(***')

nis

j' 817, [shuo] of


h yen

whom

snz 759, time,


(s*)

J]^"

1083,

you speak

tse& t g$6,

then

dbg

V^/ 38, the ones


,^'2*342, (<^z)

p'ang

661, [like] a drifting

plant
-tt*

these

'lei 511,

he

is

carried about

jflgj

^/^^
jy#
1

286, (/#)

men

jTff

4 V/z

719, [err)

and
wanders.

125,

and
(^) their

4t*
bones

Jting

207, [hsing)

fr

pjlfe

^^,454,

VI.

kiai 358, [chieh) altogether


278,

^J*

w#

1060, I 1041, (w2n)

JHj,

'*

have

A w#;z

heard

TRANSLITERATION
fcjp*
fihi 53, (r/iM)
it,

143

kiai 358, (ckiek) all

Jiang

524, a

good

fc

w
t

1059,

have no
(^z")

*ku 434,

merchant
deeply
"fe^

yih

1092,

use

*2H

jA

736, (sA*#) 950,

,^/ 1118, to

Js'ang
-JfcJ*

conceals [his treasures]

.2#

*ts 1030, (tea)


(

y^, 296,
hu

(y<?)

as

if

^/*

C
,c/ 53,
(c/zz'/z)

(viz.,

the sir's your)

227, (few) [his

fciicn 418,

house were] empty. [chun) The superior

*^ O
5oL

Jjll>

.**** 735, {****) person.


6

1060, I

7j2, 1030, [tsu) sage

Hy
perfect

$' 817, (skuo) that [rel. pron.]

shing

772, [sheng) of

communicate
te^, 871, (^) virtue

/fci

/SW
'

326,

^w-

1146, [in]

countenance

-f*
dbtl

7j2 I0 30 (^) to you

#za<?' 582,

[and] outward

mien

y?^

296, (y?)

in this

way,

JUL*

jok
b

2Q6, {Jo)

resembles

j^z" 762,

(#

/3sO

yu

1120,

the stupid.
VII.

Srt

"A 719, {err)

and

p|
Let depart
)
f

7 278,

that

is all.

*k*u 445, (<r)


'tsz'

VIII.

1030 (tew)
1

the
v

sir's

^[^

# 465,

z
^ 4
ttf

V/jz 53, fcfe^)

1 't\

f (viz., your) J '


I

Confucius
Vjz' 1030'
''#
(tezZ)

kiao 368, {chiao) haughty


y

- Ij*

445,

(<r/z'z7)

departed.

*k i 348, air,

gS
many
*

w/z" 1054,

He addressed
younger

to 909, [yourl

m
Y* O
fr-|

zV' 879, his

^z/^, 1139, [y%) wishes,

7^2' 1030, (te#) followers


jj/^/z,

faV
t

849, [your] affected

1130,

saying

*"*7

seh j2j,

[s2)

colors,

e||

'z<? 632,

The
I

birds

yu

1125,

and
exaggerated

-^j

w 1060,

4 jz"

1101, [your]
61, [chih)

^H
HI

fh*
c

53' [chif1 )

know
they

<r/zz"

intentions.

/^'z

342, fcfe")

O
shi ' 762, ()

These

HH

nang 616, b

[ntng)

can

44
.fez 136, fly.

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
z

o 425,

TH

yu

1119,

The

fish

m
"TJfo

V oc
z 278,
'

jwu

1060, I

jv e 2

'

1047,

make

^H
^fT

ft17

'

53i [chih)

know
they

3~@

A"95i, arrows.
X.

fit 342,

(<:/)

UH
O

Jiang 616,

[ntng)

can

^y>
Hfc^

chi* 60,

(o&z'/fc)

With reference

^zw

1 1 12,

swim.

c<

y#

1118, to

jA*#' 756,

The beasts

HI

lung

567,

the dragon

pj

'

./ 1060, I *
<P nz 53>

.w

1060, I

QM
"

(<^ z'^)

know
they

Jf\

puh

717, [pu]

not

M.

,^'2342, (c/zzj

Hp
can

Jiang 616,

(-)

can

Bg
~t

jtang 616,

(#2#-)

0
^ffi
*^jpT

,^

z*

53. {chih)

know

'/j# 961, run.

,'z

342, [chi) his

iShingyyi, (shing) bestriding

IX.

Jung

155,

the wind
[and] clouds

Yspk

961,

For the running

^
Hjj

yun h
6

1142,

'eke 38,

ones

V/z 719,

(<?rr)

and

*&o 425,

/2 7 8,
4

H HP
make
nooses.

'shangy^i, ascending
fieri 897,

Heaven.

w/z

1047,

35E
1=1

.w

1060,

'wang

1044,

,&>
9

,^z 398, [chin) at the


7>A, 293,

present

^/ 1112 For the


tfA^ 38,

swimming

R
^|-

(/?)

day

ones

kien* 385, (ckz'en)


Vdtf 508,

saw

*k*o 425, *V
J

the old

V278
jvii 1047,

5-

make

^ O "f^ 7 342,
jlpS
flying

Vss' 1030, (Az) philosopher.


{chi)

[Might] he

Jun

566, nets.

t,yiu 1112,

be like
the dragon?

/&' 136,
%

For the

E
3ffi

lung

567,

chi

38,

ones

*^

1078, [query.]

TRANSLITERATION.
XIII.

145

J&*
2L
*(

J,ao 508,
%

the old

g3
>^.
3EJ*
jpy'
a

fcwan

472,

The

frontier

tsz 1030, [tzu)

philosopher

/z^'
y
Vz'z'

546, officer

sz'u 811,

practised

102,

Yin-H'i

igi

tao 867, reason [and]


teh 871, virtue.
t

180,

'Vzsz')

|-^[

_yz^

1130, said

7R.

k'z 342, [chi)

His
doctrine

J| -
Jj?l*

73-2' 1030, (/s#)

you,

sir,

/^zWz, 209, [hszao)

tszang

967, {chiang)

are going

M
Fjf

V 278,
^2"
'j^z'w

in

D=
(z^zZ)

^zVz 1103, to

withdraw

103 1,

self-

2&
*jIH

'z

279, [a final particle].

K=
4fi

1103,

concealment,
not having

Juicing 366, [chiang)

urge

tivu 1059, [and]

a/#

1047, for

1Zf-*i

jning

600,

name
consists

Vz^v? 627,

me
compose

4w/z 1047,

^
tEA

f/zz^'

90, to

wu'

1062,

aspiring after.
XII.

1= qs/iu

774,

a book.
XIV.

JS' BE!

437> [chu]

He

sojourned

'

yu

1118,

then
cheu

/PJ
>jft

47, ((f/^^)

in the state of

Plenty
*kiu 413,
(<r/zz)

/
.r|.

E=j.

shz" 762, (ssu)


/ao 508, the old
l

for a long time

"/*

<r^z 53, (<r/zz/z) t

he

[did].

T
[pre-

tsz' 1030, (s#)

philosopher

H ,/U
EEl

zV#' 385, [chzen)


<rA?z*
'

He saw
saged]

/y
3sr
]^f^

'naz 612,

thereupon

47,

[chou)

/Pi
!_,

the state Plenty

of

c' 90,

composed
book

<r^z 53)

{chih) of

s#

774, a

*^J*
'

skwaz'785, the decay

's7zang74i, of a former

^2f
3C

w^2

'

^ I2

>

tnen
*

r^
of
it

/zzV 183,

(>foztf)

and

a latter

w*^ ^>
''#

",

n consequence

lipijC

tfien
fc

690,

part

-^v*

445,

(<r/z')

he departed

==
j|=}

jv^?z

1083,

discussing

^f^

chV

60, (<:/zA)

and came

to

fcw? 867,

Reason

gal

fcwan 472, the frontier.

teh 871, [and] Virtue


t

146
fhi
53, [chih)

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.
^p*
TjL o
Jag,

*jjf\
]i=f*

of

\'# 445, (rA')


?<?/z,

he departed,
not [one]

282,

the concepts

603,

(?<?)

-Jf#

'wu
t

1060, [in] five

531
thousand

^A*53,
^'z'342

(cA/fc)

knowing
his

~ T*
ffic
:

ts'zen 980, [ch'z'en)

7H-

(<:^z")

^z*

1121,

and some
;

Wl*

jw' 817 (^<?) [place]

where

^yen 1083, words


Irh 719,
(*rr)

pchung

106,

he died.

Sjj

and

THE OLD PHILOSOPHER'S CANON ON REASON AND VIRTUE.


=! 'Lao
508,

The Old
ffo
Philosopher's

cKang
toe*'

740, the eternal

Hsz* 1030, [tzu)

IF
V
tao 867,

lit

8C7, Reason.

Reason
{tt)

ff\ jning 600, The name

teh. 871,

[and] Virtue

Pj k o
(
f
t

425, that

can

Z ming 600,
%

be named
not

ching{^o\) Canon.

^p
I* 'shangj^i. Former
Tg|r p*zen 690, part.
t

tf&
L

36, is

ffj

ch

ang

740, the eternal

4j

rning 600, name.

,5^ t?

8 79>

3{F

jvu

1059, Not-having
600,

^2%, 1095, ^^ chang


22,

Chapter

1.

^K

jning

name
heaven

^^ /%
$fj

897, fis]

fI 77 884,

Realising

^ 879.
x

and earth

^M*/ao' 867, Reason.

^
7jj!j.

j***53. (tzu)oi

1.

shi 761, (ss) the beginning.


1 1

o
Vjlf zfao' 867,

The reason

A=%

*yiu

13,

Having

Pf'^'o 425, that can

ZL

mi?ig 600,
1040,

name
[is]

^Qtad'
o

867,

be reasoned

EpL zvan'

the

ten

thousand
t

^p fe'i

136, is not

6$ft zvuh. 1065, things


t

(Chapter

1.)

148

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

fhi

53. (tzu) of

hVl
T

VA

719, (*?rr) but

4|r 'ww

605, the mother.

4J*

?'

281, different
[in]

in.

^* jning 600,
v.

name.

mT ku' 434,
*****

Therefore
J^n fu?ig

933,

[Their] sameness,

\G?I
nlffi

ch'ang 740, eternally


,zt^ 1059, not-having
I]:

=||? z^fV 1054, called is

'SAy^

39 desire

^
>[f

*** 53.

(^)

it

Jiiien 231, (hsueri)

mystery

JL^ V278, thereby


^E? Jiiien
|j?0

231,

(hsueri)

The

fezvan 474, [one] sees

mystery
J>*
C/fo'
4

53,

(^^) Of
again

JpL ,#V

342, its

^7
"piP miac? 592, spirituality. " o

jyzV

1 1 14,

j^l /jg

fWang
f

740, Eternally

^y\

Jiiien 231, (hsueri) a tery.

mys-

chung
^'w 1113, having

108, (tsung) all

$j?yti
j/J

^
1

tfzzatf'

592, spirituality

139, desire

*/* &2 53, (tzu) Of


{

278, thereby 474, [one] sees

waw

576, (men) the gate

S|H fizuan
JEJL
t

c^V

342, its

chiad

Jg tf
371, limits.

'

879,
-

'rh' 721,

Chapter

2.

3| phang
'^ io 34 ifzu) These Jt|j fs

22,

ppj Hiang 526, two


5||
V^<? 38, things

^
^

*yang 1072, Nourishing


4

5^a

735,
1.

[one's] person

JrJ

fungVZZ*
e&'icft 98,

[are] the

same

^fcfien
~J?

897,
) )

0$

in origin

hza' 183, (Asza)

j h world

(Chapters

1-2.)

TRANSLITERATION.
[when]

149

yj^ fhii Art fhi


-^=

358,

all

^
j|>Ej

'** it 13, existence [yzw

53,

know
beauty

3HE xzf# 1059, [and] non-exist

'ra^V 586,

siang

790,

tence (hsiang) mutually

*>*
4

^2

53, (few) in its

p
o
||||

jshang
A

742, (seng) are pro-

duced.

^S
o

,zt/ 1047, acting as

614,

The

difficult

:=p2 'meY 586, beauty,

3pr* &\

281 [and] the easy


790, (hsiang) tually
77,

iEJf S' 834, (ssu) then


4

[there

Am
o

siang

mu

is]

3K
P%

wit

1063, ugliness

Jgl fh'ing

(ch'eng) are perfected.

278, only.

-f^ cftayig
2JJJ

27,

The

long

'tzvan 937, [and] the short

/j^J

sia?ig 790, (hsiang)


tually

mu-

|H
ibji
|f;

^V
^2

358,

[When]

all

king
(

206,

(hsing) are shaped.

53,

know

2|C ^ao 324,

The high
(hsia) [and] the

sharC 752, goodness


,

T*
/f

/zza'

183,

low

"/*
^c*

^e
A

53, (tew) in its

'" siang
t

790, (hsiang) tually

mu-

ze/ 1047, acting as

jijhf
(3

fhing
,^'w
1

408, (ch'ueng) are inclining.

^
Jj^

shart 752, goodness


^2-'

p
[there

100,

Tone [and]

834, (ssw) then 717, not

s
/JvH

shing

771, (sheng) voice 790,


254,

^
*
"pt

^"

siang

(hsiang) mutually
(/*<?)

s/zajz' 752,

goodness

TpQ ,Az^o o
R|[
13

are

har-

monised.
(ch'ieri)

278, only.

tsHen 981,
7zw' 175,

The before [and]

4^?
in.

(hou) the after

sia?ig 790, (hsiang)


tually
SWZ 826, follow.

mu-

j|j

&w* 434, For


(Chapter
2.)

*5

lao-tze's taoteh-king.

IV.

VI.

shf 762,

(ssic)

Therefore

3b ^^
,/f\

shang

742
(^rr)

(sheng)

He

produces

/r# 719,

and

3y? shang

773,

(sheng) the holy

^
yiu

717, not
1 1 13,

yl A/aw
Kjl

286, (/*?)

man

V##

he owns.

94, dwells in

zuei 1047,

He

acts

SJ^Zfw

1059, not1047, doing


53. {tzu) in his

VA

719, (err)

and

^
>

wei

j*w 717, not


shz' 761,
(J5)

2* ^*
^p. sh?
o
*|~jr

he claims

o
764, (ssz2) business.
207,

Jzung

460, Merit

Jiing

(hsing)

He

jch'ing 77, (ch'eng) he ac-

practises

complishes
x

y*
v

_^w 717, notA

V#

719, (^rr)
153, not

and

g ^rc
'

1083, saying
(te) in his

/w

1^2 fhi 53,


9

fhil 437, he dwells.

chzao 372, education.


VII.

J'u
z^aw' 1040,

142,

Forasmuch

The

ten thou-

'MB zuei
'

sand

1049, just [as]

q$j
'Tp
^p=|
ffjl

ze/w/z

1065, things

^K

,_^w 717,

not

teo/z 1005, arise

fhil 437,
s/zz'

he dwells
)

^w
V^

1082, there
719, (^rr)

762, (ssit)

therefore

and

278,
J 5%>

y[\ ,^

717, not

ifu
[them].
*

not

raS /sV
'

1033, (tew) he refuses

^g
o
2.)

##

445, he departs.

(Chapter

TRANSLITERATION.

151

W
t

879,

san

723,

Chapter

3.

^\
pf

j>u 717,

Not

fhang 22,

chiert 385, seeing


f

St ngan
(

620,

Keeping

at rest

jJT o 425,
f

[that

which

is]

m
^\

jnin 597, the people.


-fr/^

yi? 1138, [to

elicit] desire,

i^ 7 T 7> Not

ff***M) causes
(hsang)
alting
)]i\
sz>z
(

shang'
,AzVw

8c6, (hsin) the heart

741,

ex-

197,

(hsze?z)

the

/K

j* 717, not

worthy
'

5a. Iwart

skz j6i,

570, to be disturbed

(sszi)

causes
IV.

. 597, people

^u

717, not
29, (tseng) to late.

-& s/z/'
emu-

762, (SS#)
>

Therefore

(Chang

JgV278.

n.
t

p&
y^
/?*
^//^

shang'

773,

{sheng) holy

the

^w

717,

Not

,/a 286, (jen)

man

*
it

kvueV
(

484, prizing

<^'

53, (tzu) of

wa

614, the difficult


(/'<?)

teh> 872,

to obtain

^" IP _o
Jiii

59'

cfi*h) the govern

ment
(/zsz7)

227,

empties
[the people's]

fhi

53, (/e) of

Jal fhH
t

342,

their

/z<'<2*

256, treasures

)]i\ s/w 806, {hsin) hearts, o


~~f

'shz 761, (ssz/) causes

s/% 769, [and]


<:/z7
4

fills

& *^
A
t
t

#zz>2 597,

people

Th.

342, their

717, not

f]M \fu
o

tvez 1047, to

commit

5}M

/^

stomachs, [the inner the soul] 295, (jao) he weakens


I

5T

tad

868, theft.

JEL fhH
(Chapter
3.)

342, their

152

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

JU>

c hi' 61, {chih) desire [but]


|J

/s^A, 956, {tsi) then


2x/w

o
k

vS

c ftian

3^6, strengthens

9H

1059, there

is

nothing

^
fjff*

rfC*>'

342, their

^fs u 717, not


t

w/z 454, bones.

Vp|

dfo"' 59,

(chih) governed.

v.

j^j

ch'ang 740, Always


'shi j6i, (ssii) he causes

W
ffiv

tf ' 879,

E9 ^" 836,
Jp. fhang
22,

Chapter

4.

|jl m* 597, people x


ffifli

,zt/&

1059, not ,z^w 1059,

4n
$&
o

Not having

db" 53,

(drAz'/z)

to

know,

W% x yuen

1133, source.

jvu

1059, not
1.

jKfrjyw' 1 138, to

be desirous.

&Z
*

too' 867,

Reason
109, ^t'sung) [is]

4j$ 'shi 761, (ssii)

He

causes

JoJ fh'ung

empty,
719, (^rr)
1

d^ jfa

142, those

fm VA
knowing
EEj

and
employing

&tt

cAz 53, (chih)

yung>
^Az

149,

in

p=? VA<? 38, ones

V^
o

53, (tew)

it

^K ^w 717 not
Wjf #?z
#i
zf<?V
f

m^

A^6>, 259, apparently


[it is]

312, to dare

/y< i$ u 7 I 9 ,ying
1

not

1047, to act,

106, exhausted.

jftj 'ye i79 (>'^) indeed.

yuen

1131,

Profound
is]

[it

VI.

2|& A Aw

224, (As?)

Oh
it

El

wdi

1047,

[When] he does

sz" 837, (ssw)

resembles

fttHt^w 1059, not^=Sj jvei 1047, doing


(Chapters
3-4.)

vuan> 1040,

the ten thou-

sand
zvuh, 1065, (z^w) things

TRANSLITERATION.
!>^ {hi
shuz 781,

153

53, (tzu), of

^ /s;/6

1021,

(chung) the
ancestor.

^^
_>
c

whose
53,

^^'
(zw) son [it is].

-?* /j^ 1030


o
ts'c?

1004, It blunts
its

Jp
*5f

siang'
ft'

792,

[hsiang]

It

seems
880,
)

to

be

*H*% fh'i 342,

[own]

God's

7W 302,
jffi

sharpness.
-4t^ szVw

fhi'e 359, It unravels


<:^V 342, its

JX

799,

{listen)

antece-

dent.

[own]
-

21
o

,/ara 129, (./Wz) fetters.


^ze/o 254, It

*=

^ 879
(

T^n
jjj*
t

harmonises

jN"

z^z^

1060,
22,

Chapter

5.

#V

342, its [own]

^j& fhang

A^
|qj

Jiwang

478, light.
Jjj
4

A#

227, Emptiness's
1

fung
2

933, It identifies
self

it-

with

J^ yimg'

149, function.

JgL <^

34 2

* ts

[own]
1.

W&

ck

a?i 20, (chfoi) dust.

^P
-&jj

/V^w 897, Heaven


1

ft"

879, [and] earth

^a^'

12, It is tranquil

A^ ^u

717, are not 287, (./Vw)

*?j* /*z 179, (hsi)

Oh!
it

zf ,/aw o

humane.

llj 5^"
i

837, (ssu)

seems

PJ V
jjjfjf

278,

They regard
1040,

7(=XJoh 296,

(>') like

wa'
a

the ten the

P**

sand
2X/w^ 1065, (zvu) things

ts'un 1020, to remain /1J.

=j

Z67/

1060, I
717, not
53.

wei
4j3 /s w
f

1047, as
91, grass-

^j\ ,^w

53I t^i

(^^) know

Jfrt &*?w 329, (&oz/) dogs.


(Chapters
4-5.)

154

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

</|\

^w
f

717, not
458,
it

W?
7?fu
Jl

skang'
..

773,

(sheng) h ly

The

o
Jgjj
Jjl

collapses.

^^'

932, It

moves
and

J\ J an
S\*

286, (jen)
is

man
f

V>& 719, (err)


1 1 26,

^u

717,

not

1j| .y#

more and more

ya x
V

287, (./?)

humane.

o
l/I
"tit

278,

He

regards

rTj ch'uh^ 98 issues. o

'^as'

707, the hundred

^ "q

fo 909

A
.jy^rc

gossip

1083
777, (s&) frequently

7W: 52>^' 810 (hsing)


1= jvei
1047, as

families.

shu

chHung
/f\ ,^u
717,

420,

is

exhausted

ts'u 91, grass-

Not

Jnl

&<?w 329, (&cw) dogs.


in.

ifrn ./# 2 ^7, likely

ZtfX'sheu 755, (shou) will he


,-

~}C fHen 897, Heaven

keep

^
m]

olj
&"'

fhung

105,

879, [and] earth

(tsimg) the middle [path]

*2S <^ 2

53'

(^^) ^ [between]

fhien 381, the space,


342,
it

jjR

fo'

879,

^|^ #3
yiu

r?v &^, 562,


like

Chapter

6.

1 1 12, is

unto

^$ fhang

22,

fo

915.

a bellows

>#C **

*I

W 77 The completion
1

yoh,

1 1 17,

(jyo)

| siang 792

of form.

2B y^w

224, indeed.

IV.

<j^
empty

'ku 453,

The
{

valleyspirit

JiU

227, (Asfl) [It is] 719, (err)

jj^ sh% n

?37>

shen)

fjy

'

r/*

and

^4^ ,^w 717, not


(Chapters
5-6.)

TRANSLITERATION.

155

/rj*

'sz'

836, (ssii) dies.


**"'

shV

762, (ssw) This

ff}

879,

J--

fc*&,

^B
^Jf
{fcJ^

987
22,

Chapter

7.

z<^7

'

1054,

is

called

^
(

(Chang

hilen 231, (kstien) the mysterious

'fin 697,

woman.

^Q

/'ao 869,

Dimming
478, radiancy.
1.

^
>? ^afe 231, (ksiien) The mysterious

kzvang

^F fien
J^

897,

Heaven

Vf 'fin 697,
V^

woman
ch'ang
27, is eternal,

'chi 53 (te#) of
[{j

#'

879, earth

Ft
*J&

jnan

576, (ra^z) the gate,

At
ski' 762, (ss) this
_

ic/izu
t

413,
897,

is

lasting.

y?
zt^V 1054,
is

zf'zVtt

Heaven

gB

called

yP

ien 897,

^
JJ

**' 879,
1

[and] earth
)

[of]

heaven

W jfy

pfr su
879, [and] earth

817, {hsuo)

the reason

278,

why

JJ# <a

317, (&e?z) the root.

12 x w w^" 6l6
ch'ang

nen^) [they] are able to be

27, eternal

^zWz

593, Continually,

R
^t

sYtf 974, (chieh)

and

^
$fj?

7W2Vw 593, continually


296, (ji)
it

^2

413, lasting

>o^

seems

^
o
"H*

'che 38, that

^fe /s'ww 1020,

to

remain.

CJ H
ing

278,

is

because

JB j'z^

1149, (Jung) In us

cKi

7
^^
tint

342, they

^w

"

53 (te)

it

/Tv ttu
J^ 7*7. [there
is]

717, [do] not


1 03 1,

no

H
Zp
(Chapters
-

tsz^

(?) themselves
live

ch'in 402, effort.

sh'ang 742, (sheng)

6-7.)

i56

LAO TZE's TAO-TEH-KING.


ku' 434, that
the reason.
fffl:

is

J*>u 1059,

is

not
self-inter

ti jiang
1

616 (*) [They] can


27, eternally
live.

^
3fB
o
j|fc

>** 835,

(ssw)

cVang

^
^'

ested ? io 7 8 [Particle of interrogation.]


'

jfc 5^a^ 742, (sheng)


4

434>

Therefore
{neng) [he] can

Bg nang 616
11.

Syfo*'

762, (SS#)

a
A
^^

>

Therefore

V 278,
shang' 773,
A

S ^V
{

Jw /yv *

chHng

77, (ch'Sng)

accom-

plish
342, his

4/
(sheng) holy
the

s^' 835, (ss) self-interest.

/aw

286, (,/ew)

man
puts behind

/*' 175, (>fo?w)

^f ^> g~g

^7 342,
(

his

J^ $ah
:

647,
22,

Chapter

8.

shan

735, (she?i) person

3^ fhang
^'^

VA

719, (err)

and
Jjjj

281,

Easy by

shan

735, (shen) [his] per-

son
4

d&fc

sz'w^ 809, nature.


1.

szV^ 799, (hsieri) comes to the front.


1037,

waV
c#7

[He] rejects
s

l-

'shang 741, Superior


shart 752, goodness
(72)

342, his
735, (shen) person

Sa

5^a
Irh
t

p& 70^ 296


^^
Sm
iZrt

resembles

719, (*?rr)

and

ylf 'shut o
(

781, water.

shdn

735, (shen) [his] per-

shuz ySi, Water


(in

son

Js'un 1020,
,*%* 136, Is

is

preserved.

shan' 752, well


%

a good

wa y)
li

it

not

Xy

521, benefits

V 278, because

^aw'

1040,

the ten thou-

sand

fhH 342, he

wuh^
j$J (Chapters 7-8.)

1065, things,

TRANSLITERATION.
Irh
(

157
1083, In
it

719, (err) yet

PI* e?

^^

words
chooses
faith,

717, not
29, (tseng)
it

shaft* 752,

fhang

quar-

rels.

t=| szV 807, (hsin) o

ching* j6, (cheri) In govern-

ment
V/^
f

94, It dwells in

P$

shan' 752,

it

chooses

chimg*

108, (tsung) all

$fe
*3

c/h" 59, order.

jaw

286, (./Vw) the people

sM'

764, (ssu) In business 752,


it

m
ss.

jdk" 53,

(^w) their

shan
which

chooses

s*' 817, (As**) place


/' 1063, is loathed.

6l6 Jf| *"*&

^)

abilit y

W) Kp J

tung> 932 In
'

itS

movements

sE

ku' 434, Therefore

Slfe shan' 752,

it

chooses

^2
t

333,
1 1 18,

it

approaches

-f^ 759, (ssu) time.


*

[rhythm]

yu

to

tad

867,

Reason.

~fc
in.
'pffi

^w

142,

Forasmuch

Tjuei

chil 437,

For a dwelling
it

1049, just as

1=1

shan
#'
o

752,

chooses

/^>

^u

717, not
it

frf (Chang 29, (tseng)

quar-

879, the [level] ground.

7
SHE
zfz/ 1059,

rels,

'sin 806, (hsin)

For a heart

jVJf &*' 434, therefore

not

shan' 752,

it

chooses
yf[]
t

yiu

1 1 10, it is

rebuked.

yuert 1131, the eddies.


tjyw 1

5^v
1=1

125 In generosity
,f

shan

/^2,

it

chooses

Jan

287,

(/) humaneness.
(Chapter
8.)

158

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

W
K

879,

$
Chapter
9.

575

fill

kiu 413,

^T
^

/' a

86 . the

hall,

chang
yww'
t

22,

rao/*, 603,

nobody
it

144,

An

exercise in

Hb
^J*

fhi 53
/
z

(to/)

276, placidity.
1.

^ w^ r

616, (neng) can


755, (hsou) protect

'.s^ez/

fihH 64,
%

[chili)

Holding

m
2. o
in

Irh
L

719, (^rr)
1

and

in.

ying

106, rilling

^ ^
hVl
.0

*V

148, [If]

wealthy

c#/ 53, (tzu)


is

j|r kzuei' 484 [and] exalted


it,

,'r# 719, (err)

but

,^w 717,
A

not

chiao 368, haughty

297, likely
its

M /^'
^gj*

103 1, (ssu) they themselves

ftti 342,

278, being stopped?

/ 277,
t

bring about
their

a
o

'chzu'ai 112,

Handling

JLL
2?=* o

^V 342,

\rh 719, (^rr) and

^V
t

415, misfortune.

/wf
fhi

302, sharpening
53, (te)
is
it,

Xfj ku7ig 460, Merit


fiv fitting 77, (ch'eng) to ac

complish,

^u

717,

not

ij

ming

600,

fame
complete,

FT

'k'o 425,

able

ljg> swz" 828, to

cttang

27,

long

J|L s^arc "^^


4

735, (sheri) [and] his

person
to retire,
[is]

^ao

664, to be kept.

*J W 926,
o

3P
11.

fien 897,

heaven

fhin
yuh,

398, [If] gold


1

y*

fhi

53, (tzu) oi,

138, [and] jewel

i?4 too' 867, the way.


(Chapter
9.)

TRANSLITERATION.

159

tK
J-*

w 879
o shih 768
i
j>

7aw
Chapter
10.

502, intuition,

Jj^ nang 616, {neng) one can

*&- chang 22
HE jiang
616,

9nt z^w

1059. without

What can

W^
o'

ts'z 1033, (te) faults,

^5 w
x

1047. be done.
1.

^= ngaf 619, In loving

j5j w 597, the people,


sustaining

3|Ja 'too* 941,


*cg

By

ying

107,

by disciplining
,<9
)

Yp
||x|

<:/*Y/z

59, in

ruling

kzvoh 491, the country,


i

Pill

^'^1

7 11 665,

tne

arnma l
-

spirit,

Bg nang
*R>

Jfal

fad

by embracing

616, (neng) one can practise

zc,w I0 59>

n on-

-* yi\

1095, unity
/jfi>)

o fig nang

ufdi 1047, action.

616, (neng)

one can

be

9H

,z^w 1059, without

-^r
517, disintegration.
116,

/'zifi

897,

The Heaven's

fhiven
:

(chuati)

By

F^j
fif]

mayi 576, {men) gate


,&'az 308,

concentrating

cAV
^e"

opening
[and] closing

348, the vital force,


58,

Sv

by inducing

Rgj
>l3

>fo>^ 218,

3S
o

^Vw
x

294, (jou) tenderness,

np nang 616,
w&"

{neng) one can

Hp

n & ng 616, (neng) one can


3Kflg p
1

^
ItH

1047, act

105,

an infant

6rt

VA

720, {err) child.

^
tf
*~^

*o

'^

I033
'

^'^

like ^

mother-bird. 599. Bright,

^0/^ 706,
836,

(^W)
(ss#)

white,

tih 902,
x

By
by

washing,
cleaning,

\j[\ sz"

the four [quarters]

5& c##
A

92,

tah> 840, penetrating

>fr Jiiien 231, {hsiien)

by pro(Chapter

fnnnH found

rP Hw
10.)

nang

616, {neng) one


V>p

can

be

i6o
3HE tvu
K

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

1059, not-

chi 53, knowing.

is
**Y*

tv

879,

shzh 768,
i

Chapter

11.

iv.

jz7^
J^*

1095,
22,

^ sMng
t

742, (sheng) Quick-

^^P
x

^*

,.

ening ,^/ 53, (tew) them,

$
^g|?

zt/w 1059,

Of non-existence

>^A
.^'
x

98, (hsu) feeding

/h y ung'

1149. the use.

J?*

53, (tzu)

them,

jfrl

shang

742,

(s*^) he produces

tZ^
*4-

<5

cm

723,

Three
[times] ten

VA

719, (err)
717, not
1 1

and

s^ 768,

j^ ,^w
f

fflrQ

y"w 151, spokes

/JEj

>7*w

13,

owns.

dh hung' 464,
jyz'
-

unite

^j^
ffjj

/^z"

1047,

Ke

acts

1095, in one
454, nave. 857,

'rh 719, (err)


717, not

and

|j|r~

/j> ,^w

o *pt*

Jang
{

Through

7^ 1 55 ^) claims. rrf s o *g^ ch'ang 27, He raises


(

Ji ^v 342.
O

its

^Hl: ,^ i59. void,


/i* jyz'^ 11 13, there is

mt
/^N

VZt 719, (err)


,j0# 717,

and

not
the wheel's
"/* >s** 53. (te)
i

g& 'tsat g^i, rules. a

4g
jgB

5/22

'

762, (ssz^)

This

TByung'

149, utility.

zf<?V 1054, is called

11.

tjjfc ^zterc

231 (hsiien) profound


|i

1085,

By kneading

|^
^>

teh, 871, (#) virtue.

/W

66, clay

(Chapters

10-11.)

TRANSLITERATION.

161

VA

V278, thereby
IV.

7S jv et

1047,

is

made

jW

w' 434, Therefore,


r

^ ch

349, the vessel.

7p yiu 1113
>

existence's

JlH ^AV

342, its

j/j H 278, thus

9|fn zvu 1059, void,


/jlf jyzw 1113, there is
f

^3* x z^^V 1047, being

X[J

&*'

521, profitable

^^2
*>*
t

349
the vessel's
(tzu)
)

SHE

c/zz 53,

133

yung'

^^
t

wm

4
S

2X/^ IOsQ, J
*'

) (

[is]

-.

non'

53.

(^)

r xistence

1149, utility.

IM V 278
|3)

thus
1047, being

in.
jfso,

^A"

||f ^***

1006, (teao)
225, doors

By

cutting

J-f]

>'^^

1149. useful.

out
'

|3 ^ w

P|| 'yzw 1114, [and]

windows,

tji /' 879,


S/fo'/^

VA V 278,

thereby
"J"*

768,

fS? jvei 1059,

is

made
J|

Chapter 12

V# 721
ha,7ig 22,

ii% shih

770, a 857,

room.

^
/pi

/a^

Through

^^2342,
4f{
t

its

zV?w 385,
1 1

Abstaining

z^

j&/^

39,

from

desire.

1059, void
1.

'yiu 11 13, there is

jET ,z^w 1060,


p5,

The
colors

five

rf* shih 770,


i

5^ 727,
1

^
EpI

the room's
t

chi S3, {tzu)


1

&> ling
TV
11-12.]

546,

make

yung*

149, utility.

Jan

286, (jVw) the

human

(Chapter

l62

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
waw
<ss teh> 4^L

H
gj
o

muh

607, eye 609, blind.

614,

The
(/e)

difficulty

rnang
i

872,

in the obtain-

Jt,
*p=f
*4j*

1060,
1 1 00,

The

five

j2,

<

chi 53. (***) of


%

^m
/zVz^'

notes

^
*t^y

h?vo 256, treasures


/zVz^-'

546,

make

546,

makes

71

j'an 286, {Jen) the

human

/I

.yaw 286, (Jen) the

human

B*
o

"rh 720, (^rr) ear


568, deaf.

-fnr

Jiing 207, (hszng) conduct


133. checked.

fyl /ww^ jj^ zf w


t

^ </^

1060,

The

five

JBP

zt><?V

1053, tastes

in.

^*
71

//-' 546,

make

Sh?

762, (ss)
>

Jan
f

286, (/?z) the


(k'ou)

human

Therefore

PJ ^ 2 ~g

fj

^w 331,
sJiwang

mouth

3^ shang' 773,
yl
^|S
A ./#

(skeng) the holy

787, blunt.

286, (yVw),

man

zfc/

1047, attends to
151, the inner [the soul]

11.

ch i 64, Horse-racing,
80,

fiW /Wz, q

'chang

(cheng) overriding,

A
B

^w

717, not

pR/ien

898, [and] field-

^K
ci

,zf<?V

1047, he attends

muk

607, to the eye [the visible, the outer]

^b /zV^ 546,

make
() the human

ifo ku'

434, Therefore
445.

^l
jjK

/a

286,

'^ *
,

he dismisses
latter
.

,s/# 806,

(te)

heart

$jj 2* 6 74 the
J[X V

%& fah, I2i, turn tt kzu'ang 479, mad.


(Chapter

I0I *

^ ^ he takeS
former

io 34 [**&l the jtfc A'*'


12.)

TRANSLITERATION.
h M cn ung
*

163

IIO {tsung) Favor


>

J&
4- shih,
768,

zt><?7

1047, renders
183, {hsia) lowly.

Chapter

f*
13.

hia

san

723,
22,

^i feA, 872 (^) The


^cL fhi
Loathing
53 (tew) of

obtaining
it

^^
J|E

fihang

'jt^joh^ 296 (y?)

is like

^w'

1089,

B&

'#*" 65,

shame.

g^

fihing 403, fear.

^ %, 769,
[

The

losing
Jt

rA'^ IIO

(r^) Favor

^^
sfc$

53. (***) f

ty^, 299, [and] disgrace

joh> 296, (y?)

is like

*pt?jok 296,
)

(y)

are like

jH ,**- 403,
ski
nllf

fear.

filing 403, fear.

762, (ssw)

This

^^

io 54'

means
[that]

kwiV

484,

Esteem

~fl tcC 839, great

4pf 'ch'ung no, (tsung)

S%

hzvarf 248, anxiety


(/*) like,

favor *zjuht 299, [and] disgrace

T&joh>

5!JjM> 296

296, (ye) are like

Jlf ,sM

735, (shen) the body.

IjfF

fihing 403, fear.

f5J 4Ao 215,

What
1S

<ffi

Jio 215,

What
meant by

g|^ wei 1054,

meant by

g@

zuei* 1054, is

^|g

'ch'ujig

no, (ts'zmg) favor

"^ &z^7
J\^

484, esteeming

Jg /w^

229, [and] disgrace


296, (y?) are like

tcC 839, great

^Jljoh^

j^

hwa?i' 248, anxiety 296


(y?) as like

$jC fihing 403, fear?

^\ joh
(Chapter
13.)

164

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
Jg| ,5^ 735, (shen) [his own]
?

J|p shdn
x

735, (shen) one's

person
~jjSf
k

^o

body
,zf<?V

zvu 1060,

JE^
^"

1047,

when administrating,
)

9f*

817. (**-)

^ftenSgj,

$V
/fcf
f

1 the reason
f

the

27 8,
113,

wh V

>7w

have

S^ V^' 38,
o
|jj fctfA,

the one,

1^^

to' 839, great

956, then
is

^g hwart

248, anxiety

PJ

'#0 425, [he]

able

V/z 38, that

JLi V 278, thereby


that

gv4t 1047,

is

-g

efo" 339, to

be trusted
with the

S
/O*
K

TJUU 1060, I

%f*n*n.
~p
s.

^w

1113, have
735, (shen)

M*'

183, (hsta)

em P ire
)

'

shdn

body.

chih^ 394,

When
,J?

?S* jvu
SHE
t

1060, I

T^az' 619,

Who

lovingly

zt>w 1059,

have no

\A

278, as

shdn

735, (shen) body,

JBL jshdn
^

735, (shen) [his

own]

|-

^w
^0

body
1060, I
jjuei 1047, administers
7,

2f^
y^
*

Jjfc 1 1 13,

have

^/&8 9
"j: Ma'
:

the

'jpT
i

215,

what
[AnNone!]

1S3, (hsia)

em P ire

li> {to

hwart

248, anxiety?

swer
IV.

5T che
f3|J

38,

the one,

s^
%

956, then

jjWl*

ku* 434, Therefore

fjT

k*o 425, [he] is able

f=

hwif

384,

Who

esteems

JW
Was

V278, thereby
*'^>

IFc
(Chapter
13.)

Q 1 ^* to ^ e entruste(^

TRANSLITERATION.

165
(fuan) [When] grasping
it

y^ fien
*T%

897,
183, (hsia)

hid

with the empire.

ijW. ^6>/2

706,

>^

/722 53, (tew)

,/K j 717, not


(

pffi

tr 879,

/f.|}\

fe, 872, (te)

it

is

seized.

-J-*

S^

768,

o ^2! jnz?ig 600

Chapter

14.

It is called

(10 as" 836,

pH
jfflfr

yueh,

1 1 30,

^^ fhang 22,

zf 2 1050, incorporeal.
11.

/saw' 945, Praising

]Hj <^^' io 34'

55 ^) These

3j? Jiilen 231,

the profound.

^san 723, three


38, things

jg 'chi
fJTH

s^2

763,

(ssii)

[When]

looking

Sy* ^2* 717, not

4/

chi 53,

(tsic) at it

Pj

'k'o 425,

can be
subjected

/J> ,_^ 717, not

^ chV
seen.
Sjij

58,

J3

chien' 385,
600,

it is

o
It is

i&Y^

396, to scrutiny.

^l ming

called

24' 434,

Therefore

pj
t^&

>>22^

1 1

30,

*hzuun 269,

276, colorless.

ml
listen-

(/2Z272) they are mingled together *rh 719, (err) and

J^
j7

/^gr
,c/22

906,

[When]
it

53, (/^w) to

it

^ &>&
*
JV2/2,

1047,

form

1095, a unity.
in.

/^p ^2/ 717, not

pu ^a/2
o

1 04 1,

(2C?2)

is

^Z

By
jning
t

heard.
It is

/:#* 342, ItS

600,
30,

fc *sha?ig 741, surface


called

yueh
^2

1 1

/f> <i^ 717,

is

not

IT

176, (/2S2) soundless.

'chzao 369, clear

(Chapters 13-14.)

66

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
siang' 792, (hsz'ang) the image.

^jl fhH

342, its

y
S\\

hic 183, (hsia)

bottom
v.

fu

717, is not
586, obscure.
IV.

sfo* 762, (ssw)

This

meV

Hp|

zf

1047,

is

called

Q shdng
/<f

772, [sheng)

Con-

%E> Jiu
ifofc

267, abstrusely

tinuously
772, {sheng) [and]

'hzvang 253, abstruse.


L

shdng

continuously
-?j*

ying

108,

In the front
it

^2179, (A) Oh!

2^ ^' 53,
^\
ffj

(tew) of

<^

7i7 not

^F* ,^w 717, not


'k'o 425, it

can be

/hV#' 385,

is

seen

^Z mtng 600,
'iWlfuhi 151,
It

named.
JJEJ^ ,<:AV

342, its

reverts

ISS

hivii^ 480, [and] returns


1

g ,5/^w
o
[Sia JLnt
r
*

756, (shou) head.

swV 826, In the rear

^^ ^^
SBfc

1118, to
~J*

^w
shV

,^2
t

53, (tew) of it

1059, non-

yf^

j>u 717, not

zfw^

1065, existence.
jf chiert 385, is

seen

762, (ssw) This

j/:A7
gtS
ze/tfT

342, its 175,

1054, is called

5H

ww

jt&keu'
1059,

(^w)

back.

!H* chwang'

of non114,

form
chz'h, 67,

By

holding fast to

*H* chwang' . o
3$fc
x

114, the form,

"i? *&w 432 the ancients

1059,

of

2*5 siang' 792, (hsiang)

non-

^j* ^o'
o

867, the Reason,

image
(Chapter

~5? fihi 53, (tew)

l*J
22.)

278, thereby

TRANSLITERATION.
[the sage] governs

167

yii' 1 127.

*ch 38, the ones

4*

fhin

398, the present

day

m
r

Tvei 1050, [were] subtle,


592, spiritual,

z
*.

fhi
f

53,

(^w)

of,

tM} too'

jV2w 1113, existence,

y
^

,^#<?w 231, (hsiieri)

profound

278, [and] thus


53, (/fo7z) [he]

5|g fung o

932, [and] penetrating.

,^z
f

knows

J>3J <shan

736,

(shen)

Their

&w

432, of the olden time

^ ^u
m
=

profundity
717, not

5^* 761, (ssu) the beginning.

'#0 425, could be


s/h7z. 770,

ski' 762, (ssu) This

understood.

ze/A"'

1054, is called
11.

tao' 867, Reason's


'chi 337, thread.

-^

5^ v J^ M2,
1049,

[
)

Since

;ft/ .ze//*

/f\ $u 717, not


k

ft"'

879,

Pf &
f

425, they can be

5^'A 768,

Chapter
zfw 1060, A

15.

ggj) s7ith 770, understood,


t

Xy ku'
HS
7?
virtue.

434, therefore
366, I try

(Chang 22,
chien 199, (hsien) Reveal-

chHang
zf<?7

1047, to
53. (tzu)

make
them

zf^ 871, ers of


1.

y*
)

{hi

'^432,
fhi
53,
(/2Rtf)
)

In olden tlme

5*5 ^yung
o

1146, intelligible.

Jm,

.y#

125,

Cautious

skan' 752, [who] well


zuei 1047, [were entitled]

^&
jjS
cg,

^
;b/^,

179, {list)

Oh

shi 762,
y

(s.s)

be masters
to

296, (je) [they were] like

fu?ig 931, in winter

(Chapters 14-15.)

68
sheh
t

LAO-TZE
750, {she)
119,

TAO-TEH-KING.
t|p ^Vo/^ 710, (flu) unseasoned

y^fe

wading
(ch'uari)
river.

2
c7iTJifen

Bjfi?

'

wood. kzuang* 480, Empty!


t

o
|j

jV2W 1112,

Reluctant

*7j*
.Tn*,

hi iyg, (hsi) Oh!

*5J*

hi 179, hsi)

Oh

,c&V 342, they were


296, (y) like

^r Joh,

296, (je) like

y^ joh
^q

zf/z*'

1054, fearing

&w/z, 453,

a valley.

nO

sz" 836, (ssu) in the four [quarters]

Jizuun 268, Obscure!


53*

fin 541, neighbors.

hi 179, (#sz
.**'* 342,

Oh!

>w
^9*
3iL ,cAV

1088,

(men) Reserved

^
'

they were

Jii 179, (#sz) oh!


342, they

joh

296, (je) like


83,
(tso)

were

tr/ioA,

disturbed water.

ig$ joh,

296, (/) like

in.
jrff

*g* '0^

429, guests.
249, Elusive!

shuh

780, (5w)

Who

^L

hwari
A

np pang 616,
$Jf3

(neng) can

^
PjQ'

Af 179, (As/) Oh!


i

joh

296, (y) like


ice

^
~j?
is

^0^,
278,

83, (/so) the dis-

turbed

j V

by
(ching) quieting
it

7[C i$ing 698,

^S

te^' 994,
%

fhi

53 (tew)

which

chi 53, (tew)


sil 819,

fsiang

967, (chiang)

(^w) gradually
purify?

going
s/^A, 767, to melt.

fsHng 995, (chHng)


shuh
t

gA* f
^J*

fun
,/'

927, Simple!

780,

(s?z)

Who

179, (hsi )

Oh!

f|u Jiang 616, (neng) can

*H*

<ch'i

342, they

were

/ jigan
J|
(Chapter
15.)

620, the quiet

ffi*

70^

296, (y?) like

278,

by

TRANSLITERATION.
M/t tung'
K^.
4jfa
i

169

932,

moving

ch* 53> {tzu)


sii

them

rK

7/ 879,
i

-4- shih
819, (hsii) gradually

768,

Chapter 16
--** /^/2, 562,

] shang
K

742, (skeng) bring to life..

z& fhang

52,

kivei 480, Returning


i

'fB ^a<?
|J;P

664,

Who

keeps

,&a?z 317, to the root.

,teV 1034 (tzu) this

jjp] /ao' 867,


"

Reason

chi' 58, Attain to


Jiii

yf\

fiu 717, does not


11

227, (^5) vacuity's

jyw^

39, (yu)
106, to

wish

chihi 393, summit.


(

ying

be

filled.

4j5p

skeu 755, (shou) Keep


994,

>v
iJ^

r /
a
i

142,

tsing' ^S "^

(ching)

tran-

quility's

Since
^jglif

ZfeV 1049, 71
"/'

z^/z,

921, essence.

~%Zi$ u

n ot
106, filled

mz^a?2'

1040,

The

ten thou

sand
/Mrt 2x^/2, 1065, things

JBh^ying
o
dbfjr

&w' 434, therefore


(?ieng)

'^kh^ing' 700, altogether

jnh nang 616,


HfcS

he

is

<ffe tsoh^ 1005, arise.

able

o
rti* zvu 1060, I

fl$C

i^
(i^

676, to

grow old

9 /^N
m

M 7 1 ?. [and need] not


806, (hsin)

pj V 278,
Ify kzvan

thereby
474, recognise

Slf
iv*

,szVz

newly

tRr ch'tng 77, (cheng) be fashioned.

TC
"fff

^AV

342, their
I

/^

5I

returning.

~f^ ,/w
jfcztf

142,

Now

z^w, 1065, (zvu) things

(Chapters

15-16.)

170

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

^J^

1142,
1

bloom
bloom

]A\ ftu 717, [When] not


t

^S
o

<yun

142, in

<chi 53, (chih)

one knows

C&
*fj|

koh^ 426, each one

y* ch*ang

740, the eternal,

^^

151, reverts

zvang

1045, disorder

EW
*EL
jfchi

kwet* 480, [and] returns


<ch'i

jE tsoh

1005, arises,
213,

34 2

to its

|)U Jiiung

(shiung) [which is] evil!

,^a 317, (&) root,


in.

II.

7C$ /**
returning
|S|

53,

Knowing

I|ljb

ztV 480,

The

ch'ang 740, the eternal

jfcfi

*~

,&a 317, (ken) to the root

;gt L yun4?

^Q
?

;yw^
\tsing
y

1 1 30, is

called
tran-

I]C 6 [makes] com4 prehensive o 2 t yung 1146, Comprehen-

sive 994,

(ching)

*Vj 'nai 612, means

'p

quillity.
s>fo"

762, This

-^S o

r fc un 459> catholic (broad)

gEI

ze/<?7'

1054,

is

called

^\

kung

459, Catholic

fu

151, the returning to destiny.

71* *nai 612,

means

**

ming' 601,
'#, 151,

^p. x zuang 1043, royal. o

The
,

returning

^p wang
*T|f
f

1043,

Royal

'pn ming' 601

to destiny

w2 612, means

FT

jyw*?/^ 1 1 30, is

called

HP
o

,*& 897, heavenly.

y^T ch'ang
t

740, the eternal.

^P
Jn
o

/V<?w 897,
(

Heavenly

xQ

,^*

53 (chih)

To know

nai

612,

means

vaT ch'ang

740, the eternal

rational. Jj|f /aa' 867,

pi yueh
BJJ

1130, is called
599, enlightenment.

i^ too'
/y
16.)

867, Rational

ming

'az 612,

means

(Chapter

TRANSLITERATION.
'chiu 413, everlasting.

171

f^C

pSi yu
t

122,

they praise

y/^ ?nuh, 606, (mo) The end


.sAaw 735,

scL fihi 53

(few)

them.
their
[rule]

(s^w) of the body


not

j
o

,*'* 342,

[Where]

/K

,^a 717,

it is

?^ teV
-H. zveV
J

1034,

(^w) next
[the

Q
Sa
*"T*

to*' 846, dangerous.

1054,
53, (tew)

people]

v^ fhi
.

>

them.
their

&"'

Jal fJCi
879,

342,

[Where]

2/^
shih 768,
i

ts'z" 1034,
f

(^w) next [rule]

Chapter
t

17.

i?

zt^^

J-* sYA

987,

1061, [the people] despise


(te)

m
~^
|y
p5
fc
>

7*
{hang
22,

,/^' 53,

them.

shun

783, Simplicity
155, of habit.
1.

jWt ku

434, Therefore 807,


is

jH /a^

-V 4p? IW
,/[>

(shin) [when] faith

,/m 717,
4

not

taV
x

848,

[Under] the great


741,

JS

teA 1014, sufficient


t

shang

superiors

*E yen
/fcj'

1082, [particle of af-

|> Aza' 183, (hsz'a) the inferiors __^

firmation]

>7w

113,

one finds

^p ^m

,i^ 7 x 7i not
,cz 53, (chz'h)

Pf> ,^w 717, not

know

4=t siri> 807, (shin)


in.

faith,

VET ^"w
)j

11 13, the existence

chz 53 (tzu) of them.

3t3

^ "

7w

'

II12

'

[How]
'

IV

reluctantly
!

LEU

,g&V 342,

[Where]
(f 2r)
v

their

77*

hi 179, (As/) Oh!

5^ teV
j~\

1034,

next [rule]
[the peo-

Jfll ftii 342, they

o 2n3 JtsHn 991,

(chi?i)

J|i
^

kweV
,^

484,

esteem

pie] are attached

,.^ ,^2*53, (few) to them,

1083, [their] words.

(Chapters 16-17.)

172
xjj fiung
IfV
f*^j
apfr 5/22"
Sfe*
,

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

460, Merits
77, (cheng)

gpS
-

z'

280,
58,

[and]

righteousness.

chHng

[they]

f&* chV

perform, 764, (ssu) deeds


828,

[When] prudence
265, [and]

p^S hivui'
J-H.

wisdom

swz'
f

15
*^
^az

707,

accomP lish [and] the hun[they]


;

ctiuh> 98, appear,


'j/iw

./&T

CZ

dred

"

11 13,

we have

Trcp szV/^ 810, (shing) families


,* 358, all

-J^ ta

8^9, great

ze///'

1055, hypocrisy.
(//a)

gS

zx^z

I0 54 say
627,

y^

luh 562,
t

[When] the
re-

ngo

we

[are]

^
Jg -"?

3r3 <sV 991, (chin) family


lations
l2>

2fs" 1031, (tew) self-

*sK

u 7 1 ?* are not
254, friendly,
1 1 13,

Jan

285, like.

^tj Jizuo
t

yiu

we have
(ksz'ao)

[the
filial

preaching of]
^z6>'

tr 879,
**4* s^/^ 768

^g
"*""^
*

193,

piety

Chapter

18.

?*8
|g|!

5^
***

a *

^sV

1033,

(tezz)

[and] pathe

ternal affection.

Jf^

^a/z, 647,
22,

Jzzvo

491,

[When]
state
its

j|g fhang

^?

^za 351, with

families

hwun
szz/z,

267, is confused 570,

822, Vulgarity's
/z^azz'

[and]

out

of

jS? ^0/^' 705, palliation.


si??

order,

yiu

1 1 13,

there are

^
jg

to' 839,

[When] the great


,

jfe
'fff

****

Io6
.

CW) Io y alt y

too' 86 7

Reason

'"' 8o 7' <*-*>

J
ness.

faith "

[?./&"' 138, degenerates,

yg* *yiu 11 13, we have


/""*
*"""

Jan
"

287,

(/*)

benevo(Chapters
17-18.)

lence

"

TRANSLITERATION.
Spi
ion,

173
Aban-

tsileh^

{chiieh)

don

^
-**

ft" 879.

3ffi 'cliiao 374, cleverness,

S&&&, 768,

Chapter

;||?
19.

cAV

349, relinquish

4t ^sw
5|

413,

^{J

IV 521, gain;

fhang

22,

tad
Returning
flffi

868, thieves

*g hzvan
frsT
t

s, 957,

[and] robbers

244,

skun

783, to purity.

^z*
f

1059, will not


1113, appear.

/J=i*

j'z'^

o
tsiieh
t

ion,

(chiieh)

Aban11.

don
saintli^ shayig" 773, (sheng) ness,
|J

]H*

,s

1034, (ss)

These are

j?

<^V

349, relinquish

sa?z 723, three

ffijt <:#z' 58,

prudence

5|j

V/z/ 38, things

o E3L

oiiji 597,

the people
will

\A H 278,
t

wherein

3c[] &'*

521,

benefit [in crease]

/ez 1047, to have


1

IS i>oh
o

707,

hundred

jV*
^4\

^c^a;^

041, {zven) culture


is

'fSfiteV' 670, times.

<^

717,

not

XS
fr*

teate^

ion,

{chiieh)

Aban-

don

^*^

JR

^^

IO i 4l sufficient

/* Jan
sjfcl

287, (y^w)

benevolence. lence,

ylfy ktC 434,

Therefore

ch'V 349, relinquish

&>
^fe*

ling' 546, let

them

g^ z' 280, righteousness;

yiu 1113, hold


5?^'

o
EEL

tf&z 597,

the people

G&
o

817, {shiw) that


is

which

4^3

fuh

151, will return to

IPI shuh 780, (s#)


t

reliable

^^
-*

^'ao' 193, {hsiao) filial piety


fs*z 1033, (tea) [and] parental affection.
x

cfoV/s' 385,

Recognise

gg <*>

g "*
19.)

sa

'

816, simplicity,

Chapter

174
JQ $ao'
jFjg
k

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

665,

embrace

,<^' 333.

how
k

little ?

fu

716, purity,

a Si? shao 746, lessen


K

'fpj

ho

215,

o
752,

Sfe shari
~7*

The good

/fob
.

^
f

835, (ssu) the own [selfishness],

^z'

53, {tzu) in its

B*

&z/a 467, diminish


1

JeHL^ ^%

1125, addition to [contrast to]

<M[ yuh,

139, (jyw) desires.

-& ww' 1063, the bad

/Km siang
t

790, {hsiang) tually

mu-

rR
~~*

^*'

2j
879,
'fpj

c# # 445, differ
f

ho

215,

rh* 721,

Chapter
-4-
S/fo"^ 768,

how much?
296,
(/?)

20.

y^joh,

^j|

<chang

22,

A>
from

11.

286 0*)|
'

By

the

S
&3
jj|t

'

281, Different

.S.

<C

M53.(^)

pe Ple
f

^ 5w^

822, the vulgar.

EFr s?/ 817, (shuo) that which


zc^Y* 1054, is feared

tsueh^

ion,

(chiieh)

Aban-

^s
'

<i^ 7*7. not


(

A/o^

209, {hsueh) learned-

pi &o
yj\ <i^

425, can
7*7 not

^B
'

ze>

ness 1059, [and] you have

no
1

&=h k yiu
o
|ftf:

109, anxiety.

'zt^Y 1052,

The

yes
its

z^Y' 1054, be feared. o "Sr Jiwang 250, Desolation!

"v^
J^j
-^

^z 53 {tzu) in
1

^J*

,* 179, (^sz)

Oh!

yU
'

125, addition to [contrast to]

J
~fc

,<^Y 342, It
zf<?Y'

KSf
jF?

'

6 43. the yea


790, {hsiang) Hiollw tually

1052, has not yet 1070,

siang

mu-

JJ3*

-^>

yang
^

reached the
li-rr.,'f limit,

dfc*

<cJiii

445, differ

nj^ fsai 940, indeed!


(Chapters
19-20.)

TRANSLITERATION.

175

5*^ iv ei" 1052, does not yet

#t hai
:S chung
108, (tsung)
All

160, smile.

^l
JK5
JpB
o

/aw

286, (jen) people


joyful,

* 177, (hsi) [are]

^J^ L shing

772,

(ctieng) lorn

For

<fe"

177, [hsz) joyful.

^Afflgr 772,

(ck'eng) [so] forlorn

50

*f* 2 9J'
f

^^ e y
189,

are

^^ e

*fr fit
>

179, (As/)

Oh

j| ^a-

^
t-

to*

(hsiang) celebrating 839, (*'az ) a great

7%=jJoh 2 9 6 l#) like


>

4|l

ww

1059, not having


817, (shuo)

5
o
jS{3

,/ao 507, feast.

GP

sz^'

any place whereto

29 ^'

^ ne y

are ^k e

kuuei 480, to return.


{tsimg) The multitude of 286, (^Vw) people
108,

5: fh'un 104, (teng) in springtime 3f fang 862, (chun) ascending

sfechang'

yV

/aw
V

Vm 847, a tower.

^cAf
f

358, all
13,

'w^-o 627, I

^ET >7

1 1

have

tuh> 921, alone

gfe y
t

12 1, plenty.

Q
*

Q ^^j

?0 7'

am

ca ^

m
!

tfrt

[rh 719, (err) But


I

5^ tA/
JBL

179, (As/)

Oh

^ '72^0 627,

^V 342,

as he

xtuh^ 921, alone


y[=?jo7i 296, (/e) [am] like
j

^j? z^"
\.

1052,
34,

[who has] not


yet

Wj ckao' o

an omen.

zw
o

J-

277, wanting.
I

5n *^
5g, ;rh

2 ^7'
1

^)

am ^^ e
[an
infant child

'ngo 627, !r^

[am]

K-W.
^^

jw

120, a foolish

720, (*rr) f

yt
^?2

,/aw 286, (jen)


/:A/ 53 (tzu) in

man

,/W 53, (te)

who
(Chapter

20.)

176
)|i\

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

pin 806, (hsin) the heart,


1079.
)

^^179,
ifcjoh,
'^az 160, J@ o

(hsi)

Oh!

Ify >'
jjfc

396, (/*) like

indeed

fsai 940

the ocean.

5
JfjE

fiiao 683, Adrift


179, (Asz
)

"3^ hi
^'
928, Ignorant

Oh
like

joh
tun' 928, [so] ignorant,
ze/

296,

(/<?)

u 1059, not having


(shuo) any place

hi 179, (A)
A

Oh

Of su' 817,
s#
822,

'JZJ*

Common

yV Jaw 286, t/V) people [are]


(Jfj fihao 31, bright

J-

V/h* 56, (?) for

anchorage

<chao 31, [so] bright.

^j chung'

yigo 627,

yl
y=l

(tsung) The multitude ^arc 286, (/) of people


108,
/rfo'V 358, all

/wA, 921, alone


yfcj 70^, 296, (y)

resemble

/r'

'^'w 1 1 13,

have

g* Jivuun
'jq*
(

267, the dull.

JUJ V 278, usefulness.

sw

822,

Common

ml

Irh 719, {err) But


f

Tl

Jan
t

286, (y^w) people


9, (s'a)

ngo
i

627, I

J6&L ch

ah

[are] smart

tuh 921, alone


TCJrj

A
o

ch'ah^
f

9, (/s'a) [so]

smart.

ivan 1038,

am awkward
and also

g ^o
t

627, I [am]

HsHecfl\t (ch'ieh)
x

tuh 921, alone


jj

I5R $i 674, a

rustic.

man'

577, (ra^z) confused,


577, (ra^rc)
[so]

jj^ <ngo
2fl
* w ^

627, I
921, alone

/t man'
o VjJ '&>

con!

fused.

hwuh

267, (hu) Desolate

SL
20.)

'

281, differ

(Chapter

TRANSLITERATION.
~-p ,yu

177

1 1 18,

from

'f^ " ts'ung o

1024, follow.

A Jan
o
[frj
t-f-t

286, [Jen) the people,

H too' 867,
j
<,

)
>

VA

719, [err) but


[I] prize

^
t

Reason's

53- (tzu)

3 kzveV 484,

jp^f

Z/ 1047, active

tB*

ch'iu 416, the seeking


766, food

^yJl

zvuh 1065, nature


i

'^ shih
jfe^
(

TEE
18,

.^^

I0 49

is

exactly

1 1

from
mother [viz. the Tao]

vffc 'hivang 253, abstruse [not

VU

settled],

'mu

605, [our]

*Ih*

^'^V 1049,
>

is

exactly
[indeter-

lW\ ^ u o

2 ^7

e ^ us ^ ve

j$
*~^

tr 879,

v#

721,

^ 9
J>

\vL

^lu

>

26 ?>

minable]. Elusive
[list
)

hi 179,
^'

Oh
[and]
struse

1-*

shih 768,
i

Chapter

21.

l)u o

wanS

2 53

ab!

- ^7/2,

J9l
1095,
22,

,-342, [Within]

its

JpT ^Aa;;^

tp fhung
/|3

105 (tsung) inside [middle]


[it]

>7w

11 13,

contains

t*

/z 227, (hsii)

Emptiness

ffo , 806, (hsiri) of heart.


1.

31? sia?ig' 792, {hsiang) forms [images, types] o


feT"

hivang

253, Abstruse

^pQ

'^^ 4 6
^&"
53.

5.

Vast

yQ^/zz
I'M o
^IU

179, {hsi)
[ an<^]

Oh

teh, 871, (^)

2 ^?'

indeterminable.

^
;

virtue's

(^#)

JpL> ch'i 342, [Within] its


t

?*flgr 1146,

manner
tude]

[atti-

Ft*

fhung

105, (tsung) inside

o
^iffi

**&" 1049, will exactly

/Q

'j'/w 1 1 13, it

contains
the beings.

lH ^o'

867,

Reason
(ss?/)

^J

zc/w^, 1065,

sht' 762,

thus

'yao 1077,
(Chapters 20-21.)

Deep

78

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

** hi
Jftf*

179, (hsi)

Oh

!
I

yueh> 1131,
'

it

watches

ming

600, [and] obscure!


(v^s/)

chung'

108, (tsung) [of] all

^5* Jii 179

Oh!
its

IB
~fS

*fu 146, the beginning.


11.

J,

^V 342,
f

[Within]

jvu
ho

1060, I
215, what-

Pp fhung
jf ^2w
11

105, (tsung) inside


'JpT
13, it

contains
(ching) spirit [essence].

*g /
*g

278,

by

992,
ItS

phi

53, [can]
%

know

[that]

jS* ^'^2 342,


jtsijig

chung
992,

108, (tsung) all

[ching) spirit [essence]


[is]

Tfc&

y^

146, the

beginning

shan' 738, (shen)

very
jy* <^'
53. (te#) of it

fhan
j^j*

15, (chen) real [sure]

Jan
/r/zY 342,

285, is

such
?

[Within]

its

Jtsai 940, indeed

fh fhung
/ET
^Es
f^t
f

105, [tsung) inside

JJ
>7*w 1113,
it

278, [It

is]

by
this [viz.

contains
**
jj-p

YsV

1034,

(^w)

szV
zf5^"

807, [shin) faith.

Reason]

1031, (te)

From
r#' 879,
mmm+'rh' 721,

"p*

'ku 432, of yore

1&

chih 394, until


i

^v
j
j

J*
^/zzVz 398,

s/hV^ 768,

Chapter 22

now,
-

V#

721,
22,

^AV

34 2

>

its

^
name
;

chang
jy/v^

^Z ming

6oo,

y|^

^
*'

1092, Increase

717, not

k'ien 389, through humility


1.

^fe V^'z/ 445, departs.

278,

Thereby

'ch'ii

458,

The crooked

(Chapters 21-22.)

TRANSLITERATION.

179
1047, [and]
897,
J

jjlj

tseh 956. then will be


i

^S

wei

becomes
,,

2
/f*J
jjlj

cKilen 1013, perfect.

^? AVw
""|%

'wa^

I044j

The

distorted

Am*' 183, (>Wa)

wor
J

fc?^ 956, then


chih
t

will

be

j^
o

s^

7^7. model.

70, straightened.

^ ^
FJ
El
"jfcfr

717,

Not
(fezt)

zva 1036,

The empty

fe^" 1031,
chiert 385,

himself

/^^
t

956, then will be


1

he makes seen

ying

106, filled.

w' 434, Therefore


599,

'

fi' 676,

The worn

out

pH ming

he

is

enlight-

ened.
J^IJ

^A,
t

956, then will be


in.

jfij\

sin 806, {shin) renewed.

^*

cl> u 7 J 7> Not

^J? 'shao 746,


y\}\

The having little

[=j tear" 1031, (tzu) himself

tseh> 956, then will


feA, 872, (te) obtain.

~jft?shV 762, (ssu) he asserts,

l^f
o

jW ' 434,
\Afhang f^
^F\ $u
t

therefore
23,

3S* fo 909,

The having mach


be

he

is

distin-

guished.

JvJ

tseh> 956, then will

717,

Not
(

jE$ Aw/o,

259, (Ao) bewildered.

g ^
>

IOSIj

^) himself

11.

ffe ^a, 122, he boasts,

5t

s>fo" 762,

(ssw)
)

fi5r^ M> 434. therefore


Therefore
/Ejf

$X V2 ? 8

'

J2w

11 13,

he has

shang* 773,

(sheng) holy

the

Tfj

^^

4 6o, merit,

y^

yaw

286, (jen)

man

^\

\$u 717, Not


to?" 1031,
405,
(zf^w)

JQ
**
o

^ao' 665, embraces


yz\ 1095, unity,

B
(Chapter
22.)

himself

yfe fhing

he approves,

i8o

LAO-TZE
kit 434, therefore

TAO-TEH-KING.

q
|W
o

jy^

1083, saying,
?

ch'ang
t

27,

he

lasts.

/so* 940, indeed

fu

142,

Forasmuch

gw

{Jiang

78,

(cheng) Truly

'It

ivei 1049, as he will

^p^
ffjj

cliiien 1013, perfected [they will be]

^u

717, not

,r 719,

(*?rr)

and

{hang 29,

(tseng) quarrel

j|aj /, 480, return

ku* 434, therefore

^2
the

<^*53>

(tew) tne y [will].

{Hen 897,
I

T
ig
V^

hia? 183, (hsz'a)

j
moh
t

ti\ 879,

603, not

V^' 721,

jiang

616, (neng)

can

^
~B

"y* shih, 768,


11

}>

Chapter 23

25,

with
;*
(

5a

723,

fihi 53> (tew)

him

JS {hang 22,
Jj[|
4ftfc

{hang

29, (tseng) quarrel.


IV.

,#w 227, Emptiness [and]

*ku 432,

w?^ 1059, Non-existence.

Of yore

5^' 817, (shuo) that


ze/^V 1054,

which
:

^H7

I 76

(^

Seldom

was

said

=^ j^w
Jz|

1083, to speak

^#
r

458,

The crooked

to?" 1031, (te)


J

ig

JM

tseh 956, then will be


i

,; 285,

f
)

natural.

ch'iien 1013, perfect,

HS

fiao

683,
155,

whirl-

'che'tf, that

J^
it]

>^

(/*) wind

^/zY 346, by any means

/f\ ,^w 717, not

St

,/*#

227, (As#) [is

a false

&&. {hung 106, (tsung) outlasts

(Chapters 22-23.)

TRANSLITERATION.
fhao
the morning.
ts'u?ig

IOI

32,

1024,

[who] pursues

tseu' 962, {tsou)


%

violent

s^z' 764 (ssz2) business

yii

1 1 24,

rain

3P
&i
g|*

,jy^

1 1

18,

with

lA\ fn 717, not


K

tao" 867, reason,

jf& fhung
t

106, (tsung) outlasts

fhe

38, the one,

p| jih 293, the day.


K

gT tad" 867, a rational

shu

780,

Who
o
'
*

^Ae

38,

one

jvei 1047, causes [them]


then, |H* tsz io 34' (^)
' *

Fgl u7ig 933, identifies himself s<


,jv
1 1

^p
?

18,

with

3.

V/z<?

38,

[who

is]

the one

$& /a<?'

867, reason.

tXT
-kit

/'&ft 897, [It

is]

heaven

\W

879, [and] earth.

ts'ung 1024, [Who] pursues shV 764, (ss) business

tE? /V^w
4||j

897,

Heaven

JTp

'yii 1 1 18,

with

tV 879, [and] earth

i
741,

^* 87,
t

(^), virtue,

> ^1> shang

even

~e
fn] |HJ

^/ 38,
fung

the one
938, identifies
self

/R ,^ 7 ?. n ot Wp nang 616, (neng)


1

him-

can be

^P 4>y#
Jr3a

1 1 18,

with
virtue.

/t^chiu o

413, persistent.

^/^ 871, (^)

m| JrA 719,
}j?j

(^rr)

And
less

o
*fi

h wang

2 54>

much

^-

fs'ung

1024,

[Who] pursues

'.fe

shV
t

764, (ss) business


1 1 18,

^p ,^w
.

1 1 18,

for
J

yu

with

h^

Ja.71 286, (jen)

man,
ifc 5^2'/^

769, loss,

38* ^2* *
-

224, indeed

[Used as
"

a query.]
11.

^^* % fhe

38,

the one

jfcfr

ku

434, Therefore
(Chapter

Im H
i
23.)

J?ung

938, identifies himself

182

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

yu

1118, with
769, loss.

y^* shih 769, loss


i

s/jzVz,

/m .yz^
S!$
&>/*,

1093, also
554,

m
t

he enjoys

t'ung 938, [Who] identifies himself yu 1118, with


867, reason,

4H %Q.
^S

teh 872, (^) to obtain


i

<.

c hi 53

0^)

he [does].

tatf'

fez sin'
t

<:A<?

38,

the one,

IR

807,

(kszn) [When] faith

m m m z
m

/f\ ,^w

717, is not
1 014,

tad

867, reason

/sw
yih> 1093, also

sufficient,

W&*
/o^
x

'yen 1082, indeed,

554,

he enjoys
/Ej .yzw 1113, he will receive

teh 872, (te) to obtain

/[>
^A*
53, (tzu)

,^

717, not

he [does].
identi-

Tg szV 807,

(kszn) faith.

fung
(-

938,
18,

[Who]
fies

himself

y#
i

1 1

with

teh 871, (/) virtue,


*""*

fhe

38, the one,

VA* 721,
sAzA, 708,
[>

teh> 871,

(^) virtue

*4
(JtJ
;

Chapter 24

jyz^ 1093, also

**" 836,
22,

SI

loh 554, he enjoys


i

^ chang
k

teli^

872,

(/<?)

to obtain
pi

'^'w 436,
(

Troubles

fihi 53, (?)

he [does].

ngan

623, in merit.

ft fung

938,

[Who]
fies

identi-

x>

himself

^.
Jg?
Pj|j

,>'# 1118,

with

^'2-345,

On

tiptoe

shzh, 769, loss,


^Ad? 38, the

fhe

38,

one

one

^N

,^ 7 1 ?. n t

(Chapters 23-24.)

TRANSLITERATION.
Uh

183

JjjT

538, stands.

Jt **'ang 27,
jiT

grows.

5|l

kzv'a' 468,
(che 38,

Being astride
fihH 342, Their [relation]
yii 1118,

one

/K
/f"T

<^# 717, not

^p

with

hing
te^"

207,

(lising) walks.

^j
Hi
o

/ao' 867, Reason,

B
Ejl

1 03 1,

(^w)

self-

^
A

1079, indeed,
1

chieyi' 385,

displaying

p*j yueli^

130,

is

called

5||

<:Ae 38,

one

|&

>'^

12 1, offal

/J>
P/J

^u

717, not
is

'e^* 5^2%, 766, of food,

mijig 599,
*

bright.

SI*

^A^*' 101, (tsui) an excres-

tsz" 1031, (^m)

self-

YT
o

^^
z^A,
hzvoh
zcz*'
i

sence
2 7>
(lising) in the

system
1065, beings
259, (#0) are likely

shi' 762, (ss) asserting


,# 38,

qgft
1|\A

one

/]S ,^w 717, not

S^
A

1063, to detest

ttA chang o

23,

can shine.
self-

^2-"

03 1, (tzu)
-

J2* ,^ 2 53 (tzu) them. o ift ku' 434, Therefore


'

'n?
^g*
3j|K

/"a I22

approving

Jfcf

'j^
tao>

1 1 13,

[who] has

,<:# 38,

one

867, reason

/ 1059, has not

fihe 38, the

one

J/J Jzuyig 460, merit. o

y&

i$ u 7*7* ^ es not
(

JH

^5^" 1031,

self-

ck u
f

5^
~|gl

giving 405, praising


,<:^/ 38,

Hi ^

dwell [rely him], 1079, indeed.


94,

on

one

^>

,^ 717, not
(Chapter
24.)

184

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

A\ ,i>u
tV 879
'rk' 721,
*pr|

717 not
307, changes.

Qv

o7

11.

^A^w

4-* shih, 768,

47,

(chou)

Everyit

Chapter

25.

^
^T* Jizng

where
207, (hszng)

goes

jY

'zvu 1060,

rf chang

ml VA
t

719, (<?rr)

and

22,

/f\

717, not
846,
[it is]

2&
^fc

siang' 792, Imaging


hiien 231, the mysterious.

$k> fo/'
o

hindered.

PJ
1.
f

'k'o 425, It

can

\A V
is

278, thereby

/fcT

>7^

1 1 13,

There

'tS* zvei 1047,


Jbfyf

become

ztwA, 1065, being

tF /2V/2 897,
f

Jttf

'hzuun 269, containg everything cKang 77, (cheng) com'

the world's

T>
jjr

hicC iS^(ksza)
r

"J sfc
(

pletely.

mu

605, mother.

52V 799, {Jisien) Before

g*
4r* ,*& 897, heaven

.z^w 1060, I

Wt #
<a

Vf\
'

J"
(

7*9. not

879,

and earth
4*fJ <:Az 53,

know

*dp jshang 742, (sheng)


ists.
4

it

ex-

Je fiWi
!

342, its

5S? wA
* As
'fjp,
x

985, (*:A7)

Calm

^Z ming
o

6oo,

name.
(e)
I

179, (As/)

Oh!

^T- tsz" 1032,


//a<?

charac-

528, Incorporeal

terise

^
W

^S
t

<^*

53 \tzu)

it

A* 179, (As/)

Oh

pM
Alone

jw^

1130, [and] call

[it]

tffj&tuhi 921,

X&tao'

767, Reason.
in.

\fffil 53^
*

stands

tm/rA

719, (^rr)

and
(Chapter

fim chHang
25.)

366, Constrained

TRANSLITERATION.

iS

EL

jvei 1047, to

make

^
fh
[it]

to" 839, great.

^2
4?
Pj
m

mz'ng 600, a

name
it

^>^ii 4 i,(^)
%

fhi

53. (tzu) for


1

chungio^{tsung)
11 13, there are
(SSZV)

Inthe wor

yw^/?,

130 [I] call

^=3*

^'w

y^ tc
o

839, the great.

ptj S/'# 708,

four

^^ to' W?

839,

The

great

"^^
o

to' 839, greatnesses,

p*| yueh^

1 1 30,

I call

UU
**-p

Irh

719, (^rr)

and

sAz' 764, the evasive.

ivajig 1043, royalty


<chii

jflf s^z' 764,

The

evasive

IS
.

437, dwells

Pj

yueh^
f

130, I call

m ,^V 342, among


.

them

^a
o
j?i*f

jy

137, the far.

*
*E5

yifc,

1095, as

one

^<?w
yueh>

1137,
1 1

The

far

,>><?

1082, there.

PJ

30, I call

RT yaw

126, the reverting.


TV

Jaw
jfa
**"'

286, (jen)
123, follows

Man

IV.

#g
[it is

jW
iW "^
o

&w' 434, For

said]

j^fj

879, earth.

o
iao ^67,
*

^ eason
[is] great.

jfy

#' 879, Earth


123, follows

ta 839,

^fc Jte

^F

/^Vw

897,

Heaven
great.

^F
o

fien 897, heaven.


897,

^
jfo
-f*

tcC 839,

[is]

j^F fien
y-g ,/a

Heaven

o
tV 879, Earth
ta 839,
%

123, follows

^
Tjfp

[is] great.

tJj ^ao' 867, reason. c

zvang
jyz'/^

1043, Royalty

JM
y2j
25.)

ta^' 867,

Reason

1093,

(^A)

[is]

also

/Vt 123, follows

(Chapter

i86

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

13
$}%
o

tsz" 1031, (tzu) the self

fihung

106,

[in his] all

Jan

285, like.

jeh, 293, (/a) day

l"T Jung

207, (hsing) walks

&
*"

*H 879,
l

Q ^pv ,^w

717, not

rtt 721,
[

,# 515, departs from

-4- s^/ft, 768,

Chapter

26.

,te#'

1030, (tzu) the baggage

waggon,

rfc
j|j*

/ww, 562,

chung*

108,

(tsung) the weighty.

fihang

22,

in.

sui 826, Though

Bj chung'

108, Dignity's
^j*
J
f

ife ^A, 871, virtue.

j/zw 1 1 13,

he have

*^ x y un'
fewan

XI 4^ magnificent

chung*

108,

(tsung)

The

474, sights,

heavy
,/*Y 1047, is

*}ph j^w' 1090, he calmly

chHng

407, of the light

|H
#?E?

VA
c

94, sits

TJJpJ

,&aw 317, (&^w) the root.


994, {cJiing)
is

^ ao

3^

fjy tsing* >W*


jjjgj
fl
c

The
quiet

.^TC

/aw

285,

n an l unconcerned manner.
[i

Z/Z

1047,

IV.

/5ao' 954, of the

moving

nai
<fpj
x

613, 215*

How
*
J

[is it

that]

fihiiin 418, the master.

11.

W ^
*

zfaw' 1040, the ten thou-

sand
772, (cheng) chariots

s/jz*

762, (sszi)
[

Sf& shang
/

^V
535
J{
3*j)3

Therefore

27 8, the

.V*

<^ 2

'

53. (s) of,

shang' 773, (slieng)


holy

Jan

286, (y^w)

man

^
tfc
riff

Vww
\rh

87, the

master

719, (^rr) yet

(Chapters 25-26.)

TRANSLITERATION.
|S jvu
have no

I8 7

J^J V 278, as

to

1059,

j|L skan
t

735,(s7ien) his person


is

^ % /**
~TC
o

fitting 407,
8 97>

too light for

f^ cJCeh 42, % tsih, 985


q- shart

rut [and]
(chi) track.

the
e

752,

Good

Ma

183, (Aszfc)

'

g
jfgj
ifjj^

.jyerc

1083, speakers

SflJ fitting 407, being too light,

3^E zuu 1059, have no


tea
183, (hsia)

0|f

ta?^ 956, then

will

blemish

.fc sA/A, 769,

he lose
(^e)
his vas;

tseh, 959, [and] error.

Ej fiJi'an *o
x

20,

sals

^f
g
j

5^aw' 752, Good


c/iz' 338,

&jktsao' ^^
Jflj

954,

being too restless,

counters

te^, 956, then will


t

5H

wu

1059,

have no
counting
slips.

5^ shih

769, he lose

cKtu
%

51, (c/wu)

]jB* ^^iftiz 418, mastership [the

ts'eh 960,
rsfcS s/ia?t
f

bamboo
Good

throne].
752,

HH
879,

^/ 676, lockers
'

fo*

"""*

SHE z^w
VA' 721,
i

1059,

have no

4-* shi7i 768,

Chapter

27.

||pj

Jzuuan 472, bolts [and]


chiert 386, keys,
'

J^ te'2%, 987, ^^ fihang 22,


5
J=jf

g^g
o

[m

r/i 719, (<?rr)

and

f* ,i^
'&Yao 374,
Skill's

7 1 ?!

n t

yung'

PJ
o

'k'o 425,

one can

149, function.
{

k az
f

308,

open

[their

locks]

8fe s^aw'
^T" ^zVz^

752,

Good

it
*F&

sharC 752, Good


chieh 376, binders
i

207, {hsing) walkers

(Chapters 26-27.)

i88
SEE jjuu
t

lao-tze's taoteh-king.

1059, have

no

^T ku
4>

434, for

shdng
t

772, (sheng) rope

jE ~,zt>w
*\
f
'

1059, there

is

no

[and]
pTI

yoh

1 1

17, (yiieh) string,

^8z ch i
qjfrj

349, outcast

nf? ,VA 719, (^rr) and

z^ww, 1065, thing,

y^s fu
{

1059, not

'swz' 762, (ss) This

Pj #
f f

425,

one can
loosen [their knots]

gEi

weV
t

1054,

is

called
)

'chie

359,

j||| sih 805, (wsz

concealed

jOT jning 599, enlightenment.


11.

shi 762, (ssw)


y

>

Therefore

W
71

#' 434, Therefore

shang'
Jl

773,

(sheng) the holy

s|; sAaw' 752, the

good

jaw

286, (/<ew) 740,

man

jaw

286, (jen)
38, the one,

man,

^S* chang

always

3b shart
'

752, in goodness
415, saves

5? 'ewe? o j/K ,/w

717, the not752,

wzV

S shart
;

good

il

jaw
'

286

(y*?w)

men

/I

jaw

286, (jen)

man

g^r & w
4ff

434, for

J^
is

,^2 53, (tzu) Of,

.^w
f
l

1059, there

no

Rjjj ,.swz

758,

(ssu)

is

the in-

structor.

WBsch z
71

349, outcast

?> <^ w 7 1 ?* The not-

jaw
o

286 (jen) man.


740,

Sg shan'

752,

good

^m* chang
dbS

Always

/L x y w

286, (,/Vw)

man,

sharf 752, in goodness


/zzV 415, he saves

^^ Vw/ 38,
F=J

the one,

s7ian' 752, the

good

w uh>

1065, things,

yV jaw
(Chapter
27.)

286, (y^w)

man

TRANSLITERATION.
jt chi
{

189
126,

53, {tzii) of,


is

)j/

yw
f

Returning

to

*|
es

fsz' 1027 (fzu)


7 J 7>

the cap-

^|^

o/^7io, simplicity.

ital.

Jfi i$ u
*flf

[Who] not

*&'

484, esteems

jSjt c^-53 [Who] knows


ffi ,*AV 342, bis
chi 342, his
ifjj
<

5 ^' 75 8

ss ^) instructor.
%ti Jiiung 214, (hsiung)

man

Sf\

$u 717 [Who]

not

V^o
^J* sheu
f

fg? ngai'

775,

619, loves

hood, (shou) [and] keeps

-Trf^
,

c^V

342, his

JTT, chH 342, his


JJJjj:

<ts'z'

1033,

(^w) womanhood,

^|=F /s^' 1027, (fzu) capital, o

wei

1047,

becomes
the world's

though Jj|| sui 826,


t

3^/^*897.
^|j /h" 58, intelligent,

^U to'
^fe wz
J=L. s/

839, greatly
589, is bewildered.
*

35jj o

$& ,&7 341,


S t/#

hia

x o / 7 183, (hsia)

f
)

(hsi) valley.

1047,

Being
)

762, (ssw)

This

55/&I.897,
8J ze^V
HP*
1054,
-

is

called

the

P
mz'ao' 592, spirituality.
<k(*

/foV 183, (hsia)

ff& yao' 1077, significant

^%

S^,^V34i,

(^52) valley,

71*}*

cha?ig 740, the eternal

ffig te/* 4 871, (Y) virtue

#' 879,
"7

^ ^u
fc

717, not

'rA' 721,

&" 515,

departs.

+ sA/A, 768

Chapter

28.

^fu
\

151,

He

reverts

kivei^ 480, [and] returns


,_y#
11

j=T fhang

22,

-3p
(Chapters

18, to [the state of]

27-28.)

190

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

5.^^1105
E3 ^rh
720, {err)

aninfant
child.

wu

1059,

The un-

chi 393, limited.

AU
JJ*

^ z
4

53

[Who] knows

4*0 chi
x

53,

[Who] knows

c#7

342, his

J^L ch i
t

342, his

l*-f

J>az J06, whiteness,

$t> k y ung
[and]

1146, glory,
755,

fe s/^w

755,

(skou)

2
jfcfc,

s>fow

(shou)

[and]

keeps

keeps

,^V 342,
J93
75kt

his

,^V

342, his

fiei 218, blackness,

Jc./V
i

299,

shame,

*&

o
Tjuei

1047,

becomes
J

z^^V 1047,

becomes
)

3PjS/fe897,

the

3/*897.
'

the

~JT^Vi8 3
JT*
o
syfo'A,

(fefa)

w rld s
}

-|T Met

183,

(Aa)

[world's

767, model.
1047,
897,
)

^t

'ku 453, vale.


1047,

^p

4 z^<?7

Being
the

^ ^2
world
i
'

Being
)

^ A^
-j? *&

5/*897.
s

the

183,

(**&)
model,

"f
igt
$n
fiftj

*** 183, (*)

world s
I

'

5^

s>fo'^ 767,

'w 453, vale,

>S* chanp*J te^


4

740, the eternal


(te)

fhang

740 the eternal

871,

virtue

teh> 871, (te) virtue


f

^
o
2?f=f

,-ito

717. not
(**) is

~JU naz 612, then


faulty.
It*

sfrfeh^ 872,

^sw
jfa

1014, suffices.
151,

Ju

151,

He

reverts

Jm
f^tft

He
>

reverts

Pg|

kzuei, 480, [and] returns

^^^ 4 8o

[ an(i]

returns

3k yu
(

1118, to

^fc

,,y# 1118, to

(Chapter

28.)

TRANSLITERATION
JF|V^'w
7 io

191

simplicity.

JfFi fiu 710, Simplicity


t

**

rh 721
i

lajt

san
t

7 2 4 being scattered,
(/s<?)

-p* shih 768,

Chapter 29

H|j tseh 956,


^*
ze/tfj

he then

will

nt

*kiu 413,
22,

1047,

make
[of usefulness]
.

y= fhang

ich'i'

349, vessels 773,

jvu

1059, Not-

5EJ shang'

(sheng) holy

The

zfeY 1047, doing.


1.

J\.Jan

286, (,/ew)
1

man
|C

JByung

fsiang
1 1

967, (chiang)

[One
to

1149, utilising

'

who]
39, desire

is

going

2*
o
H||

^^jyw'
1^*
53. (tew)

them,
Jftf te
r

te^

956, (tse) then will

# 10 10,
,

(chii) to

take

1= l zf^V 1047, make [them]

Jlt'ien% 97

the

"
K* Aza' 183, (hsia)
)

Tg

kzua?i 472, officers


rfrj

g^ ch'ang
rfjT &w' 434,

27,

[and] chiefs.

'r 719, (^rr)


to

and

jp zfeV 1047,
Therefore

make

j^ta*
w|j
eft/

839, a great
1

o
^**

59, (chih)

administration

z^w 1060,

Wi.ckzen' 385, see

yf\

i>u 717,

does not

3m] x &0

428, injure [cut, hurt]

ffi

,^AV 342, him

/f^

^u

717, not.

4B
p3
o

te, 872, (te)


f

obtain

it

278, that

is all.

5^/^897,
*T^
Aza' 183, [hsia)

The
"

(Chapters 38-29.)

192

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

n 737> (sken) [is] a di|t& x s h<*

mtfih^ui

101,

(tsui) breathe

^S

ch't' 349, vessel.

hzvo* 1065,

some

^/K

$u

717,

Not
can
it

cliiang 366, [are] strong

pf
l5*

&'0 425,

be

^zt/o' 1065,

others

,zt^Y 1047,

made,

JH 511,

[are] weak,

*tf| '_y/ 1079,

indeed.

#zfo' 1065,
?

some

o ^5*

zi/^V

1047,

[Who] makes it,

saz'94i

filled

succeed [are with a cargo]

p2 'die
JjJ

38, the one,

Az^o' 1065, others

faV
,c>fo'

648,

mars
it.

W& Jiwui 261,


VJS

succumb [come

out vanquished]
in.

2^

53, (tzu)

sAz' 762, (ssu)


>

Therefore

1**7*.
/fo'#
s

67,

[Who]
one

takes hold
it,

of
r

SEJ shang

773,

(sheng) holy

the

che

38, the

yV
-

./a 286, (y^w)


445,

man

fife

s^'v^ 769, loses

e##

abandons
(shin) pleasures

Jy*

^'

53. {tzu)

it.
i

j^ shdn 738,
K

jW #w'
Wft\

434, Therefore

j^ *ch
Jig*

ii

445,
1

abandons
(shen) extra va gance,

zvuh 1065, of beings


i

shdn

73,

mr

hzvo 259, some


1

^J~

V/*'# 445,

abandons

YT fang

207, (hsing) go on,

^K fa?
cf|

848, indulgence.

&zt>0' 1065,

others

5W2 826, follow,

#' 8 79.
4

Az^o' 1065,

some
breathe

rZT saw 723,

Chapter
Dfrf ##' 229, (>s#)

30.

-4-* shift 768,

warmly,
hzvo' 1065, others

^* ckang
t

22,

(Chapters 29-30.)

TRANSLITERATION.
kieri 387,

193

jfe

Be

stingy

chi 392, [and] thorns


i

'ivn 1061, with wars.

ijp jshang 742, (sheng) grow

C/ V 278, [Who]

with

f$5r

,3^
y

1082, there.

ijg too' 867, reason


'ft* so' 1002, assists

*^4 ta

839,

great

(chiiin 419,

war's

/^ Jan 286,
^F
5|l
(

(/b) the people's

i&,

chi 53

'

^^
(hon) sequence
[after]

V/* 87, master,

/#' 175,

che 94, the one,


717, not

h/\i'

692, surely
1 1 13,

/Jv ,^w

/?

>'/^

are

j^

V
x

278, with

[Xt fitting 213 (hsiung) bad

-IB ^ fing

698,

arms

a&

#&#

634, harvests.

ch'iang 366, strengthens

s/zew'

752, (shan)

The good

^C/^897,
T?Aza'i8 3
Jgl
J
jjL
4
,

the
era P ire
-

V/z<? 38,

one

(hsza)

&ayc> 489, [is] resolute

/z7 342,

His

rrrt ,'r/z 719, (<?rr)

and

5/22'

764, (ssw) business

methods tfj^'hao 171, render good [make welcome] fiwan 244, repayment [requital]
11.

^
I/J

V p ^}
:

278, that is all [then he stops]


717,

^w

Not
he

J|fr '* 3*2, dares


;^*

278, thereby
r

$j|j

,s* 758, (ssu)

Rt7 s ioio, (##) to take

^T
Hf

An
%

army's

chi

53, (tew)

H* chHang

366,

by

force.

sw' 817, (shuo) place

SL'kzc'o 489, One should be

^^
/77

[which]
:

resolute,
719, (err)

/z

94,

it

occupies,

V* jjf]) A

and
not

3B| fhifig

403, briars

z^w/z, 1065, (zvu)

(Chapter

30.)

94

LAO-TZE
ching 405, boasting
489, resolute,

TAO-TEH-KING.
gyj w/#*
called

jj&k
%

1054,

is

IpL 'kwo

7fC ,^w 717, un-

ml
/7i

*rk 719, (err) and

jg[
o

tao' 867, reason.

Z/W/^ 1065, (Zf #)

Dot

/[\ ,^w 717, Un-

^ /a,
f

122,

haughty [bragging]

Jg' tao

867, reason

&zfo 489, resolute,

JzL Vsao

953, soon

j-Jij

V^

719, (err) but

P*

278, ends.

^
ffiC

w^A,
x

1665, (2x/w) not

chiao 368, arrogant


&zt>

SL
fj^t

489, resolute,
(err), but

H 879,
[only

'r 719,

Z!l

5aw

723,
768,

^ 4H ^
/f\

when]
717. not

! s&^,
+yih,
-=

Chapter 31

872, (^)

he can
[it];

1095,
22,

pf
o

V278, avoid
*zf

chang

JS
jmrt

489, resolute,

'^
/r^ 719 (^rr) but
1065, not

1086, Quelling

'wu 1 06 1, war.

^7t zfw^

SS

.ck'iang 366, violent.

^^
in.

fu

142,

Even

'Hg ,^/a
)

351, excellent

|A|

wA

1065,

(^ w Things

&i
o

$ing

698,

arms

[are]

MX
||||

ehwang'

114, flourish

^>
jjjdfe

,^ 717, an unjsiang 792, (hsiayig)


;cfo"

/5^
7ao

956, [and] then

bliss

508, they decay.

J/y
"*

53, (tew)

among

s#r

762, (ss) This

^V

349, tools.

(Chapters 30-31.)

TRANSLITERATION.
wuh^
t

195
717,

1065, (zuu) [all] beings

|\ ,^w
jjj-^p

an un-

kzvo 259, [are] likely

siang
,^2

792, (hsiang) bliss

7g^ zuu
*C.
J_J)
i

1063, to detest

^^

53, (few)

among

C ^n 53 \tzti) them.
y

Sgg. c/fcV 349, tools,

ku

434,

Therefore

^p
PQ jp

jT

136, [and] not

/ft

yiu 1113, [who] has

fihiun 418, a masterly


'fee'

JLe^ too' 867, reason,

1030, (few)

man

^f

'/*<?

38,

the one,

^2
sgg.

**** 53> (tew) his

M^ iP u
?

7*7. not
94,

chT

349, tools.

#w

dwells there [relies

S\\ ,t u

1^1>

[When] not

on them].

W
V^Lteh, 872, (U) he obtains

p* V
#

278, avoiding

[it]

5^
-J*

,^/w

418,

The masterly
jfjff
'

719,

(err)

and [then

Vs^' 1030, (few) philosopher


at

ffl Hi

.yw^

nly] u 1149, he uses

chu 437, while fif


t

home,

mS

fib* 53- ifzu)


in.

them.

R|J tseh 956, then


t

rf*

kwei 484, he esteems


'tso 1002, the left.

Ta

f' ten

^'

^ eace

~tf

y&tan'

853, [and] quietude

J^|
-ES,

^^'
i^H?
t

1149,
698,

While using
arms

ij ,tt/eV 1047,

he makes
[holds]

shang

741, high.

H|J tseh 956, then

filing 771,
Jj^J

(skeng) Victorious [he


is]

jp kwiV

484, he esteems
right.

Vw 719,
t

(<?rr)

but

;j >7w' 1115, the

^
(Chapter
31.)

$u

717, not

JE> ^zng
x

6g8,

}-Arms [are]
che 38,
)

p^ W/ 586,

enjoys

[it]

tjK \r 719, (err) and

"

196
x

lao-tze's taoteh-king.
mei
[who] enjoys
** t a

gj=4

586,
53'

2| sfo'

'

764, (ssu) affairs

J2, ^*

(^*)

victory]

4*3 shang* 741, we honor


yp Vso 1002, the
left.

che 38, the one

_& J&

s^*' 762, (ssw) this [means]


554, [he] likes

|X| Jiiung

213,

(hsiung)

In

un propitious

Ul^'

sfo*' 764, (ssw) affairs

^K&shah^

731, {sah) to kill

'fgj

shang' 741, we honor


the right.

y^

/a

286, (/^w) people.

yfc* yiu' 11 15,

"jf? ,/# 142,

Now
[when] one
likes

.^Vtfw 689,

The

assistant

ffifif

554,

(ckzang) ^p fsiang 967,

army

s/zaA, 731, (sa/z) to kill

Jp[

fihiiin 419, leader

y^ Jan

286, (^Vw) people,

^J
^

,## 437, sits

V#<? 38, the one,


||IJ tseh, 956,

r
f^

^50 1002, to the


f

left.

then he will

shang

741,

The

superior

y4\
PJ"

j)u 717, not

SflF^V.967.
(Chiiln

#o

425,

be able

J army leader <**V)J 419,


sits

J^-7 278, thereby

JgJ ,c# 437,

^g. ^A,
Jpx chV

872, (U) to obtain


61, his

fa yzu'

1 1 15,

to the right.

wishes

g
the

ym
,<;#

1083,

[This]

means

*~j>

+
(

[that]

yil

in8,

in

437, occupying

3^/ft897.

-fhia>
^^

iS 3

(hsza)

em Pire

_Q 'shang 741,
^Sjshi
0
J^ij
1

a superior

765, position

V 279, [a final particle]

/s^
7
t

956, then

J^Jt
-|> xcA

278, according to

391, In propitious
(Chapter

^
31.)

sang

725, the funeral

Transliteration.
Sfi
l

197

U 520,

ceremony

shing' 773, Of holiness

\&
~j?

'ch'u 94, is

managed
it.

fS

/^

871, the virtue.

chi

1.

53, (tzu)

o
2&Q s^aA, 731, (sah) The killT5*. in

Jg
g

/ao' 867, Reason,

J{
5?5r

Jan

286, (y<fw) of people


108, (tsung) multi-

Ypj

chang 740,
1057,

in its eternal

aspect,
is

^
4
Jj^f

^tc^tt
change
'to

un-

tudes, 909,

many

f-y

mi?ig 600, nameable.


f

~o
pui

278, with

3Jp,^ w 710, Simplicity


JgSj 826, (shut)

though

.0*7 668, sorrow

y^jT

.w^az 619, [and] lamentations

/J>
.

's/ao 795, (shiao) insignificant,

ch i

'

396,

[we ought

y^
to]

fien 897,
J

the

weep

/ha' 183, (hsia)


717, not

w
J

^aw'
K

/J> ,^w
45,

[When] In war
Sfr
r

^w 312,

dares to
(ch'eri)
[it].

shang

771, (skeng) a victor

pp d'aw

LI V 278,
JJg|
t

according to
725, the funeral

20,

subjec

/?*?Jieu 174, (0 w) Princes

sang

ITT
7z 520,

wang

1043, [and] kings


(y<^) if

ceremony

^ ?o^
ijg

296,

V#w

94,

must be treated
T^jj

nang
f

616, (neng) they

can
it,

*2l .^"

53. (tzu) he.

^3p s#*w o

755, (shou) keep


1040,

tf

879,

1Se zt^'

m
^/

the ten thou-

sand

TZT ,saw 723

fl$1

wuh,

1065, (zf w) things

!"

S^fcfc,

768,

Chapter

32.

i||jp

'r^'

721
22,

jtsiang 967, (chiang) are going


/5^"

103 1,
695, to

(^w) of themselves

-j|j^

fhang

|f ,^'w
(Chapter 31-32.)

pay homage.

198

LAO-TZE
Heaven

TAO-TEH-KING.

y^ fieri
^jl
/fcH
ti
%

897,

j^Ju
:

i4 2

tn ^n

879, [and] earth

/Fhy
mu4|2f

1093, in turn
967, (chiang)
is

IW

siang
217,

790, (hsiang) tually


'

/szaw^
1^'

one

going

*g* ho
JL^
IjjF
,2

combined,
|K*

53. (tzu) to
56,

know

278, thereby

VA/

where

to stop.

chiang* 364, drop


310, sweet

4trj

fhi
x

53, (tew)

Knowing

TT ,kw
(fg. o

Jp

chi 56, where to stop

/a' 557,

dew.

^f^8i 7 ,( S;^)) istherea


J^V2 7
/J\
son
8,

jJq
Jj^j.

"*/# 597,

The people
will

why

wo' 603,
53'

have none

,j^w 717,

there

is

no

j21 ^*

(^^) as their

/Q

ia ^ ^4 6 ^an ger.

^j*
o

ling' 546,

commanders,

fjQ Irh 719 (err) but

Wsffi*

681,

To

illustrate

4
gt>

tsz"

1 03 1,

(sr)

of themselves
will

|^o*

867,
>

JS^ ,A## w

418,

they

be

righteous.

^
^jfc*

Reason'*

^/ 53,

(tzu)

yfeltsai' 941, being


rt U

5^2 761,

{ssic)

[When]
first

at

/zWz 897,
/zz'a'

j&ljc/h'' 59, creating order

*TCf

183, (hsia)
1 1

in the universe

/Q* yiu 1113, *~*


x

[it

becomes]
the

%!& y iu
t

12,

resembles

* jning 600,

I
)

nameable.

Iff chzu'an 119, rivers


>5*>

Sj^jning
*~^

6oo,

[When]

the

^
,*:&

453, [and] streams


53, (tew) [in their rela-

nameable
*J*
tion]

also /Jfiyi* 1093,

^Pfcchi' 339, already

jfr&^

IIlS

'

to

^'yiu

1 1 13,

exists

Jt* fihiang
(Chapter
32.)

362, great rivers

TRANSLITERATION.
'hat 160, [and] the oceans,

199

&
KK

tsz" 1031, {tzu) Himself

HT yi
x

1079, indeed.

jshdng 771, [she.ig) [who] conquers *chd 38, the one

.^'

chHang
53

366,

is

mighty.

ff|

879,

san
t

723,
>

5cD <^"
Chapter
~,
33.

[Who] knows

-^*s?iih 768,

"^C

fl

fcw 1014, *' contentment


the one

san

^A<? 38,

723,
22,

je chang

^
discriminate
2{j|

*V

148, is rich.

11.

^
tfii

^>zV' 688,

To

cKiang

366,

[Who] dares

^A, 871,

virtue.

fT* hing
5|l
'cfc*

207,

(hsing) to act

[move]
1.

38, the

one

Mtt chi
t

53,

[Who] knows
/=}

'yiu

1 1 13,

has

f
~=|
jkfl

./a 286, (Jen) others


38, the one,

chV
o

61, will.

VA^

^\ ^u
^fc

717,

Not
[who] loses

^2"

58, is intelligent.

5pi
taz" 1031, (tzu) Himself
53,

sfo'/*,

769,

Ji,
Jyf

,cAV 342, his


sz^'

ATI fJd

[who] knows
817, (shuo) position

~S
f|B

'che 38, the

one
^||
V/z<? 38,

the one,
lasts.

mzng
{

599,

is

enlightened.

o
B#& shdng
771, (sheng)
(/.e/z)

ffi^chiu 413,

[Who]
in.

conquers

Ji Jan

286,

others

2?P
hfir*

'ss'

836, (ss#)

[Who]

dies

~gr 'che 38, the one.

VA

719 (^rr) yet

^ST
"^ft

'.yzw 1 1 13,

has

VK
1*~*

,/w 717, not

536, force

jvang

1044, perishes

(Chapters 32-33.)

200
5|l che
x

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.
fc shdng 742, (sheng)
t

38, the

one

living,

\sheu' 757, (shou) is long lived [immortal]. *

Ifi!

/r

,,M

719, (err) yet

yf^i ,^# 717, not


fe!sr' 4

*pL

rz'

879,

1033, (tew)

it refuses [them].

--^ ,san 723,


-j-* &%, 768,

Chapter

34.

TfJ fiung
x
(

460, Merit
77, (cheng)
it

|#}

**

836,

ch'ang

ac-

/&
jl*

chanff 22,
/[>>

quires,

,^w 717, [but] not


4

i jan

289, Trust
its

W-t ^-*
perfection.

Jftinff 600, the

name
takes.

^
Jill

chHnff 77, in

'jyzw

1113,

[it]

ngai' 619,
*4^* ta* 839,
'

It

loves

The

great

'yang

1072,

[and]
ishes

nour-

tao 867 reason


is

w&ri

1040,

the ten thou-

sand
$Tf fan' 128,
all-pervading
)

wuh^
ffFj

1065, (z^w) things,

*X A/
Jfc

179, (/foz

Oh

VA

719, (*?rr) yet


7 1 ?, not

.fiAV 342, It
f f

J$> it"

pT & o

425, can [be]


left

^S
on
the

z#" 1047, act as

yfc 7s0 1002, on the

^f V/*w 87, [their] owner.

j? yiu'
*i&jjf

1115,
1040,

[and]

ya* cha?tg
i

<H wan' ^*
'

740,

Always
has no

right

the ten thou-

ffifc

ww^

sand 1065, (wu) things

zt>w 1059, it

4jjtyu>

1 1 39,

desires.

*j3p 5^'' 761, (ssu) relying on

fjT

'h'o 425, It

can be

^
lil

,*A* 53. (tzu)

it,

jning

600,

named

278, thereby

^p ,>>#
(Chapters 33-34-)

1 1 18,

with

TRANSLITERATION.
/l>
'"**

20I
(cheng) accomplish
his

'szaoygs, (hsiao) the small.


1040,

"**

Ity

chdng

77,

Eg w&rt

The
(zc/#)

ten thou-

j^^'342,
^J*

sand
things
/a' 839. greatness.

&yf\ivuh> 1065,

*gj& kzve'z] 480, return

^=k.
_

yen

1082, thereto.

o
Yet

epj

&**

879,

hfrj '^rfc 719, (^rr)

4-

,sa 723,
shih, 768,
f

,/Jn ,_^w 717, not

Chapter 35

fahwei
^f>

1047,
87,

it

acts as

jF
T

z^w 1060,
22,

V^w

[their]

owner

^ fhang
'

PJ

'k'o 425, It

can be

42

rning 600,
A

named

2 $k

7<aw 287. Benevolence

^/j, 871, virtue.

IS
7^

zc/V

1047, as

2fa'

839, the great.

5gfr chih, 67,


in.

[Who]

takes hold

4^

to' 839, the great

sM

762, (ssu)
>

;3j sz'ang' 792, (hszang) form

Therefore

3?
3!jB
*"**

/' 897,
(

the

shang

773,

^ Jan
^N

(sheng) holy

the

f^
'

/ a' 183, (7*sza)

world
)

286,

(>) man

<wa?ig 1044, goes [to him].


to the
'J-1*

$& {hung

106,

(ta*^) end

fc
j^jj

^^ I044

[It]

goes

,^ 717, not
x

r^

7IQi

(^ rr)

anci

^ ^
j|j3

zt*?7

1047, acts as

/ $u
x

717, not
161,
is

^'
%

8 39. the great.


434, Therefore

f? Aaz

'

injured.

gjr ku
t

,^a
A

620,

Contentment

a^

616, (neng) he can


(Chapters

2p

^V^* 701, peace,

34-35.)

202

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

^/W

848, rest [is there].

/j>J

,^# 717, not


1 01 4, is

JR /s
11.

enough

to

pn wan 104 1,
$ti&ld 554,

(z&^w) be

heard

Music

o
jfl yung'
1

149,

The

use

jffi^yu 1125, and

<^. fhi 53
r/i 720, (err) dainties

(te#) of

it

/p
f

^w

717, not

'ffij
it*
.

kzv o 490, the passing

Pj
k'o" 429,
x

'k'o 425,

can be

Z^

people
ch*
%

339 exhausted

tp chi

56, (tzu)

make
)
>

stop.

JW ta0

86 7>

^
1
G
y/jSj

Reason's

,** 53. (***)

"^
t

san
i

J-R f^ a 98, going out of

723, 768,

&^
"

331, (kou), the


is

mouth

4- shth

[-

Chapter 36

~^*
ian ^53, [how]
A

/w/z,

562,

insipid.

SE
j+
$J

^w

224,

Oh!

ju

fihCLJlg 22,

,dfcV 342, it

1059, has

no

^
looked at

z/^ 1050,

The

secret's

HH ming

599, explanation.

iv ei 1053, taste.

|H &/' 763, (ss) [When]


~fr
<chi 53, (sr) it

fsiang
^J^^//'
11

967, (chiang)

[That
going

which]

is

37, to desire [viz., to

have the tendency]

yj> i* w
jfrL

7*7.

n ot
is

hih, 203, (As/) to contract

/sw

1014,

enough
be precious.

jy* fhi 53, (te)

itself,

o
EjJ chtert 385, to

it/\P'' 692, surely


fjSJ

o
|jfik!
t

fzng go6, [When] listened


53, (tzu) to
it,

ku' 435, assuredly

J^

,c>fo'

HM

(chang

22,

has extended

(Chapters 35-36.)

TRANSLITERATION.
~jf
k

203
53. (tzu) itself.

chi 53, (tzu)

itself.

2*

^"

*W

ffifc

Jtsiang 967, (chiang) [That which] is going


1137, to desire
295, (je) to
s/zz' 762, (ssu)

$fr yu"
M&jo/ii
J

This

weaken

g@

z//2*'

1054,

is

called
secret's

^o

<:/zz
(

53

(tzu) itself,

^^'1050, the

tyfafV

692, surely

pH ming
HE.

599, explanation.

jpl &#' 435, assuredly

^^ 294,
t

(7b w)
(/<?)

The
weak

tender
the

73$ chHangitt, [has]strength1m^

SSjoh
jro*
(

295,

[and]

ened
i

J21

2'

53'

(^^)

itself.

shang

771,

(sheng) constiff

Kr tsiang 967,
k

which]
jy#' 1 137, to

{chiang) [That is going

PlJIJ

a^ 318,

the

desire

732 ch'icmg

366,

[and]
strong.

the

j^ feV
^f

138, to ruin
53, (tzu) itself,

phi
o

p|

jy#

1 1

19,

[As] the fish

lC^jfo'' 692,

surely

7fc

ii>

u 7 J 7 not
425, should

njjt kit

435, assuredly
205,
(hsi?ig)

pT
has

<9

Jm ^z^'
^/*
<:>fo'
(

BB*
^P-

raised
53, (tzu) itself.

/'o 914,. escape


,jy^ 1
1

o
Jtsiang 967, (chiang) [That which] is going $f*yu' 1 137, to intend

18,

from

vBH ^yuen, 1131 the deep,


o

11 Awo
<

491.

[ao] the
'

fS?/0
^/*

9 X 3> to -deprive
53, (tzu) itself.

j^
3c||

,.; 53,
&*'

(^)

r mpire

,>fo'

521,

sharp

o
lj/\J>i' 692, surely
&z*'
Jjjj[[

SSL

c^V

349, tools

q
435, assuredly

^\
endowed
(Chapter

,i^ 7 J 7 Q ot

JBI

'jzV

1125,

[it

has]

^jT
36.)

&V

425, should

204

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

LJ

i 278,

thereby

^Hp \sA^w
be shown
the peovfij\

755, (s^ow) keep 1040,

[it]

yxt shi'
/I

763, (ssu)

zt^w'

the ten thou-

sand
./<z 286, {Jen) to A

zvuh, 1065, (zuu) things

pie.

i|9k Jtsiang 967, (chiang) will

@|
_

ft*'

879, 723,

B
o
[>

tez"
'

1 03 1,

(tew) of

them-

selves

-4

san

rG ^ wa
Chapter
37.

2 4> reform.

$fo%, 768,
tsHh, 987,

^uK hwa'
\rh
fl"j]

240, [If] reformed.

719, (*rr) yet


37,

Jfi

jy
4Jjfc

chang

22,

ffVyii
90' yp o

11

they

may

desire

1005, to
1060, I

stir.

zf^V 1047, Administering

pj x z^w
?f

jj& ching' 76, the government.

fsiang

967, (chiang) will

&! tM'
|| too' 867, Reason

17,

pacify

Jv^

,**"

53, (tea?)

them

43* chang
jjffi
A

740, is always

zt/w.io59,

non-

JJ

278,

by

apt
^S* o
jifrt

^w

1059, the un600,

jjue'i

1047, action,

S&L
y

ming

nameable

rk

719, (^rr)

and

J^
4ffi jjuu 1059, nothing
J/T^

<chi 53, (tew) its

jfcK ^jfu 710, simplicity.

,^

717, [remains] un-

wei
heu

1047, done.
174, (Aow) Princes

wu

1059,

The unnameable

IC

zvang
t

1043,

[and]

kings

*4?*

ming
/^* 53
f

600,
i ts
1

^J!=[joh 296,

(jfe) if

v^

og

nang

616, (neng) they can

4c[> ,^

710, simplicity

(Chapters 36-37.)

TRANSLITERATION.
yz 1093, in turn
t

205

/J\\

1.

tsiang 967, [Chiang)

will

J^'shang 741,
T^teh,
|\ ,^w

Superior

[afford]

JJu7i7,

not

871, (2^) virtue 717, is un-

^Jjr*jy^' 1 137, to desire [to lust]

yfc

ii>

u 7*7* [There being] no


1

^teh,

871,

(te)

virtue.

4&&%yi?

137, desire,

S^z' 762 (SS#)


>

Therefore

t\\ i 278, thereby

g|3 tsing'
"fe "3F /Vew

994, (ching) there


rest.

is

/hT
<flpi

^w
^A

1 1 13, it

has
virtue.

^V

897,

[Then]
the

871

(/<?)

I
)

*TE^ >foV 183, (hsia)

world

p
4^5
,/K

^za' 183, (hsia) Inferior


zVz, 871 (te) virtue
,j$# 717.

fsiang
I^t tasr"

967, (chiang) will


(tzu)

1 03 1,

be

not

self-

's?? ^Vz^'

Mi

905

(che?ig)

enrap-

^y^shih^

769, loses

tured.

4Mteh

871, (^) virtue,


'

sfo'

762 (55^)
V

N hia

183' (hsia) the latter


part.

$V
o

therefore

27 8,
it

jga ^V<ew 690,

Slfe'zuu 1059,

has no
virtue.

f^teh

871

(/)

|&

ft"

879.

t*

'shang 741, Superior


871, (/*) virtue

,5aw 723,
|>

01 feA,
Chapter
3
38.

4*5^7^768,
ft ^a/t 647,
4

4lJ ,/ 1059, is

non-

^3) x zfe7 1047, action.

-^^ fhang

22,

Wn

\rA

719, (^rr)
it

And

/m' 566, a discussion

^]l zcz* 1059,

has not

/^

871, of virtue.

Jj!l

278, thereby

(Chapters 37-38.)

206
^3L jvei

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

1047, pretensions.
183, (hsia) Inferior

y=
o
I-*

w//& 1047, pretensions.

^a'
i

'shang 741, Superior


520, propriety

i^teh

871,

(te)

virtue

jjrfi '&"

IK jjuei 1047,

is

acting
itself,

pv wei

1047, is acting
itself

21 ^
4

2'

53

(^^)

^^
ml
.fc^

cki 53, (?)

Tm

\rh 719, (^rr) and


1 1 13,

\rh 719,

(*?rr)

but

/ti 'yiu

has

mo

603,

when no one
it

LJ[ V 278, thereby

!v*

,<:Ae

53, (tew) to

7| zWz 1047, pretensions.


t

BPt yzng
(

1106, responds.
(te*)

a
%

f*L

shang

741, Superior

j|lj

^/*, 956,

Then

'1^

^'^ 287, (y<e) benevolence


A

Jp| ,Jang
^=f ^s"
tnj

290,

it

stretches
its

a
"vj*

/A" 1047,

is

acting

678, ($ei)
(err)

arm

^' 53i
A

(tew) itself

V^ 719,

and

'

jfjl

rA

719, (<?rr) but

yj Jang

291, (jeng) enforces


(tzu)
it.

D^E

^w

1059, not

^^ ,^' 53.
fc^r

JLI V 278, thereby

in

ku

434, Therefore
769,

t| wi

1047, pretends.
fc
11.

s^/yfc,

when one

loses

U
gs
'**'

'shang 741, Superior


g*

|j
[jus-

tao>

867, reason
719, (err)

280, righteousness

Wl
/M

'

r#

and

tice]
t

4Sj
~J*

ze//i

1047,

is

acting

E?

A^w' 175 (hou) then [there


is]

^/ 53,

(tew) itself

[Trj ',r^

719, (*rr) but


1 1 13,

-ma o gt

teh, 871, (/) virtue.


sfoVz, 769,

One

loses

^|f
J!)

^z'w

has

|I

teh, 871, (#) virtue,

278, thereby
f

hVj \rh 719, (*rr) and


Chapter
38.)

TRANSLITERATION.
V^heu'
175, (hou) then [there
gHfe

207

shih 770, knowledge


x
f

^
<5

Jan

287,

(Jen) benevolence.

~% che

38, that [is]

*q

Jfcshih^ 769, One loses

?& tao'

867, reason
its

\*

L k

(jen) benevoan 287, (Jen) Jdn j


lence
719, (<?rr)

Fm V^
lp

^ J^ ^
.

cki 53, (tzu) in

and

hwa
\rh

239, [mere] flower.

heu' 175, (Aow) then [there


is]

ml

^ gz

719, (^rr)

and

280, righteousness.

raft ^yii 1 120,

ignorance
its

o y*shih 769, One loses


)

^f
fj

chi 53, (tzu) in

ff^^' 280, righteousness


'

sM 761,

(ssu) beginning.

Jjj[J

719, (^rr)

and
ski' 762,

(s^)
>

lp ^w'
l

175, (Aow) then [there

Therefore

J[^V 27 8,
JJ|J|

li 520,

propriety.
IV.

^^ to'
cii ,/w

839, a great

rfci 'y^w 142,

Now

^f-* ckang' 25, large

wM U 520,
X

propriety's

^V

142, organiser [man of affairs]

5?
Efr

V#<? 38, things [are]

m
J^
A\

'ck'u 94, dwells

ckung

106, (tsung) loyalty

fkH 342,

in its

f=^

sin' 807, (hsin) [and] faith

/^w' 176 (hou) solidity


^>u 717, [and] not

~J*

ckt 53, (tzu) in their


705, attenuation
(^rr)

5fS i^'
h|

(dm 437, abides


,A7 342, in
its

VA 719,
lzvan '

and

E3U

57> disorder

<M&
o
J"j$g

^<?' 705, externality.

VA w
f

94,

He

dwells

^
R|j

sheu 756,
.

(shou) begin
nin S
;

H*_

,^V

342, in its

tshen 98 1 (chien) premature


(Chapter

^g? shih,
38.

769, fruit,

208

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KJNG.
11.

J\
7pEy

fu

717, not
jjfr

/V^w

897,

Heaven

cku 437, abides

l^teh,

TT

872, (**) attained

,c^V 342, in

its

JL^
fji]

j/2*,

1095, unity,

3p| hzua
o

239, flower.

278, thereby
it is

H5C ^ w
f

'

434' Therefore

^{j ^'# 445, he avoids

/?*- 995, (ckz'ng)


clear.

^
Tft* jM

f/t 674,
, ,

the latter,

^
-.1

o
**
879,
872

Earth
>

tsii 1010,

(^ ii) and choses


,

'tf^ r "

^^1

(^) attained

jtfc

^^'

I0 34> (^) the former.

yz\ 1095, unity,

\A V 278,

thereby
it is

**

^Sx&jiing 637, _ o
879,
723,
fljljj

peaceful.

^ha 71

737 (shen) Spirit


>

-#"

san

jj&.teh, 872, (#) attained


}>

s/zz'/^

768,

Chapter

39.

yz\ 1095, unity,

tJ

278, thereby
543,
it is

Hi^

{hang

22,

|g ///^ o

mental.

^i
1

ku

453, Valleys
(/)

JgJ

/a^

123,

Law's

5M teh, 872,

attained

jfc 'fan 655, root.

yz\ 1095, unity,

IM V 278,

thereby
1

^
1=1

802, (As*)

,yzng

106, they are filled

Of

old

15 2x^72'
^3:

1040,

The

ten thou-

sand

^A

F*

872,

j*"*

those who attained 1095, unity


(ti)

u#h zuuhi

1065, (z^w) things


(ti)

ifM^ 872,

attained

'eke 38, the

ones [are]

yi\ 1095, unity,

(Chapters 38-39.)

TRANSLITERATION.
H
x

209

!]

278, thereby
742,

jjfl**
fJIFc

879, Earth,
it

k sKang
o
\

(sheng) they

^7/ 1059, were


r

not

heu

174,

have life, (hou) Princes

JW
^pg>

f 278,

thereby
637, steady,
967,

jP
^M;

ivang

1043, [and] kings

ning

teh, 872, (^) attained

fisiang

(chiazig)

it

yz\
o

1095, unity,

JpT

k'ilug 422,
i2i,

would presumably

JJ

V
t

278, thereby

&" ,/a

break down.
(she?i) Spirits

^5

*" 1047, they


f

become
the . world's

jfjra

^/za^ 737,

^P / zVw
Tp
o
*ffi ,<:AV

897,
I
(Aj-z'a
I

5B

ww

1059, are they not

K* Aza' 183,

JL/ V 278, thereby


ard.

chang'

75, (cheng) stand-

342,
58.

That which
produces

^g H? o
l

543, mental,

'Sfochr

tsiang 967, (chiang) they would '&'#;?- 422, presumably J[(t


[
/zzV/z,

^< chi 53.

('*)

it

195, (hsieh) give out

O'z, 1095, [is] unity,


r

4&*,"ku 453, Valleys,

Hi

>'^ 1079,

indeed.

3|E

iv'w

1059,

were they not

/^ V 278, thereby

'HF / zV?z

897,

Heaven,
were
it

ying

106, filled,

Slit ,w/ 1059,

not

tsiang

967, {chiang) they

VA
o

'i

278, thereby

*j& 'k'iing 422,

would presumably

3j{| fs'ing 995, (ckzng) clear,

chieh 378, be exhausted.


t

HS J: siang

967,

(chiang)

it

o/'
zi/w/z,

1040,

The

ten thou-

j^ 'k'ung 422,

would presumably

sand
1065, (zc/a) things

ZjAlieh^ 531, crack.


(Chapter

Qgfcjvu 1059, were they not


39.)

2IO

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

Ivl Y278, thereby

J^ V 278,
K
ing
life,
t

upon

Zfc

shang

742,

(sheng) hav-

hia" 183, (hsia) the low


w/// 1047,

itsiang 967, (chiang) they


'k'ilng 422,

have
[their]

j^J

would presumably

chi 336,

founda-

o
mieh^ 593, be exterminated
[as

tion.

Xshi*

762, (ssw)
8,

by

fire]

>

Therefore

V^w

174, (Aowj Princes

P
SHE
A

zvang

1043, [and] kings

J^V2 7 ^w
4

174, (^>w) Princes

ze/# 1059,

were they not

^fc jjuang 1043, [and] kings

\A
TC
^"o
Jifrt

278, thereby
75,

EJ
gpf

/.sz" 1 03 1,

(fzu) themselves

chang'

(cheng) the standard, ',rA 719, (^rr) but


484, esteemed themselves
[their] high,

//&' 1054, call

3Hf feu

431, orphans,

"^

*^* kweV

fg^ '&z^a 467, widowers,

JSj ,^ao 324,

A^\ ,fu 717, [and] untgi*


f

tsiang 967, (chiang) they


*J*J
jj|jjC

453, worthies.
%

'k'iing 422,
<:##'

would presumably

]H*
j=|l

*ts'z

1034,

(tzu)

[Is]

this

[because]
446, fall.

fhH

342, they

L7- V 278, from


IV.

tsiert 979, (chieri) the

jffr &^' 434,

Therefore
fii

*||r

kiveV 484, the noble

^
f

commoners

1047. take
655, (fen) their root?

DJ V 278, from
tsieri 979, (ckten) the
zfe?7

2J i*
fl|5

,^' I0 78, (yeh) [query]


,./%'

commoners

HE 3

136, [Is

it]

not so

1047, take

^^
~*o J=*
t
{

#w

224, [query]

655,
324,

(fen)
root.

[their]
jfcfr

kao

The

high
(Chapter

&w' 434, Therefore

39.)

TRANSLITERATION.
chV
58, (chih) let

211

|^W
j^ ^
^fift

867,
53.

)
>

reason's

'sku 777, (su) go to pieces

C^w)

ck e

39,

a carriage [wheel],
it is

/w^' 932, motion.


2 95'

iJffi

iv u 1059,

no [longer]

IBI./^

0*0 Weakness

jM
_

,cAV

39,

a carriage [wheel].

o yj\ ,^w
ffl^yu'

^
^*

*ch 38, that [is]


867,
j-

717, [Unities] do not


1 1 37.

^g ta&

reason's

desire

,^*53.
1

(**)

3^

/' 563, to

be respected,

EH yung*

149, function.

j /w' 563, [and] respected

11.

$0
^P

i/ 8 2 97. like
jy#' 1 1 38,

y? /7*
j$l^"

897,

Heaven,

gem
let

879, [and] earth

$2S^' 55 3 to be
>

down
down

JgLtvdrt 1040, [and] the ten thousand


\iuuh> 1065, (z^w) things

&8pl

553

an d]

et

fc ^shang '_,
/j 5^'^
766, a stone.

742,

(sheng) are

produced

^Jr,.y#

1 1

18,

from

7B' ytu
f

1113, existence,
1 1 13,

tV 879,
|7CJ sz" 836,

^3

'^/w

existence

^p shang 742,
k

(sheng)

is

produced
Chapter
40.

~F

,;y# 1 1 18,

from

-J*

sA/^, 768,

^H

fhang

ww

1059, non-existence.

22,

= 'k'ii

445, Avoiding
1

j^ yung'
Jyflfan

149, function.

126,

Returning

5|?

V/**' 38,

that [is]
(Chapters 39-40.)

212

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

f|
|jg

&

879,

pT hid

183, (Jisia)

An

inferior

SZ" 836,
\

f^s/te' 762, (ss) scholar

JL*shih, 768,

Chapter

41.

BJl ,^w 1041, (zt^w) listening

mmyzk
~fe>

1095,
22,

i^tao'
o

869, reason

jchang

y^ta

839, greatly 795, (hsiao) ridicules

S 5/ao'
py

fung
**'

933, Identity

fi

2l^'53

(^)
[If]

it.

281,

and non-identity.

^
52

,j 717.

not

szao' 795, (hsiao)


i^

he

ridi

l'shang 741,

superior

I^s^z'
t

^\
762, (ss) scholar

717,
1 01 4,

[it

culed [it], will] not

JjLjsu

could

wdn

1041, (zt>w) listening


to [or,

hearing of]

too' 867, reason.

J^ V 278,
T= jju ei

thus

1047, to

be regarded as

chHn

402,

he

is

strenuous

ig la<?'
jTFfrA 719,
(err)

869, reason.
11.

and
pracjjj^r

^yjting

207,

(hsing)
it.

&w' 434, Therefore

jChi 53, (tew)


105,

\chierf 386,

who

builds

(tsung) average t-*sA&' 762, (ssu) scholar

X&fihung

An

^^

1083,
38, the

words
one

pg' V>&<?
o

^3
o

z^a

1 04 1,

(z^^w) listening

/o ^w
f

1113, says
53 \tzt\ that

i||7a0' 867, reason,

"2. .^*

o
296, (y?)

y^joh,

sometimes

jning PB -^
i^f
*
'

599>

Those

enlight-

ened

^fi ts'un 1020, keeps,

ao ^9'

^ reason
(7V?)

~p? 7bA,
~^~*

296, (j&

sometimes
[it].

-^^joh, 296,

resemble

zuang

1044, loses

jfcfcraeV 587, the dark.


41.)

(Chapter

TRANSLITERATION.

213
875, (fou) the remiss

life

^zV
1

99

cfa'n )

Those advanced

^gjf

feu

2ej /ao 869, in reason

^p=f chih^ 68,

Simple

jSjoh
I

296, (ye) resemble

g|
^jfy
itfc

(ching 73, chastity

fu\ 926, the retreating.


i 276,

70^
'

296, (je) resembles

J"

The

straight

>'# 1123, the

changing [the
fickle].

o
'

tao' 869, in reason

Hh
/7
Sffi

to* 839,

The

greatest

j=Joh 296, (7V) resemble


i

./<?" 132,

square

dpi /^V
o
t*

512, the rugged.

<x^ 1059, has no


1 1 19,

'shang
i

741,

The high

Kp| ^
o

corner. greatest

^^teh

871, (/) in virtue

4^

to'

839

The

^Zjok^
<**ku
o

296,

(/<e)

resemble

^
JK5

chH' 349, vessel

'^a

1038, not yet


77,

is

453, a valley.

-t-

/a' 839,

The

M^
perfect

cliang
to' 839,

(clieng) completed.
greatest

"^
[^-f j#o'

The

706, in whiteness

^j
^J^v/o/e, 296, (7V) are likely

,3'z'w 1

100,

sound
)

JSgg

/V

^j^
299, to

,/^z

176, (/e^/

is

void
of

be put

to

shame.
jgf filing

o
fcfc

771,

(she?ig)

'kzuang 478, The broadest


871, (/) in virtue

o
*jfl

speech [voice, harmony]


^a' 839,

The

greatest

Spfe^

70^

296, (7V) resemble


717, the not-

^^
jK

siang' 792, (hszafig) form

9H- ,zfw 1059, has no

^> u
{

hing

206, (hszng) shape.


in.

t? fsu 1014,

sufficient.

jH
*^**
ffit

chiert
te/z,

386,

Firmly established

j|e}

/ao' 867,
'_yz72

Reason

871, (*) virtue

R=S

103,

when
[is]

hidden,

4=1

/o/z, 296, (7V)

resembles
(Chapter

An
41.)

/# 1059,

not having

214

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
ruing 600, name.
^-fc
k

A?
o

shang

742,

Hk fu
vMi
f

(sheng) produces

142,

However
it is

*
o

,5aw 723, trinity.


,5aw 723, Trinity

zvei 1052,

exactly

^k
'fS

tao>

867, reason [that]

p shang
t

2ife sJian' 752, can


to*' 845, give
YsY<?

^^
Jg'
z&yzw'

(sheng) produces 1040, the ten thou742,

sand

4&t
o

zf

#^

1065, (zf w) things.

R
fcfc

974 (ch'ieh) and


77,

iHf z^wz' 1040, The ten thou%t sand

chHng

(cheng) complete.

'*^

wftzvuh

1065,

(z*/w)

things

^^ fu'

149,

bear
the

&
JTCJ

#
^"

Krb.jym
879,
'

1099,

negative

principle,
h*rt
x

r^t 719, (^rr)

and

836,

-r* shih 708,


m

ipj^ao'
j>

Chapter

665,

embrace
the positive
principle.(tsu?ig)

42.

V^'
j|J

Kllr

721,
22,

y ang

1071,
109,

c>

fhang

yTO ^ch'ung
4pT d'z
'

The

immaterial
348, vitality

}H

zW

867, Reason's
240, transformation.
1.

rj V 278,

thereby

^
*

7*z^a'

laj A ze/# 1047, makes [them]


^&T||
(

Aw0 254,

(ho)
11.

harmonious

Jg
r*

tatf 867,

Reason
742,

^p shdng
k

(sheng) produces

*yV

1095, unity.

o
yt' 1095, Unity

\ Jan
t

286, (jin)

The
6 P le,S

cht 53t (tzu)

fP

-*

Bfr 5^' 817, (shuo) that which


.35. z^w' 1063,
is

}-*
k

shang

742,

(sheng) produces

detested,
is

a
\\Wl

'rh" 721, (^rr) duality.

^^ io 5 2

exactly

'rh' 721, (*?rr)

Duality
(Chapters

Tf\\ Jzu 431,


41-42.)

[to be] orphans,

TRANSLITERATION.
-WC'kiua
/\\

215
627, I

467,

widowers

V^o
7)$yi'

fu

717, [and] un-

1093, also

ito k'u 453, worthies. o \rh 719, (^rr) Yet


[J

fljf chiao> 372, teach

o-

-fl tvang

1043, kings

jjgj

chHang

366,

The
[and]

strong
aggres-

V^ fiung 459,
2=S ,w#

[and] lords

J^ *s Jiang
3gf
V/* 38,

525,

sive

lx V 278, thereby
1047* take
76,
[it]

ones

/f\ ,^w 717, do not


[for

chHng

{cheng)

^frteh

872,

(**)

obtain

their] titles.

jW w' 434,
f

Therefore

JEL

,g&V 342, their


836,

kzuo' 259, sometimes

J^q'sz'
9

(ss)

[natural] death.
I

Jg
J

sw

829,

you lose
it

S*
yfif

zc/w 1060,

[But]

chi 53, (tzu)

{siang

967, (chiang) shall

jflj

V#

719, (*?rr) but


is]

JW
gain.
7.

278, thereby

j^yg"' 1092, [there


Jl]^ hwo> 259,

Qj wei
~

1047,

make

[viz., ex-

pound]
372, the doctrine's

Sometimes

ZgJ^chiad

^nfcjz

1092,

you gain
it

^C/m'
o

147.

father

[founda-

tion]

V* /^*
'

53. (tew)

jiVl
f

rA

719, (err) but


829, [there is] loss,
in.

72 879,

i5- sw

|7LJ

^"

836,

+*
Of others

Syfo'/^

708,

Chapter 43

/V j'dn

286, (/)

^
'

sa?i 723,
.

,** 53. {t^u)

^=3* (Chang 22,

EFt 5w' 817, (shuo) that which

fieri 689,

The

universal

chiad 372,
1

is

taught.

V&yung'
(Chapters 42-43.)

1149, function.

2l6

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

^ ^A'
.

1047,
J

\ doing's
)

"^F fien

897,
(hsz'a)

/21
the world's

.***" 53,

(tzu)

K* hia? 183,

>g*

[yzw

1 1 13,

having
advantage,

y*
9p

fihi 53,

(^w)

/JS-:y^ 1092,

chV

60, (chih)

most

o X]> ,^ 717, the not5

2E* ^Vw 294, (./bw) tender, o j&m chH 64, {chih) gallops
'chHng
80,

.jwz rtlvU5 1083,


'

/speaking's

,*Af 53,

(tzu)

[gen]
)

(i>ing)

and

2fr chiao' 372, doctrine,

courses over

o
4ffH

y^ /Y<?w
J*'

897,

wu

1059, the not)

Aaa' 183, (hsz'a)

the world's
-

g.wA-1047,

kL
t

hi
'

53. (**)

S%
1&
-J*

fihi 53,

(&*)

doing s [gen]

Hp ^/
Eg*

60, (chih)

most

sE&yh

1092, advantage

chien^ 380, hard.

5^/&897.
^T? hia'
183, (hsia)

inthe

11.

3B z^w
"**
l

/feT '.yzw

not having [material] 1 113, existence


1059,

The

^W

^* 176, (^s/) [there are]

few
#/' 394, [that can] obtain

J\.ju' 299, enters

,^z

53, (tzu)

them.

99

^w

1059, the im-

R|] fihien 381, penetrable.


in.

$ ^ 879.
pEf sz"
836,

35 ,w

1060, I

"~p 5^/^ 768,


|j]
ft

Chapter

44.

shi 762, (55^)


>

^"

836,

therefore

J^Va 7 8,
&ft
fihi 53, (chih)

.^3 fihang 22,

know
JLL S*. 538, Setting
31ft

up

4ff jjju 1059, the not-

&zaz' 360, precepts.

(Chapter 43-44-)

TRANSLITERATION.
hen' 176, (/zow) intense

217

/> jning 600

Name

T1"* zvang

1044, loss.
in.

gjtyu
i

1125,

and

J=L sha?z

735, (shen) person

4ft 1^* ^"

53>

(^^) [One who]


knows

.s/z^ 780,

which

[is]

JP /s

1014, contentment
717, not

JtsHn 991, {chin) nearer?

y^ $u
x

J|L shan
{

735,

(s/ien)

Person

Jgjt/W

'

2 99>

is

despised.

flU
"'tip

'.>'

125,

and

&n
tU

o
{

^*"*

chz 53, (^/w/j)

[One who] knows


to stop

hzvo 256, treasure,


[is]

'chi 56, (e)


is

when

J3& shu 780, which


^| to 909, more o
x

^Z ^u 717,

not

^S

feA, 872,

(/<?')

Gain

jS^tai* 846, endangered. o 'nX'k'o 425, He will be able


ty)

$fil

yu

125,

and

278, thereby
27, to last

T*

-*

ZVCL7lg 1044, 10SS,

2eL ch'ang

irff

s#

780,

which

is

more
?

r\

ft

'chiu

413,

[and]

to

con-

tinue.

ing* 700, painful

^^"879,
~|fc

shcui 738,

(she?i)

Extreme
jft]^"
836,
-J* s/zz'/^ 768,

^j ngai'
jj/^z"

619, fondness

Chapter 45

692, surely

TT
z^gj*

'zvn 1060,

-*

to' 839, greatly

ghang

22,

}B&fei' 139, wastes.


o 4j
ist*
,fo

909,

Much
950, hoarding

fs'ang

u^ fung

236,

Grand

fe, 871, virtue.


1.

|7A^"'

692, surely [brings]

^ to]

839, Great

(Chapters 44-45.)

2l8

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

JOfccJi'tng 77, (chzng) perfection

J^ ia%

^39, Great 688, eloquence

jt=fjoh> 296, (je) seems


jElt ch'iieh^ 448, imperfect.

5?^z^'

T^jok,

296,

(/*?)

seems

Til

fih'i 342,
1

[But]

its

pfPJ wo' 640,

stammering.

H3 yung

"

149, function [use,


utility]

^\

,/w 717, not


is

\tsao 954, Motion


out.
(

fv&j^z' 676,

worn

sking

771,

(sheng) conquers

Jf

tcC 839,

Great

^a

163, cold.

jyzVz^ 1 1 06, fulness

ra

ppS^szVz^' 994, (ching) Quie(

Joh

296, L/l)

seems
empty.

BS; shing

771,

tude (sheng) conquers

ytB (ch'ung
o

109, (tsung)

y^,

293, (y?) heat.

JjT ,^V 342,


IH yung'
1

[But]

its

fsHng

995, (chHng) Purity

149, function

^V

'$u

34(2, is

not

{ching) [and] clearness zf^' 1047, are A


tsing' 994,

ch'iilng 420, exercised.

55/Sr897.
-]T
*' 183,

(A)

the vorld s
'

JC ching' T tcC
yg
o
839, Great
70, straightness
l=jSt&*'

75,

(cheng) standard.

^2%,

879,

/f=?jh> 296, (y^) seems

gEj^'836,
-4-* s/zzA, 708
[>

fig

,&'#, 458,

crooked.

Chapter

46.

~^

/a' 839,

Great
skill

rj^ /,

562,
22,

JC 'chHao 374,
y^joh,
Jill
i

^^
^*

chang

296, (j#)

seems
*zV# 385,

To moderate

c^ ^3

cmms y

^jV?^
(Chapters 45-46.)

ii37 desires.

TRANSLITERATION.
1

219
137, desire.

#yf:y^'

9? ^ V t'ien 897,
*TC^

[When]
the

o
fyjS Azv'o' 256,

Misfortune
is

hid
'yiu

183, (hsia)
1 1 13,

world

j^ mo"
~*P

603, there

none

jfr

has
-4r* /a' 839, greater

^jr
a

tacf 867, reason,


<>'^ 425,

than

itj cKiohi
'fctfw

411, [people]

curb

/(\
961, (tsoii) race

,^

7i7. not
53 iphih) to

$T] <^'

know

in

'/a 571, horses

1 /sw
^r

1014, contentment

^W ^%
^ ^ V
3

JM

278, for 132,

/foV 415, Calamity


is

(fen) hauling dung.


)

J|5[ wo' 603, there

none

'fieri

897,
183, (hsia)

[When]
the

jS?

tcf 839, greater

"|v ^z#'
Q&t
L

world

Hp ^w
^\>''
1

425, than
137, desire

wu
'

1059, has

no

^ ao

867, reason,

^Lteh
303.

872, (^) for gaining

ad& xya^r

war
in.

H&'ma
/fc -^
t

571, horses

shd?ig 742,
1

(sheng)
raised

are

jw &w'
4*f|
,<:/

434, Therefore
53, (chili)

-^p

,>># 1

18, in

[who] knows
conten t-

sftR chiao 367, the


t

common.

^/-ioi4.

^.chi n,
11.

(tz&)\

meat

'

tsui' 1016, Sin

M^o' 603,
H^ /a'

there

is

none

Jni /sw 1014, contentment o y {hang 740, is always

839, greater

RL

/sz* 1014, contented.

-f ,>>#
Pj

1118, than

fcO 425, tO
(Chapter
46.)

220
tV
JJEJ

lao-tze's TAOTEH-KING.
chi 53, (^z*A) knowledge

879,

"^

jJJ

5^" 836,
}>

5
Chapter
47.

mi

589,

more and more


grows
little.

-fr* s^zVz, 768,

^J? \s#a0

746,

J-* AsY^ 987,


.

gr.

fhang

22,
'

shi 762,
'

(ssi/)
>

jig zVw' 387, Seeing


J|| >'w^w 1137, the distant.
f

Therefore

jg/V 278,

pB shang'
f^Jan

773,

(sheng) the holy man

J /f> (i^ 7 7 Not

286, (/w)

man

JR

,##
%

98,

going out of

^^
4

717, not
207, (hsing) goes

13 hu
\

jKr
225, the door
53 {chih) I

,^2>?^-

_
Ffrt

about

xFJ chi

know
)

\rh
t

"jig,

(err) but

~% f' ien
|V
o

Art chi
8 97.
183, (hsia)

53, (chih)

he knows.

th e

^V

5T* ^ w
)

7*7>

Not
he sees

^K

,^w 717, not


ftzue'i 487,

H
hE?
s>?

chie?z' 385,

^a

peeping through
the

V^ 719,

(^rr) but

JS <yiu

1 1 14,

window

SjJ chierf 385, I see

ming 600, he defines [determines by names] J~q /f\ ^w 7i7i Not


4

y^ fien 897,
Jj
,<:#Y 342,
f

heaven's

T* zuei 1047, he labors


fftl

Jjl too' 867, reason.

\rh 719, (^rr) but


ch'ing 77, (cheng) he completes.

[When] one
goes out

Jf cA ^
4

98,

3|i

7w/ 589,

more and more


distance,

S'yuen
<ch*i

1137^0 the

342, one's

(Chapter

47.)

TRANSLITERATION.

221

|g tr
%

879,

yB zvu
t

1059,

He

does non-

JJCJ

S2? 836,

^
Chapter
48.
J
12.

*&

1047, doing,
"jig,

-4- sybv^ 768,

\rh
t

(err) yet
is

j\$ah>

647,

3E zvu
Sy* \fu

1059, there 717, un-

nothing

=* {hang

wang

1044,

To

forget

Jjft.joii 1047, done.

4$J ,d&* 53. knowledge.


11.

jvei 1047, [Who] attends

jX

'^
*

I0I - (**)
8 9?'
183.

To
)

take

^
H
o

hioh, 209, (hsueh) learning

yC '^W
^Tito"
o

the

j 293,

daily

(**)

^gjvje" 1092, he gains.

da? chang

740,

always

J&
j

,zf^Vi047,

[Who]

practises

LJ V 278,

he uses
non(55^) diplomacy [business]

jg

/ao' 867, reason

jffi .z^'w 1059,

Q
f*S

Jih

293, daily 829, he diminishes.


829.

ijB shi
o

'

764,
394'

sun

JtrchV
^fT

When

'Xm 'sun
~/*

He

diminishes

'yiu 1113, using

<chi 53,

(^w) himself

Ijjg. 5/22

'

764, (ssu)
717, not

diplomacy

JJIyiu'

1 1 14,

and again

o yy\ $u
{

JM f,sww
J^
tj?

JLXT

829, he diminishes.

Jl

jtsu 1014, is

he

fit

278,

Thus

jy^ V

278, thereby
1

fo*

'

6o, (t:^%) [he] attains

JjV Hsu

010,

(<:/zzV)

to take

-^P yu
%

425, unto

3/fc897.
-JC^a'183, (Aa)

the

3li z^w 1059, non-

em P ire

ze*?Y

1047, doing.

(Chapter

48.)

222

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
Sfe shan
%

752, treat with good-

ness

^LJ
-4-*

s*

8 3<5,

s/fo'/^

768,

Chapter

49.

o v /i\

J^

fib* 53.

(^) them.

J>u 717,

Not
good

H
j=j^

'kiu 413,

3S: s^aw'
f

752,

fhang

22,

-pRr che 38, ones

2
ff jarC 289, Trust in

zfw 1060,

$M

/fcyi'

1093, also

teh 871, virtue.


x

n shart
SBf shdng

752, treat with

good

ness

=*
9Il

773, (sheng)

The
holy

v^ ,^/
o

53, (z)

them.

f\.Jan

286,

(7^) man
no

^^
tI^ sin
1

871, (/*) [For] virtue


752, is good.

ww

1050, has

SiK 5^w' o

Y^T chang
)!\
o

740, fixed

807, (*&) The faithful

,5/ 806, (hsin) heart.

*che 38, ones,

Jt^ V

278, In

PI
'Ips

z^
'

1060, I

p|

#a&, 707, ($0) the hundred

s * n ^7 (^) treat faith


fully
53'

7(2* sing'' 810,

(hsing) families

/21 ^'

(^^) them.

o
^22 ^*
ijjV
,sz>z
'

53' ( tz u) their

$u

717,

The unfaithful

806, [hsin) heart

>fe szV 807, (hsin)


'che 38, ones

f=fy.jvei 1047, he finds

iyN O

,s/

806,

(hsin) his heart.

own

-jjSjf

ivu 1060,

/m yV
n.
l|-

1093, also

5^aw' 752, Good

4t|? 5/w' 807, (hsin) treat faithfully

5|j V^<? 38, ones

Zt^l fihi 53, (tzu)

them.

S*,z^?/ 1060,

*S
(Chapter
49.)

^/*, 871, (te) [For] virtue

TRANSLITERATION.

223
all

sin' 807, (hsin) is faithful.

ch 358,

hat

160, treats as children

*/^ <chi 53,

(^w) them.

SP * shang'
/I
x

773,

(sheng) holy

The

/aw

286, (/ew)

man
fr"

879,

3fc

teas' 941, lives


f

^f\

zuu 1060,

=^

/fa.

897,

in the

Chapter 50
-I- shih 768,
f=y

"*TT Aw*' 183, (hsia) o


'

w
)
'

<chang 22,

t^H
iffiB

* z e ^>

89 ' caut ^ ous iy


j!|*

&VA, 890, so cautiously

kzueT 484, Esteem


t

TV
y^
,*& 897,
1

^S* jvii 1047, dealing


)

Zfc

shang

742,

life.

with
the world.

hid

183, (hsia)

ffl ,^'w 98, Going forth

hzvun
"tf
rt*x
x
x

268,

He

universal-

il

ises

^
7?C o

shang
'

742, (sheng) is life

ch i 342, his
806, (hsin) heart.

JV^ W
f

2 99>

comm home
is

,5m

s.e'

836, (ssu) 742,

death.
)

lt foh.yoj, (fo)

"

The hundred

p shang
t

Mt
yy
fcfc

s/w^' 8io, (hsing) families


,*://

^
f7&

(sheng)
,As 53. (tzu)

>
J

Life's

358, all
89, fix

tf

919, pursuers
768, [in] ten

chu

upon [him]

-r* shih,
f

^a. ^AY

342, their

/JhT >'/w 1113,

you have

V^

720, (<?rr) ears 607, [and] eyes.

san

723, three.

H
t

^w'

^
^

o
*sz\

836, (*?)
I

Death's

Sfe shang' 773, (sheng) The


holy

,*'

53. (**)

A Jan

286,

(>w) man

fe Ju 919, pursuers
(Chapters 49-50O

224

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
w/a

t-* shih,

768, [in] ten

1 04 1,

(tf^w) I hear:

Ax
o
TV

yiu

1 1 13,

you have

^Sfskan'
i

752,

[Who] ably

^-+ ,san 723, three.

'pj&shek 750, (5^) manages

Jan

286, (jen)

Of the peopie

y^ IT

skang

742,

(skeng)

his

We,
38, the one,

]7 ^ 2
fc
(

53

{fzu)

who from
their

^g^ VA
|^g luk /
t

skang

742, (skeng) life

562,

(/w)

[when] on

o
fflj

^w^'
i

932, are

moving

ff
_.
^J^

kHng

land 207, (ksing) he travels,

c* 53

(tzu) to their

^w 717, not
r#'
1

's*'

836, (ssu) death

jgg
<

128,

he meets

ft" 879,

place,

y[J 5 ^" 837, (ssw) the rhinoceros

7}$

yV

1093, also

rfe
>{/Tj
-

'

'ku 224, [and] the tiger,

-fr+skzkt 768, in ten

T\Ju*

299,

[when] coming

Jpfyzu

1 1 13,

you have

among
ckiin 419, soldiers,

san

723, three.
142,

'T^s^u
j^'

717, not

^P ifu,

Now
ffip

'

675, [need he]

shun

fpj/*0 213, what


?

H3
o

V/'a, 355,

arms
[and] weapons.

mjT w* 434, is the reason o JL^J V 278, Because


-"HI ,cA7 342, they

J ifing 698,
wu

Rfj 5^" 837, [ssu)

The
eros

rhinoc-

SHE
/yp
1^
ijj^
life's
t

1059, has

no

|? skang
t

742, (skeng) live

su' 817, [skuo] place

jf* skang 742,


i

(skeng)

where
/V
876, (/o) to insert

, cM 53.
>

(**&)

J3L
^3|
Q

<ckH 342, its


fikiie 409,

Off

^e?w' 176,

(Aow) intensity

horn.

*kai* 307, Indeed


(Chapter
50.)

'ku 224,

The

tiger

TRANSLITERATION.
ffe

225
1072,
t

zvu 1059, has no

ijf*

yang
t

To

nurse

;8fi

teh Syi

virtue.

Bfr su' 817, (shuo) place where

J
~ftl
fjT

teV
fhH

1.

1008, (ts'o) to put

$&
342, his

too' 867,

Reason
743, (sheng) gives
life to

/ff

V^ao
%

34, (tsao) claws.

ZE-

shang

X&
9|^

^?^ ,^'
j>ing 698, Soldiers
zt'w 1059,
<J

53. (**)

them

[living

creatures]
t

%&teh
A

871, (^), Virtue

have no
gS* ch'uh 98, (^s#) nurses
t

^yp su' 817, (shuo) place where


~J^
*j
,<:#/

53, (tzu)

them.

^yung
(

1146, to let enter


their

o
{fcfa

JL ^V 342,

zfw^

x/,/

1065, [zvu) Concrete things [reality]


206, {hsing)

Tf king
yji jan' 288, (7>w) blades. - o

shape

db
/fit
jfcfr

,/*w 142,

Now
what

21
fiv

^ 2

'

53'

(^^) them.

shi 765, (shih) Energy


'

^o

213,

ch'ing 77,

(cheng) completes

&' 434,

is

the reason

? J

o
{/}

^T*

,^2
sfo*'

53, (te),

them.

278,

Because
762, (ssw)
v

j| ,cAV 9H
J5P
;[[

342,

he

Therefore

w
^'

1059, has

no [does not
belong to]
"fejf

836, (ssw) death's

^*

z^a^'

1040,

[among] the ten thousand

/fykf

z^z^^ 1065, (zvu) things

ft" 879, place.

jg* /wo* 603,

no one

U* 879,

w 7i7. not J7fC ./


jre}

3?
-4-

'zuu 1060,

/swra 1019, honors

5^7^
t

768,

Chapter

51.

^it" too' 867,


tfri

reason

~-+
.2^3.

yz'k 1095.

\rh

719, (^rr)

and

fhang

22,

-S. kwdV
(Chapters 50-51.)

484, esteems

226

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

teh, 871, (te) virtue.


11.

yu
~5t

140, nurtures

fhi

53, (tew)

them,
(cheng) completes

tao

867,

o
Reason's

fihi 53, (tew)


t

t& 7A
4^

fitting
~

77,

~J^ fihi 53, (tew),

them,

tsun 10 19, honorableness


sku/i, 780, (sw)

matures

teh 871,
t

(te)

virtue's

~/p fihi 53, (tew)

them

fihi 53, (tzu)

^gz yang
f

1072, rears

kwei' 484, esteemableness,

*
PP
o

~5? fihi 53. (tew)


'

them

fu

142,

however,
*

S
mo> 603, no one
johi 53, (tew)
it
j

,,/k 151, protects

~J^

,^/

53, (tew)

them,

in.

ming
'

601,

commands,

>{fc

zr:

shang 742, (sheng)


life to

to give

[them]

rw

719, (err) but


740,

iifrj

'rA 719,

(err) but

fhang

always

^v

,i^ 717, not


(

As.?" 1 03 1,

"I

ytu

1 1 13,

to

own

(tew) self

Jan

285, so

they are spontaneous.


7jCt

jvei 1047, to make [them]


'

ft
iff

w' 434, Therefore


^ ao
'

rA

719, (*?rr) but

^67, reason 743, (sheng) gives 'life life to

^
1%
iTfrt

,/w 717, not

shdng

)kfc sAz' 761, (ssw) to claim;

fihi 53, (tew)


teh, 871,

them,

Jfe cttang

27, to raise

[them]

(^) [but] virtue

'/" 719. (^^^)


.J0* 7i7
r

but

cttuh^ 98, (A.sw) nurses

^\
Sfe
J|L

not

,db" 53, (tew)

them,

teaz 941, to rule

cttang

27, raises

sfo'' 762, (ssw) this

fih* 53 (tew)

them,
(Chapter

||B

z*/*V 1054, is called

51.

TRANSLITERATION.
hilen 231, (hsuen) pro-

227
I51
'

2?

found

fH -^
4*0 c^'
< x

in turn

||a teh

871, (te) virtue.

53 (<^ z ^)
its

^ knows

,1tt chH 342,

| ^
^T
-4*""*

879,

^p
c

Vs^' 1030, (tzu) son.

Ze^' IO60,

&&
j>

M /h 339,

When
it

shih, 768,

Chapter

52.

^K
TT
.

.^'

53 {chih)

knows

V^' 721,

,c#z 342, its


'tear'

^tp^ <chang 22,

-y*
o

1030,

(gr)

son,

*^f jfa 151,


[Hi kzvei 480,
i

in turn

Return

^p

'sA^w 755, (shou) he keeps


342, to his

jjr

yuen k

1134, to the origin.

JH1 chH
t

-m! 'mu
~jP
,/7<e

605, mother.

897,

[WAen]

T^
x=t*

#za' 183, (hsia)


'jyz'w

Vthe ) world

J$7 mo' 606,

To

the end

J3 shan
{

1 1 13,

takes
(ssic)
its

735, (s7zen) of life [the body, the person]


is

^j\ ,^w 717, he


beginning,

not

7hr* 'sA*

761,

taV

846, in danger.
11.

LJ V
^Sj

278, thereby

^A'

1047,
897,

[the

Tao] becomes
j

sek 728,

(s)

[Who]

closes

3^ /&
K^

the

,c^V 342, his

/i/a' 183,

(hsia)

^G^tui' 925, mouth


o

43*
o
gjj
4*|1

'otm 605,

mother.

EEj ^2" 676, [and] shuts

^2"
t

339.

When
one knows

JjQ
P^j
o

,^AV 342, his

^2

53

{chili)

man
<.

576,

(men)

sense-

gates,

,"H^ ,<:AV 342, one's


r

f& ch ung
J|L ,5Mw
(Chapters 51-52.)

IQ 6> [tsung) to the

*flj:

w w 605,

mother,

735, (sken) of life

228
J\\ lt u
l^l* not

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

&zf

^ 480,

[and] goes
to

home

mh
Ba

<chin 402, is troubled.

.^ fhH 342,
BB
A

its

fiai 308, [Who] opens


his

rning 599, enlightenment


zf 1059, does not surrender
(shen) his person

j>AV 342,
^/^'' 925,

mouth,
[and] med/-Hoc dies
f

,2*277,

tat' 964, (chi)

j|L ,sMrc 735,


"

jjfc ,g^V 342, with

ZMl yang
t
'

1070, to perdition.

\l3^ shi' 764, (ssw) affairs,

shi 762. (ssw) This

$L chung V
t

106, (tsung) in the

end

Kpj
l|f

w^*'
sz!&,

i53 is called

J|L Syaw
yl\ ,^w
jjF

735, {shen) of life

805, (^sz) practising 74. tne eternal.


t

717, not
.

rft

fhang

<:^V

415,

can he be saved.
in.

& #'
see

879,

chieri 385,

To

j?j 'zuu 1060,

*|^ szao 795, (hsiao) [one's]


srnallness

4- s^/A, 768,

Chapter 53

l^Ayueh

11

30, is called

,5aw 723,

BR
o
j3p

jning
4

599, enlightenment. j=JT 755, (shou)

chang

22,

5^w

To keep
Jfg^

r^T?

^^ /^
t

294,

(jou) one's ten-

jy/^ 1092,

To

gain

derness
1 1 30, is

s|& ching'

76, insight.

P| jyw^

called
'shi

j?B fhHang 366, strength. o EH yung' 1 149, [Who] employ


"

j6i (ssu)
t

If

'w^o 627,

fT

,^V

342, its [i.e., reason's]


light,

X^chie"

360, in

an insignificant

Jflfj

fetuang 478,

;a

285,

manner

/w

151, [and] reverts

*A3k

y* u IXI 3 nave

(Chapters 52-53-)

TRANSLITERATION.
Aft chi
t

229
[and]
aries

53, {chili)

knowledge,
I

/s'ang 949,
shari 738,

gran-

if-r

Jiing 207, (hsing)


t

walk

{sheri)

very

~f*

yii 1118, in

,## 227, (/S#) empty.

yCta'

839, the great 867, reason


it is

HB
2$7*

jfa 152,
A

To wear
(zt/e)

too' J& o

zfaw

1 04 1,

orna-

ments
only

\\&'zve'i 1052,

& Hs'ai 944,


;

"mil <shz 758, (ssu) assertion

[and] gaudy *o colors iB&tai* 846, to carry

shV

762, (ss) this


I fear.

I]

&"'

521, sharp

zueT 1054,

chieri 388, swords,


jV^w'

1089, to be excessive
1

rajj* 'jym

102, in drinking

4j* ta 839,
1

The

great

*6*

sAft, 766,

[and] eating,

:?||[

tao 867, reason


Brir ts'ai 943,
t

wealth
[and] treasure
to

!fefj

sMw'

738, (shen)

is

very

4&
/a*

hivd
'jyz'w

256,

jeIj

276, plain,
1 1 13,

have

HK \rh

719, (err) but


A

y#

ii2i, in abundance,
762, (ssw) this
is

Erl jnin 597, the people


'fcL'hao 171, like

shV

g@
jRff^zw^' 407, by-paths.

zt^V 1054,
tao>

called

868, robbers'

,dao
ace,

32,

[When] the

pal-

[seat of

government]

2g

fczu'a 468, pride

s/zaw' 738, {shen) is very


t

fei 136,

[It is] anti-

//*'# 92, splendid,

tad
/Yew
898, the fields

867, reason,

,sa 940, indeed.

5/faw 738, (shen) [are]

very
A

ztw 1059, weedy


(Chapter
53.)

230
y

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

ti

879,

4{aC sz'u 81 1, (ksz'u)


t

Who prac
tises
[i.

3?
t-*

'tvu 1060,
sAafc, 768,

Jv*
j>

,cfe*

53, (tzu)

it

e.,

Tao]

Chapter

54.

-J-

,>> 1118, in

nQ

s#" 836,

J|L
o
22,
J
T

sM

735, (shen) person

chang

Tr

,^V
^/fc,

342, his

flS
jjp
||il

871, (&?) virtue

,s/w 811,
t

To

cultivate

kwan

474, intuition,

Th
well

waz 612, then


15, {chen) is real.

j-

s/zaw 752,

[What

is]

ih fihan O

4|C ,?& 8ii, (ksz'u)


SIB! chien' 386, planted

[Who]
practise

Sgf '^/

38, the

thing

^
o
well
is]

:,

fhi 53

(tzu)

it

^\

^w

717, not
is

-^ ^

1 1 18,

in

^a 647,
skan
JgJ^ao'

^c ,6&/a
uprooted.

351, his family,

752,
665,
is

[What

Jal

ch*i 342, his

M
preserved

teh, 871, (te) virtue

>Q
5j5| 'eke 38,

Jyw
yii

1 1 13, is

the thing
k

120, overflowing.

y^s [$u
o

717, not
is

ffffjfo 914,

taken away.

81 1, (A) f{| fit*

[Who]
practises

11.

,^*53> (tzu)
iii8, in
189,

it

Z*'tsz* 1030, (tzu) Sons',

.Hl,^
'"o

jEE

sz^w 829, [and] grandsons'


'

jff&tfa'angf

(kszang) his township,

&K tsi
'

965, (r^z) offerings

fjfr

ch t,342, his
(*4)

ijTM 5^' 838, (ss)


***

and ancestor worship

fi^tek, 871,

virtue

,X> ,^w

717, not
81, (cA'o) will cease.

7Tt 'naz 61 2, then

jgS^o/z'

J^ fh'ang
54.)

27, is lasting.

(Chapter

TRANSLITERATION.

231

A& stu 8n,


t

(hszu)
it

[Who]
practises

fizvan 474, one tests

^^'53.
{

{tzu)

Ss?

<chza 351, families.

o
^l- yu 1118,
in

J^ H 278,

By

jgjj^z^'o 491, his country,


<ch'i

342, his

Jiiang 189, (hsiang) one's township fizuan 474, one tests


Jiiang 189, [hsiang) townI

tijjktehi 871, (te) virtue

ships.

yh 'naz

612, then
157.

J^V2 7 8,
|njj/|

By

"o
*- - *

ft ,/#"
(

(/^) is abundant
[prolific].

^zftf 491, one's country


{

^[|C S2& 81 1, (As2)

[Who]
practises

||B kzvan 474, one


j|5|

tests

,#/ 53, (tew) this


,;y# 1118, in

^z^o
'*

491, countries.

-3P

JgJ
)

278.

By
)
(

Jl ften S97,
"TT-iUV
o

rcr /v^w 897, *'


the WOTldl

y^

'

ones
,

183, (hsia))

r^

A/a' 183, (hsz'a)

world

"ft

,<:AY 342, his

||B Jzvuan

474,

one

tests

^/z, 871,
7!r
f

(^e) virtue

r
7

/fc* 897,
)

naz 612, then


is

K*

^ >foa

worlds

183, (hsz'a)

yy ^'w 716,

universal.

-p
^pT

^w

1060, I

fio 215,

what-

ku* 434, Therefore

JJ% V 278, by
4*|1 pfo* 53, (chz'h)

JJ

V
{

278,

by

know

J=L shan 735, (shen) one's


person
I

-4^ /7* 897,


|V
j

fa-wan 474, one tests


{

^a'
t

183, (hsz'a)

the world's

shdn

735, (sheyi) persons.

chz 53, (tew)

D V 278, By
|| fhia 351, one's family
(Chapter

^^
^^
54-)

/aw

285, being such

fsaig^o, [Query.]

232
V

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
by

Jj^

278, [It is]


y

/p
si?

,^ w 7i7i not
chti 442, seize [him].

|M* ts'z

1034, (tzu) this [viz.,

reason]

{hue

411, Carnivorous
632, birds

|Je^" 879,
f

J&I

Wao

3Pf

z^w 1060,

/|\ ,^w
J>

717, not
706, (^0) strike [him]

4-* 5^2*/^ 768,

Chapter

55.

JB
o
*|j|^

jto/*'

^I'wu

1060,
22,

454,

The bones
are weak,

^=^ <chang

S3 /oA, 296,

fm
^fe
t

<chin 396, the

muscles
are tender

##?2 231,

Of the Mysteri[ous

Ju

144, the seal.


1.

3Z
Htj

je'u 294, (jou)

V#

719, (err) yet

<Q?

lian 162,

[Who] embodies
Jgf
zco' 1064, the
2*'

grasp

$Mji teh, 871. (^) virtue

|pj

435,

is

firm.

ytz
Pp, A^w' 176, (^o) fulness [so-

W H'
fhi
x

1052,
53,

He

does not yet

o jY.

lidity]

Tjfl

(^2^) know

*jd 674, is

comparable
ipr j?in 697, the female
to
l

~p

yu

1 1 18,

!jp

mu

588, [and] the

male

0c*Hht7 2
^p
j. /w

an i n f an t
chlld
*

Zp* ckz
t

53, (tew) [in] their

/*' 1030, (tew)

** ko2iy,
922, Poisonous

relation.

tm
ch'ung

'

r^

719, (^rr) yet


[A"., vol,

no,
not

(tsung)
sects

in-

tsui*

31,

p. 1]

/f\

,j^w 717,

the child's virility

jp
<pp s^fc, 769, sting [him]

tso 1005,

is

erect.

o mdng J3& *-"**

*This character
610,
6,

is

missing in Wil-

(meng) Wild

liams, but a similar form of the same word, which like the above means

g shew 75

(A*>*) beasts

^pS^

Child, "

* "**"*

(Chapters 54-55-)

TRANSLITERATION.
tsi?2g 992, {eking} His spirit [semen]
<chi 53, {tzu)

233

/fife

yi 1092, To increase
' K

^t

[grows

to] its

p shang
P^j yueh.

743, {sheng) life


30, is called

35
Hi o

cA/' 60,
'ye
1

(chih) perfection,

1 1

1079,

.)'<? )

indeed.

siang

792, {hsia?ig) a

i^
ft

blessing

chuyig 106. {tsung) All


72%, 293, the
173,

J]i\ ,/2 806, {hsin)


'

The hear

day
^ja

'sfrt

761, (ssu) directing


348, spirit

BK/jao'

he cries
(^^r)

cKV
i

HB ^rA 719,
Jf&yt
1

and

D yueh
qAl
tf-J*

1130,

is

called

1092, sobs
719, [yet] not 731,

EJ fJiiang

366, strength.

/f\ ,/w

zes&A, 1065, (zuu)

Things

JjW sAa'
o

becomes hoarse.

chzva?ig' 114, fully


967,

grown

jH] ^'254, His harmony 1 Vj chi 53 ('**) t is shown


J2,
>

&&L {siang
'

77

'

in 3

jfe

(chiang) are about 7ao 508, to decay.


ze/#' 1054,

'35 ^f
*ftt.

60, perfection,

gS
"^

We
it

call

^'

1079, (>Wz) indeed.

chi 53, (tew)


717.

xj\ .&*
11.

un "

jjj ta&

867, reason.

^*Q

fihi 53,
2 54'

(^z%)

To know
i

?h1 ^

^e

7fC >&* 7*7> Un-

narmon QUS
ill
^

ao ^7' reason
'

Elyue/it

1 1 30,

is

called

S
f-3

feao 953, soon


278, ceases.

yM? cha?ig

740, eternal.

%\\ fte
*!3*

53. (cAafc)

To know

chang
1

740, the eternal


130,
is

Fl >'^^
|3j3

called

jning

599, enlightened.

'Chapter 55

234
ti
x

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.
iuV

879,

302, sharpness.

2fT *wu 1060,

'chid 359,

He

unravels

1->

shik, 768,
562,
22,

Chapter

56.

fc

,c^V 342, his

N luh

jot
o

../^

!29, C/V) tangles.

fhang

7f\\ Jio 254,

He dims

^
^8&

JdL
Jiiien 231,

cJCi 342, his

The profound
jfc
|PJ

^, 871,
.dfe"

virtue.
1.

fewang

478, brilliancy.

fung

933,

He

identifies

Art -*"
pjSf'

53, 38,

VA/

[Who] (^2%) knows, the one


not

jg^ ,^AV

342, himself
(ch'eri)

^
"Ef*

,^717,
>^ a
t

^^
gB

BE

ch'an 22,

with the

dust.

~ff? shi' 762, (ss2^) This

1083, speaks. 1083,

zt^V 1054,
231,

is

called
(hsiien)

"=* yen

[Who] speaks

">&* ^z/^w

pro-

che 38, the one

found

ml fung 933,

identification.

Jj\ .i* w 7 1 ?! not


4t|t
t

in.

cki 53, (chih) knows.


(s)

jw &w' 434,
/4\
t

Therefore

i|fe

s^ 728,
(

He

shuts

717, not
425, he
(te)

Jj c7
'fcr /wz
o
'

342, his

PJ fio
<Y=f
Trtl
k

can
be obtained

925, mouth,

teh 872,

Kw
*tt*

^/' 676, [and] closes

VA

719, {err)

and
be loved

,cAV 342, his


576,

3SJ /sYw 991,


o
1

(ch'in)

pH man
**

(^^w) [sense-]
gates.

/Jfiy*

I0 93,

and

^C
11.

,^ 717, not

jt^p

2^0' 1004,

He

blunts

can he "P| fCo 425,

^ZfV 342, his

yfS
(Chapter
56.)

te#, 872, (ti)

be obtained

TRANSLITERATION.
\rh
719, {err)

235

flfrj

and

jEjT &w' 434, Therefore

ffrfe ,5/^w

775, be discarded.
717,

jS jjuU 1047,
^A'^897.

it

becomes
)

]/T\

^u

Not
can he be obtained

pf
/JM.
ffil

,'0 425,

j> Aia' 183, (hsia)

the world's

^
\rh

872, (te)

I"

kweV

484, honor.

719, (^rr)

and
#' 879,
f

^|J IV y/K yr*

521, interested in profit

1093,

and

^f

zf u 1060,

/|> ./ 7i7 not


(

4* sA^, 768,

Chapter 57

"pT

o 425, can he
872, (^)

J^ ^sYA, 987,
chang
^ggL

B
BR
j=F

tafc,

be obtained

22,

\rh

719, (^rr)
161,

and
j|^

shun

783, Simplicity
155, in habit

haV
t

be injured

,/^

^r\ $u 717. Not

Pf

k'o 425, can he


(*)

J^',-278,

With
(cheng) right-

<*|L teh 872,


t

be obtained

"^ eousness75, [rectitude, justice]


9j?> cA/
1

Tp

chang'

mj
"fa*

'r# 719,

(^rr)

and

lH

59i (chzh) is

adminis

tered
x

B3
o

>^z^o 491, the empire.

kzveV 484, be honored,


y*' 1093,

IM V 278, With
//h
>^S
and

^u
f

c&V

344, craftiness
1

717, not

E3 yung'
*fjT ,^
425,

149, is directed

can he
(te)

$ing

698, the

army.

jfli feA, 872,


rfit

be obtained

JI V 278, With
zvu 1059, non-

\rh

719, (err)

and
be hu
(Chapters

AszWe' 979,

(chieri)

miliated.

g5^''
56-57.)

764, (ssu)

diplomacy

236
Bj

LAO-TZE
010 (chu)
taken

TAO-TEH-KING.
^IJ IV
521, sharp

'ts'ii 1

is

5/&*897.
-|T/im'i83, i&sza)

the

cJCV 349, weapons,


A

em P ire

^z^o 491,
the state

- zvu
^pT ho
J^

1060, I
215,

ne

chia 351,
jksz*

what-

1029,

(tew) the
is

more and more

278,

by

Jizvun 267,

confused.

T*n

1^** 53. (chih)

know

II

Jan
,fo

286, C/ew)

The people

JBl ,kV

342, its 285, being such,


?
'

Jan
~nV.

4j vT ;ro
o

909,

the

more [they
are]

VAV

347, artful

fsai 940, indeed


It is [by]

T7? chHao

374, [and] cunning,

o
j^/ V 278,
,M'-

2S

cKi

344,

abnormal

Irr

,z

s\2''

1034, (tzu) this [reason].

2x>#^ 1065, (zvu) things


fsz* 1029, (tzu) the
<clii

more and more

5g/*>8 9 7,

347, occur.

Inthe
world

TT^Vi8
4?
_

3i

(iMs)

;g ,/a
*tj*

123,

-Laws

/o 909, the more


[there are]
340, restrictions

#' 546, [and] orders


tsz
%

Si chV
**^o
rTft

1029,

(tew) the

more and more

^^hzvui'

266, [and] prohibitions


(^rr) yet

|8

chang

23, [are]

made
manifest,

o
tad* 868, robbers
te<?7

\rh 719,

51
1

rnin 597, the people


7we 589, increasingly

957, [and] thieves

&+

to 909, the
1 1 13,

more

[the more]

*^y ^'iw

697,
597,

become

poor.

5fc? jfM

appear.
in.

E3

min
fio

The people
the

-fc/I

&w' 434, Therefore

909,

more [they
have]
(Chapter

jftj
57.)

skang' 773,

(sheng)

the

TRANSLITERATION.
^A Jan

237

286, (Jen)

man
:

ivu 1059, not having

^J o

yun

1142, says

jy^*

H39i

desires,

'

;f& w^-o 627,


$ifl* ,z*/w

I [practise]

lifrj

r^

719, (err)

and

1059, not

13

#M73 597, the people

IS
rrtl

^/z
'

1047, doing,
719, (err)

|zj fes"

103 1,

(tzu) of

them

selves

r#

and

JKJ%

ifu

710, are simple.

Jji

wm 597,
1 03 1,

the people
(tew)

H to"
qJ^

of

them-

selves

#' 879,
"fc 'z^w 1060

Az^a' 240, reform.

^
rfrj

'^0

627,

-J171, love

shih, 768,
647,

Chapter 58

JMp *^ao
\

j\tah

tsing*
'

994,

(ching) quietude

^
*ti>

cha?ig 22,

rA

719, (err)

and
jlp s^wrc' 784, Adaptation

12

^m 597,
to"
103 1,
1

the people

fo^a' 240, to change.


1

"

ffi

(^w) of themselves
1.

^q
^fffc

iU chang

75, (cheng) are righteous.

*H*.

,c^V 342,

[When]

one's

^S^ngo

627, I [practise]

jBj chang' 76, (cheng) admin-

.z^w 1059, not-doing

npf
fty]

istration

waw

577,

(men)

is

unos-

tentatious,

.g^Af
o

764, (ssw) business,

|$3 man'

577, (w^w) [quite] un-

-P

HE* \r^ 719, (err) and

^1 ,e^V 342,
j3j ^zw
\

ostentatious one's

13

rnin 597, the people


1031,
(te)

597, people
783, are simple,

n to"
y

of themselves

cKun

fu 148, become rich. o


jffe 'ngo 627, I [practise]

ch'un 783, [quite] simple.


.g&V 342,

Tjfc

[When]

one's

(Chapters 57-58.)

238
chang*
t

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
admin-

76, (cheng)

5BE jvu
x

1059, not
(chth)

istration

ck'a

9, is

prying

[p^ chi 56,

j$ A
j|l
t

^a
f

ceases [is stopped]

9,

[quite] prying,

11.

ch't 342, one's

Tp

ckdng*
I 5 1,

75,

(cheng)

The

normal

pR w^ 597,
t
t

people
are needy,

T& */"w
x

n turn

ch'iie 448,

zf^V 1047,

becomes

{t^J fiJCUi 448, [quite] needy.


jJfjS

2=

MV 344,

abnormal.

^zce' 256, Misery


Ai?

shan' 752,
L

The good

*^&
jjjj

179, (hsi ) alas


x 5o
>

fu

151, in turn

</*
,fo"

IS
happiness's
)

tt/*Y

1047,

becomes

Jy*

53, {tzu)

THr yao
(

ajr su* 817, (shuo) place

^ Jon
^7^ x wz

1074, unlucky [unpropitious]


286, {Jen) f

Tfae

^53.<W)
279,
it

iPe Ple,s
!

supports.
589, confusion
It [is so]

/*w 150,

Happiness
!

jtf ,c^V 342,

<y ^z
|J

179, (&sz) alas

J
^z^o' 256,
)

jVA, 293, daily

misery

(pi w' 435, assuredly

i\

>

chi 53.

(^)

At

*chiu 413, since long.


in.

Hfr sw' 817, (shuo) place


17\*

,/k

^o
Jp sAw A

152,

it

conceals [rests on].

7f 5^2 762, (SS#)


'

780,

Who

Therefore

A0

'^*

5^'

^n

fit* 278,
c

knows
jffi[

shang
4

773,

,#2342,

its

A
(Chapter
58.)

(sheng) holy

the

/aw

286, (./Vw)

man

chi 393, limits?

yj <fang

132, is square

,^V

342, It

mm V^

719, (^rr) yet

TRANSLITERATION.
,/* 717. not
fi 4 2 ^
gjjt

239
764,
(5522)

7f>
Tfl]

^^

s^"

ne injures.

-fr*

[and] in attending ,/Yih 897, to heaven,


'

o
EjjS lien 534,

[He

is]

angular

JQ mo'
pr
5
4

603, nothing

rm

r^

719, (^rr) yet

'b# 296,
5^/2'

(/<?)

surpasses

/p

,^w 7 X 7. no*

728,
I42,

(5<?)

moderation.

gftj kzuei' 485, he hurts.

^j*
Tti

,_/*22

NOW

ftf dfo%,

70,

[He

is]

upright

^^ I0 5 2
5^/2'

consider only

ml

\rh 719,
4

(*?rr)

yet

3g

728, (s)

moderation
This

^\

/w
%

717, not
strict.

shV

762, (5522)
is

S*
ml

sz 837, (ssw)
478,

gS
bright

/#' 1054,

called

tPj fizvang
\r^

[He

is]

JSj, Vsac? 953, early

719, (*?rr) yet


JEj||

*/*

152, habit.

^\

,^w 717, not

jil
/3l?

7sac> 953, Early

yad

1078, shining.

Ju

x 52

'

acquisi^ 011
is

zfeV 1054,

called

^
~ff
4-

879.
1060,

'wu

shih 768,
t

Chapter

59.

jpf chung* 108, (tsung) heaping ^jff 2*5272, 986, (^/22 ) [and] ac-

^
|"pl

cumulating

jf^

'&* 413,

fiH teh 871,


t

(te) virtue.

fhang
-sj-

22,

chung'
2*5272,

108, (tsung)

By

heaping
'sheu 755,

To keep
fig
1.

986,
871,

(c/22')

[and] ac-

^
*.

tao' 867, reason.


tafc,
(2^')

cumulating
virtue

yfJ+chi' 59,

(^2/2)

In governing

J[|]

te*# 956,
4

(2\s)

then

A Jan

286, (yVw) the people,


(Chapters

4& ^22
58-59.)

1059, nothing

240
T> u 7*7> not
1

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

ii>

JLJ
jjj^

278, thereby
27,

OjT

Ud

430,

can be overcome.

cKaug

be lasting

fojchiu

413, [and] enduring

jgfshi' 762, (ssw) This

9HE jvu 1059, [When] nothing


is

^ gpf z^<?V
sxt 4J* ,^aw

1054,

is

called

^>
/u

il> u 7i7 not

,sAaw 736,
k'o>

(shen)

having

Em.

430,

can be overcome,
(tse)

deep
317, (ken) roots

g
te<^ 956,
then

J}j[
.jEpt^

^'
2fz*'

435.

[and] a staunch

mo' 603^ no one


881, stem.

4*11

,^z
x

53, (chih)

knows
fJCang
ff^ shang
t

chH

342, his

[This long 743, (sheng)


27,

is]

of

life

chi 393, limit.

^\^
"fey

&2tt 413,

[and] lasting

mo' 603, [When] no one


JJPjsyfo'' 763, (ssw) insight
'

4*n <^ 2
"fT
4

53*

(^^) knows

*C
393, limit,

^7"

53.

(^w) [sign of gen.]

<;^V 342, his

fljp^ao' 867, the zfay.

fhi

- o

Pj

fi'o 425,

one can

#' 879,
t

V J)^

278, thereby

5?^ luh 562,


1

/Ej* 'yiu 1

13, possess

Chapter 60
4-* sAz>^ 708,

Effil

,tfo 491, tbe state.

j3 fihang
Jfc? jyzw 1 1 13.
f

22,

[Who]

possesses
^5" ^^ 437.

&zt>0 491,

To

maintain

the state's

J\*t

iveV 1053, one's position


1.

Jy* ,^2 53. (***)

J3?
*

w
&
r

605,

mother

*hk cAi ~fC

'

59, (chih)

Govern

is
4

JjT

moderation], 425, he can


[viz. r

ta' 839,

a great

(Chapters

59-60.)

TRANSLITERATION.
f|3 ftwo 491, state
o
71

241
286, (jen) the people.

jaw

o
i

r4^fj'oh 296, (je) as


"k^T

^fe

/&' 136,

Not only

i
wfe

J>'ang 660, (i>eng) one


fries

jj". ,tAV 342, its

/K 'ssao 795,
,-szVw

(hsiao) small
(listen) fish.

jjjjj]

,5/^aw 737, (shen)

gods

800

^N

,^ w 7 X 7. not

'fjt sha?ig 739,


t

harm

71

^aw

286, (jen) the people

JJ V 278,

[If]

With

BEJ shang'

773, (sheng) [but]

i^tao'
jRt

867, reason

the holy

A
jn\\
)

jaw

286, (./ew)

man

'

522, one governs

yV
,i* M

1093, also
7*7. not
739,

5^ /& 897.
-|CMr'
o
183,

the

(^a)f
its

em Pire

*T^

t|L shang
K

harms

*H* ,c^V 342,

71

jaw

286, (./Vw) the people


142, Since

rf| 'kzuei 482, ghosts

o ~fc '/#
prtn

^J^7i7.
jjjth
.s/zara

not

'Hang

526,

both of them

737, (shen) spook.

3b </^' I 3^> ^ ot on ty

^\
/fcB
1

i^ 7 J 7 not
k

^^'737.
f| 'kzuei

its

siang

790,

(hsiang)
tually

mu

jffi

shang

739,

harm

$2, ghosts
not

jw &&'

35*

434, therefore

Jfijuyiy,
ffjrtj x

feA, 871 (te) virtue

s^a 737, spook.


<chiao 367, unitedly
hivei^ 480, returns
its

o
"H" ,^'342, [but]

{|S
jftfh

^M 737,

{shen) gods

tH: ,V#

1082, thereto.

^,^717,
#I|L

not

^shang

739,

harm
(Chapter
60.)

242
ti 879,

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

fg

tsing'

994,

(ching)

quie-

*^*^ lzih 562,


)

4-* shz'h 708,


i

Chapter

61.

tude .shang 771, (sheng) conquers Er w 588, the male,


!

+ yz'h
_

1095,
12.,

VA V 278,
jjIB tsing*

[and] by
994,

chang

**

(ching) tude

quie[her-

Hfj{ ,

zVw 389, Humility's

m
jB|

zt><?7 1

047, she

makes
self]

|^

teh, 871, virtue.

K*#tt&' 183, (hsz'a) lowly,

o
1.

jW w'

434, thus

-4^ tc 839,
fii#|

great

/\^ta* 839, a great


kzvo 491,
state,
pjxj

^z^o

491, state

^^ V/z/ 38,
h%

one that

hid
x

183, (hsia)

downwards

J/J

V 278, by
183, (hsia) stooping

K Aza'
/p Wao
pjjq

5^ o

549. flows, 795, (hsiao) to small

HJF /Tea 897,


K' ^za' 183, (hsz'a)

[be-

comes
the empire's

^z^o
~

491, states,

^
%*
4r

^IJ
fljf

z\s<^ 956, (tse)


f

{hi

53.

(^)
union

on that ac count
conquers
the

zV#

1 010,

(#'#)

<c7iiao 367,

f\% 'siao
/Y*?# 897,

795,

(hsiao)

*TRT A/a' 183, (hsz'a)

[and] the empire's

^^
Igfl

smaller

1^0 491,

states.

/[> 'szao 795, (hsiao) Smaller


III
^zi/o 491, states

~/\ <chi 53, (?)


jfel/
r

^>Y 697, wife [female]


11,

JJ V 278, by
{fel/

'fin 697,

The female
always

~TC hia'

183, (hsia) stooping to

p* chang
V
278,

740,

*^Cta' 839, great


fi|3

]M

by
(Chapter

^zfc? 491, states,

61.;

TRANSLITERATION.
H|| tseh> 956, ** J
Jfj7 'tsHl

243

on that account 1010, (c>^'#) conquer


(tsi)

pg] ,^^0 491, states

sfi
jjpj

il>

u 7 x 7i n ot

^
[gjfl

to 839, great

z^o' 490,
1 1 39-

more
wish
to enter

^wo

491, states.

$\ytf

/\^ju' 299, [than]


in.

JW &w'
H

434, Therefore

3K sAz
J\^

'

j^A hwo>

1065,

some

Jan
{

[and] to serve 286, (y^) the people


764,

(ssu)

foa' 183, (hsia) stoop


to

y^ fu

142,

Now

fit V 378.

pfe 'Hang 526, both


(^//) conquer,

HV
o

's'#

1 010,

5|j V^e 38, ones,

~bJ7 Azco' 1065, others

<?" 426,

each one
in its

way

K*

Ai'a' 183,

(hsia) stoop

&=Lteh
3jl
/*/]*

872, (te) gain

mj

'/7* 719, (^rr)

and

,<:Y 342,

they

Jfj7 7s'#

1010,

(&#) conquer.

su' 817, (shuo) that


jy# 1139,

which

*g\
IV.

they wish.

y^ tcC
^C
Jjpj

839, Great

/^
^Q

td

839, [But] the greater

V^ 38,
t

one

Qgj A zt/0 491, states


K

jbu 717, not

_H J 2 73>
j|=^
tt//z
t

properly must

1047,

make

itself

&z^0' 490,

more
wish
[than] to unite

yW

h
1

^za' 183, {hsia) lower.

139,

<chien 382,

*V 98,
^^ ^aw
/!>

(s#) [and] feed

286, (/e) the people.

'sz'ao 795,

(hsiao) Small
(Chapter
62.)

244
fgtf'879.
j"?
lu/i 562,
t

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

Jfe 'met

586, [With] beautiful


1083,

"+ shih, 708,


"*

Chapter

62.

"pET

,^w
r

words

*rh

721,
22,

pjT k'o 425,

[things] one can

t=?_

fhang

VA V278, thereby
|ij
s>fo''

762, (ssu)

sell.

o
4=fe
*|4*
A

ze/ 1047, Practise

1=|r

fsun

1019,

[With] noble

too' 867, reason.

*^y Jting

207, (kszng) deeds

Pj & o
f f

425,

one can

jH too'
PS*

867,

The

rational

JLi % 278, thereby


7J[J

V/z/ 38,

man

[is]

,cAa 350, accomplish

more

JS

zt^w'

1040,

the ten thou-

with

sand

yV

Jan

286,

(/.era)

the people.

!^1 tv uh 1065,
t

(zf w) things

in.

^
Jp|L

<chi 53, (e) their

A
"/?

j'an 286,

(7'^w)

A man

ngac? 6254 asylum,


752, the

{hi

53. {fzu) [for] his

5|p ^aw'

good

/T\ ^ w 7*7. n ot"

yl Jan

286. (/^w)

man

Si: 5/w'

752, goodness

tC^ fhi 53
f

(^)

their

ipj ,#0 215,


^fe?

why
thrown away
he

fif ^ao 663, treasure,


" ^T^ i$ u 7*7 tne not
>

tAV
,tA/

349,

^/^

53, (?)

^fe shart
/I
t

752,

good

5pf

'j/2M 1 1 13,

IS?

/aw

286, (jen)

jw
man s

' 434, Therefore

^
Bfr

{hi
52/'

53> (tzu)

~ffji' 538, was elected

817, (skuo) that

which

J?fien

897, heaven's

-fH, j^ao 664,

he holds

fast to.

& tsz'
62.)

1030, (tzu) son

(Chapter

TRANSLITERATION.
H| M=*
"ZlT
(^/h'A)

245
867, reason,
is

>fo'

60,

[and] were

tad

appointed
,saw 723, three
459, ministers.
IV.

*chi 38, that

>^V fiung

$5[ Jio
Hj.
'ye'

215,

What,
?

1079, indeed
it

Sffc ,si 826,


g

Though
having
reverently in

o
</f\

.fu 717, Is
11

not

/g ^w
1

1 1 13,

gfc

-taV

463,

J^

^ ^^
PI
JkU
,. *

P| jyw^

30,
.

say that
f

sought

BtSfirf* 691, as a screen [the jade insignia]

0.1. 278, then

278, [and] thereto

^.^

799, (Asien^ riding

^^^^ ^ ,^ ^
EF5
=J| tsuz
.,

fa

obtained?

[An(J]
.

he who

ss" 836, (ssw) four

Ew
o

1016,

sm

571, horses,
7
1 ?.

Jj^ V

278, thereby
?

^N

,/ w

[is

^] n t

yQ
fl-|5

'mien 594, can be saved


^ye zoyS, (yeh) [query.]

'An t/ 8

2 97 e Q ua U e d

Ap
jpj

tso' 1002,

by

sitting still

|jj z/ 434,

Therefore
it

tsiri 990, (chin) [and] pro-

pounding
fH* fs'z 1034, (ss) this
1

J=fo

met

1047,

becomes
)

3^/7^897.

the

Jm"

tao' 867, reason ?

~
j|g*

hza'iS 3 (/ma)f
,

world

'

kwiV

484, honor.

*k u

43 2

>

The

ancient
{

,2, fh*

53> (te#) their


I

ti 879,

#f su' 8i 7,(sAuo)

reason
wfa y

^v

S\ fo#,

562,

27 8,

J-* 5/2/^ 708,

Chapter

63.

-jf^ze^V
jH* /sV

484, they

esteemed

,5aw 723,

1034, (Z'^w) this

c7iang

22,

(Chapters 62-63.)

246
'

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
sz ^ 34 Consider

J@*
jjfa

yt {Ki 342,
%

it

'ski 761, the beginning.

Jj
o

&'

281, is easy.

1&
ivei 1047,
I

zt/ 1047,
%

Manage

Do

zvu 1059, the not-

j^ ta 839, a great thing p ^w iii8, while


t

fS* zvei 1047, doing.

-a

^gl
764, (55 w) Practice

,cAV 342,

it

S^/^'

ffl^''
o

790, (#sz)

is

small.

4fit x zfw 1059, the not-

5^ / 897.
-jrtttf
||8;

SsA/'

The

764, (ss) practising

183.

wrid
(***o
i

'

Jhjf z^/z' 1053,


,zt/w

Taste

^aw
'

614, difficult
764, (ss#) affairs

1059, the not.-pl s/^*

weV

1053, tasting.

J^^/'

692, surely

jC tcC
%

839,

Make

great
Tpzfstf' 1005, arise

/\\ siao

795, (hsiao) the small

T^
jpj
o

yil 11 18,

from

^p> /o 909, render many

/' 281,

easiness.

sb.'shao

746, [and] the few.

^fzenSgy,

The
WOrld
'

y
ac> 665,

hza* 1S3, (hsta)

Respond
"ft*"' 8 39 S reat
hatred

lhyueri

1 1

38, to

HE sfo'

'

764, (ssii) affairs

JJf V

278, with
(/)

jfi&^g-' 692, surely

fls&teh 871,

virtue.

Trfeteo' 1005, originate


in.

-^p jw
,

11

18

from

|||l

fu

918,

Contemplate

'

790, (As/) smallness.

Sft A aw

614, a difficulty

^p ,j#

iii8, while
(Chapter
63.;

TRANSLITERATION.

247

IV.

tian 614, will be difficult

shi 762 (ssu)


'

Therefore

shV
fit

762, (ssu)

7278,

Therefore

V 278.
773,

^
/I

1[P shang'
A

773,

(cheng) holy

the

3B? shang'
/I
A

/aw

286, (jen)

man
end

(sheng) holy

the

/a# 286, (/)

man

chung

106, {t sting) to the

55|

yiu

1 1 12,

even

>?\

,j^w 717,

not
plays

Wfejian

614, [deems] difficult


[e]
it.

Eg

,zf^V 1047,

,/*/ 53,

JT jw
Bg
Jj

tcC 839, the great.

o 4^r &w'

434,

Therefore
106, (tsung) to the

&&' 434, Therefore

chung
he can

>MV

616,
77.

(mv)

^^
j^
1

end
1059> he has not
difficulties

,*&*

(efcjj^accom-

^ ^^
879,
562,
4

Jal fihH
~fc

342, his

tcC 839, greatness.

^& fu
x

142,

Now,

as

7^ /^
4"*

IgK Sg:
<{^
;

fitting 407, rash


ttc^, 640, (o)

S/fo'A,

708

Chapter 64

promises

^"836.
fhang
22,

$ili> 692,
f

surely

fli

zt>a 467, are lacking

t+* 'sheu 755,


sin' 807, (hsin) faith,
81=1

Mind
tne insignificant

o
/# 909,
[so

1l$i

2
i.

^^

JOS

for whom] many things


<chH 342,

281, are easy,


y

That [which]

l\/\i 692, surely

zjj*
t

H*
J=L

x/

ngan

620,

is at

rest

,/o

909,

many

things

*'

281, easily

(Chapters 63-64.)

248
i^fe ck't 64, (chih)

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

is

kept quiet.

*fT

,^V

342,

That [which]

growth which] with both arms J&t ^ao' 665, can be embraced
217, [Of a

,A* ho
^

5JJ

zt'^V 1052, not yet

^
yit*

,#*'

53, (tzu) sign of gen.

iCj ^Aao' 34, has appeared


J|rf 2' 281, easily

mu' 607, a
t

tree

Az shdng 742,
^p
,j># 1118,

(sheng) grows

IpJL 'w^w

is prevented. -iT, ,cV 342, That [which]

^o

587,

(mou)

from

jjC ,^ao

171, a tiny

ts'ui' 1 01 8, is feeble
**'

ji^ wo'
o

604, rootlet.

281, easily
1

4f

'chiu 413,

Of nine

fid 705,

is

broken.

IS fs'ang
*J*

952, (tseng) stories


(te#) [sign of gen.]

fJCi 342, That [which]


7juei x

M**53

1050, is scanty

gl^ /'a/

847, a tower

fjl

281, easily
scattered.

:m
-3p

V^'z 347, rises


yil 1 1 18,

=||fe

'saw 724,

is

from

o
4| zvei 1047, Treat
!>* *

ES 7^511,
[viz.,

accumulating

^ 2
%

'

53

(tzu)

them,

things]
yil 11
1 8,

JJ8
Jv*

-I- V

w 920, clay- [bricks]


[literally earth].

ZE*

while

^t

JtsHen 980, {chieri)


7&"

Of ten

thousand

^^ zi/^V Jfe* ^
\j^chV

1052, not yet


1 1 13,

518, miles
53i (te) [sign of gen.]

they

exist.

i^fe"

59,

(cZtfVfc)

Administer

^ ^^
x

207, (hsing) a jour-

^-chz

53,

(e)

them

[viz.,

ney shi 761, (ssw) begins


1 1 18,

things]

^t

,jy# 1 1 18,

while

31 ,jyw
JP3

with

Hh zi^V 1052, not yet

/sw

1014, a foot
183, (A^iof) beneath.

Iwart 570, they are in disorder.


(Chapter

""Kf
64.)

W'

TRANSLITERATION.
chang
740, [are]

249
always

*ES

iS
5|

iv ei 1047,
'die 38, the

[Who] makes,
one

^P

,^fl 1 1 18, at

$k& fhi
fty
;

333, the
77,

approach

HViW'
t

648,

mars
it.

ch'ang

(cheng) of completion,

">* chi 53, (tew)

^S

ffft.'.r/^ 719, (e?rr)

yet

X$L

chih^ 67,

[Who]
one

seizes of

WT^aV
~/f

648, they fail


53. (tew) in
it.

5| V^e

38, the

{hi

%^

5^2^, 769, loses


,/fo'

s^a' YlE *^
K

^^
o
syj-

738, (sheri) Be careful


106, (tsung) to the

53, (te)

it.

*^. chung

shang'
x<

773,

(sheng) holy

The
mJI
"frg

end

-^
f

2 97 as

we^

as

/aw

286, (ye w)

man
s>fo'

761- (ssu) at the begin-

fflE ,tf 1059, not

o
H|J
tee/*,

ning
956, (s) then

^Sj A /*V 1047, makes, o


nflT'^w' 434, therefore
affia

4ff

^'^

1059, [they] not

$#az'
'

648, fail
in business

ivu 1059, not

j|% sAz 764, (s^w)

Bfr^az' o

648, he mars.

in.

4ll 6^'w 1059,


^few. cfo'/^ 67,

Not
seizes,

sM

762, (ssu)
>

Therefore

he

Jg|V278.

o
jfcjr

ku

434, therefore

31 slicing' ^^
VI

773,

(sheng) the holy

SHE

ww
i

1059, not
769, he loses.

^aw

286, (y^w)

man

*h^ shih
o
E3
i

>#' 1 37, 1

desires

wm 597,

The people

/7n xtu 7 lfl> non "


Sfr )'' 1137, desires.

*J^ ,^2 53, (te) in their


-f#5

tsung' 1024, pursuing


764, (ss) business,

^\
Jl>
64.)

,^ 7 X 7. Not
kzuei' 484, he esteems

2ps>foM

|-

(Chapter

250
mft jian 614,

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

[of] difficult

#'

879,
562,

:
Jy*

teh> 872, (te)

obtainment

-^luh>
-r*

hi

53 (tzu) sign of gen.

s/fo'/j,

708,

Chapter 65

jp
Jo

7*zf 0' 256,

the treasures.

"ff

z^& 1060,

*y? hHao

209,

(hsiao) learns

He

chang

22,

>q\ ,/w 717, not*=

S ftiao
jfa

jp*

shun

783, Simplicity
virtue.
1.

209, (hsiao) learnedness.

fill

^, 871,

151,

He

returns to

F
^A

chung'

108, all

^^432,
people's

Inolden
times
'

7*aw 286, (jeri)


53. ifzu)

^
S
o

^
,

53,

(**)

<^'

shan' 752, Well

pjf su'

817, (shuo)

what they

'

weV

1047,

who

practised

^zco' 490, passed by,

'

tad* 867, reason,


*che 38, the ones,

VA H 278,

thereby

fu 146, he assists

3fc fei
t

136, did not

z^w'
flwj

1040,

the ten

thou-

\^ V 278,
PD ming

thereby
599, enlighten

sand

Z67^

1065, (z/w) things

^?* {hi 53i (te#) [in] their

Ri

,# 597, the people,

H
ffrj

^52-" 1 03 1,

(^w)
self

>
)

/a?2 285, so

natural development,

fsiang 967, (chtang) [but]


will

JLI V 278, thereby


|ff|

V^ 719,
,_^w 717,

(*?rr)

but

**
not
"J*

yil 1 120,

make

simplehearted

J?\

,^/

53, (tew)

them.

kan

n.
t

312,

he dares

EL ram
x

597,

The people

ivei 1047, to make.

"J* ,#/ 53, (tzu) in their


(Chapters 64-65.)

TRANSLITERATION.
a
614, being difficult
59, [chili) to

251

5|
/j\\
;

*che 38, things

^g c#2
c

'

govern

yi 1093, [he
'

is]

also [like

the ancients]
[that is] because
*ch ie 362, (chieh) a pattern
x

VA V 278,

Tf

,<:AV 342,

they
(&^)

gpJ* shih> 767, [and] a model.

S&} chV

58,

cleverness

\Eir

fhang

740,

Always

/o g .0

909, [have too]

much.

'_""

7*n ,^"

53 (chih) to

know

J^ 7278,
chV
chV

With
(chih) cleverness

j^'cJiie 362, (&&&) the pat-

58,

_i^ JfC ^&%,


o

tern
767, [and] the
762, (ss) this

mode

#j|j

59, {chih) to

govern

JB^shi'

|p%{

^z^c> 491, a country


)

=B
^ZT
.

zf/e/'

1054,

is

called

]j^fiwo A9 z,

Aafe# 231, (hsilen) pro-

Y
|H& &,
o

53,

(^ f
(zfs)

isthe country' s

found
(Ve)

tistteh, 871,

virtue.

in.

959.

curse.

y^
t

hiien 231, (Jisuen) Pro-

A\ u

717,

Not

^ *g

found
fe#, 871,

(^) virtue

VA V 278,
3gr chi"

with

S^P
(chih)

.s/zaw 736, (shen) is

deep

58,

cleverness

^K
o

V
!>'

279, indeed.

Vg
B|

chV

59, (chih) to

govern

^
&zfo 491, a country
,*/<> 491,
1
.

tctI

w ^ w IX 37 [^
279, indeed.

1S ] f ar "

reaching
'i

Jy^

g
o
4n

sthe
'

j3tL .y# 1125, [it


S

is]

to

2^*f53. (^)f

C0Untry

zvuh> 1063, (ivu) [common] things


Ft*

jjj|x/w 150. blessing.

yaw

126, the reverse,

hi
ts'z*

53. (chih)

Who

knows

j* V 279, indeed.

lU*
frkj

1034, (tea) these


526,

Tk
3?
(Chapter
65.)

'not 612,
1

Thus

Hang

two

cfe"

6o, (c/A) [it] obtains

252
JTT:
_JL*

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

yu in8,
%

to

?j|fe

shan' 752, can


#za' 183, (hsia) lower

ta 839, great
shun'' 784, obedience [fol-

""r^

[i[5

lowership]

-J^

,^z

53, (tzu) themselves.

o
jfe^

ku

434, Therefore

^*l2

Jiang 616, (neng) they can


zt>/z
t

JS #'
T*

879,

<3>

1047,

become

>v /w^

562,

"pj $ai 707, of the hundred


x

shiht 708,
562,

]>

Chapter

66.

>'ku
>^ /w^
E3r <chang 22,

453, valleys

Hp jvang

1043, the kings.


11.

^
yT
Vg

y^w' 175,

To

~& shi
put behind

'

762 (ssw)
>-

tl ^'

337 oneself.
1.

^
"

Therefore

'*

278,

SP s7iang'
II

773,

(sheng) holy

the

(Chiang 362, Rivers


'^#z 160, [and] seas

^aw

286, (yVw)

man

{Sfcyu' H37i wishing


I*

G/r sw* 817, (shuo)

the

'shang 741,
x

to

be above

reason

Jj

V 278,

why

E3L

?rczVz

597, the people,

{? Jiang 616, (neng) they can


I

o jj/^z' 692, surely


JJ

ze/tfV

1047,

become
hundred
1EEC

V
L

278, in
his

"3T

^W 707,

of the

yen 1083,
%

words
keeps below

22i 'ku

453, valleys'

TC ha
J/^ i<^* o

i%-$,(hsza)
53. (tzu)

.^T jjuang 1043, the kings,

them.

^
lA

VA<? 38, that [is]


x

jSfrjV^' 1 1 37,

Wishing

o
i 278, because

y^ ^sien

799, (hsieri) to feed 597, the people,

'JA+ffti 342, they

f&min
(Chapters 65-66.)

TRANSLITERATION.
i

253

$V

692, surely

JRlften Bgy

fche

with J| V 278,

""jTyfoV 183, (Asms)


||/<?' 554, rejoices

WOr
)

&

s/ianj35,(sken) his person


175,

^
j

A**"

(Aow) keeps be-

^
shV

53,

hind (tzu) them.

$/*

926, in exalting [him]

flTl

>

7'

7I9 {err) and


'

/tf\ ,_^w 717, not

yen' 1089,
762, (ss)
)

tires.

VTherefore

VA V 278,
,Fl a ,c^
z

Because
he

5]E?
Jl

skang*

773,

(she?ig)

the

"^

342,

hly

>^> ,^w

717, not
29,

Jaw
f

286, (/<?)
94, dwells

man

5J
n*|

chang

(tseng) quarrels
'

cKu

4.2

jW &z*'

434, therefore 897,


/

r
|]jj

'shang
'

741, above,

5.fien
r^ A
719, (er?-) yet

in the

fil

wm 597,

the people

0Lmo'

603,

none

yf> ,/w

717, not
108,

flfanang
(^w^)
dwells
feel

616, {neng) can


.

*J&chungr'

*%

the burden.

JjH

*'*

94.

He

iH/sfeu

981,

^^

as

er

ria^ ^ ^^ ^ ,^a^
53

with II2 5' wltn > w TT2t

(&aj him
29,

(^^) quarrel

Bn
fi^

'

A r^

719, (^rr) yet

razVz 597,

the people
-*^

^ 879,
/w^
562,

/J\ ,/w
^az
'

717, not
161, suffer

harm

1- s/w/z,
J-*
f i

708,

Chapter 67

S^Z 762, (SS#)


[

ts ih 987,
22,

Therefore
:

J^Jt'2 278;

^ fhang

(Chapters

66-67.)

254

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

rri ,san 723, Three


Bj?
t

si* 790, (hsi) mediocrity

ao

663, treasures.

* ju
-

142,

Now,

y? fien 897,
t

I
j"

In the

^o
sa

627, I
1 1 13,

"TT^'a' 183, (hsia)

world
ytrjf

y/
(

havft

*&
k

chie 358, [&&&} all

my

723, three

^Szuei'
Sffe'^o

1054. call
627,

$ao
[viz.,

663, treasures.
64, (chih) I

me

2j J^ta' 839,

Ta ]
great,
re-

chH

preserve

hn
I

'

r^

719, (^rr)

and

[sz" 837, (ssw) [but]


<A^y j?u 717, the
x

semble
un-

jP ^ao
jy
o
x

663, treasure

chi 53, (tew) them.


%

5zao' 795. (hsiao) seeming.

~yi
Jgg o
a

1095,

The
is

first

r*J yueh, 1130,

called

yCifu
Wfcjvez

142.

Now

Js'z'
*r?i

io 33

(^srw)

compas-

sion.

1049, only
is

721, (*?rr)
1

The second

~7^/a' 839, one


jbfp

great.

f^\

yueh

130, is called

ku

434, because

mctckten' 387, economy.

s^" 837, (ssu) one resemfLJ !


bles

o -^

sa?z 723,

The
is

third

y^\
j=J

fu

717, the un795, (hsiao) seeming.


(/*) If

Fj yueh

1 1 30,

called

szW
t

^\ ^717,

not

7fc$joh 296,
f=J

one were

^'te 312,
^ ^V w 897,

daring
to

S2W

795, (hsiao) seeming,

-^ ^Y 1047,

be
)
.

^^ V7w
Jdl chH
%

413,

how

long would

.,
'

i 279, indeed,

y
pp
(Chapter
67.)

hia> iS 3t (ksia)

world
i

342, his

sien 799, (hsieri) foremost

TRANSLITERATION.
2SC fs'z
SjT ku'
1033,
(tzzi)

255
[if]

[Who

is]

'

'she 748,

they discard

compassionate,
434, therefore

fp chiert 387,

economy
and

op nang 616.
f

(neng) he can

'ts'ze

974, (ch'ieh)

J3 yu?ig 1148, be brave.

Jg 'kzuang 478, are generous,


$^-'.9/2/748, [if] they discard

o
4gj chien* 387,
**?

jW

is] economical, &#' 434, therefore

[Who

4^2 heu'
l

^
pj

175,

(Aow) being be-

hind
tsHe 974, {chHeh) and
szV^ 799, {hsien) go to the
front,
f

np jiang 616,

(neng) he can

ESp 'kzvang 478, be generous.

4^
o

X,^7i7,
r

[Who] not

2rp

5^' 836, (ss)

they will die

T$fir*

a#

312, dares
to

jfe V 279, indeed.

f*% z6^Y 1047,


t

be
in the world's

rfc
/

fu

142,

However

^P

,/

2V 897,
183, (hsia)
f

S /sV
#Li4 *

I0 33. (fzu) [if] they are compassionate,

"T^A/a'
y

VA V

278, thereby

J8jX sien 799, (hsien) foremost,


o jtA &w' 434, therefore

mjg. chert 45, (chan) in battles

B|J

sM
t

956,

(se)

then they
will

0^^^
r^V

616, i nen') ne can


77,

shang 771, (sheng) conquer. o

ffcch'ang

(*feff)

P^-

J^ V 278,
^Sp's^w
Blj
fc*/*,

Thereby
755, (shou) in the de-

349, as vessels
27, of profit.

ch'ang

956,

(s)

fence then they


will

&* chin
t

398,

Now

Jgj
if

ku' 435, be firm.


v.

$* shi
%

748. [people] discard

-4^ fien 897, Heaven,

^j fs'z'
#L

1033,

(^zw) compassion

$L Jsiang

967, (cJiiang)

when

PJ V5V/974, (ch'ieh) and


(

about fAm' 415, to help


"J*

J||

yung

148, are brave,

phi

53, (tew)

them [people],

(Chapter

67.)

256

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.

Pf 7 278,
'&& 4US
~

with
1033,

rap
k

shang

771,

{sheng) conquers

ts'z'

{fzu) compassion

fzgo2, the enemy,


V^<? 38, the

T&i'wei 1054, will protect


"/* .cA* 53, {fzu) them.

one

^f> <i^ 717,

is

not

^+f chang
t

29, (tseng) quarrel-

,*" 879,

o some. ?lp shart 752, [Who] well


jfl yung"
\

^^ &/#. 562,
-4-*

149,

employs

sA/^

708,

Chapter

68.

yl jaw

286, {jert) the people,

J\pah,

647,

V/*e 38, the

one

^^
||J

<chang 22,

tvei 1047, renders himself

i^Y' 672, Comply


,^iVw 897, with heaven.
1.

j> hia 183, (hsza) lowly.

3P

^q

s/22

'

762, (ssu)

This

Sfe shart
I

752,

[Who]

well

gH W2

1054,

is

called

zue'i

1047, excels
762, (ss) as a warrior,
38, the

^>

^
,c>fo'

7*7. not2 9>

5^2
A^ ^u
r

'

^ .^"^
J

quarrel(^<f ling's
)

^|? V^'

one

53, {fzu) [sign of gen.]

717,

is

not

W&teht

871, (^) virtue.

zvu 1061, warlike.

5/22' 762, {ssu)

This

Pt
;

shari 752, [Who] well


chert 45, {sha?i) fights
'<;/z<?

pP3

swV

1054,
1

is

called

JEH yung"
VI

149, the

employing
men's
gen.]

;3

38, the

one
not

Jan

286, (/#) of

yf\ ,fu

717,

is

jjSr ,<^' 53, (tew) [sign of

33C nrt

641, wrathful.

*/t

&"'

536, ability.
(552/)

shart 7 52, [Who] well

~pr 5^2 762,


'

This

(Chapters 67-68.)

TRANSLITERATION.

257
(<?rr)

"gpf

weV
'

1054,
672,

is

called

ffri

V/z 719,

but

KP fei
^F

complying

jS|

,/&' 1047,

become

fien 897, with Heaven.


'te 432,
*

$0L #0"
o

429, a guest.

^
22
o
_j^

cht 53. (^)

,.

wx

Since olden times

^J

,^w, 717,

Not

TJfr'kati 312, I dare


^fj?

A x

rA/ 393, [this

is] the most perfect [the extremest]

/szV 990, (chin) to advance


io2i, an inch
(err) but

"g* z's'ww'
o

rfrt

'

rh 719

5 ti'

879,

iJI tu ^ 9 2 ^> withdraw

y^luh>
-4r

562,

J^ch'ih
sAz'/j,

71, a foot.
11.

708,

J>

Chapter

69.
5/22' 762, (ssw)

jfokiu

413,
22,

Ejtt

This

ja chang

H ztf'
jrr Jiing
'

1054,

is

called

207, (hsing)

march-

fe hiiem^^Oi the mysterious

ing
,>w 1059, the not-

M yujig
l^

4B
1149, the function.

^r ,/foVz^ 207,
1.

(hsing) marchthreatening

B9 yung'
r

149,

An

expert

j[Sj

Jang 2 9

,ping 689, of war


jy/w 11 13,

4n ,^w

1059, without

/E?

has

^
g*

>'^w 1083, the saying:

m "

!&% i' 678, (iW) arms, o ,/aw^ 291, (jeng) charging


t

zvu 1060,

4fl z^z/ 1059, without

>^N ,^w

717, not

jSjf

fi 9 02
r/zz'A,

hostility.

Jpfr '^a 312, dare

67, seizing

J=L t/#

1047, to

become

4ll6 zt/w 1059, without

~P VAw

87, a host,

J5^

.^zVz^ 698, weapons.

(Chapters 68-69.)

258

LAO-TZE
256, Evil

TAO-TEH-KING.

|S hw
jfcb[

o>

/z"

879,

mo' 603, none


/a' 839, greater

J-*
|-

/sYA, 987,

Chapter 70
*jfc*

5^%, 708,
22,

5p> ,^

1118, than

^ fihang
light

?!$ fitting 407,


ti 902, of the

making
enemy.

$H
fitting
407,

fihi 53,

Of knowing

HH nan
A

614, difficulty.

By making
light of

/2 902, the

enemy

z^w 1060,

My

1=1

?m,ofo' 333, we will


IjjS

P5

^yen 1083, words [are]


shart 738, (sken) very

,5^

725, lose
r"

^^
f

281, easy
"

zvu 1060, our

$&? ao 663, treasures.

*o
j|L

4*n i^2

53

(chih)

to

under-

stand,

iBl sharf 738, (shen) very


*'

mw'

434, Therefore

281, easy

ijjj ttang' 321, [when]

/f"~T 1 4

Jiing 207, (hsing) to practise.

matched

i
/ ,W
"ft
J]

$ing

698, armies

"3P
t

^%

987,
)

[Yet]
in the

siang

790,

(hsiang) mu'

tually

*T^ jfY

hia' 183, (hsia)


ra<?'

world

,^za

350, encounter,

603,

no one

shzvai 785, the weaker [the more compassionate] VA/ 38, one
{
;

fffe

ndng

616, (neng) can

An
o
jjjjT

,cA 53, (cAz'A)

understand,

shang

771,

(sheng) conquers,

wo' 603, no one

jE V 279,

indeed.
"h t?

jwwg

616, (neng)

can

^ir
'Jjo

/foVz^ 207,

"^ ^w
(Chapters 69-70.)

(hsing) practise [them].

1083,

Words

TRANSLITERATION.
f

259
773,

>fcf

yiu

1 1 13,

have
(chung) an
ancestor.

Hp shang'
*

(sheng) holy

the

'-y

{sung
'

1021,

^Ljon

286, (,/ew)

man

o
[

3|| 5^z 764, (ssw) Business actions [deeds]

fie'i'

669,

wears
silk]

/E? yiu

11 13,

have
master,

ko2iy, wool [not

jS*

^chiiin 418, a

hzvai 243, [and] [anc hides


side
rfejy^'
1 1 38,

in-

w 5^v </
fl||
ffflft

J42

gems.

Wz 1052,
ze/# 1059,

Just as

he

is

not

ff
7JD

**'

8 79.

<^ 2

'

53'

(<^^) known,

^
-4-*

te'A 987,
shih 708,
t

sM

762, (ssu)
y

therefore

Chapter

71.

J^f V278,

/f\ $u
t

717, not

^
am known
Tftt

jyz'/z,

1095.

fhajig 22

;fj* ,&/w 1060, I

,^w

'

53-

Knowledge's

4jQ ^
l

53, (chih)

5Efc ^zVz^-'

700 disease.
1.

y*T\
{

chi 53,

(<:/zz7z)

To know

4*n <^'

53' {chih)

Wn o know
/f> ,^w
717, the un-

5i> zuu 1060,


^l?"

me
j^n
,^A* 53, (c/7*)

knowable
high.

V/ze 38, those

ones

H
Jvi 176, (ftier) are rare.
/s^/z.

'shang 741,
717,

is

^&f
H[J

o
956, (fc)
I

^\ ,^u
On
that ac-

Not

count

4*0
H*n

,cA 53, [chili) to


^/zz
1

know

Sffijvu 1060,

am
53,
[chili)

f=fkzve'i' 484, honorable.

fe ^^feHf
di

the knowable

700,

is

sickness.

jgfshV 762, (ssw)


[

Therefore
t

11.

jyv 278

fu

142,

Now

(Chapters 70-71.)

260
f

LAO-TZE
zv ei 1052, only
700,

TAO-TEH-KING.

|j|fc

& 879,
sick

wR^zng'
^ping'

by being

X^ tsHh

987,

700, of sickness,
)

-4-* s^z/^ 708,

Chapter

72.

M j&shV

762, (ssu)

" * VA' 721,

WT
/K
,^ 717, not
1

^thereby

^V

chang

22,

^^ ngaV
are sick.

619,

To

cherish

Wiping

700,

we

2*

'ki 337, oneself.


1.

in.

3jB|

shang' 773, (sheng) The


holy
A

+**

SL min
k

597,

[When]
pie

the peo-

,-^w 7i7.

/aw

286, (/^w)

man

yf\

not

J=&. zveV 1054, are afraid

rf*ii> u 7 1 7> n t

jluH 1046, of the dreadful,


ffijfo'ng' 700, is sick.
-Jj^
/'a'

J[^ V 278, Because

839, the great

fed** ,zt>/z

1046, dreadful
60, (chih) will

3|L ,<:.Y
15

342,

he
*3S chi'

come,

^zVz^' 700, is sick

.2?^

279, indeed

ing' 700, of sickness.

y^shi'
Jl
'

5H A z^w
762, (ssw)
)

1059,

Do

not

therefore
270,
)

OT< foa^,

186, (ksz'a) render

narrow

j= ^V
'T* <i^ 717, not

342, their

^ j^f

700, he is sick.

EJf sz/ 817, (shuo) place where

E3
o

,<;/z#

437, they dwell.

Aflf^zvu 1059,

Do

not

Hfl?-^*'
r
.

io ^9'

ma ^ e

wearisome

*H*

,^V

342, their

El? 52/817, (shuo) place where


(Chapter 71-72.)

Transliteration.

261

A shang
^^
Pft
/F\
,y*w 142,

742,

{sheng) they
live.

j!rfc^

'

434> Tnerefore

dk~
11.

*ch'u 445,

he discards

-.

iJx

^'

6?4

the latter
'

Now
~$ft*ts'% ioio, (&#) [and]

'zf// 1052,

only

when
f

chooses
]*

sV

1034, {tzu) the former.

^w

717, not

yen* 1089, they are

made

wearisome,

shV

762, (ssu)

*K

#'

879,

thereby

-H *$*&, 987,

,^ 717, not

|"* sAz'/^

708,
723,
22,

i>

Chapter

73.

I jy^^' 1089, they are weari-

\f~*x

san

J=L ski

762, (SS)
>

^L fhayig
Therefore

SP 3E=?
A

sh& ng 773' {sheng) the holy

fi y^W 289, Daring ^S tt/*Y 1047, to act.


A

Jan

286, (./Wz)

man

1.

E^l tsz" 103 1, (z) himself

J yung
r

148,

Courage,

/ptt

<chi 53, {chili)

knows,

^p
jjpfir

,>># 1 1 18,
f

[carried] to

^Tv i$ u 7*7
t^t

>

[but] not

^^
t

312, daring

z^"

1 03 1,

(z^) himself

0|| tseh
t

956, (/s^) then leads 731, death.


1 1 48,

@
o
t^t

chiert 385, he regards.

sha

2^"

103 1,

(/.?)

Himself
i

fS yung
l(

Courage

i&frngai' 619, cherishes

^p

y#

1 1 18,

[carried] to

^\ ,^M 7
F^l /s^"

J 7>

[but] not

,/w 717, not-

03 1, {tzu) himself

J$fr 'kan 312, daring

-^2^^7484, he treasures

H|| teeA, 956, (tse) then leads to

(Chapters 72-73.)

262
v?& hzvo
o ]H*

lao-tze's taoteh-king.
<chi^, {tzu) it [the reasons of success and failure]
IV.

258,

life.

T?^

*o
These

/sV

1034, (tzu)

p{?]

'Hang- 526, two


r

^
^

/few 897,
,^z
53.

Heaven's

M 38,

things

(^)

^wo'
I

259,

sometimes

^T tatf

867, reason

^p J
I

/2*
'

521, are beneficial,

^
KJ
*-*

o
x

$u

717, not
29, {tseng) quarrels

JJJ^

#2^0' 259, sometimes

^ft ckang
t '

^&

/W

161, are harmful.

rA

719, (err) yet

^^
11.

y^
V*

/ten 897,
Heaven's
,#/ 53,
(tew)

shari 752, well [in a good way, viz., to perfection] ffife shang 771, (shtng) it conquers **o /^ ,^ 7i7. n ot
k

"=?

fyT sw' 817, (shuo) what

is

1083,

it

speaks

Sg V
o
^rff.
(

1063, hated [despised by, rejected]


780,

ff5 '?*
*~*

7 '9

(err) yet
'

sAw

who

_ shan
fife
(

752, well [in a

good
;

way]
>'/^
1 1 06, it

4*[t

chi 53, (chih) knows

responds

T|L

^V 342,

its

7fi

Ju

717, not
it

22
ft)? &w' 434, reason
?

chad" 35,

summons

Jjfi

\rh 719,

(*rr) yet
(tew) itself

in.
F^l tsz"
sZtf"
1 03 1,

762, (ssu)
>

Therefore

gX
JV

V278,
773,

Xfc Jed 498, it comes. o ijg &y* jr. v. 27, p. 22b.


v

3$? shang"

(sheng) holy

the

'^
&fc

[it

acts] in a lenient [slow]

Jan
\rh

285,

manner,

,./aw 286, (jtew)


rz*w 11 12,

man
7i9 (?) yet
ffljj

i<

even
difficult

jian 614, deems

This character r^V missing in Williams. (Chapter 73-)

= slow

is

TRANSLITERATION.
: shart
752, [perfect]

263
613, in

good

/d^> a2

#
'

what way

iHj ^meu 587, (mou) [are its] ***** devices.

YpT

^0

215, [and]

how

VA V

278, with 836, (szu) death

^P
^g

ie9i

897, Heaven's

^P

s,e'

'zuang 1044, net


Jzzv'ei 487, is vast,

jHfi cA*' 440, [can]

one frighten

Hw

S
o

chi 53, (tzu) them?


t

Jziv'ii 487, so vast

^joh
wide-

296, (je) If

5^w

775,

[it

is]

Sj
yjFv

'//* 719, (*rr)

meshed and yet

j3 'shi j6i, (ssu)

we make

,^w 717, not


shih 769,
k

J2
loses.

7wz 597, people

yip chang 740, always


jfc
it

|.

zf<?V 1054, fear


f

>JHP 5^' 836, (ssw) death,

o
tVrj

'/* 719, (rr)


.ze/^Y

but

[if]

^
~f"*

teYA, 987

EL
Chapter
J>

1047,

[someone
should]

make

shih 708,
t

74.

-gi*

cAV

344, innovations,
38, that one,

J]tJ

ss" 836,

5aT V#/

E^.

chang

22,

PI

Z/W I060, I

^|| fe

872, (/*) take

^U

c^/' 57,

To overcome
chilly 67,

[and] seize

lE hzvoh, 259, delusion.

ml
1.

'

r#

719, (*rr)

and

^
13,
ZrP

E2 ^

m/

597,

[When]
pie

the peo-

jrti
(

s/za 731, kill

,^ 717. not
w/A"' 1054, fear
'as*

-Jf

chi 53, (tew) him,


5/2w 780,

o
jgjr
t

who
?

836, (ssk) death,

tJJi*

kan

312, will dare

(Chapters 73-74-)

264

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

ST
r

chang
yzu
5 ^'
1 1

740,
13,

Always
is

fit 176, (^s/)

rare
[if]

/fci*

there
(ssu)
kill,

^jt?

yiu

1 1 13,

it is

"m

<

835,

an executioner

^\

,i>u 717,

not

s^a

731, to

4&
3i
kills.

shang

739,

he injures

*che 38,

one
[who]

s/ieuj54, [shou) his hands.


final particle]

sha

731,

.2E V 279, [a

^fc ,y*w 142,

Now

[if

man]

qV
m1

^az 845, taking the place of


'

,52-'

835,

(ss)
kill,

the executioner

J^ tsHh, 987,
-p
TT,
j=j^

sha

731, to

s,foy^ 708,
e

Chapter

75.

*che 38, of the

one
kills,

w*

1060,
22,

jsha 731, [who]

fhang

-B sAz
g|f
IVa

'

762, (ss) this

z^<?V 1054, is called

w
iji

/a?z 853, Greediness'

829, loss.
1.

^P* toz
Ht^

'

845, taking the place of

tcC 839, the great

f%jnm 597l

The
'

|M
^fc

fj^ tsiang' 968, (chiang) carpenter tf* 548, [who] hews. 4


,_/~w

{jf$|

cht 53i
^/z/ 334,

(^)(P e P le s
starvation

142,

Now
[whoyakes^ the

|}l

278, [comes] 342, their

from

ft tai
-+

8 45\

i
|-

**V

/a' 839, the great

'shang 741, superior's


^z'/z, 766,

tsiang' 968, [chiang) carpenter /** 548, [who] hews,


'che 53, the one,

"g^

^^

consuming

*fj^

.<?/

782,

^
(Chapters 74-75.)

of taxes
*

chi 53. (**#)

TRANSLITERATION.
gog, too

265

p
o

jto

much.
)

T4*t .cAV 342, their


Jj?*

jp? shi' 762, (ssu)

chHu 416, seeking

>

Therefore Zfc jshdng 742, [sheng


life's

J^V2 7 8,
,c/ 334, ||||

they starve.

"y*

^2

53. (2#w)

IP

raz>z

597,

The

people's

JBJ. /2^' 176, (/zow) intensity


s/"'

^X fhi
|gjg
,

53, (tzu) [sign of gen.]


difficult

762, (ss)

therefore

,a 614, [being]
c

jgj[V 27 8,
fpv$[
:

iD o
LJ[

'

59'

z)

to

govern

~
o

rtiing 407, they


'sz'

make
light of

H
%

278,

comes from

iyp

836, (ss) death.


142,

IT
K^

ch'i 342, their

y^
>

fu

Now
[who
is]

shang

741,

P|j: 'ivei 1052, just

^
jS*
vr>

superiors'

,&* 53.
f

(tew)

^fe zvu

1059, not

A=i yiu
A

1 1

13,

being

J/^ V 278, on
[med| ,shdng 742, (sheng)
life

/& 1047, too active

dlesome].
762, (ssw)
J

J^shz'
**-

w/A" 1047, bent,

V
J

Therefore
*/*/ 38,

J^'^78,
J

the one

;aw 614,

it is

difficult

jpr

shV

762, (ss) this one

>cfe"' 5g, (chih) to

govern.

^&
-3P
Efct a
(

hie?i 197,

(hszen)

is

more

moral
>7V
1 1 18,

than
es-

f,*f7.

The
'

g3 kzueV 484, [those who] teem


(

,chz

S3

(te*)lP eo P le

shang

742, {sheng)

life.

BjjS phfing 407,

making

light

73C o

's^'

836, (ssz^) death

IJ V

278, [comes]

from
^Chapter
75.)

266
tV 879,

lao-tze's taoteh-king.

Ot
-ffji

jshang 742, (skeng)


[y^ 1079, (jy*/*) are

life

X* tsHh,
%

987,

indeed

-p* shih 708,

Chapter

76.

3^
ffirt

,/*# 294,

(.70 w)

tender

y^t luh 562,


i

tern' 1018, [and] delicate.


c7i'z
t

=&

chang

22,

>

"BP

342,

[When] they

^Jj
3fj

sz' 836, (ssw) die,

&zaz*' 360,
fc'i<x>

Beware
of

SiS

ng

366,

strength

HT yi

1079,

(jy^A)

[viz., of

being strong].

they are indeed

^g
JKjgL

&^
f

436, rigid
325, [and] dry.

a0

/I

jaw

286, (/<#)

Man
11.

(tew) in his Jy* 1^^ 53.

Zp skang 742,
(

PpjF

^'

(sheng)

434 Therefore
380, the
r
>

life,

R% chien>

hard
stiff

Hi

'jy/

1079, (jy^) is indeed [auxiliary particle]


294, (/ow) tender
C/Vw>)

j^R jVw

3ffl
;5|g

c^

'

an^
38,

3^6, [and]

V^/
's^'

ones [are]
)

37^,295,
,

[and] weak.

2FP
,AV 342,
's^'

[When] he

836, (SS#)

^5P
ffl,

836, (ss) dies,

^
tr
<3

death's

,*A* 53

(^)

yd

fu

919,

companions

[fol-

1079, (^//) he

is

indeed

lowers] ?*n? A< /e# 294, (y9w) The tender

refe c7iien 380,


t

hard

E&ajohi 295,
ch'iang 366, [and]
2x/aw' 1040,
stiff.

(y<?)

[and]

weak

3j'

VA^
t

38,

ones [are]

The

ten thou-

sand
ze/ft^,
ij?

&i
~/P

sha?zg 742, (sheng)


life's

1065, (ze>) things,

hi

53. (te)

[Pp. /5'ao 956, the grass,

&:

^&
~/*

??z^'

607, [and] trees


53, (te#) in their

^ fu

919,

companions
lowers]

[fol-

,:Az

(Chapter

76.)

TRANSLITERATION
e| #' 879,

267

J-* ts ih 987,
i

shV
J|

762, (ssic)
>-

Therefore

I-* s/b'^ 708,

Chapter 77

V278,

J^ to'2%,
siting 698,

987,
22,

[who

in]

arms

^^
(tse)

HS
fljl WJ M\

chang

chHang
tseh,

366, are strong,

9S6,

then they
will

~P fien

897,

Heaven's

iM* /ao' 867, reason.

,^w 717, not


t

shang, 771, (skeng) conquer.


607,

y^

ften 897,

jfcmu*

[When]
fare! [are]

trees

*w
g
~o

-^

M
(

^
it

Heaven's

fjfi ^chHang, 366, strong,

too' 867, reason,

Hi! * J

te^A, 956,

(^e) then they


will

|1 ^AV 342,

dfc kung' 464, be doomed. o


*yfg

\yiu
x

1112, resembles
22, the stretching

chWang
to' 839,

366,

The

strong

&lg chang

~^T
Jj||

[and] great

J^ ftmig

461, of a bow.

V#

94, stay

#-

3& Jiu 224,


below.

Oh

|> foa' 183, (hsia)

lHJ
,/^w 294, (jou)

&ao

324,
38,

The

higher

32

The

tender,

5i| V/z/

one
[it]

Sffijoht 295, (7'ao) the


Jg|f[

weak

fljjjz' 1093,

brings
it.

down

V#w

94, stay

^S

fihi 53, (tzu)

'sJiang 741, above.

TC
5|
j

#za' 183, (hsia)


V/z/ 38, one
r

The lower

ja g cA#
J

439,
53,
1 1

[it]

raises
it.

,^/z2

(^)

pfe?

13,

Who

have

(Chapters 76-77.)

268
yil 1 121,

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
yf\ u 717, not
t

abundance,

'chi 38, the ones,

7^ Jan $||
q\

285, so.

'sun 829,

[it]

diminishes

\sw 829, It diminishes


,_^w 717,

~s\ chi 53, (tzu) them.


t

[those

who have]
not

j/f>

^w

717,

Who

not

KL fsu

1 014,

enough

JR1 /sw 1014, have enough


'che 38, the ones,

JW H

278, thereby to
159,
13,

^& fung'
/&
'^'w
1 1

(feng) serve

y&

125, [it] gives

[those

who] have

fhi

53, (te^) to

them.

&&

yu

121,

abundance.

11.

^
)

5/2w 780,

Who
can

^C '^w 89 7-

[That

is]
'

Qg
/Ej
f

nang
>7w

616, (neng)

.chi
o

S3,

(^)(

Heaven

s
1 1 13,

have

*|| tad 867, reason.

*p
l/l

,jy# 1 121,

abundance

4B 'sun 829,
]K* yiu
x

It

diminishes

278, for the purpose of


159,

1 1 13,

[those

who] have

^Skfung'

(feng) serving

S&

yu

1 i2i,

abundance

5^/^897,

the

[Vrt '/"A 719, (^rr;

and

3 ^
A\ $u
(

~f
712, completes 717, [those

hza' 183, &sta)

world?
f

who have]
not

*ski' 762, (ss)


>

Therefore

JKL fsu 1014, enough,

J^'v 27 8,
JfCf

shang' 773,

^3&

(sheng) holy

the

/^ ^aw
g[ tad
)

286, (jeri)

II

,ya 286, (y^w)


zt/^V

man

Man's
*{5^

1047, makes,
"jig, (err)

867, reason
(s<?) is

\rh
yfC
(Chapter
77.)

yet

H|] tseh 956,

717, not

TRANSLITERATION.
shi' 761, (shih) claims.
j^F2

269
294, (/ow) in tender-

/JN*

,7^

ness

If! ku?ig 460, Merit


i

B3

*b^ 295, (yo) [and] weakness


603, nothing

"o
m?
jjj|

ch'dng

77,

(cheng) he accomplishes,

M^o'
*'fi

>A
t

719,

(^r) yet

&z^o' 490,
>7/ 11 18,

can more surpass

yt\
IgS o

717, not
94,

-3p
[is

than

'ch'u

dwells there attached to it].

JjC*shui

781, water

IK
^N
w/T

,^V 342, He
,^w 717, not
j>#' 1 137,

ml

\rh

719, (err) 461,

And
attacks

Jjf feung
t%,
i

who

wishes

chien 380, the hard


366, [and] the

13

chien' 385, to let


197,

be seen

&t ch'iang
.rg.

K
Jly A fo*
Jt|S

[to display]

strong

(hsien) his excellence.

^/ 38,

[of] the ones,

1078,

Does he? [Sign


"j

of interogative sentence.]

ffi

wo' 603, no one


x

-*/
*^fa

chi 53, (^w) of them

^ W 879,
J-*
fe'zft,

na?ig 616, (neng) can

987,

##
Chapter
78.

B# s7iang 771, (sheng) surx

"fcj*

-+* shih 708,


l

iX^cthi 647,
.E=^

^C ^ **
IVI

^AV
zfw

342,

Among

pass [it]. things


is

~ t

1059,

there

none

which

278, herein

chang

22,

Jf? z" 281, takes the place

f$
-{=}

/>*' 289,

Trust

^5
53
"*

"J*

,/*/ 53,

(fe*) of

it.

[The reason
bA, 295, (/<?)

is]

5m'

807, in faith.

The weak

,^2

53, (tzu)

being

1.

y? fieri 897,
\

I>

hid

l"

183, (hsia)

In the world

(sheng) conquerors | cKiang 366, of the strong


^*"
t

Wf sha?ig

771,

(Chapters 77-78.)

270
^F^

lao-tze's taoteh-king.

j'eu 294, (jou)

The

tender

ts ih

<

987, (#/) millet

[of

the grain sacrifice]


~/f ,chi 53, (tzu)

being
(sheng) conquerors
stiff.

^P

<chu 87, the master.


s/z^w'

shang

771,

756,

(shou)

Who
the

is

charged with
[iU , kzvo 49 L
)

||]

Jiang

318, of the

3^/^897,
J

Inthe
)

hicC 183, (hsia)

/fC no one

^
shV

717, un792, (hsiang) blessings,

"j^ wo'
PjZ u
t

603, there is

siang

717,

[who] not

762, (ssw) this

one

&H

cht 53, (chih)

knows

[this],

g@

zf/z' 1054, is called

"b] wo'
jfc

603, [but]

no one

^C <^a 8 97b%

the

nang

616, (neng) can

hicC 183, (hsia)

"
)

ff 1J-

,^'w^ 207, {hsing) practise


[it].

Ip
o

zuang
chang'
t

1043, king.
75,

7p
11.

(cheng) True

"==*

jy^w 1083,

words

gj w' 434, Therefore


;JP?7p^i 2 96,
(./)

seem

gff skang'

773,

(sheng) holy

the

K? yaw

126, paradoxical.

y^
^Ej o

i%

/aw 286, (y^w)

man

jw

1142, declares:
756,

^g

s#<?w'

(shou)

Who

is

m
'

charged with
fiwo 491.
53. ('**)
1

|U **" 879, J^ s7# 987,


4

.<**
xIS &^w
f

the country's

-t* s^/fc, 708,

}-

Chapter 79

330, (0w) sin

[moral

^
E1

'^w
t

4 X 3.
22,

filth],

shi' 762, (ss) this one


is

chang

He? z^^V 1054,

called

fi y w
the altar's !2

'

28 9. Sustain
349, contracts.

|t* sA<?" 748, of

k i'
r

(Chapters 78-79.)

TRANSLITERATION.
^jjjiteh^ 871, (#) virtue

271

^[l^z^o
1

254,

[When] reconciling

U]

,*'

835.

ss %) keep
[their]

~7

ta* 839,

a great

3^2 <^V

ffihyuert 1138, hatred,

^o
3JFE

349,

contract
not

[obligations].

o
ij?fr

~wu 1059,
s?i
'

[Who] have
virtue

ft
r

'

692, surely

W*te^
1 1 13,

/M ^/
Igk x yu

there will
"pfj ,5^' 835, (ssu) insist

on

1121,

remain

^^ch'eh,
1 1 38,

42,

(^)
11.

[their]

<i*yuen'

some hatred.

claims.

^&
jg^
*!

o
t

ngan

620,

Where-

^TT /Y^w 897, Heaven's


*^T ta& 867, reason

V 27. by
zf/z 1047, to

make

Tit]

4ffl-

,2f 1059. na s

no
preference

^i&shart

752, good?

sffi

Js'tnggi,

(chi?i)

^q [nepotism, family relation]


*"' 762,

(SS&)
>

^f*

chang
'>'**<

Therefore
El3,
1

740, [but]

always

125, helps

Stl shang*

^&
A

773,

(sheng) holy

the

^fe sha?i 752, the good

/a

286, {jen)
67, holds

man

,/a 286, (/*) man.

^/zz'A,

yt?

Yso 1002, the

left side

#' 879,
i

^jzjOch'i' 349, of his contract


r?rj

J\j>ak

647,

Chapter 80

\rh
.i*

719, (err)

and

-p
rsM

s^/A, 708,

7\

w 7 X 7 not
957, exacts

fhang
^w/z,

22,

^^^ /s*^

3?
'iV

921,

Alone

^p

,jyw 1 1 18,

from

Uh
%

538, standing.
1.

A Jan

286, (y^w) others.

siao /[> J

795,

(hsiao)

[In]

^^

ytu

11

13,

[Who] have

small ^jx/o 491, country

(Chapters 79-80.)

272

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

5|f 'kiva 467, [with] few

ffi.ww
Bfr
52/'

1059, they

have no

EL min
o
(

597, people

817, (shuo) occasion

[literally,

jrtf skz 761, (ssu) let

[them]

3e fJCang 772,

" place where "] (cheng) to


ride

/&

yhi

1 1

13,

have

2/* fbi 53. (tew) in them.

64* shih 768, over ten


t

men

Sh* ,s^2 826, Though


/E3 j>zw
f

ju^
/I
t

707,

(/zo)

[and] hun-

1 1 13,

they have

dred men,
./a 286,
<chi 53,

(7^) men

Ep Vfoa

355,

armors

o
flfi

(/^) as their

fc. iting 698, [and] weapons


5|E zf w 1059,
sit

^V

349, officers [vessels]


(^rr)

they have no

V>& 719,

but

fyf

817, {shuo) occasion

^TJ ,^w 717, not

KS
"/*
t

ch'an

19, (cken) to

don

EB yung'
o
filf
'

149, use their

^/ 53,

(a-)

them.

power.
shi 761, (ss) Let
raz>z
t

fm
62

'shz j6i, (ssu)

Let

E2

597, the people


108,

^zVz 597, the people


i

Jg* chung'

esteem
death

w fJi -^

I 5 If

return to

/pl> 'sz' 836, (ss)

&3:

chieh, 376, knotted

|-frj

\rh
t

719, (<?rr) 717, not


1

and

&R
fm

sktng
A

772, (skeng) cords

/T\

'

r^

719, (^rr)
1

and

2gp| 'jyw^

137, to a distance

Hh yung'

149, use

/ffp
o

'si

789,

move.

^^
o
"fcr

#z 53

(te.)

them
them] deHght

^
/H
4&*
?1|

sui 826, Though


1 1

"

^a

310,

[let

'jye'w

13,

they have

h. chH

342, in their

,<:/^w 48, (c7iou)

ships

^N shih,

766, food

jy# 1122, [and] carriages,

'mei 586, be proud of


80.)

(Chapter

TRANSLITERATION.

273
790,

^
HR

Jtf ,c#V 342, their


'

/kQ sia??g

(hsiang) mutually

jfw 152, clothes;


t

fc 'zvang 1044, tnev

w ^^

visit

&

ngan

620,

be content with

3w

to* 498, or

come and

go.

cAY342, their
;

Spy chu 437, dwellings


{

e|* ti 879,
Id"

gB|
jeL

554, rejoice in

f\^^ah,
ch'i 342, their

647,

r*
/fc su 822, customs.

s/w/i, 708,

|>

Chapter 81

3/2*^

1095,

11.

^
@T

cha?ig 22,

lin 541,

neighboring
f

|j|j

A?ew 199, Propounding

kwo
ffi

491, country
790,

cfo'^ 68, the essential.

siang

(hsiang) mutually
/z*zz

zvang' 1045, might be in


sight,
r/zz

sin' 807, (hsin) Faithful

334,

Cocks

y^z 1083, words

keu

329, (&ow) [and] dogs

*7jx

^u 7

I 7

are not

chi 4,3, (/^w) their

-^? 'mH 586, pleasant.

shing siang

771, (sheng) voice


790,

35
r==*

'?nei 586,

Pleasant

(hsiang) mutually

yen
-^

1083,

words

H wow R
min

1041, (2w?z)
597,

might be

yfc
&=
It3

M 7 J 7 ar e not
807, (hsin) faithful.
1

heard.

The people
reach

siti'

~5 chi'

60, (chih) will

shan

752,

The good
[i.

P)

*
o

7a
S2-'

508, old age

=3
die,

'che 38,

ones
not

e.,

men]

836, (ssw)

and

^\

,.2* 7I7.

$11 717, [but] not

jg^t^ien' 688, dispute.


(Chapters
80-81.)

274
ffSbfien* 688,

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

Who dispute

yQ
o
pfjj

yiu 1113,
339,

will acquire.

S^
yf\

che* 38,

the ones

^''

Having

<1>

U 7*7. not

JW
B8,
71

V278, thereby
*yU 1123, given

rife sha?i' 752, are good.

o Art
**

,^/jz

53, (chih)

The knowing

J^

2 ^6, (./) to the

o
V/j/38, ones
p--*
y

people

V^*337, he himself
'>>#

yF^ ,^w 717, not

'TO?

H26, the more exceedingly


will

foh^ 706, (^0) are learned.

^^

/o 909,

have plenty.
)

o
'~

1*'

,.

2>oh, 706, (^0)

The

learned

o nJF /'& 897,

>

Heaven's

VA/38, ones
J^FC

2l
o

***" 53

>

^)

'

iutlil> n ot
53' [&**%)

jjf too* 867, reason

4*0 .#*

know.

^IJ &" 521, benefits


(err) but j]^ \ rh 7 IQ
.

11.

IK
-7-

^ ^ Jan
/f\

^<*^'

773.

(sheng) holy

The

286,

(>w) man

i$u 717, not


(chi) hoards.

^^ ^ s gg

w ?I7 no t
1^ )0i

jia {>

injures.

shang' 773, (sheng) The


holy

^g siQS6,

j& n
t

2 86, (/<?)

^
JLJ
Jl

man s
Having

^*"
V

339,

chi 53, (tzu)

278, thereby

^T

/ao' 867, reason [is]

tvei 1047,

worked
(7m) for others

o 4S| vuei 1047, to act


'

/arc 286,

rjf?

r^

719, (err) but

Ff.

^2
x

337, he himself
1 1 26,

y?^ ,^w 717, not

yu

the

more exceedin g!y

&
o

<chang 29, (tseng) toquarrel.

(Chapter

81.)

NOTES AND COMMENTS

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


[The numbers attached to the transcriptions of the Chinese characters commented upon in these notes, indicate their respective places in the pas
sages and chapters under which they are mentioned. References to Sze Ma-Ch'ien's Historical Introduction are made by using the abbreviation S. M. Ch.; references to words in the Tao-Teh-King are simply given by fig ures denoting the chapter, the section, and the number of the word.]

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION BY SZE-MA-CH'IEN.


Sze means "trustee,"
distance."

ma

"horse," and clvien "to move to

which means as a noun "report" or " tra "to transmit," might in this connexion be better translated "biography."

The word

chzu'en,

dition," as a verb

i.

While we should begin in an enumeration such as this with the smaller and rise to the larger, the Chinese mention first the We should say Lao-Tze was larger and proceed to the smaller. born in the village of Goodman's Bend, Grinding County, Thistle Province, Bramble State. For further details see pages 3-6 in the
:

first

chapter of the Introduction.

The
dropped.

characters die

(3)

and Jan
is

(12)

"one" and "man" be-

long together, but in a translation the former has naturally to be

The word jan, man,


(in

used in the sense of the English


ia?i (in

endings er
iari).

such words as Londoner) and

Washington-

The word ye
is

(13)

means "indeed."

It is

an affirmation which

here used as a

final particle, indicating

the conclusion of the

sentence.
11.

(3) sometimes translatable by "esquire," without being exactly an aristocratic title, is a term of distinction it is added to family names of prominence.
;

The word shi

278
J0t*
It

lao-tze's taoteh-king.

would be impolite in Chinese society to address men of by their names, which is a privilege reserved to their most intimate friends only. Appellations are given to young men when they become of age or at the ceremony of graduation. Laodistinction

Tze's appellation
distinction
is

Poh Yang

(7-8),

Prince Positive,

is

apparently a

which was given him

in his

youth by his teachers. Yang

the positive principle, representing the sun, south,

and manlititle

ness.

(See Note to Chapter 42,

i.

20).

7^*

In addition to appellations, Chinese people receive a

This posthumous name is intended to characLao-Tze's posthumous title Tan does terise the man's life-work. not mean "long-eared" but "long-lobed," and as long lobes are regarded as a symptom of virtue, it means "a master," or "a teacher," in the sense in which the term applies to a Buddha or a Christ. In all statues of Buddha, the ears have exceedingly long lobes, which according to Asiatic taste is not only a sign of virtue
after their death.

but also a

mark of beauty. The word chi (16) is very common

in Chinese.

It

indicates that

the following words stand in some relation to prior words It may sometimes be translated by " his, her, its, or theirs," sometimes by

placing the preceding noun into the genitive

and sometimes

it

serves as a pronoun of some preceding substantive, in which case it is translated by " him, her, it, or them." When connecting dependent sentences it may be translated by " that as when," etc.,
;
;

without,

however, being otherwise an equivalent term of these


in.

words.

The term yil

'

(8),

'

with, " serves to indicate the indirect object.

IV.

The
together.

relative

su

(5)

and the pronoun che

(7),

the ones, belong

The word
self,

i (13)

means "

to finish," " to pass,"


It

to indicate the perfect tense.

and is employed must be distinguished from chi,

which presents the same appearance.


278
(i)

Compare Williams,

S.

Z>., p.

with, p. 337, (chi).

Kiiln

(2) tsz" (3),

pher,"

is

common term

"the superior sage," or "the royal philosoin Chinese. It means " the ideal man,"

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


and
is

279

sage."

synonym of s hang j an, "the holy man, the saint, the See Introduction pp. 27-29. The word shi (6) means " the right time" or M the right seaa
literally

son."

The word kia (8) means P'ung (14) is, according


in the

"mounting

a carriage."

to the

commentators, a plant growing

sand and easily carried about in the winds. lei (15) means "to heap," "to gather," "to bind." But the commentators declare that it acquires in this connexion

The word

the sense of drifting or being carried about.


VI.

Williams

(S.

D., p. 1146) defines the

word yung

(14)

"to

re-

ceive," or, as a noun, "face;

mien; screen."
VII.

The word k'ii' (1) "depart" is here causative "let The words tsz' (2) chi (3), "the sir's," stand here in
:

depart."
the sec-

ond person, meaning "sir, your," etc. The word k'i (5) means " the vital principle, air, breath, spirit, mettle." See the translator's article on " Chinese Philosophy " in The Monist, Vol. VI., No. 2, pp. 21 1-2 14. The word seh (9), color, is used in the sense of showy or stagelike behavior, bland manners, and externalities which are for the
eye only.

The
It

position of this sentence cannot be retained in English.


:

means

"That
way]

is

what

(22) I (21)

sir (25),

[in a

like (26) this (27),


VIII.

communicate (24) to (23), the and (28) that is all (29)."

0t*

Confucius

felt

much

elated at his endeavor to set the

world an example of decorous demeanor.


therefore,

He

probably expected

praise for realising the ideal of propriety, not censure,


greatly dismayed

and was,
his high-

when Lao-Tze denounced


and "affectations."

est aspirations as

"proud

airs'

The

basis

of Confucian ethics

is "filial

piety" which inculcates reverence

for parents, superiors,


lief in tradition.

and ancestors.
if

Confucius represents beis

The wisdom

of the sages of yore

to

him a

divine revelation which

questioned would leave the world with-

out any standard of right. Lao-Tze recognises no personal authority

whatever, and bases his ethics upon the eternal

norm

of the

28o

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
right, of

Tao, upon abstract reason, the immutable principles of


truth,

and goodness.
is

Confucius, unable to grasp Lao-Tze's phi-

losophy,

quite shocked at his condemnation of reverence.

The
of the

personalities of the sages of yore are to


past, their
;

Lao-Tze a matter

alone as that which


y

bones moulder in the dust he considers their words still remains of their existence, the value of

which he measures by their agreement with the Tao. Tsz (5) means "child, boy, philosopher, sage." Ti (4) tsz" (5), younger followers, means "disciples." Sheu (20) means any hairy quadruped that is wild brutes, especially game. (Williams, S. D. p. 756.)
;
t

IX.

The word k d
f

(3)

means, as a noun, "power," or "ability;"

" implying a passive condition. If followed by I (4) as here, both words together acquire an active meaning and are commonly translated by "can" or "could." The word I, if used as a verb, means " to use, to aid, to serve, to concern oneself with." As a preposition it means "by," "through," "with." (See Williams, S. D., p. 278). Compare the note to Chap-

as a verb, " to be able to be,

ter

1,

i.,

2.

x.

means "to go to," " to reach" (see xii, 12), a preposition and in connexion with yii (2) it may be translated by "as to," "concerning," "with reference to." The word 'rh (12) is, as a rule, to be translated by "and" or
chi' (1)

The verb when used as

"but."

In this connexion

it

changes the next following shang,


to" or "upwards."
sentence which terminates

high, into an adverb, viz.,

"up

The word ye
with
it is

(24) indicates that the

a question.
XI.

The word siu (3) means "to cultivate," "to study," "to practise." (See Williams, S. D. p. 811.)
t

XII.

Here chi (4) (the same as ii., 15 et alias) is added to the end of the sentence. It refers to kiu, " long time," and we transliterate
it

by " then." The word kzvan

(13)

means custom-house,

toll-gate,
t

boundary,

frontier, pass, frontier-pass.

(See Williams, S. D.

p. 472.)

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


XIII.

2I

The word yin

(3)

means "to grasp the hand," "to govern."

As a noun, " chief or overseer." (Williams, S. D., p. 1102.) HI Thus the whole name Yin-Hi signifies (4) means "to rejoice."

"he who rejoices being a chief." K'iang (10) means "to force," "to compel." Here
be translated "to request earnestly."
366.)

it

should

(See Williams, S. D., p.

As a verb
tion,

zvei (11) means "to act," "to do." As a preposi"for the benefit of," "with regard to," "for the sake of."

(See Gabelentz, A?ifgr., p. 52, 97, V.)


XIV.

The words

yii (1)

ski

(2),

"to

this,"

mean

in their

combina-

tion "thereupon."

(See Gabelentz, Anfgr.,


l

p. 55,

Shang hia
lower,"
i.

ien (8-10)

means

literally

103.) " of a higher and

e.,

a former and latter, division (installment).

We should

say, consisting of

two

parts.

THE OLD PHILOSOPHER'S CANON ON REASON AND


VIRTUE.
King
sical
is

the

title

standard authority on the subject


book, or briefly

book which has been canonised as a it is sometimes translated clasclassic, sometimes canon. See the quotation
of a
;

from Legge on page

38.
is

The

ordinal in Chinese

expressed by the noun ti which corth,

responds to the English ending


ber to which
it is

only that

it

precedes the

num-

attached.
" section " or "chapter."

The term chang means

CHAPTER
T'i, in the
sel.

I.

heading,

is

The word means,


"
}

as

compound of bone and a noun, "body;" as a


solid,"

sacrificial ves-

verb,

"

to

em-

"to realise," "to render liams, S. D. p. 884.)


body,

"to incarnate."

(See Wil-

The word K'o


able,"
to S.
is

(2), as a noun, "power," as a verb, "to be always followed by a passive form, while K'o i (see note

M. Ch.

ix.

3-4)

is

followed by an active form


i

accordingly,

k'o tao means "it can be reasoned," and k'o


"it can reason."

tao would

mean

282
J^**

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

The

sentence

i.

1-3

may be

translated in various ways.


is

Our

version, "

The Reason

that can be reasoned, "

the simplest
' '

translation that can be offered, but

we might

as well translate

the

word that can be spoken," or, "the logic that can be argued," or, "the path that can be trodden." To avoid all these difficulties, Chalmers translates "the tau (or tad) that can be taued." The word tao comes nearest, as explained in the Introduction (pp. 9-10) to the Greek term logos, as used in the Fourth Gospel of the New
Testament.

The word fei


.more emphatic.

(4),

"not," differs from


in-, as, e. g.,

fu

"not," by being

Pu

is

the simple negation, in

compounds an"unvirtue"
(see
ii.),

swering the English un- or

teh,

shan, "ungoodness" or "evil" (Chapter 2, jbu chi (Chapter 3, vi., 6-7) "ungoverned" or " anarchical,"

Chapter

38);

etc.

But fei means "by no means," implying a disavowal and an Wii is still another kind of negation which also earnest rejection. frequently occurs in compounds, such as zv u ming, zvu yu, etc. (See Williams, S. D., pp. 136, 717, and 1059.)
11.

The words
ing in

zvu

ming

(1-2)

mean "nameless."
of,"
-less.

Wu

(see

Wil-

liams, S.D., p. 1059)

means "destitute

"not having," answer-

compounds

to the

English ending

J0F* The nameless, or unnameable, zvu ming (1-2) is not only the undetermined, the abstract, but also the holy, the ineffable.

The nameable, yiu ming


It is

(7-8), is that

which can be determined.

the specific or concrete. For yiu see Williams, S. D., p. 11 13. The term -wan zvuh (9-10), the myriad beings, things or crea-

tures (see Williams, S. D., pp. 1040, 1065) crete existence as the

means nature

in its confirst

sum

total of all that exists.

(See the

note to Chapter 2.)

The
lows
able,
ities.
its

character chi (11)

is

the sign of the genitive.


ii.

Always

fol-

noun.

(See S. M. Ch.

16.)

The

sentence 7-12 means the immanent Tao, as the nameis

which

the factor that shapes the world of concrete realin.

is

The word ku (1), "cause," "reason" (Williams, S. commonly used by Lao-Tze to introduce a quotation.
to

D.,

p.

434)

It is tan-

tamount
heard."

"therefore

it

has been said,"

or,

"thus you have

NOTES AND COMMENTS.

283

The words ivu yii (3-4), " desireless, " and yiu yii (10-12) "having desire," or, "desirous," form a similar contrast as zvu ming and yiu ming. The word miao (8) denotes "mysterious" or "spiritual," 'mystery" or "spirituality."
IV.

same as S. M. Ch. i., 3, and ix., makes a noun of preceding adjectives or verbs, like the English word "one, "or, "such a one, "or, "he who." The two things meant are, presumably, the nameless and the nameable.
che
(3),

The word

which

is

the

2, etc.,

chapter
1.

2.

under the Heaven, denotes the world It means the cosmos and also the people, i. e., mankind at large, and especially the Chinese Empire. The terms zvan zvuh (Chapter 1, ii. 9-10), "the ten thousand things," and tvet zvu, "the activity of the beings" are synonyms. The former may also be translated by " the whole world";
(1-2),

The term Vien

Ma

in

about the same sense as in English.

it is

nature as the

sum

total of concrete existence.

The

latter is

Another term for "nature" or "universe" which, however, does not occur in the TaoTeh-King, is yii ch'eu, signifying the whole cosmos in space as well as time. Yii means " the canopy of heaven," and cKeu "from the beginning till now." See W. S. D. pp. 1126 and 49 compare Le livre des mille mots ( Thsien-tseu-zven) by St.** Julien, note to words 5 and 6.
the inherent nature or character of things.
t

The word
end
times omitted.

(n), " that

is all," is

a final particle indicating the

of a sentence,

sometimes translated by "enough," and some>., p.

(See Williams, S.
11.

278.)

^^ That Lao-Tze identifies the

origin of evil with the con-

scious distinction between or the knowledge of good

and evil, reminds us of the ideas that underlie the Biblical account of the fall of man. Adam's state before the fall is supposed to be a condition in which he does not know the difference between good and evil.
in.

Existence, yiu
skrit

(2),

translates in

Buddhist Scriptures the San-

term bhava. (See Williams, S. D., p. 11 13.) The present passage reminds us of Hamlet's phrase, " to be or not to be."

284

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

Shang (5), "to produce," is here, as indicated by siang, " mutually," either passive or must be taken as a reflexive verb
The verb shang
S. >., p. 742)

(such

is

the pronunciation according to Williams,


for
it

was probably pronounced by Lao-Tze shing,

rhymes with eking, "to


k'ing, to incline.
also have

perfect, to form," hing, " to shape,"


Jitjuo

The words

or ho (21) and sui (25)

and must

rhymed

in their ancient pronunciation.


IV.

Shi

i,

(1-2) "this for," is

" therefore."

Subsequently

it

used exactly as our English word will be thus translated.

wei (6-7) is the favorite term of Lao-Tze and contains in one word the fundamental principle of his ethics. (See Williams,
S. D., pp. 1059, 1047.)
v.

Wu

The

particle

yen

(4),

"there!" "well!"

"why?"

is

descriptive

and characterises the action as enduring or continuously taking place. As a final particle, "truly," "indeed," as an initial particle,

"how?" "who

is

it?"

"why?"

(See Gabelentz, Anfgr., p.

58,

109; and Williams, S. D., pp. 1082-1083.)


VI.

Shang
1

(1),

Williams, S. D.

p. 742,

"to grow," "to

beget,'

to quicken," " to live."

Chit (13),

"he dwells

in his merit."

The term

is

frequently

translated

by "attaching oneself

to."

VII.

Fu

(1),

"now," "forasmuch

as."

(Williams, S.
;

>., p. 142.)

must frequently remain untranslated sometimes, as for instance in the sentence quoted on p. 14 from the Shu King,
(2)
i

Wei

takes the place of the auxiliary verb, "

is "

or "are." (Williams,

S.

D.

p., 1049.)

chapter
in.

3.

Stanislas Julien reads between sin


1

(6),

"heart," and

$u

(7),

not," the
3, i.

mz?t,

word min, "people," a and 3, ii. 8.

repetition of the preceding

Three advices given to rulers, stating what they should not do; $u shang (3, i. 1-2), "not to exalt;" j>u kzvei (3, ii. 1-2), "not prize;" andjz^ chien (3, iii. 1-2), "not to look at,"

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


IV.

285

^^ Sin

(9),

heart,
p. 151)

is

M the seat of desire," while


literally

fu

(12) (see
is

Williams, S. D.,

which means

"stomach,"
it

conthat

ceived to be "the seat of the mind."


the

As an adjective

means
is

"dear," "intimate," and the most probable interpretation

word fu

is

here intended to

mean

the seat of mental capacities

and sensible sentiment, as opposed


passions.

to sin, the seat of desires or

(18).

A similar contrast is intended between chi (15) and kuh The former means "will," "wish," "desire"; the latter, "bone." The former characterises self-willed or head-strong
T^t*
;

people

the latter, sturdiness, strength, character, or, in a word,

backbone.
v.

"to know," is here used in an evil sense; viz., "to be cunning," or "to be crafty." Wu chi (4-5) means "not cunning," "unsophisticated;" and chi che (10-11), "the crafty." Ye (15), "indeed," the particle of affirmation, renders the
Chi
(5),

sentence emphatic.
VI.

The phrase wei uuu wei

(1-3),

" to act with non-assertion,"

is

an irrefutable evidence that zvu ivei cannot mean "inactivity."

chapter
1.

4.

The characters guying (7-8) belong together, meaning " never exhausted," or briefly " inexhaustible." For u in the sense of the
English in- or
u?t-,

see note to Chapter


(1)

1,

i.

4.

Whether we
(7-8)
is

take tao

or

yung
is

(4)

as the subject of j)U

ying

indifferent.
(10),

The

sense

in either case the

same.

Hu
ation.

"oh!"

" well

!""

indeed ?"

is

a particle of exclam-

Julien,

The word Tsung (15), "ancestor," "patriarch," (St. "premier aieul"; Strauss, "Urvater"; "Ahnherr") must be regarded as a synonym of 7V, " the Lord or God."
70t*
11.

This passage, which


quotation.

is

repeated in Chapter 56,


(6),

is

a poetical

The words/aw

"fetter,"

and ch'dn

(12),

"dust,"

are rhymes.

286

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

^t* The words of this passage, t'ung ch'i ck'an (10-12), "it becomes one with its dust," are, in the translator's opinion, clear, but it is difficult to give an exact translation. It means that the
Tao's sameness,
its

own

identity, is preserved

and most contemptible of

things, viz., in the

The

purely formal laws of logic,

even in the smallest motes of the dust. mathematics and pure mechanics

are the

same

for stars

and

for molecules.
in.

J0t- Two of my Japanese editions read hzvo, which means "apparently, probably" (Williams, S. D., p. 224), while the two
others read jok, which
(eternally), which,

means "likely"

(ib.

p. 296).

St. Julien,

adopting the isolated reading of his edition G, prefers to read chang

however, seems to be the emendation of an angives no sense, and

cient copyist.

The reading hzuo


joh
(4),

may have

slipped in as being to a certain degree a


ing the reading

we

interpret

synonym oijoh. In adoptthe passage to mean: "it

seems in its likeness to remain," that is to say, "it appears to be immutable." 70S* The term Ti (13) or frequently Shang Tt, meaning 'Lord" or " the highest Lord," is commonly used in Chinese in It means the same sense as the English term Lord in the Bible. God and implies always the personality of God. The context, however, justifies neither the conclusion that Lao-Tze regarded the Tao as a personal Deity, nor that he thought of the Tao and God He may and probably did introduce the as two distinct entities. word ti (God), as commonly used and understood by the people neither affirming nor denying his existence, simply stating that Tao, or Reason, or the Logos (viz., the prototype of human reason, those inalienable conditions of all the relations of any possible reality, which logicians and mathematicians formulate in rules that are possessed of an intrinsic necessity and universality) is truly and unequivocally eternal it is absolutely eternal, while the Lord, supposing him to be a personal being, can only be regarded The Tao is prior even to God. as relatively eternal.
;

chapter
1.

5.

^^ There
grass-dogs.
of this passage

has been
is

much

discussion about the meaning of

The common

explanation suggested by the context

that grass-dogs or straw-dogs were used for

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


sacrificial purposes,

287

of living victims.

and probably offered as a burnt offering instead Such is the traditional interpretation of all the
is

commentators.
probable.

Plaenckner's interpretation that grass-dogs were

revered as a religious symbol (and not sacrificed or burned)

im-

11.

(4)

g^** This passage is difficult. The commentators explain/aw " humane or benevolent, " as " having particular affection." Acis

cordingly the sentence would mean, that the sage


tal
;

not sentimen-

he has as little preferences as heaven and earth, where the sun shines on the good as well as the evil, and where both, the good

and the

evil,

are finally

doomed

to die as grass-dogs are sacrificed.

The man
ates
:

holy

man

understands that according to the course of nature

Harlez deviis doomed to die and his life is like a sacrifice. from the traditional interpretation of the passage by translating "Si le ciel et la terre etaient sans bonte, ils regarderaient tous les hommes comme des chiens de paille etc." This avoids the difficulty of saying that the sage is not humane but what sense would the whole chapter have ? And is not the idea that heaven shows no partiality a favorite idea of Lao-Tze, who repeats it in another sentence of chapter 79, the construction of which is not subject to the slightest doubt, where he says T'ien tao zvu ts'in, "heaven's Tao shows no nepotism."
;

Vien

Plaenckner allows his imagination too much play in translating ti chi chien, the space between heaven and earth, by Welt-

menschen or worldlings. T'o (7) means a bag, open at both ends, a parse (Williams, S. D., p. 915), and yoh (8), a flute or fife (zb., p. n 17). Both words combined are (as Williams states on p. 915) a bellows, or a tube through which potters blow into the fire, and not, as Plaenckner
translates, a "bag-pipe."
IV.

This passage

is

a quotation,
is

and appears
is

to

be a proverb.

"The man
middle path.

of

many words

frequently at his wit's end and will

scarcely stick to the truth," for that

here the meaning of the

(See the Introduction pages 31-32.)

Chung
dle,
i.

(16)

means the middle

here

it

means

the golden mid-

e.,

the path of virtue and truth.

288

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
CHAPTER
I.

6.

Our
Tse

interpretation of

ku shdn

(1-2), the valley spirit, is set

forth in the Introduction on page 32.


reports,

The

quotation

is,

as Lieh
to

attributed

by the commentator T'u-T'au-Kien

Hwang
sex,

Ti, the yellow

emperor.

P'in

(8) is the term in natural science to denote the female mother sheep, hens, or mother birds, etc.

in.

The Chinese character


ually "
is

following the
It

word mien

(1)

"contin-

the sign of repetition.

means

that the previous word,

mien, should be read twice, and renders the word emphatic.


repetition
is

The
It is

frequently translated by "very."

Pu
a

ch'in (7-8), without effort,


of tsz
i.,
%

means
17,

it

comes

natural.

synonym
23,

jan

in

Chapter

the two last characters,

Chapter
one's

ternal coercion,"

Pu ch'in means "without excharacters 3-4, etc. and tsz' jan " in self manner," i. e according to
,

own

nature.

CHAPTER
I.

7.

St. Julien
ti chiu.

reads t'ien ti ch'ang chiu instead of Vien ch'dng

The
14-19.

characters

513
(13),

are the subject of the following sentence


in themselves form a sentence, are " that/' which in the analogous English

The words 5-12 which


che

summed up by
y

construction would be placed at the beginning of the sentence. Puh tsz shang (16-18) " not self live," i. e., they live not for
the purpose of self
;

they are unselfish.

Stanislas Julien reads ch'ien for

ch'ang

(21),

"long,"

viz.

long and lasting.


11.

which is summed up in the words the sage puts his person behind and his person will be preserved,' reminds us of Christ's word Matth. xxiii. 12, and also Matth. x. 39

The

lesson of this chapter,

'

'

(=

xvi.

25

Luke,

ix.

24

xvii.

33

John,
8.

xii. 25).

CHAPTER
I.

St. Julien

here translates shan

(6),

goodness, as a verb, " to be

good, to excel."

According

to

him,

we should

translate

"The

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


water excels in benefiting,"
verb
11,

289
shan before
the

etc.

The

position of

an adverb, viz,, "well" or "in a good way." The English " well " has lost its original meaning as an adverb for "good" by frequent use, or at least, is less significant than " in a good way" or "in goodness,'' wherefore the latter translation has been preferred as coming nearer the sense of the original. The words $u chang (11-12), "it quarreleth not, " reminds us of 1 Cor. xii. 4-7, and of Christ's blessing of the meek (Matth.
it

makes

v. 5).
11.

This sentence reads literally: " It dwells, cliu (i), in the place, (5) which is shunned, ivu (9), by the multitudes, chung jan chi The word su, however, is the relative pronoun, " he who," (2-4). or " there where." Thus the sentence reads in smoother English " It dwells in a place which all the people avoid," etc. This means that water always seeks the lowest elvel. Water, like the hermit,

su

who

lives in the wilderness, is distinguished

by

lowliness, setting

an example of unselfish effort. Chi (8) means to approach,


similarity.

in the sense of

coming near

in

in.

" to

Shan (2), "good, deem good, to be


Yuen
(6),

or goodness,"

means when used as a verb

satisfied with, to love, to prefer, to choose."

The

subject remains the

same

as before, viz., " superior goodness."

"eddies," means a place in the current where the

water

is

in

The word shi

commotion, which here illustrates warmth of sentiment. (16) is any kind of business, duty, or activity.

Tung (19) (motion or movement) means " in its own course." Goodness and the waves of water move in rhythm (shi).
IV.

For

fu

wH (1-2),

"since, whereas," see Chapter

2, vii.

1-2.

chapter
11.

9.

Strauss interprets

Vang

(4),

"hall," as being in contrast to

"treasury or safe." Treasures cannot be protected in a public hall which is accessible to anybody. In that case the pronoun chi (6)

would not refer

to

Vang,

hall,

but to chin

yuh

(1-2), treasures.

290

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
III.

This passage reminds us of the proverb


a
fall."

' :
'

Pride goeth before

The Way
must be

of

Heaven

identified with

or Heaven's Reason t'ien chi tao (15-17) what Lao-Tze in chapter I. calls chang

tao, " eternal reason."

chapter
1.

10.

The word
accent tsaV
it

'tsaz (1)

means a

year, a revolution, but with

changed

means

to contain, to convey, to sustain.

(Williams,

S. D., p. 941.)

The

v/ord

ying

(2)

(see Williams, S.

D.

p. 1107)

has given
soldier's

great trouble to the interpreters.

As a noun
to

it

means " a

camp," as a verb, "to plan,


ise."

to regulate, to arrange, or to organ-

To regulate the soul means Some commentators replace

keep

it

disciplined.

the

word ying by huan, which


animal
soul.

means the
basis,

spiritual soul in contrast to the

On

this

Stanislas Julien translates:


sensitive."

"L'ame

spirituelle doit

com-

mander a l'ame
venablement
polation
original

V.

v.

Strauss translates:

"Wer dem

Geiste die Seele einergiebt."


l'etre intellectuel

Harlez translates: " Traitant conqui habite (en soi)."

All these translations are forced and do not justify the inter-

made by the commentators. We prefer to retain the words and translate them as literally as possible. It gives a better sense than when we interpret the word yi?ig in the sense of huan. We take the first two words, " sustaining " and " disciplining" as synonymous. P'oh (3), the animal soul, or the senses, as contrasted to reason.

(Williams, S. D.,

p. 711.)

by embracing unity one cannot be disintegrated,*' are explained by the commentators to mean that unity is preserved by the assistance of the Tao. As to becoming free from disintegration, the reader is referred to chapters 22 and 39, where Lao-Tze speaks of embracing unity.
words,
'
'

The

The
that

present passage has given rise


significance of the

among

Taoists to the idea

Lao-Tze believed

in the possibility of finding

an

elixir of life.

The common
"hard
to subdue."

word chvuen

(9) is
it

"to give
to

special attention to," but

some

interpreters interpret

mean

Stanislas Julien

and Victor von Strauss follow

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


this

2gi

viation

We see no reason for a defrom the original text. Some manuscripts add after rh (15) child, the particle of exclamation hu (Oh !), which is also introduced between the characStanislas Julien also adds beters 8 and 9 of this same chapter. tween characters 13 and 14 the word joh, which means "like." Since it is probable that the word "like" suggested by the context has been added by later commentators, we believe that the simpler and terser reading is the more original.
view and translate accordingly.
y

11.

"mysterious beholding," or "profound intuition," which means by beholding the mysteries of the Tao. For Ian see Williams, S. D. p. 502.
Hilen Ian
(3-4),
t

in.

"the heaven gates," are said to be the apertures of the body, the nostrils, the mouth, etc. But since LaoTze speaks of the sage if he be in charge of the government, would it not be more natural to understand the sentence in the sense that a wise ruler, if he lets every act of his be reasonable, can open and close the gates of heaven and dispense its bliss ? Two of my Japanese editions and St. Julien read, in place of zvei tsz* (6-7), " act as mother bird," zvei zvu tsz\ "not act like a
(1-2),

7^" THen man

mother-bird," which, however, gives sense only


question, viz.,

if

construed as a

be a mother-bird ? " If Lao-Tze had written zvu tsz\ he would probably have added
in that case not

"can he

either

hu

or tsai, or
tsz'
.

some

particle of exclamation.

We prefer

the

reading zvei

IV.

These same sentences are repeated in chapter 51 The word ch'ajig (13) means "long," "to be long," "to cause to prolong life, " or "to to be long. " In the second sense it means The raise," and also, "to be higher than others," "to excel." translator is free to interpret the word either as "he excels but
'
'

does not rule," or

"he

raises but does not rule."


'

The
means

character tsai

(16),

'

to govern," is derived

from the signs


It

"shelter" and "bitter," denoting the slaughtering of animals.


also
' '

to slaughter

to skin or dress

dead animals and pre-

pare for food; to fashion."

Thus, the word denotes a method of

ruling in the most ruthless sense of the word.

292

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
CHAPTER
^** This chapter
is

II.

interesting,

because

it

exhibits

an

in-

stance in which a subtle thinker wrestles with one of the main

Mankind as a whole is materialistic and amount of things. They know little, or nothThey measure, and ing, of the paramount importance of form. weigh, and try to express everything (as a modern philosopher, the main representative of agnosticism, has it) in terms of N matter and motion only." They appreciate quantity, not quality. They overproblems of philosophy.
appreciates only the
look that configuration, external shape as well as internal structure, are at the

bottom of

all

realities.

And form

is

a quality of

existence quite different from either matter or motion.

Lao-Tze

dimly

feels that

matter and motion do not explain


their

there any advantage in masses and quantities.

value to things
or limits.

is

Nor is That which gives form, and form always involves boundary
reality.
is

He

does not state the solution of the problem, but he sees

that the partial absence of matter

that have been shaped into vessels of usefulness


cient saying of the

an essential feature of things and thus the an;


'
'

Greek sages

is verified,

the part

is

greater

than the whole."

CHAPTER

12.

%0t* The
yellow, white,

five colors
;

according to the Chinese are blue, red,


t

and black the five notes are called kong skang, hid, chi, and yil, which correspond to our c d, e, g, a, omitting the fourth and the seventh. See St. Julien's and Strauss's notes to the
t

twelfth chapter.
11.

The word fang

(17),

"checked," denotes an impediment, a

hindrance, an obstacle.

In the same sense the Buddhists use the

term "hindrance" as an equivalent of temptation.


in.

The term fu
word
is

(6)

" the inner," which

means

also

stomach and

soul, stands here in contrast to the visible, the outer.

The same

used in Chapter

3, iv.

12 in contrast to sin, "heart," as

the seat of passions.


1 Literally,

"one

half

is

more than the whole,"


in his^Epya
/cat ^/aepat,

(n\eov rjixiav navroq).

Hesiod mentions the saying


Laertius, L.
I. 11.

verse 40; and Diogenes

75, attributes it to Pittacus.

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


CHAPTER
I.

293

13.

This passage presents some grammatical difficulties. Julien "Son corps lui pese comme une grande calamitel" The commentators, among them Su Cheh, declare that the sentranslates:

tence must be construed not in the order as


"

it

stands

' :

'Kwei ta

hzuan joh shan (esteem grand distress like body"), but "Kzuei shan joh ta hzuan" ("esteeming body [is] like grand distress"). Other translators either overlook or neglect the hint of the commentators. Chalmers translates Dignity and disaster are as one's person." Legge " Honor and calamity [would seem] to be regarded as personal conditions [of the same kind]." Strauss: " Hohheit ist
:
' * :

so grosse Plage wie der Korper."


[soit]

Harlez

[Que]
corps

la

grandeur
[quant

une cause de grands soucis

comme

le

meme

asoi meme]."
kzvei
as

The

interpretation of Chalmers, Legge, Strauss,


first

and
that

Harlez seems probable enough, but we must consider


is

much here a verb as it is in iv. 2 of the same chapter, comment upon the present quotation the phrase kzuei i shan" ("to esteem as the body") is used. In iv., as much as in
where
i,,

in

the position of the object


to us

is at

the end of the sentence, which

seems odd
possesses

but

is

natural in Chinese where this transposition

much

force.
in.

che (14) "the one," or "that," changes the whole preceding sentence, viz., "the reason why I have great anxiety,"
into a

The word
noun

in

somewhat the same way

as does the English con-

junction "that," which, however, begins the sentence, while the

Chinese che stands at the end.


urally remain untranslated.

In the present case che will nat-

Wei

(14) is

used here as a conjunction and


is

may be

translated

"on

that account," or "it

due

to the fact that."

iv.

"the one," changes (as in iii. 14) the preceding clause into a noun which here may be translated by " he," thus: "He (8) who when administering (5) the empire (6-7) esteems it (2) as (3) his own body (4)," etc.
use of che
(8),

The

v.

This passage
that kzvei,

is

a repetition of the preceding sentence, except


is

"he esteems,"

replaced by ngai,

"he

loves."

Al-

294
though
all

LAO-TZE
the editions at

TAOTEH-KING.
disposal

scripts extant contain the repetition,

and probably all the manuwe have not the slightest doubt that it is an interpolation which must at a very early date have slipped into the text. We have preserved the passage in the Chinese text and in the transliteration for the sake of completeness, but we omit it in the translation where it would simply puz-

my

zle the reader.

chapter
1.

14.

^t* The

fourteenth Chapter has given rise to an interesting

theory which was

first propounded by the Jesuit missionary M. Abel Rmusat in his essay Sur la vie et les opinions de Lao-ts'eu published in the Memoir es de V Academie Roy ale des inscriptions

Remusat claims to have discovered in the Tao- Teh- King the name of Jehovah, expressed in the three words, i (7), hi (14), and zv ei (21). The meaning of the three words is as follows The word i (Williams, S. Z>., p. 276) means "to level, to equalise, to squat, to be at ease," as an adjective it means "equalising, subtile, placid," and also " colorless as the Taoists say reason is." The original meaning seems to be an indifferent or equalised state of mind, not colored by passions. The word hi (Williams, S. >., p. 176) means "seldom, loose, " Deprived of sound as Laothin, expectant," and Williams adds
et belles lettres, Vol. VII.
: :

Tze says reason is." The word wet (Williams,

S. D., p. 1050)

means "small, mi-

nute, recondite, waning, fading away."

The
translate
less,"
(i.

text of the passage leaves little

ubt that

we have

to

/by
e.,

"colorless," hi

the

Tao

is

that

by "soundless," and wei by "bodiwhich if seized fades away from the

touch).

Stanislas Julien devotes in his edition of the Tao-

Teh-King

several pages to a refutation of Remusat's proposition which seems


to

be complete

ical inclinations,

but Victor von Strauss, yielding to his theosophagain espouses the lost cause of the French misit

sionary and defends

with great

ability.

The meaning
is i
t

hi,
;

and wei,
is,

tion

it

which proclaim that the Tao distinct from sense-percepcan neither be seen, nor heard, nor touched by hands.
of these sentences,
is

obvious.

Reason

is

Reason

as

we should

say,

pure form.

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


That Lao-Tze should have
tury B. C.
travelled to Palestine
is

295
as unlikely

as that Israelites should have travelled to China in the sixth censee Williams in his
in the

There are Jews now living in China (concerning whom work The Middle Kingdom, and various notes

Chinese Repository); but they immigrated, according to their

under the Han dynasty. Should Lao-Tze, after have heard of the God of the Hebrews, and should he have intended to speak of him he would certainly have made a clear and unequivocal statement. Nor is there any similarity of sound between the tetragram jhvh, which was pronounced yahveh, and the three words i, hi, tvei. So long as there is no better evidence than the vague arguments offered by Remusat and Strauss, we cannot but look upon their theory as fantastical, fascinating though it be. While we do not hesitate to say that the idea of identifying the characters i-hi-wH with je-ho-vah has no foundation whatever, we do not, of course, deny that Lao-Tze's views of the Divinity that shapes our ends, possess in one respect at least a great Both are trinitarian. For fursimilarity to Christian doctrines. ther details on Lao-Tze's trinitarianism see the comments on Chap-

own
all,

traditions,

ter 42.
11.

7j!^

The

sense of this sentence appears paradoxical, because

one would expect that on a superficial consideration a difficult problem might appear clear, but by further inquiry into its deeper complications
site.

we

will find

it

obscure.

Lao-Tze says the very oppois

He

says on a superficial consideration Reason


;

obscure

its

principles do not appear to be clear

but

when we

inquire into the

problem and become acquainted with the depth of its meaning it becomes clear and all obscurity vanishes. The passage reminds
us of St. Augustine's saying, that Christianity
is

like a stream, in

which a lamb can wade, while an elephant must swim. I understand Lao-Tze to mean that the Tao gives food for thought to the immature as well as to the sage. The immature may think that there are no difficulties and that everything is plain, but there are intricacies of which they do not dream and the sage when pondering on it may be inclined to think that there is no pos;

sibility of arriving at

a satisfactory solution
the

but he should not


;

give up, for after

all,

Tao

is

not incomprehensible

it is

obvi-

ously simple and plain.

Therefore Lao-Tze warns the former, the superficial, that

296
even
the

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
to a superficial investigation
:

it

will offer difficulties rendering

Tao obscure

and the

latter,
is

the profound thinkers, that in

spite of all intricacies the

Tao

clear throughout.

IV.

means "the not having form." Lao-Tze in expressing his thought lies in the fact that the word "form," chwang (17), is commonly used as bodily shape and not in the sense of pure form.
chzvang
(14-15) literally

Wu

The

difficulty for

VI.

Tao-chi (16-17), tne thread of the Tao, is explained by the commentators as the initial thread, which suggests the translation
'cue."

CHAPTER
II.

15.

The

guest

is

reserved in the presence of his host (23-27).

Julien omits the pronoun

chH

(25, 37, 42, 47).

The omission

does not affect the meaning of the passage.


hi
Sii (15), Stanislas Julien

reads
IV.

"Through long

stirring."

The meaning of sin ch'ing (15-16) seems doubtful. It may mean " increasingly perfected, " or " newly finished, " or "stylishly
fashioned." For sin see Williams, S.
>., p.

806; for ch'ing, p. 77.

chapter
n.

16.

Tsoh

(21),

" to invent, to stimulate, to arouse."


:

Here used

in

the reflective sense

"to

rise."

(Williams, S. D., p. 1005.)

chapter
1

17.

"not," which is contained in (4), Japanese editions. The context requires the negation, and its omission would render the whole chapter unintelligible. The omission of the negation, however, dates back to olden times
Stanislas Julien omits j?u

one of

my

and the commentators have endeavored to explain the sense as well as they could. Lo Hi Ching says "The great rulers let the
:

people notice so

little

of their administration that they

knew

of

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


them
their

297

mere existence and nothing more."

The

similarity of

the character j>u, "not," and hia, "inferior," sufficiently accounts


for a copyist's mistake.
11.

used to change the preceding word tsz into an adverb, in the same way as the French "ment, " or the
(16) is

The word jan

English "ly, " changes adjectives into adverbs.


cordingly,

"Selflike," acIt

means autonomous, independent,

free.

implies that

they can live according to their


fered with.

own

nature, without being inter-

CHAPTER
I.

l8.

0lt*
all

The

six relatives are

father,

mother, older brother,


relatives"

younger brother, wife, and


the

child.

The term "six


:

means

members
(21) is

of a family.
is

Chia

what

within doors

" the household, the family."

(Williams, S.

>., p.

351.)

chapter
11.

19.

The compound
deem."

wei

(4-5)
y

means "to

consider, to regard, to

(Williams, S. D.
(6),

p.

1047.)

Wan

"culture, schooling."

chapter
1.

20.

possess two affirmations wet (5) and o (8) an unequivocal, the latter a hesitating assent. The former is definite and should be used by men and boys. The latter indicates modesty and should be used by women and girls. This distinction is made according to the rules of Chinese propriety, but Lao-Tze deems it unessential. This interrogative particle (12) at the end of the sentence indicates that the preceding "how much " is to be interpreted in the sense "very little indeed "; while ho joh (19-20) may be translated

70t*

The Chinese
is

the former

"

how

greatly."
11.

which is an object of the people's fear. According to the commentators speaking on the words 1-8, the sages must also fear what all the people fear, which is either law
zue'i (3-4), viz.,

Su

that

298

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
rulers, or life

and punishments, or the government and

and death,

or evil in general. Commentator H. (as quoted by Julien) says " the people ought to fear moral evil, especially temptations, viz.,

"music, pleasures, riches, and luxury."


the sage does not attach himself
to. life,

Su Chh says

that while he will nevertheless ob-

serve the laws of the country and respect the authorities in power.

The passage hzuang hi chH


preted by some commentators to
the sages
is

zvei

yang

tsai ! (9-14)

is inter-

mean

that the comprehension of

Su Ch&h explains hwang (9) as "extenpronoun ctti to " sages," saying that while the intelligence of the masses is limited, the knowledge of the sages is boundless and its potentialities cannot be fathomed. Julien translates "lis s'abandonnent au desordre et ne s'arretent jamais." Harlez "O misere qui n'est point encore a son plus haut term." Chalmers " But alas they will never cease from their madness." Strauss: "Die Verfinsterung, oh dass sie noch nicht aufhort " How wide and without end is the range of questions Legge " (asking to be discussed) Williams defines hwang (9), p. 250, by "wild, barren, waste;
unlimited,
sion,"

and

refers the

'

'

unproductive, deserted

without restraint, reckless


;

blasted

a jungle

a famine, dearth

... to frustrate."
it

We

refer cfCi (11),

"their," not to sages, but (as grammatically


strued) to the next preceding noun,
late
:

ought to be con-

which

is

desolation,

and trans-

" This desolation, Oh!

it

has not yet reached


in.

its limit."

The word chao (33) means a sign which the tortoise shell gives when roasted over a fire for the sake of receiving a favorable omen.
chapter
1.

21.

The word k'ung


first

(1)

means " a

hole, or hollow."

It
it is

forms the
explained

part of Confucius's name. In the present place,


to

by the interpreters

mean grand on account

of vastness.

The
added
to

particle zt^V (13), "then, only; is, or will," is frequently complete the sound of a sentence and need not be trans-

lated in that case.

The words hzuang

(14),

" abstruse," and


' '

hu

(16),

"elusive,"

wild, unready, not yet are difficult to translate. Hzva?tg means done"; and hu " to forget, to disregard," or as an adverb, "un-

expectedly."

Reason

is

characterised by Lao-Tze as something


itself

which

is

not ready-made, but presents

as an abstruse prob-

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


lem
full of difficulties to

2gg
is

be worked out
It is

and the solution

not a

direct answer, not yes or no.

too intricate to admit a simple

statement of

its

nature.
(as stated in 21-23)

That the Tao


of Plato's ideas.

has in

it

images reminds one

chapter
1.

22.

There are two forms


torn,

of ft (10), both of which mean " tattered, worn, deteriorated as an old coin." See W. S. D., pp. 675
St. Julien

and 676.

and one Japanese edition use the simpler form


(radical 55) underneath.

that omits the

"kung"

xl. 4, where we read "Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain;" and also of the makarism that those that mourn shall be comforted (Math. v. 4).

This chapter reminds us of Isaiah

CHAPTER
I.

23.

The combination hi yen


monly

(1-2),

"seldom

to speak," is

com-

translated " to be taciturn."


tsz"

The phrase
17 et alias.

according to one's

jan (3-4) means " in the manner of self," i.e., own nature, or briefly " natural." See Chapter
'

Shu Chen says


strike

'

The words

of Tao,

though they be few,

home because

they are natural.


11.

TheTetzugaku Kwan

edition replaces the passages "

who

pur-

sues his business- with virtue, the one," by "the virtue-man," and " who pursues his business with loss, the one," by " the loss-man."

The whole passage reads


reason.

as follows

'

'

Therefore

who pursues

his

business with reason, the one, the reason-man,

is

identified with

The man

of loss

is

identified with loss."

Whether

this is a simplification of the other reading, or vice

versa, whether the more complete version has been rendered more

uniform by copyists
either case.

is

an

idle question.

The

sense

is

the

same

in

in.

Julien omits the character

lo/i,

" to rejoice," in the sentences

tao yih loh teh chi

(5-9), teh

yih loh teh chi (12-18), and shih yih

300

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.

loh teh chi (21-27), which appears in all the other texts at my disposal, and translates " Celui qui s'identifie au Tao, gagne le Tao,"
etc.
It

appears that the pronoun chi at the end of these three pas-

sages must be referred to the preceding nouns, tao, teh, and shih

which indicates an anteposition of the object. (About the rules of inversion see Gabelentz, Anfg., pp. 73-75.) We translate therefore " The Tao, in addition, he enjoys to obtain it," etc., etc. To refer chi to the sage, viz., to him who identifies himself with Reason, virtue, and loss, is grammatically not impossible, but not probable. We can understand that Lao-Tze personifies the Tao and says that "the Tao enjoys being embraced"; we can even allow that he personifies Teh, "Virtue"; but how improbable is a personification of "Loss." The word shih (21), "loss," is conceived by Julien, Chalmers, Strauss, Planckner, and Alexander in the sense of moral deficiency, which, however, is not warranted by the Chinese and Japanese interpretations of the text.

Wang

Pi says:

"The

sage endures

everything and can therefore identify himself with everything,"

even with

loss.

Chalmers translates "Him who is identified with Tau, (the community) of Tau also rejoices to receive." Strauss agrees with Chalmers in his construction of the Chinese grammar, but he personifies the Tao, saying: " Wer eins wird mit Tao, auch Tao
freut's ihn

zu bekommen."

chapter
11.

24.

The word hing


in this

(9),

commonly "behavior, elements,"


;

etc., is

connexion explained as " the bodily organism the system." The pronoun chi (13), " them," refers to offal of food and ex-

crescence in the system (6-9), not directly to the self -approving,


self -boasting,

and

self-glorifying

The words $u ch'u mean, the man who has

man

he has nothing to

man. " ne does n t stav or dwell," reason, has no use for the self -displaying do with him.
(18-19),

chapter
1.

25.

Chalmers translates the words


otic

in

nature;"

" L'etre etait

" There is something chaun Etre confus;" Harlez indiscernable mais complet " Strauss: " Es gab
1-4,

Julien:

"II

est

"

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


ein

3OI

Wesen

(3-4) belong together

un cKang unbegreiflich vollkommen. " *The words hzvun means " mixed as is a turbid current
;

hw

containing
pletion."

all

kinds of ingredients," and ch'dng


11.

means "in com-

Ming
gestive.

(16) is the

proper name, tsz

(17)
is

means the

title

that

expresses the character.

The

distinction
in.

thoughtful and sug-

CKiang
'should
I

(1),

"constrained,"

may be
I

passive

or reflexive,

be constrained," or "should
IV.

endeavor."

Wang

(8),

"royalty," or " the king,"

is

here apparently used

in the sense of t'ien-tsz\ " the son of heaven," the guardian of the
is the representative of mankind and in pointing out the interpretation of the four great ones the term zvang, "king," is replaced by jan (v. 1), "man. That Lao-Tze does not think highly of the sovereign that ruled at his time appears from the concluding paragraph of the following chapter, where he is called " the master of the ten thousand char-

moral order on earth. As such he

in general,

'

iots."
v.

The words
nature,"
i.

tsz'

jan

(12-13), "self-like,"

which are commonly


its

translated by "natural,"
e., its

mean here
is

that "reason follows

own

standard

intrinsic.

chapter
1.

26.

The expression fu li tsz' chung (8-1 1) is a phrase denoting, " Not to depart from the baggage- waggon," to maintain a grave and
composed
attitude.

Chung means "weighty"


chapter
1.

or "grave."

27.

The compound

ch'eu ts'eh (14-15),

"computing

slips,"

means

abacus or counting machine.


11.

word sih (23) by "double," on the authority of one of the commentators who explains it by chong, double. The word sih means (1) the lining of garments; (2) stealthy, or to
Julien translates the
'
'

302

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

steal; (3) to inherit, etc.

We
is

understand the word

to

mean "the

inside," or " that

which

not at once seen."


in.

The word
used

tsz (17)
is

"investment," and
in English.

means "capital," "wealth," "treasure," used in the same sense as these words are
chapter
1.

28.

Both words, k

(i.

10 and 14) and

ku

(iii.

10 and

14),

mean

'valley" or "river-bed."
11.

The
Tao.

unlimited, or zuu chi (22-23),


IV.

*s

tne absolute,

i.

e.,

the

but as jade becomes been shaped into a vessel, chi is directly used in the sense of "useful person." Pu san ts'eh zvei ch'i (1-5) may mean, " By scattering simplicity he makes of himself a vessel of usefulness," but the following sentence where the pronoun chi (9) can have reference only to chi (5), "vessel" or "vessels," indicates that the sage makes of
chi
(5)

The word

means

literally

'

'

vessel

;"

useful

and acquires value only

after having

the people vessels of usefulness."

CHAPTER
I.

29.

T^t-

The

proposition,

"The

state is a divine vessel " (15-18),


is
(j)vaei

means

in

Aristotelian terms the state

not

tiecrei

or as

Christian teachers of political economy (such men as Stahl) would say, " it is God-created not man-made." Nowadays we should say,

"The

state is of natural

growth according

to the eternal

laws that
State.)

condition the evolution of mankind, and not the product of a social


contract."

(See the author's pamphlet

The Nature of the

chapter
in.

30.

The word
'it

i (12)

which frequently occurs as a


" that finishes
is

finite particle in

the sense " that

is all,"

it," is

here used as a verb,

ends," "it ceases," "it

gone."

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


CHAPTER
I.

303

31.

fied with," is frequently

to attend to," "to be satis used in the sense "to be attached to,' "to use," "to employ," " to have dealings with."
(17),
11.

The word chu

"to dwell," "

Chiiln tsz* (1-2),

pher,"

is

"the master thinker," or "royal philosoa synonym for holy man.


in.

The

particle i (25) " therefore,"


IV.

is

omitted in some editions.

We have
It

omitted this passage from the translation of the


:

text.

reads as follows

"In
right
is

propitious events the left

is

exalted.

In evil events the


left.

exalted.

The

assistant army-leader sits to the


sits to
is

The

superior army-leader
sition of superior

the right.

power

here as in

This indicates that the pothe arrangement of funeral


multitudes of

ceremonies.

The

slaughter of

many

men must be

deplored with sorrow and lamentation, and the conqueror in a

must be placed according to the funeral ceremonial." This whole section, and perhaps also the sections ii. and iii., are spurious. Neither is the language Lao-Tze's terse style, nor are the words such as were used in his days. The titles "assistant army leader," or "adjutant general" and "superior army leader" or "chief general " do not occur in any one of the older books and
battle

belong unquestionably to a later age.

It is

probable that some

commentator (probably Wang Pi) wrote the passage in explanation of the chapter, and the copyists made the mistake of embodying
the gloss into the text.

chapter
1.

32.

"a
"

The word fin (22), " to pay homage, " is denned by Williams, who comes willingly to pay his respects," " to submit," to acknowledge," " to come under civilising influences."
visitor
11.

The passage ski chi yiu ming (1-4) presents some difficulties. Literally it means "In the beginning, when administering (or arranging,

governing) [then there

is]

the having name."

Julien

304
translates
:

LAO-TZE'S

TAO TEH-KING.
;

" he exil eut un nom and interprets the words to mean that Legge translates, "As soon as it the Tao began to divide itself. proceeds to action, it has a name." Harlez, " Quand (le Tao) commenga a former (les tres) il y eut alors des noms." Strauss: " Der da anhebt zu schaffen hat einen Namen." Chalmers leaves us in doubt whether this sentence refers to the Tao. He trans" If he should ever begin to regulate things with distinctions lates There seems to be of names, he would then be getting a name." no doubt that Tao must be supplied as the subject of the sentence, for there is a contrast between the unnameable and the nameable. The Tao in itself is unnameable, but it becomes nameable, that is

" Des que le tao se fut divise,

plains chi as differentiation

to say determinable as the

immanent

principle of order in concrete


it is

existences,

i.

e.,

the

Tao

is

definite as soon as

practically ap-

plied, either in the creation of the

mic order, or anywhere in logic, The word possible system of pure reason.
the beginning,"
is

appears as cosarithmetic, mathematics, or any


it

world where

shi,

"at

first,"

"in

frequently used in the sense of the

Hebrew

bereshith, and the Greek kv apxy, viz., in the beginning of the world, but it may also be translated by "at first," " at once," "as

soon as."
of order.

The word shi

(2),

"

management,"

refers mainly to the

administration of a civilised government, but

may mean any

kind

Grammatically
in

"When
addition
ple]

would be not impossible to translate the beginning (1) governments (2) [were instituted],
it

there were
(6)

(3)

names [given
(7)

to the people].
(8),

When names

(5) in

already

existed

then

(9) in

addition (10) [peo-

sions] (13).

where to stop [viz., to refrain their paswhere to stop (15), that is why (16-17) there are no (18) dangers" (19), i. e., the people would enjoy While this translation would be admissible in any other safety. writer, we must consider that zvu ming is a favorite and definite expression of Lao Tze's terminology, and the context requires to interpret the passage as a continuation of the first paragraph of the chapter, which brings out the contrast between (1) the absolute Reason, the Tao as it is in itself while it remains nameless, and (2) the applied Reason, the immanent principle of rationality, which would
(11) learn (12)

Knowing

(14)

is

the formative factor of existence.

Tai
(18-19)
safety."
i

(19)
s

means "danger" or "risk."


fail

frequently used by Lao-Tze, signifying

The phrase $u tai "a condition of


its possibilities

The Tao cannot

or be exhausted,

are

unlimited.

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


CHAPTER
III.

305

33.

Sheu

(6),

"eternal
is

life,"

or "longevity,"

is

the

first of

the five
It

happinesses and

never missing in Chinese congratulations.

touches the Chinese heart perhaps more deeply than ours.


context sufficiently proves that sheu does not
life,"

The

mean merely "long

but

life eternal, life

beyond death.

chapter

36.

ii.

to

The word wet, "secret," which occurs in the heading and in " a slight shower of rain." It is interpreted 3, means originally denote that w hich is hazy or hidden as in a mist. Julien,
r

Legge translate zuei as a verb, " to enlighten or enlightenment," and ming as its object, i. e., "hiding the light." Chalmers translates "secret understanding;" and Harlez, " the understandStrauss,

ing of the mysterious.


in.

p*t*

We
is

translate zuei

ming

(3-4),

" the secret's explanation."

The
have

secret

that the tender

and weak conquer the hard and the


Therefore the people ought not to
if

strong.

The

reason

is

that the tender are growing, while the hard

lost the elasticity of life.


;

be made warlike
of the water.

for

if

they are warlike,

they are familiar with

the use of arms, they will soon perish like fish that are taken out

Li

eft i (9-10),

" excellent or sharp tools," always

means arms

or weapons.

CHAPTER
II.

37.

"steady,"

The word ting (17) means "tranquil," "secure," "fixed,' etc. Then "a trance" or "rapture." In Buddhism it

denotes the " fixed condition of mind," " peace of soul," " a state
of contemplation."

CHAPTER
I.

38.

" Unvirtue" or

$u

teh (3-4)

is

not merely the absence of virIn the same way means not a mere

tue but implies the blame of actual immorality. fu siajig, " unblessings " (Chapter 78, ii. 17-18),

absence of bliss but positive curses.

306

laotze's tao-teh-king.
This chapter undoubtedly
criticises the

Confucian method of

preaching ethical culture without taking into consideration the reLao-Tze maintains that genuine virtue does not ligious emotions.
boast of being virtue, and that the show of virtue actually betrays

a lack of virtue.
clothed
is

The paradoxical language

in

characteristic of the old philosopher

which this idea is and will serve to

elucidate similar expressions of his, especially his


zvei as that not-doing

maxim

of zuu

which everything can be done. According to Confucius the highest virtue is justice which doles out rewards to the good and punishments to the bad but according to Lao-Tze that disposition of heart which meets both the good and the bad with the same goodness is alone true virtue (see Chapter 49 and 63); for even the superior justice as exercised in the imperial courts of the country is full of pretension and selfThe same is true of the rules of propriety and ceremoassertion. nies which play so important a part in Confucian ethics.
of
;

by means

v.

Chang
of 10
to

(4),

W.

S.

D.

p. 25, is

a Chinese measure consisting

is of about 10 feet, reckoned be 141 English inches. Chang fu (4-5) means " husband" (see also W. S. D. p. 142) in the same sense as/w ajone which othert

chHh (grasping hands), which

wise means
Finally,

"any distinguished man," or "one who can help." ta changfu (3-5) denotes "the great man of affairs;" or
to

"one fit The

manage."

contrast between

heu

(8),

"solidity," and^to (12), "exter-

nality" or their covering,, and shih (15) "fruit, " and hwa (19), " flower," sufficiently explains that flower is meant in the sense of

mere show.
CHAPTER
V.

39.

Chi shu
pieces
is

ch'e

wu

ch*e (2-6)

means
means

literally,
(5)

"Let
"to
let

(2)
(6).

(3)

a carriage

(4) it is

no [longer]
it

a carriage"

go to Chi

a causative auxiliary verb;

''to go,"

go," "to

let."

Shu, as a verb, means "to enumerate"; as a noun, "details which are or can be enumerated."

may seem

This chapter contains an idea that is more important than at first sight, and may briefly be called the "importance

of oneness."

carriage

is

not the

sum

total of its parts

its

parts
car-

must be properly combined

into a unity in order to

make a

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


riage.

307

The same

is

true of heaven and earth, of spiritual beings,


all

of the government,

and

other useful institutions.

0"

It is

similar sense in the

strange that the same simile of a chariot is used in a Milinda fahha (the " Questions of King Mi-

linda") 1 for proving both the importance of unities and their absolute non-existence
selves, as
if

considered as independent things in them-

atmans or

ego-entities.

The Buddhist

sage Nagasena

is an no atman [no independent ego-entity] here to be found." The King answers "If there is no ego-entity, pray tell me who is it who performs acts, who eats, who drinks, who thinks, who keeps the precepts, who commits sins, who acquires merit What, then, is Nagasena ? Is Nagasena the ?

says:

"My

fellow-priests, address
is

me

as Nagasena, but this

appellation, for there

hair

the nails
?

perception

the teeth ? the lungs sensation ? the ? ? The When all the dispositions? the consciousness ?"
. .
.

King concludes "I fail to discover any Nagasena. Verily now, venerable sir, Nagasena is an empty sound. You speak a falsehood, a lie there is no Nagasena." The Buddhist sage now turns the table and asks the King whether he came on foot or in his chariot. "I came in a chariot," replies the King, whereupon Nagasena asks: "What is the chariot?" enumerating all its parts. Is the axle the chariot ? the wheels ? the box ? the yoke? the reins?" And when Milinda denies these questions, Nagasena repeats the words of the King, only substituting " Your Majesty, although I "chariot" for "Nagasena"; he says question you very closely, I fail to discover any chariot. The word chariot is an empty sound. Your majesty speak a falsehood, a lie. There is no chariot." The king defends himself, saying "Venerable sir, I speak no lie the word 'chariot is but a way of speaking, a term, an appellation, a name for pole, axle, wheels, chariotbox, etc." Then Nagasena draws the conclnsion, that the unity of a person is just as real as that of a chariot, and yet there is no person in itself, no atman, no ego in the absolute sense. The problem of unity has also been treated by Plato in a discussion of the one and many. For quotations, see in the index of Fowett's translation, the references collected sub voce "one." Vol.
these questions are denied, the
:

'

'

'

V., p. 479.

lSee Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp.


the East, Vol.

124-133,

and Sacred Books of

XXXV.,

pp. 40-44.

308

laotze's tao-teh-king.
CHAPTER
II.

41.

The term ju (26), " to put to shame, " is a common term in the You have done Chinese style of propriety. When we would say, me the honor," they in their overpoliteness use the word ju and
'

'

say, "

You have disgraced

yourself."

chapter
11.

42.

The Chinese relative su (3), "that which," immediately prewe say, "that which is detested by the people," while the Chinese say, jdn chz su wu (1-4), "the people's, that
cedes the verb
;

which

is

detested."

yang

is the y'in (17), the and the chH (22), viz., the negative principle, the positive In their unity they principle, and the breath of life or the spirit. The resemblance which this trinity bears to the are the Tao. trinity doctrines in general is no evidence that Taoism has been derived from Brahmanism. Nor is it a triple personality. LaoTze's trinity doctrine is quite abstract and philosophical it may be based upon older teachings, or it may be his own interpretation of the traditional views of the yang and yin, in combination with the idea of the ch% all three of which are contained in the Tao as

0il The trinity of which Lao-Tze speaks


(20)

the all-comprising Rationality of existence, the divine Logos, the

highest unifier, the principle of oneness for

The
(which

all

thoughts and things.

Chinese

trinity,

being the duality of


Ck'i, is

yang and yin

organised into a higher unity un-

der the harmonious influence of


as the source of all existence,
is

regarded

and

its

symbol

shown

in the adjoined

illustration)

possesses a deep religious significance for the

Chinese heart.
in.

The phrase chiao fu

(20-21),

"a

doctrine's father," is ex'


'

the root of a plained by the great majority of commentators as doctrine," or its "philosophical foundation." Abel Remusat transle pere de la doctrine" (/. /., His translation is literally correct, and he either translated the words as he found them or followed Teh Ts'ing (commentator H. of Julien) who is the only one who accepts the literal

lates,

"C'est moi qui suis, a cet egard,

p. 32).

NOTES AND COMMENTS.

309

meaning of the passage. But he explains fu, "father," as mo-to, "the announcer," literally "wooden bell," which is the bell that was sounded in announcing the arrival of dignitaries. Morrison explains it as the bell that was rung to call the people to service to
receive instruction.

chapter
1.

43.

Both words chH (6) and chHng (7) mean "to gallop." Two synonyms are frequently used to make the idea emphatic, or, if
the sound of one happens to possess too
it

many meanings,

to render

unequivocal.
11.

This passage appears absurd, but we must consider that nonis the formal aspect which is conditioned by the Tao. The sentence means, "that which has no concrete existence," "the immaterial reality," i. e., the laws of formal relations enter
existence
into the impenetrable.

CHAPTER
I.

44.

Lao-Tze apparently means (words 6-10) that hoarded goods and thus lead to loss. In our days of an intense utilisation of capital we would say that hoarding is in itself a loss.
invite plunder

chapter
these passages,
;

45.

Nishimura, the Japanese editor of the 7ao- Teh-King regards


i. and ii., as poetry, not as a quotation but as written and he undoubtedly follows a good Chinese authority. The lines sound like verses although the rhymes are very imperfect, at least if we follow the Chinese pronunciation of Williams; but it is not impossible that they may have been good rhymes according to Lao-Tze's own pronunciation. Legge, too, translates them as verses.

by Lao-Tze

CHAPTER
II.

48.

Shi

(7)

means "business"
8, iii., 15.)

in the

modern sense
it

of the word,

denoting "business push and manipulation or artful dexterous

management." (See
artifices,

Here

means

"political push, or

diplomacy."

3IO

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
49.

CHAPTER
II.

Legge deems it advisable to change the traditional reading, here replacing teh (13), "virtue," by teh, " to obtain, to get," and translates " Thus all get good."

chapter

50.
life

0t* Su Cheh
going forth

says "Nature knows neither

nor death.

Its

we

call life,

and

its

coming

in

we

call death."

The
the

chapter sets forth the idea that there are people

who pursue

path of

life,

others

who pursue

the path of death, and again others

who are now under the sway of life's attractions and now under the doom of death's influence. The sage belongs to none of these he is above life and death, and therefore three classes of men
;

he has no death-place, death which means he


;

i.

e.,

he does not belong

to the

realm of

is

invulnerable, he cannot be touched by


1.

death.
" a follower" (see W. S. D. p. 919 ) The same phrases " life's followers " and " death's followers " occur a second
(7)

Tn

means

time in Chapter 76, where there

is

no doubt about the meaning

Accordingly there is little probability here that we must interpret it to mean " ministers of life and of death " in the sense of some

unknown mythological

beings, or death and life-bringing angels. Lu-Tze, one of the commentators, interprets the word yiu (9), "there are" or "have," in the sense of "and"; accordingly we
'

should translate
their

'

Life's followers are thirteen, death's followers

are thirteen, and the death places (or vulnerable spots) of

men

in

movements are also thirteen." But who are these three times thirteen ? The number thirteen does not play any part in Chinese philosophy, religion, and folklore. We are told by some that it means the 5 senses and the 8 apertures by others the 3 souls, 7 spirits, 1 vital soul (or ch'i ), 1 yin, and 1 yang. But these explanations are artificial and improbable Julien, Harlez, and Strauss adopt the interpretation of shi yiu san in the sense of thirteen. Chalmers gives the preference to the translation "three in every ten," and Legge follows Chalmers. We have adopted the same interpretation. Three in ten, being repeated three times, makes nine in ten. The tenth in each ten would be the wise, i. e., the
;
!

sage of

whom

the next sentence declares that he will not be endan-

gered by rhinoceroses, tigers, or soldiers.

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


II.

311

The word kai (1), originally a coarse grass used for thatching houses," then "a covering," is here a particle meaning "now then " or " for." The phrases kai yiieh, " now it is said " (quoted by Williams in his S. D., p. 308, first column, line 5) and, as we have it here, kai zua?i (1-2), "indeed I hear," are of common occurrence. The word kai must not be confounded with ho (IV. S.
'

'

>., p.

218)

which

is

the

same character only without the


unite, (2)

radical

"plants" and means


native.

(1) to

why not ?
53.

intimating an alter-

CHAPTER
I.

The word ski


of a banner; then
it is

(12),
it

"assertion,"

means

originally the hoisting

means "to

give, to do, to use, to arrange."

here used as a contrast to zc/u zuei, " non-assertion." Although this passage appears to be very simple, the translaTheir versions are as follows tors differ greatly. " Si j'etais doue de quelque connaissance, je marcheJulien La seule chose que je craigne, c'est rais dans la grande Voie.
:

d'agir."

Chalmers
ernment)
is

"

Would

that I

edge to walk in the great Tao.


Strauss:

were possessed of sufficient knowlOnly the administration (of gov-

a fearful responsibility."

"Wenn ich hinreichend erkannt habe, wandle ich im grossen Tao nur bei der Durchfiihrung ist dies zu fiirchten." Legge " If I were suddenly to become known (and put into a position to) conduct (a government) according to the great Tao, what I should be most afraid of would be a boastful display." Harlez "Si Ton me chargeait d'une function auxiliaire du
; : :

gouvernement, ayant alors acquis


marcherais dans
de
la

les

connaissances necessaires, je
et je craindrais

grande voie du Tao

seulement

me repandre au

dehors."

chapter

55.

The word/tt,
boo
slips in pairs,

"seal," in the heading means originally

"BamThen
it

made

to give

one half

to

each party."

means "a seal in two pieces which when joined proves its genuineness by matching." In their sense it is litterally what the Greeks called (Jvju/3o?.ov, a "symbol" (from aw, " together, " and f$aXkelv "to throw," i. e., "to piece together"). Finally the word
t

312

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
seal,

acquired the meaning of the impression of a


of genuineness.

and the warrant

As a verb

it

means
i.

to testify, to verify.

The
W. S.D.,

character tsui
1,

(35),

which

is

explained in the Kanghi,


is

Vol. 31, p.

as "the privates of an infant,"


t

referred to in

sub voce suen, "shrivelled, diminished." The character suen is, according to the Kanghi, another mode of writing tsui. Baby boys before emptying the bladder are frequently troubled with erections, wich is here misinterpreted as a
p. 821,
t

symptom of vigor. The character t sing


denotes
(1)
;

(37)

consisting of "rice"
(2)

and "pure,'

cleaned

rice,

then

the essence or best of anything;

the spirit

and

lastly (3) the

germinating principle, or the semen


56.

of the male.

chapter
in.

(5, 11, 16, 22, 26) is causative and progressive which literally means "not can he be obtained and then thereby be loved and discarded." Briefly, "he is

The

use of 'rh

in this passage,

inaccessible to love, enmity, etc."

chapter
11.

57.

ful, profitable."

"sharp tools, weapons." Li means also "useLegge interprets li in the sense of "use" and translates "the more implements to add to their profit that the people have, the greater disorder is there in the state and the clan.'

Li chH

(12-13),

chapter
1.

58.

Chi
Chi
(32),

(32), originally

the utmost, the final outcome."

means "the extreme means " the catastrophe.' " the extreme," must not be confounded with chH (42, i.
the gable of a roof,

Here

it

22) " the vital principle or breath of life." (See the author's " Chi-

nese Philosophy," No. 30 of the " Religion of Science Library,' or The Monist, Vol. VI., No. 2, p. 211 f.) Lao-Tze regards p. 24
;

chH as the third element See Chapter 42.

in the Trinity,

which shapes

all

things.

chapter
11.

59.

According to the commentators, kivo chi mother of the country," is moderation.

mu

(18-20),

"the

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


CHAPTER
II.

313

60.

Julien reads kzvei (7), "ghosts," where the texts at posal read sha?i, " gods." See the words 16 and 22.

my

dis-

70S" This

is

a strange chapter as

it

speaks of ghosts and gods,

who

philosophy of Lao-Tze. Perhaps Lao-Tze simply assures his followers that so long as the government follows the great Tao, there is no need of fearing either ghosts or gods. But when grievous wrongs are done, superstitions appear and ghost-stories originate, the gods are said to curse the people, while the sages utter prophecies of ill omen and lamentain the
tion.

otherwise seem to find no

room

chapter
11.

61.

Some commentators understand


small country by lowering
great country.
tries take
itself to

ts'ii (29)

here as passive,
is

a great country
?

taken by the
If great

But

is this

interpretation tenable

coun-

small countries by stooping, and small countries are conis

quered by stooping, where

Lao-Tze's lesson about humility

^^ States in a federative empire, such as was the Chinese emgrow powerful when they serve the whole nation. It would be as impossible for great rivers to flow in high mountains as for great states not to be subservient to the universal needs of the people. Streams become naturally great when they flow in the lowlands where they will repire in the days of Lao-Tze,

common

interests of the

ceive all the other rivers as tributaries.

The

largest states are

not always the greatest states.

state acquires

leadership not by oppressing the other states, but by

and retains the humbly serv-

ing them, by flowing lower than they. This truth has been preached by Christ when he said: " Whosoever will be great among you, and whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your minister let him be your servant." An instance in the history of China that illustrates Lao-Tze's doctrine, which at first sight appears as paradoxical as all his other teachings, is the ascendancy of the House of Cho, which under the humble but courageous Wu Wang succeeded the Shang Dynasty, whose last emperor, Chow Sin (f 1122 B. C.) received the posthumous title Show, the abandoned tyrant. Other instances in history are the rise of Athens in Greece and of Prussia in Germany. Athens's ascendancy began when, in patriotic
;

314
self-sacrifice,
it

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
served the cause of Greece,
viz., of all

the Greek

states

and

its
i.

decay
e.
,

sets in

with the oppressions of the Athenian


to serve
its

confederates,

when Athens ceased

and began

to use

the resources of the Ionian confederacy for

own home

interests.

Some commentators who


ing
(viz.,

find a contradiction in the passage

by stoopwhole empire) translate the second kzvo (in ii. 31) not as the first kzvo (in ii. 17) by " they conquer," but by the passive form "they are conquered." It is not probable that Lao-Tze should have used in the same chapter and in the same passage one and the same word in exactly the opby serving the
interests of the

that even the smaller states can conquer the great states

posite sense.
in.

low (i. e., he stoops) Chalmers and Harlez accept this to be the sense of the passage. There is no reason, when the chapter is viewed in the light in which we interpret it, to put another meaning into the sentence. Julien translates " C'est pourquoi les uns s'abaissent pour recevoir, les autres s'abaissent pour &tre recus." He follows Sin-Kie-Fou who says that i ts'ii (4-5) "to conquer," and 'rh ts'ii (8-9) " to be conquered." Strauss Legge interprets the former ts'ii in the sense of follows Julien.

This passage reads

literally: "

to conquer, the other is

The one low and conquers."

is

gaining power, the latter in the sense of gaining adherents.


translates: " In the one case the

He

abasement leads to gaining adherents, in the other case to procuring favor." This implies a contrast between "gaining adherents" and "gaining favor,' which if it had been intended would have been expressed by different words. The contrast lies in the words hia i (3-4) and hia "rh (7-8), which means "it is low through," or "for the purpose of," and "it is low and," etc.

chapter
IV.

62.

Kung (3) means

"clasping the hands over the breast, or hold;

ing reverently with both hands

bowing."
lest their

When

speaking to the emperor, imperial ministers of China


breath should

hold a large jade tablet before their mouths

touch the son of heaven.


for screening "

Thus
is

the phrase " holding in both arms


minister. Professor Legge's

means being an imperial

translation of this passage

hardly tenable.

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


V.

315

"that or the one," changes the whole preceding sentence into a noun. In a literal English translation we should change the order of the words and read "What (9) indeed
che
(8),
:

The word

(10) is the

where-

(3)

for [viz., the reason] of (2) the ancients (1)


(6)

that (8) they esteemed (5) this

reason

(7)."

In the place of yueh

(12),

"say," Julien reads jeh,


it

"day"

[W.

S.

D., p. 293), and translates, "without seeking

the whole

day."

chapter
1.

63.

Julien interprets the words ta siao to shao (10-13) as nouns, " the great, the small, the much, the little," and supplies the words " are the same to the sage."

CHAPTER 64
I.

where we read wU (18), " to do, manage," and translates "Arretez le mal avant qu'il n'existe." Hojbao chi mu (28-31) means a tree which is so stout that it can only be embraced with both arms. Ho means together, in union, a pair, " ao means "to embrace, to hold, to grasp." Tsu hia (50-51), "the underpart of the foot," means "the space underneath the foot, or a foot measure.
Julien reads fang-, " arrest,"
to
' ' ' '

in.

The word/w (17), "he returns to," is conceived by Julien to mean " he opposes," and kzvo (22) as " transgression." He translates the passage "
il

se preserve des fautes des autres

hommes."

chapter
11.

65.

and 33-34), "standard, or model," is a comwhich both parts mean pattern. CKii originally signifies a peculiarly graceful tree, and shih is a form or rule set up for imitation. The ch'ie-tree was planted upon the grave of Confucius in honor of the great teacher whom the Chinese as a nation, represented by both the government and the schools, officially worship as their highest ideal of propriety and morality.
Ctiii shih (29-30
of

pound

316

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
hi.

Julien reads the last sentence

Ki

nai chita shun, omitting

yil
:

(13), "to," and adding at the beginning of the sentence yan heu "afterwards" (see W. S. D., pp. 285 and 175), viz., " apres qu'on

a acquis cette vertu."


disciple, to obey."

The word shun means

" to follow, to be a

The

interpretation followership, in the sense of

seems both probable and appropriate. Julien explains word as submission, which of course the word means in the above sense, and believes the passage means that it will make people submissive, which will bring about a general peace. Accord " Par elle on parvient a procurer ingly he translates the sentence
recognition,

the

une paix generale.

chapter
1.

66.

The word che (10), "the ones," here again, as up the whole sentence and changes it into a noun.
chapter
1.

usually,

sums

67.

^t'
ful.

This passage

is difficult

because the sense remains doubt(6),

Some commentators make

a stop between ta

" great,

'

'

and

"resemble," others construe ta as an adverb, "greatly," belonging to sz\ "resemble." According to the former view we "In the world all say, I greatly resemble the unshould translate
sz* (7),
:

likely; "

according to the latter

"In the world

all call

me

great

The latter does not seem to agree with Lao-Tze's modesty but if we consider that Confucius undertook a long journey to see the philosopher of Cho, we must con[but] I resemble the unlikely."
;

clude that he was indeed famous


proposition

all

over China, and the present

Lao-Tze may have it and resented We must bear in mind it by calling attention to his awkwardness. that while Lao-Tze was modest and unassuming, he was at the same time conscious of the grandeur of the Tao which he reprea mere statement of fact.

may be

heard the people

call

him

great until he grew sick of

sented in his philosophising. Therefore we interpret ngo (5), "I or me," in the sense of " I as a philosopher," or briefly "my philosophy,

my

Tao."
siao
(9)
;

means literally " to resemble, to be like " and^z* siao accordingly means " the unlike." Following Su-Ch&h (or, as the French sinologue spells his name, Sou-tseu-yeou) Julien

The word

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


transliterates the

317

word by

' '

non-semblable, c'est a dire different


it

des etres, des creatures"; but in the text he translates

"stupid."

As

in English,

the words "likely" and "unlikely" possess the

sense which according to the context the Chinese words siao and

siao must have,

we have

retained this most literal translation

in the text.

Wang Pi reads tao between ngo which naturally suggested itself. The
simply ngo.

(5)

and ta
(6),

(6),

an addition
text reads

Ho Shang Kung

Julien places a period after ta


11.

"great."

0lt
ocally

In the
(i.

first

sentence of the chapter the text reads unequiv-

ngo

5),
(ii.

"

I,

text reads chi

12),

me, or mine," but in the second sentence the "he, him, or his," etc., which is rarely, and
first

only under exceptional conditions, used as a pronoun for the


person.

This

is

the reason

why

it

seemed more appropriate

to

While the first sentence starts with a statement made personally by Lao-Tze of himself, he at once generalises the idea and continues in the third person.
change the subject.

The
rity,"

position of the subject after the predicate

is

unusual, per-

haps for the purpose of emphasising the word si


in.

(13),

"medioc-

^^* The word ao


acter

(5),

"treasure," means here moral chartitle

and we might translate the

by " the three virtues which

constitute a man's worth."

chapter
1.
1

68.

Shi or sz (3) means now " a literary man," but in early times it meant "a warrior," "a military leader," "a general," in which sense it is also used in the Chinese chess for the figures that represent tsiang, our bishops, or the two advisers of the general, our king. See Williams, The Middle Kingdoin, I., pp. 827-828.

chapter
1.

69.

Plaenckner explains host as aggressor and guest as one who


takes the defence.

and construes the sentence

Plaenckner ridicules Julien for making a coward of Lao-Tze " I do not think of allowing as follows
:

318

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.

myself to be thrown back a whole foot

if I have gained an inch." Plaenckner may be a better soldier than Stanislas Julien, but the French professor probably understands Lao-Tze better than the

German

baron.
ii.

zuu hing (3-5), "proceeding without proceeding," is analogous to tvei zvuivei, "acting non-action." It is difficult to

Hing

understand how other translators could miss the sense which is " C'est ce qui s'appelle n'avoir pas quite clear. Julien translates
:

de rang a suivre," and Legge translates "Marshalling the ranks where there are no ranks."

30^ By ao
Chapter
tuted
67,
first

(26), " treasure," Lao-Tze means, as indicated in " moral worth"; and a man's moral worth is consti;

of compassion

hence

it is

said in the next paragraph,


its

that of two armies the tenderer one will conquer, because

moral

worth

is

superior to the other one.


in.

K'ang jiing
ical strength.

(2-3)

means "well-matched,"

i.

e.,

equal in phys-

chapter
11.

70.

Lao-Tze speaks of the Tao as tsung (11), "ancestor," and chiun (14), "master," meaning that it is the origin and ultimate authority of his words and deeds. How easily abstract ideas
If Lao-Tze, who otherwise is so explicit in his are personified views of the abstract nature of Reason, personifies the Tao, how natural does it appear to be that the idea of God has been personi!

^"

fied

among Jews and Christians. The problem of the idea of God


which
at the present

difficulties

lies at the bottom of all the day render religious dogmas objec-

tionable to those

who

are trained in the school of science.

In the
phi-

face of the fact that the laws of nature are eternal and uncreated

a truth which
that

is

universally accepted

by

all

scientists

and

losophers of any standing,

we can no

longer maintain the old view

an individual mind, a huge ego-consciousness, a perthinks in syllogisms as we do and arrives at deciIf the old ansions after having taken counsel in his thoughts. thropotheism alone be the allowable definition of God, the spirit of science must frankly be regarded as atheistic. But is God truly
is

God

sonal being

who

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


an individual being
?

319

grant that the nature of God must be God, in a certain sense, must be like his creatures but certainly he is not like his creatures by being a creature himself, i. e., he can be a concrete, limited being that is only here and not there, that thinks and wills different things at If he were an individual being, he would not be different times. God. If he were concrete, he could not be the allhood, the omni-

We

recognised in his works.


;

presence, the universality, the eternity of existence.


urally been represented as a

God has
;

nat-

man, as a king, as a father but he is not a human being, not a monarch, not a parent in a literal sense.
All these terms are figures of speech, parables, symbols.

On

the

other hand

God

is

not an indefinite generality.

He

is

not concrete,

but he
laws.

is

definite.

He

is

that

which determines

all

definiteness in
its

the word.

He

is
is

the character of the cosmic order with


distinct

eternal

Thus he

from nature and yet

in nature.

He

is

supernatural, because the eternal laws are applicable not only to

This view which is anthropomorphism, may be called nomotheism, as it identifies God with the eternal and immutable vdjLiog, the norm of both rationality and existence, of thinking and being, avoids the errors of both the old deism and the old pantheism it is radical in its admissions to the most radical free thought and at the same time conservative in explaining the significance of the traditional dogmas.
this actual world,

but to any possible world.


its

the old theism purified of

in.

Wool
dress in

is

worn by the common people.


chapter
1.

The

rich, in

China,

silk.

71.

which

Ping (8), " malady," is in this chapter used in two senses Chinese almost correspond to a similar use of "sick" in English, but the Chinese mean by "being sick of a thing" being
7pt*

in

grieved at

it,

rather than loathing

it.

chapter

72.

"the awe-inspiring," or "the authoritative," is a common term to denote majesty. The commentator Tsiao-Hong (as quoted by Julien) says that zvei, "majesty," and its homophone zvei, "fear," were interchangeably used. Compare also the K'anghi on the subject.
(4),

Wei

320

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
CHAPTER
IV.

73.

The
Kanghi,

character cJCen
Vol.

(19),

"slow," "lenient," "patient,"


It
is

is

missing in Williams's Syllabic Dictionary.

found in the

XXVII.,

p. r>2b.
v.

This passage reminds us of the Greek proverb bipe &eo)v oMovol uvXol, aleovoL de lenrd. (Sextus Empiricus, adv. math., ed. Bekker Friedrich von Logau utilised the idea in a Sinngedicht p. 665.)
11

Gottes Miihlen mahlen langsam, Mahlen aber trefflich klein. Ob aus Langmuth er sich saumet, Bringt mit ScharP er alles ein."
:

Logau's lines were translated by Longfellow


"

grind slowly Yet they grind exceeding small. Though with patience he stands waiting,
the mills of

Though

God

With exactness grinds he

all."

CHAPTER
Sie Hoei, in
dent,

74.

comment on

this passage, tells the following inci:

which is reported by St. Julien, pp. 276-277 " L'empereur Thai-tsou-hoang-ti (fondateur de la dynastie des
le
:

Ming, qui monta sur


je n'avais

trone en 1368) s'exprime ainsi dans sa pre-

face sur le Tao-te-king

Depuis

le

commencement de mon
(la

regne,

pas encore appris a connaitre la voie


pretendirent

regie de con-

duite)

des sages rois de l'antiquite.


et tous

J'interrogeai la-dessus les

hommes,
te-king.

me

la montrer.

Un

jour que

j'es-

sayais de parcourir une multitude de livres, je rencontrai le TaoJ'en trouvai le style simple et les pensees profondes.
:

Au
me-

bout de quelque temps je tombai sur ce passage du texte

'Lorsla

que

le

peuple ne craint pas la mort, comment l'effrayer par


?

nace de la mort

"A
pacifier
;

cette epoque-la l'empire


le

ne

faisait

que commencer a se

peuple

etait obstine

(dans le mal) et les magistrats

etaient corrompus.

Quoique chaque matin dix hommes fussent


il

executes sur la place publique, le soir

y en avait cent autres qui

commettaient
de Lao-tseu
je
?

les

memes crimes. Cela ne justifiait-il pas la pensee Des ce moment je cessai d infliger la peine capitale

me

contentai d'emprisonner les coupables et de leur imposer des

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


corvees.
alors

321
Je reconnus
"
!

En

moins d'un an
le tresor

mon

cceur fut soulage

que ce

livre est la racine parfaite de toutes choses, le maitre

snblime des rois et

inestimable des peuples


i.

CKi

(19),

"extraordinary," "unusual," "innovations," means

here revolution.

chapter
in.

76.

p. 464) and by "it is gone," " finished,' or "doomed." It is difficult to say how Legge can translate the tree "will fill the outstretched arms (and thereby invites the felDid he perhaps read kmig, the homophonous compound ler"). of radical 32 with kung, "all," which means "to hold or take with both hands" (see W. S. D., p. 463; see also Chapter 62, iv. 3), or did he try to interpret the latter by the former ?

Kung

(11)

means

literally

"altogether" [W. S. D.,


alle)

maybe

translated (as the

German

chapter
1.

77.

While the first sentence is almost literally like Christ's "Whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased," the second sentence is the reverse of the New Testament teaching, that, "Whoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have abundance but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even
7J&*

doctrine,

that he hath."

(Math.

13, 12.)
iv.

Hien
rank
to

(18),

"virtue," "talent," "excellence"; taking the next


" of

shang, "holiness," or " saintliness

the sage.

See W.

S. >., p. 197.

CHAPTER

78.

These remarkable verses are perhaps an echo of the legend of Ti Shun, which are recorded in the Shu-King, Book II. (S. B. of the ., Vol. III., p. 54), where we read "In the early time of the Ti when he was living by mount Li, he went into the fields and daily cried with tears to compassionate heaven and to his parents, taking to himself all guilt and charging himself with the wickedness" viz., of all.
:

322
She

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
ts'ih (11-12) is the official grain-sacrifice

annually offered

means " the gods of the earth," then the altar of a tutelary god (see W. S. D. p. 748), and tsHh means " millet," which is one of the commonest cereals in China.
as a Thanksgiving.

She

originally

(W.

S. >., p. 987.)

CHAPTER
I.

79.

3^** Contracts

together, the left

were written on two bamboo slips which fitted one containing the debit or obligations, the right
(31)

one containing the credit or dues.

The word cKeh


1

means now

(see

W.

S.

D.

p. 42)
it

trating," "perspicacious"; but during the

Cho dynasty

"penemeant

a tithe

"

or anything that can be taken with the assistance of the

bailiff.

CHAPTER

80.
(5-6),

^
rh
(12)

Plaenckner construes shi yiu

"let there be

,"
. .

pu

(13),

"but

not," in the sense "If they had,

they would not."


of princes,

He

interprets the chapter to

mean

" In a small

country there are always a few people who,


;

if they had the wealth would not use it if they had ships, they would not be able to steer them if science returned, they would be satisfied with knotted cords. They are satisfied with eating and drinking,
;
. . .

etc.

Indeed there are neighbors who never take notice of each

other, etc." If philological considerations permit this construction,


it

becomes highly improbable for internal reasons. Herr von Plaenckner translates as he, a child of the nineteenth century,
;

would have Lao-Tze think and write but he forgets that Lao-Tze had as strong a belief in the pristine innocence and virtuous simplicity of man as our grandfathers had in the story of the Garden of Eden, and believes that the pristine goodness and happiness could have been preserved if but the pristine simplicity of life had been retained.
1.

Shih (7), composed of man and ten, means " a file of ten soldiers"; and shih ch'dng- " 3. corporal," "a decurion." (See W. S. >., p. 768.) In the same way foh (8), composed of man and hundred, means (1) a hundred men, then (2) the leader of a hundred men, or a centurio. (See W. S. >., p. 707.) Stanislas Julien reads in place of jboh its homophone j>oh which is composed of man and white and means "a father's eldest brother," "a senior, " "a

NOTES AND COMMENTS.


man
of rank," " a chief."

323
it

Judging from his translation


reading.

appears

that Strauss adopts the

same

^t* The method


42-43)
is

of writing with knotted cords (chieh shing,

very ancient and must have been

common

to all the races

mentioned in Herodotus that the Persian king handed a thong with sixty knots, to be used as a calendar for two months, to the Ionians whom he appointed guarIt is

of the world at an early period of civilisation.

dians of a bridge over the

Danube.

The South Sea

Islanders keep their records

with the assistance of knotted

cocoanut
tion.

Pandanus leaves and fibres, which also

serve the purpose of divina-

Ratzel mentions in his History of Mankind, I., p. 199, that chiefs use them for

memoranda to assist their memory and wear them round their neck. The same
method
of writing has

been

developed among the Peruvians of South America to a


considerable
extent

Quipu or Knotted Cords from Peru.

where

number
is

such records of knotted cords are called quipu. There are a great of Peruvian quipu extant, but the key to their significance

We only know that various colors of the threads were lost. employed to denote various tribes, and also various commodities which had to be delivered as tribute. As numbers the knots denoted units or tens according to the position of the cord. Nor can there be any doubt about it that peculiar twists had their special
significance.

INDEX

to

This index, while serviceable for general purposes, is intended be of special assistance to readers who intend to study the origIt will

inal text.

synonyms

of Lao-Tze's favorite ideas.


life

be noticed that the Tao-Teh-King is rich in There are 6 ways of exeverlasting (see Immortality), 9 for peace

pressing the idea of

of soul (see Rest), 4 for child, 4 for emptiness, 5 for returning or

going home, 5 for simplicity, 3 for purity, 3 for form, and 4 for that delicate suppleness which is a symptom of growth and vitality,
causing the weak to conquer the strong.

INDEX.
[The
figures in parentheses indicate the chapter, section,
;

and

place of the Chinese words

while

all

the other figures refer to the

pages of the present edition.]

Absolute, in, 302.

Attachment
"without
in,

(literally

residing

$ilsS 2vu chi,

lit.

or dwelling on), 100, 109,


136.
(Cf.

limit" (28,

ii.

22-23), 190.

113,
sits."

"calmly he
1,

Abundance,
etc.),

= 'fiifeyu y u
ffil/F

135, 136.
(77.

I 17-18,

= M cKu
i.

(8,

ii.

translated
ii.

267, 268.

"dwells in";
17,

24,

19; 31,
trans-

Acquires, he, by giving, 138.

translated

"does [not]
13,

Act but not

= Pi

to strive, 138.

^
ii.

rely on"; 77,

iv.

zue'i

rh $u

lated

"does

[not]

linger

chang

(81,

30-33), 274.

Adrift, 107.

upon"), 157, 183, 195, 269. Augustine, St., 295.

Agnosticism, 292.

Author of
the

all

transformations,

Ahura Mazda,

10.

Tao

as the, 16.

Alexander, G. G., 45, 300. Ancestor, 16, 133, 285, 318.

Babe.

(See "child.")
98,

tjz

tsung

(70,

ii.

11),
(4,

259;
i.

Backbone,

285.

(Cf.

the

Tao

as the, 16,

15)

153, translated "father," 99.

"bone.") Bad, 121. In Chinese: "not-

Angelus

Silesius, 25.

good"
Badness,

(49,

ii.

6-7), 222.
:

Apostle, 21.

Archfather,

16.

(Cf.

"father

of the ten thousand things,"

"notgoodness" (2, ii. 8-9), 149. Baggage waggon, 119, 301.


98.

In Chinese

99)
Aristotelian, 302.

= |

1JI tss?

chung

(26,

ii.

10-

11), 186.

Athens, 313.

Beauty, 97.

Atman,

307.

= H met

(2,

i.

5, 8),

149.

328
Beginning, 113. Bellows, 99.

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
Carriage, 117, 306. (See "chariot.")
(5, iii.

~ 8 Hf foyoh Benevolence, = fT jan


(5,

7-8) 154.

Causa

sui, Spinoza's, 12.

99, 116.
i.

Celebrations, 124.
i.

4,

etc.; 38,

= i 9E
230.

tse*

sz

(54,

ii.

3-4),

35, etc.), 153, 154, 206,

207.

Bible, 21.

Chalmers,
103.
(Cf.

44, 45, 293, 298, 300,

Bodhi, aj^, 10.


Bodiless,

3<M> 305. 3io.

3".

3i4-

"incorpo-

= Body, = % shdn
f!j[

real" and "immaterial.")


2x///(i4,
i.

Change, 126. Chang-Liang,

39.

21), 165.

Chariot, 117, 306-307.

102, 105.
(13,
i.

IJI ch'e

(39, v. 4, etc.), 211.


i.

9, etc.;

16,

In another place (n,


this

n)

iii.

20), 163, 164, 171.


3, ii. 18),

same word
101.

is

translated

Bone (kuh,
lated
'
'

152; trans98.

"wheel,"

backbone,"

Bose, Du, Rev.


40, 4i.

Hampden C,

no. Chen-Tsai (i.e., True Ruler), 16. Chih, the extreme. (Cf. "perChariots, ten thousand,
fection.")

Bow,

135.

^j

kung

(77,

i.

7), 267.

Ch'i (also transcribed Chih), the

Brahm, Tao and, 8. Brahmanism, 308.


Breath, 119.

Ch'i,

robber, 22, 36, 37, 308, 312. the vital principle also
;

= M> Mentioned
vii.

transcribed hH. (See breath.


three times in
:

the Chinese text


5
;

(S.
;

M. Ch.
i.

Chief vessels, 131. Child, has several

Chinese
7-8),

10,

i.

10
;

42,

22),

143,

159,

214

translated

= f^"? chHh
= ^ hat
24),

equivalents

tsz

(55,

i.

"airs," 95; "vitality," 101; and "breath of life," 119.

232, 312; translated "little

child," 124.
(20,
iii.

Buddha,
Tze,

3,

7,

278

and Lao-

39.

175, 228.

39 49. iii. In English:


;

Calm. (See "rest.") Calmly he sits, no. Candlin, Rev. George T.,

= ^P In English = 5 ying
l

106, 122.

tsz' (52,
:

i.

17, etc.), 227.

123.

'rh (10,
;

i.

14-15;
22-23),

46, 48,

20,
I

iii.

35-36

28,
'>

i.

Canon (King), Capital, in.


Carpenter, 134.

38, 281.

59

^TS*

I 9

translated

" [become
child," 101
(74,
i.
;

like

a]

little

"a babe
in.

[that

|j

tsiang

45,

etc.),

does not yet smile]," 106;


child's estate,"

"a

264.

INDEX.
Children, treats as (hat), 122,
223,

329

Danger, implies no, 105, 113, (Cf. "immortal120, 123.


ity.")

Cho, 95.
Chords, knotted, 137, 323.
Christ,
3, 7,

15, 313.
4,

Death, 122, 134. Death-place, 310.


22,

Ch'ii-Jhren,

95.
7,

Chwang-Tze,

12-16,

19,

Deeds, 133. Deficient corresponds

to

two
(22,

27. 36, 37. 38.

Classic {King), 38, 281.


Clear.

=
==

Chinese terms
jB|
i.

ch'iit lit.

"crooked"
178,
180.

(See "pure.")

iv.

5),

In
' '

Colorless, 103.

=^

English: 108.
7),

i (14,

i.

165.

Jfi

&

j?u tsu
(77,

literally
i.

not

Commoners,

117.

enough"
268.
12, etc.),

22-23, etc.),
:

Compassion, 131, 132.

=^

In English
135, 136.

136.

ts'z' (60,

iii.

Delicate,

(See

254 255.

"weak.")
it,

Completeth,

= Wi $u
tion."

136.
ii.

Depleteth those
268.

who have abun-

(77,

8),

Completion, 104. (See "perfecConfucius,


35-38,

dance, 135. Depth not obscure, 103.


Desire, 106; moderation of 120.

34,

95,

96,

= W\ yu
7; 34.

(19,

ii.

21

46,

head-

279, 280, 298, 306, 315, 316.

ing), 174, 218.

Contentment

(sufficiency),

120,

Desireless, 97, 98, 114, 126.

121.
<SL

(See "Rest.")
(44,
iii.

== $& Wl zvu y il
ii.

xi

iii-

41
ii.

3.

tsu

46,

13,

ii.

15-16; 57,
'
'

27-

etc.), 217, 219.

28), 148, 152, 200, 237.

Cosmic order

(literally

"admin-

Dignity (see

baggage-wag301.

=
=

istration
ffr]

"),

113.
ii.

gon
198.

"),

46,

no,

chi

(32,

2),

Disgrace, 102.

(See also

"hu-

Cosmos, 282.
Crafty, the, 98.

%U$
152;

chi che

(3, v.

10-11),

Divine vessel, 112. (See"vessel."

translated

"one who
(33,
;

= @ jn = 1$ 0! shdn
(13,
18), 192.

miliation.")

i.

2, etc.),

163.

chH

(29,

i.

17-

knows," 114, 125;


56.
i.

i.

6-7;

1-2),

199,

234

trans(81,

Douglas, Robert K.,

4, 5, 7, 8,

lated
i.

"the wise," 138;

17-18), 274.

39 footnote. Dreadful, 133.

Curse, 136.

j^ zvei

(72,

i.

4),

260.

== ^P $$

i>

u siang,
ii.

lit.

" un-

Duration, 120.

bliss " (78,

17-18), 270.

Eckhart, Master, 24,

33
Economy,

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
131.
(67,
iii.

Executioner, 134.
15,
etc.),

ft

chien

p]

sz'

sha chi
(See

(74,

i.

254. 255-

31-33, etc.), 264.

Editions of the Tao-Teh-King,


42.
Eitel,

Extreme,
tion,"

the.

"perfec-

and "absolute.")
(38, v. 12), 207.

Ernest John,
life, 39,

45.

External, 116.

Elixir of

290.

IS fo

Empire.
hia.

(See

"world,"

t'ien

Faith, 105, 109, 116, 122.

Empty, has several Chinese

= fp sin

(17,

ii.

2, etc.;

23,

iii.

= )k hu
151,

equivalents
(3,

28, etc.; 38, iv. 5; 49, iv. 15,

iv.

7;

5,

iv.

i),

etc.), 171, 182, 207, 222.

154; translated "he empties," 98 and "empty,"


;

Father of the ten thousand


things, 99,

99.
ify

==
ch'ung
218.
(4,
i,

f*I 1$] *Z, *FC

zvan zvuh chi

45,

i.

12),

tsung

(4,

i.

12-15), 152-153.

152,
120.

In English

99,

Favor, 102.

= %M kzvang In English = zua


=g*

= fS ch'ung
163.
-fc }

(13,

i.

1,

etc.),

(15,
:

ii.

40), 168.

104.
i.

Feast, 106.
179.

(22,

7),

In

ta lao, (20,

iii.

7-8),

English

108.

175-

Enlightened

(Enlightenment),
114, 115, 123, 125.
(16,
ii.

Feeble, 129.
Filial devotion, 106.

= 59 ming
15; 27,
ii.

104,

in,

16; 23,
i.

ii.

ii.

24; 33,
iii.

8; 36,
ii.

4; 52,

15

55,

8),

170,

179, 188, 199, 203, 228,

233-

=^ = fk yu Flower, = hzva
f|

Fish (yu), 115;


sien (60,
(36,

(sien), 127.
i.

7),
1),

241.
203.

iii.

116.
(38,
iv.

19,

etc.),

Er, Lao-Tze's proper name,

3,

207, 208.

8,95 Essence (spirit), $f tsing (21,


=

Forever and aye,


107,
i.

100.

(Cf.

"im-

mortality.")

= = ffich'ang
55,
ii.

38, etc.), 178.

Form, has several Chinese

Eternal, 104, 125.


(16,
ii.

12,

etc.;

4),

170, 233.

=&
6),

Eternal Reason, 97. Wl ch'ang tao


147.
(Cf.

= chzvang In English = ^ yung


}j^

equivalents

(14, iv. 15, etc.),


:

166.

103.

(21,

i.

4), 177.

In

(1,

i.

5-

connexion with k
translated

ung teh chi


virtue's

"vast
(35,
i.

Evil, 104.

"bad.")
ii.

?)

hzung,

(16,

22), 170.

form," 107.
|ji

siang

41,

ii.

INDEX.
53), 201, 213.

331
2;
27,
i.

In combination
'
'

1,
i.

etc.;

49,

ii.

i,

with ta translated

Great

etc.;

81,

9, etc.), 149, 156,

Form,"

114, 119.

(See also

ii, 292, 296.)

187, 188, 222, 273, 274.

\% teh
4),

lit.

"virtue"

(63,

ii.

Foundation, 119. 3 u lit- "father"

246; translated

"good-

>

(42,

iii.

ness," 129.
quite "

(See also "re-

21),

215; meaning here the

and "virtue.")
to

[doctrine's] father-hood, viz.


its

Gossip, 99.

philosophical foundation,

=^W
*54of,

yen
18;

(5,

iv.

9-10),

119.

Force, 118.
Forces, 122.

(See

"function.")

Government,
115.

administration

(See

"cosmic

or-

Fourth Gospel,

13.

der."

Function, 99, ioi, 132. ffl yung (5, heading;

Grass-dogs, 286.
11,

(See "straw-

dogs, 99.)

heading,
translated

i.

13,

etc.,

here
40,

Gravity.

(See "baggage wag-

"utility";
i.

gon"), 46, no, 301.


Great, reason obliterated, 105
I call it the, 109;
;

heading,

10,
;

here trans45,
i.

lated "force"
14,

6 and

four things

here translated "work";


153, 160, 161,

are,

no;

great rivers, 114;


all call

69, heading),

make

the small, 129;

211, 218, 257.

= ^C ta
3,

me, 131.
(18,
;

i.

1,

etc.;

25, iv.

Gabelentz, 43, 300.

etc

34,

ii.
i.

32,

etc.,

63,

= =

Gem

(jewel), 101, 118, 133.


(9, ii.

iv. 8, etc.; 67,

6), 172,

185,

3l yuh
70,
iii.

2; 39,

iv.

12;

201, 247, 254.

15), 158, 211, 259.

Great form, 114. (See "form.")

Genuine, 107, 124.


ji}

Great
i.

chart

(21,

42,

here
ii.

= ^C
=
i.

state, 128.
ffl

ta kzuo
242.

(61,

i.

1-2,

translated

"pure";

54,

etc.),

14), 178, 230.

Great Tao,
7, etc.),

114, 123.
i.

Ghost, 127.

:fc?lL ta tao (34,

1-2

53,

== fy kzvei

(60,

ii.

241.

9-10, etc.), 200, 229.

Giving, by, he acquires, 138.

Guest, 104, 132, 296.

God, Tao prior


on,

to,
,

13

Philo's

*g

k'oh(i5,

ii.

27; 69,

i.

12),

conception of 21; the Bible


21
;

168, 257.

Tao

and,

16,

285,

"Lord," "father." "Ancestor, " and "mother.") Goodness, 98, 100, in, 121, 137.
286. (See

Happiness, 126.

= ^ shan

= H /w

(58,

i.

19,
!

etc,),

238.

(2,

ii.

3, etc.;

8,

i,

Happy, so happy

106.

; '

332

laotze's tao-teh-king.
$8

ffi?

MM
De,

2o

iH

3-4)'

108

does not depart from

175-

dignity,

Harlez,

C.

44,

287,

290,

iour,

no; is a good savno; abandons pleasdoes


not

293. 298, 300, 304, 305, 310,

ure,

112;

make

= hai Hatred, = yuen


fig

3". Harm,

314.
115.

himself great, 114; prognosticates, 121 possesses not a


;

(35,

i.

10), 201.

fixed heart, 121

universal-

129, 136.
(63,
ii.

ises his heart, 122; practises


2
;

79,

i.

3,

non-assertion, 126

does not

etc.), 246,

271.
desire), 98,

venture to play the great,


129; does not make, 130; wears wool, 133 is sick of
;

Heart (the seat of

106, I2i, 122, 285.


>lj>

sin
;

(3,
i.

iii.

6, etc.; 20, iv.

sickness, 133

knows himself
it

22

49,

5, etc.),

151, 176,

but does not display himself,


*33
\

= A jan = Hi^B) tao


is

222.

regards
acts

as difficult,

sin,

'
'

man's heart
the rational

134

but claims not,

subject to error," 14, 19.


sin,
' '

136; hoards not, 138.

== H? A. shdn jan
3.

(2, iv.

3-4
7,

heart,"

is

the disposition of

iv.
;

3-4
22,

5,

ii.

1-2
26,

ii.

the saintly man, 14.

3-4
27,
iii.

ii,

3-4
28,
iii.

ii.
;

3-4;
29,
ii.
ii.

Heaven's net, 134. (See "Comments," 320.) Heaven's way, 101. Heaven's reason, 12, 101, 121,

ii.

3-4
;

iv.

6-7
;

3-4

34,
i.

3-4
3-4

47,

3-4; 49,
35-3 6
;

1-2, etc.; 57,


iv.
;

63,

64,

ii.

= ?C 2 *H
;

i34> 135. 137. 138.


t'ien

9-10, etc.; 70,


(9, iii.
iii.

iii.
ii.

10-n;

71,
73,
ii.

chi tao

1-2;

72,
77,

n-12;
3-4
;

15-17; 47, i. 11-12; 73, iv. 1-3 77, ii. 1-3 79, ii. 1-2
;

iii.

3-4

iv.

81,

1-2), 150, 151, 154, 156, 179,

81,

ii.

19-21), 158, 220, 262,

186, 188, 191, 192, 201, 220,

268, 271, 274.

222, 236, 247, 249, 259, 260, 261, 262, 268, 274.

Herodotus, 323. High, it brings


lifts

down

the,

and

Home

he turneth,

20,

in.
(See also

up the

lowly, 135.

Homewards,

20, 118.

Hoard, 138.

(See also "treas-

= Hi

ure.")
tsi (81,
ii.

= iX fan

" the returning.")


(40,
i.

1),

211.

4),

274.

Horace, 29.

Holy man, abides by non-assertion, 98;

Ho Shang Kung,
Host, 132, 296.

317.

empties the people's


;

heart, 99

exhibits
;

no benev-

olence, 99

puts his person

Humiliation, 120. " disgrace.")

(See

also

behind, 100; embraces unity

= !$ju

(44,

iii.

4),

217.

INDEX.
Humility, 108, 128.
(See also

333
"longevity,"
114.
6) 200.

In Chi-

" lowliness.")

Ht kien

(22,

heading;

61,

= =

nese
rff

(33,

iii.

c/i'ang, the eternal, 104,

heading), 178, 242.

123.

In Chinese
;

(16,

ii.

12,

Human

reason, 12, 14, 19.

(See

etc.

52,

iii.

23),

170, 228.
(6,
iii.

" man's reason.")

?$
2),

/^

mien mien,
;

1-

Hundred
"

families, 99, 105, 122.

155

translated " for ever


100.

17,

"S 1& feci sing (5, ii. 6-y, 10-11 iii. 49, i. 7-8),
;

and aye,"

In addition there are such word-

154, 172, 222.

combinations
emperor,
21-22),

as

cKang
(7,

Hwang
1288.

Ti, the yellow

s/idng, "live eternally"


i.

150;

translated

" endure," 100.

Imperfect, 120.
Identification, 97, 99, 125.
:

fpj

fung
ii.

(1,

v. 1

4,

ii,

10;

Inaccessible, 125.
TTT

56,

10, etc.), 148, 153, 234.

= ^

fj^f

cliiieh (45,

i.

4),

218.

1^ tu &

teh (56,

iii.

Identity, 286.

2-4, etc.), 234, 235.


(Cf.
iv.

Images, 103, 299.

"form.")
19,
etc.),

Incorporeal, 109.

(Cf.

"bodi184.
"),

Ip;

siayig (14,

166.

= ^liao
Ineffable

less" and "immaterial.")


(25,
i.

11),

Immaterial
real.")

breath,

119.

(Cf.

(lit.

"

no name

113,

"bodiless" and

"incorpo21-

115.

(See "nameless.")
z^'u

$Si
29,
ii.

ming

(37,

i.

28-

$$ Mi ch'ung
22), 214.

ch'i (42,

i.

1-2), 204.

Inexhaustible, has two Chinese

Immortality,

has several Chi:

= ^/n $u
21-22
;

nese equivalents
tai,

lit.

"implies
is

no danger," viz., it and inexhaustible,


32,
i.

lasting
iii.

= U fu chi In English: = ^S ^^ yg 77ft ITf

equivalents

k'o

(35,

ii.

28-30), 202.

115.

(4.
:

i-

8 )

(16,

152.

In English

99.

ii.

18-19; 44.

iii-

Intensity, 123, 135.

7-8; 52,
217, 227.

28-29),

171, 198,
:

= JJ heu
Mt ton

(50,

i.

37; 75,

ii.

10)

In English

105,

224, 265.
Intrinsic, 301.

113, 120, 123.

== ii
and

fi*

ck'ang chiu
iii.

(7,

i.

Intuition, 101, 124.

4; 44,

11-12),

155,

(10,

ii.

4),

159.

217; translated

be lasting,"

"endure and ioo, and "duraeternal,


lit.

Isaiah, 21, 23

24, 299.

tion," 120.
Iff

Jade table, 128, 314.


life

s/ieu,

= St ft

(62, iv. 4), 245.

334
Jehovah, 294.
Jewels.

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
Likely, the, 131.

(See

"gem."

Long-lobed, 278.

Jews

in China, 295.

Lo Hi Ching,
296.

a commentator,

Julien, Stanislas, 10, 30, 42, 44,

284, 288, 290-291, 293-294,


296, 298-301, 303, 305, 310,

Logau, 320.
Logos,
10, 21, 282.

311, 313-320, 322.

Longevity, 305.
tality.")

(See

"immor-

Longfellow, 320.
K'anghi, 45
320.
K'i,
;

referred to

4, 5,

Lord, 99, 285, 286,

6, 9, 11, 16, 20,

232, 262, 312,

279.
f

(See

"breath" and
or canonical

"Ch i.")
King
(a classical

=% = ~f hia
etc.;

ti (4.

iii.

13), 153.

Lowliness, 21, 117, 131, 132,135.


(39, iv. 9
i.
;

66,
i.

i.

14,

68,

23;

77,

13),

210, 252, 256, 267.

book), 38, 281, 301.

Lowly,
ing
i.

Knotted cords,
rz:z

137, 323.
(80,

who excells in employmen is, 132; lifts up the,

$p

$35

chieh s king

42135-

43), 272.

Lu-Tze, a commentator, 310.


district), 4, 6,

K'u-Hien (Thistle
95.

Makes, mars,
Chin, author of dic-

Kwong Ki

112, 130.

tionary, 45,

Lao-Tze, his personality, 3-6


his

Manhood, in. %% hiung (28, i. 3), 189. Man's Reason, 136. 3-*WiJa n chitao (77, iii.

= =A

philosophy,
;

9-16;

his

1-3), 268,

ethics, 17

41

Taoism and, 30and Confucius, 34; Bud39; 278-280, 282,


(Cf. "crafty.")

Master,

dha and,
316.

Learned,

138.

Learnedness, 106, 121.

= = - shi Mankind, Master = Aj J an chu


;ff chiiin (26,
i.

16, 103,

no,

133.
ii.

8; 70,

14),

186, 259.

(15,

i-

5), * 6 7-

of

112.
(30,
i.

4-5),

== ^i
Legge,
Li,

hzoh, (20,

i.

48,

i.

2),

193.

174, 221.
7,

Master
38,

of

the

ten

thousand

15,

44, 293, 298,

304. 305, 309-311, 314, 321.

=M^
Mayers,

chariots,

Lao-Tze's family name, 95.


(See "immortality."

no. ^1 i wan shang chi shu (26, iv. 3-6), 186.

Life for ever, 114.

W.

Fr., 39, 43 footnote.

Mediocrity, 131.

Life's follower's, 310.

Metal (tsing=spirit, manliness,


semen), 125, 312.

Life's intensity, 122.

index.
Middle-path, 99.
*$

335
chiiin (2b,
i.

= ^ tsao
16), 154.

7-8)

chung

(5, iv.

186.

Milinda panha, 307.


Military expert, 132,

Music, 115.

=
10;
28,
ii.

i?i Id (35,

ii.

1),

202.

Mind, 99, 117. (Cf. "spirit.") Model, has two Chinese equiv-

Mysterious, 124, 132.

Mysterious mother.
" mother."

(See

= 5\ shih
190, 251.

alents

(22,
ii.

ii.

Mystery, 97.

10, etc.; 65,

30, etc.), 179,


:

= ^L

hilen

(1, v.

4, etc.),

148

In English

108,

Mystics, 24.

= IE chang =

in,

130, 315.
(39,
:

ii.

35), 209.

Nagasena, 307,

In English

117.

Moderation, 127. ]|f seh (59, i.

Nameable, 97, 113. ^S yiu mi?ig

=W
239.
32,

(1,

ii.

7-8

7, etc.),

ii.

3-4), 147, 198.

Morrison, 309. Mother, 107.

Name,

= w mu =
xxiii.
iSff:

viz.,

proper name, 95.


(S.

iS 7ni?ig
141.

M.

Ch.,

ii.

4)

(20, vi. 22), 177.

Mother-bird, ioi, in, 291.

The
Matt.
34.

word reminds us
pression

of the exin
xiii.

Nameless,
fffi

97, 1T3, 119, 282.

^S
i.

mu

mi?ig
iii.

(1,

ii.

1-2

37
1

"hen" and Luke


iii.

32,

3-4; 41,

3-4), 147

197, 213-214.

tsz (10,

7),

159; trans(28,
i.

Natural, 288.

(See "selflike.")

lated
6),

"womanhood"
99.
(6,

Nature, 283.

189.

Nave, 101.
Negative principle, 119.
i.

=
== 0h

Mother, mysterious,
$fc

hUen fin
the
ten

7-8,

fii?

yin

(42,

i.

17), 214.

etc.),

155.

Mother
j]

of

thousand
zvu
chi

Nishimura, Japanese editor of Lao-Tze, 43, 309.

things, 97.

Nobody,
ity,

117, 119.
19, 21
;

ZL"^ vuan
ii.

Non-action,

not inactiv-

mu
Mother

(1,

9-12), 147.

18-21.
10;

= IS Z, kzvo chi mu
18-20), 240.

of the country, 127.


(59,
ii.

Non-assertion (non-action),
the holy

abides by, 98; he acts with, 98 he can prac;

man

Mother

= 55 ~F "

of the world, 109, 123.


t'ien

tise,

ioi,

112

Reason
115
;

al-

hia mu,

lit.

ways

practises,
is,

supe-

"the mother of the underheaven,"


(25,
ii.

rior virtue

116; the ad-

9-11; 52,

i.

vantage
at,

of,

119; he arrives

7-9), 184, 227.

121; practise, 126; assert

Motion's master, no.

129.

336
== ?KvlS
3, vi.

LAO-TZE

TAO-TEH-KING.
etc.), 159, 165, 179, 208,

wu
;

zvtt
10,
ii.
i.

(2,

iv.

6-7;
;

209

2-3

13-14

29,
i.

214.

heading;
20-21; 43,
i.

37,
iii.

3-4; 38,

Orphans, widows and nobodies


1x7, 119.

5-6, etc.; 48,

16-17, etc -I 57 " 39 _ 4


i.

== B\ Sk ^P
(39, iv.

-fx

ku kzvo $u ku
;

63,

2-3),

150,

152,

159,

18-21

42,

ii.

6-9),

191, 204, 205, 216, 221, 237,

210, 214-215.

246.

Outcast people, no.

Non-existence, has several Chi-

= 5K A

chH jan

(27,

ii.

n-

= $& zvu
ing,
i.

nese equivalents
(2, iii.

12), 188.
11,
ii.

head-

Outcast things, in.

9, etc.; 40,

n), 149,

= 3K;$9 chH zvuh


20), 188.

(27,

ii.

19-

160,

161,

211

translated
;

"not
118.

to be," 98

translated
101, 102,

Own.

(See "self.")

"the non-existent,"

Palace, 124.

==

?B

W
j$j

zvu yiu zvu zvuh

(43,
:

ii,

1-2),

People, 98, 101, 105, 106, 124,


126, 127, 130, 131, 133, 134,

216.
$EL
11),

In English
166.

119.
iv.

(14,

10-

In English: 103.

= IS min
9;
19,
ii.

135, 137.
(3,
i.

5, etc.;
ii.

10,

ii.

Not, 282.

i.

5, etc.; 53,
iii.
i.

6; 57,
i.

Not dare

to

come

to the front

7, etc.,

9,

etc.; 58,
ii.

% HC M 55 Tit tu
zvei fieri

in the world, 131.

6, etc.;

65,

10,
i.

66,
i.
i.

kan
iii.

ii.

7, etc.; 72,
i.

74,

1,

Ma

sien (67.

etc.; 75,

i,

etc.; 80,

4,

18-23, etc.), 254-255.

etc.), 151, 152, 159, 173,

229

236, 237, 238, 250, 252, 253,

Obligation, 137.

= 83 chH = Wtfe'i
=
V*f

260, 263, 264, 265, 272.


i.

(79,

18, etc.), 271.

People,

Obliterated, 105.
(iS,
i.

= f# A =
Jj5

common, 106. su jan (20,

v.

4-5,

3),

172.

etc.), 176.

Oceans, 107, 114, 131. (See also

Perfection, has several Chinese

"sea.")

equivalents

hat
66,

(20,
i.

v.

23

32,

iii.

chHng,
i.

lit.

"complei.

13

2),

176,

199, 252.

tion " (45, 218,

2; 51,

n,

etc.),

Omen,
One.

106.

225,

226;

translated

(See " identification.")


;

=
ii.

Oneness, 117 translated "unity," 101, 103, 108, 119.

yi
6;

(10
39,

i.
i.

5; 14,

ii.

12; 22,
i.

4, etc.;

42,

3,

= 3i chi "maturity = S chi


(55,
i.

"perfection," 120; translated " complete," 122


39, etc.),
") 125.
;

233

(i.e.,

(16,

i.

68,

i.

42),

"

INDEX.
169, 257.

337
virtue,

Translated "com104;

Profound

101, 123, 130.


iv.
ii.

pletion,"
est," 132.

and "highThis word is an


is,

==

3jffi

hilen teh (10,


iii.

19-

20; 51,

15-16

65,

37-

important term in Chinese


philosophy, and
as such,

38, etc.), 160, 227, 251.

commonly
extreme"
the
;

translated

"the

Propriety, 95, 116. Prussia, 313.

but Lao-Tze uses


in its popular

Prying, 126.
Psalmist, 21, 23.

word only

acceptance as "the extreme,


i.e.,

"highest point," and


'
"

P'ung-plant, 279. Pure, purify, purity, have sev-

also with the negation

hav-

ing no existence
of "absolute."
lute.")

"

in the sense

eral Chinese equivalents


Vra

tsHng

(15,
iii.

iii.

39,

ii.

(See "abso-

5, etc.;

45,

7),

168, 208,

Person, ioo, 120, 124. (See also

= Jj shdn

"body.")
(7, ii. 7, etc.;
ii.

=^

218; translated "clear," 104; "pure," 117; " purity," 120.

tsing

(45,

iii.

8),

218

44,

i.

translated "clearness," 120.

3 etc.; 54,

io,

etc.),

156,

217, 230, 231.

Quarrel
138.

(strive),

100, 108, 131,

Philo, 21, 22.


Pittacus, 292.

= ^P chang
20,

(8,

i.

12

22,

iii.
ii.

Plaenckner, 45, 287, 3co, 317,


322.

etc.; 66,

iii.

37;

81,

33), 157, 180, 253, 274.


;

Plato, 307

Tao

similar to the

Quiet, 98.

conception of "ideas," 10;


his ideas, 299.

= 3c

(Cf.
(3,

"rest.")

ngan

heading), 151.

Quipu, 332.

Pleasure, 112.

Positive principle, 119.

Race
3,

horses, 120.

G yang
278.

(42,

i.

20), 214.

Ratzel, 323.
95,

Po-Yang, Prince Positive,

Reality, 122.

Reason, that can be reasoned,


99, 109, to

Precedence (precedes),
translated
front," 100,

97

is

empty, 99

water

is

"comes
131.

the

near
103;
104
;

to,

100; of the ancients,

131; translated

"heavenly"

means,
;

= $q
25,

"to lead,"
sien
i.

when

obliterated, 105

(4, iii.
;

15

7,
;

ii.

16;
iii.

66.

ii.

14

67,

nature eluding, 107; the man of reason identified


its

23, etc.),

153, 156, 184, 252,

with, 108-109; one


109; defined as

wn o

has,

254. 255-

"the Great,"
is,

Prince Positive,
278.

Poh Yang,

2,

109

Heaven's standard
assists

no; one who

with,

338
112; as
113;
its

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
absolute
(eternal),
79,
ii.

81,

ii.

21,

etc.),

relation to the world

147,
170, 185,

152, 157, 166, 167, 169,


172, 177, 181, 183, 184,

all-pervading, etc., 114; the


great,
visible,

114;
etc.,

is

tasteless,

in-

193, 194, 197, 198, 200,

115; practises
115
;

202, 204, 211, 212, 213, 214,


219, 220, 221, 225, 226, 229, 241, 244, 250, 262, 267, 268,

non-assertion,

home118; a
118;

ward, the course

of,

superior scholar and,

271, 274.

begets unity, 119; the world


and,
121
;

Reason, human,
en's,
12.

12,

14

heav-

120

prognosticating,

he

diminishes

who
same

Reason

seeks, 121; quickens all creatures, 122 (cf. 114, the


is

of the ancients, 103.

cf ,21 3iH

ku

chi tao

(14, vi.

2-4), 166.

said of the sage in ch. 2


10);

and

becomes the world's mother, 123 walk in the


;

Reason's clue, 103, :== jM. &B tai chi (14.


167.

vi.

16-17),

great, 123; is very plain, 124;

who

cultivates,

124

non-

Reason's light, 123. P$ ming (52, iii.

15), 228.

diplomacy and, 126; if the empire is managed with, 127; is the ten thousand things'
asylum, 128, well versed
130; strives not, 134
like stretching a
in,

Reason's standard, intrinsic, no.


Cf. "selflike."

Reconciled, 136 translated " harmony," 125.


;

and

138;

3fi3

hwo
-

(55,

i.

48; 79,

i.

1),

bow, 135;

233. 27 1

man's

and heaven's, 136; shows no preference, 137; to


;

Recuperate, 108.

Jj chiien (22,

i.

3),

179.

benefit, 138

282,

286,

295,

Relatives, the six, 297.

298.
:

Remusat, Abel,
tao
(1,
i.

4,

294, 308.

*J3

1,

etc.; 4,

1.

1;

Repetitions

in

the

Tao-Tehin

8,

ii.

10; 14,
;

vi. 4, etc.;

15,
i.

King,

enumerated

the

iv. 3

16,
i.

iii.

15, etc.;

18,
ii.

footnote, 33-34-

21,

6,
ii.
i.
i.
i.

etc.; 23,

5,

Resolute, 112.
Requital,
112.

etc.; 24,
etc.
;

3, etc.; 25, ii. 2,

20,
i,

his

methods
(30,
i.

invite,

30,
34,

etc.;
;

32,

i.

etc.;
i.

35,

ii.
i.

10; 37,
4, etc.;

= M hzvan
129.
(63,
ii.

(See also 121-122.)


16), 193.

1;

40,

3;

41,
i.

Requite hatred with goodness,

42,
etc.;
i,

heading,
47,
etc.
; ;

46,
i.

i.

4,

i.

12
53,
i.

48,

51,

?H US XX
alents
:

fls

$ a0 y uen
246.

* teh

1,

i.

13, etc.;

60, 73,

1-4),

ii.

62,

65,

i.

Rest, has several Chinese equiv-

3; 77>

heading,

i.

3, etc.;

;;

INDEX.

339

== fw
2),

5j^

fien tan

(31,

iii.

1-

Riedel Dr. Heinrich, 46.


River-valley has several Chinese
equivalents
5CC
i),

195; translated "quietude and peace," 113.

R?
i.

tsijig (16,
;

1.

5,

11.

4; 26,
4; 61,

chzang
198, 252

(32,
;

iii.

12; 66,

i.

37,

ii,

12; 45,

iii.

translated "riv-

ii.

4), 169, 170, 186,

205, 218,

242; translated "quietude,"

= ^C ngan
n),
115. 168,
"still,"

104,

no,

116, 120, 128.


(15,
iii.

n;

35,

i.

= =

ers," 114, 131.


HJJ k*i (28,
i.

10),

189

trans-

lated "river,"
-?

in.
1;
15,
ii.

ku
iii.
ii.

(6,

i.

44;
9;
i.

201;
104;

translated:

28,
39,
8,

10,

etc.;

32,

iii.

and "rest,"
i.

16

41,

ii.

22

66,

etc.),

154,

168,

190, 198,

^f
115.
lj|

fiijig (35,

12),

201

208,

213,

252;

translated

translated

"contentment,"
13), 202; trans-

= fai(3$, "comfort," = Jg tsan "calm," = 3&


i.

"vale" or "valley," 99, 104, in, 117. 118, 131, 288;


translated "creeks," 114.

lated

115.
i),

Root has two Chinese equiva153


;

(4,

iii.

translated

99.
9),

= tR kdn
ing
;

lents

(6,
i.

ii.

16,

head-

tsih

(25,

i.

184

26,

4),

155, 169, i86j


:

translated "calm," 109.

English version
5-6),

100,

104,

==

|r^

lH yen cJCu
no.

(26,

iii.

186; translated " calmly he


sits,"

no. 2p -pan
sion

(39,

heading

iv. 6,

etc.), 208, 210.


:

English ver-

Return
ing,

to its root, 104. (16

117.

== Hf Si &>&" a
ii.

head-

Roving-plant, 95. Cf. " P'ung.

1-2), 169, 170.

Return home,

103, 106, 108,

in,
Sacrificial celebrations, 124.
iv.

114, 123.
f hvuei (20,
iv.

22,

Sages, great, 105.

^H/W
28,
i.

16; 34,

ii.

23), 175, 180, 201.

h-wei

(14, iv.

19-20, etc.; 52,

7-8 iii. 12-

Same. (See "identification.") Sameness, 286,


Saved, 123, 129, 131. tX chiu (52, ii. 20

13), 166, 189, 190,

228; transit

67, v. 3),

lated,

"again and again returns home," 103.

228, 255.

Saviour, no, 111.

Returning, the, 109.

(See also

= Wi A chiu
188.

ja?i (27,

ii.

7-8),

= IX/an Rhinoceros, = 52

"homeward.")
(25,
iii.

15),

185.

Scheffler, Johannes, 25.

122.
ii.

Scholar, 118.
11), 224.

(See also

"mas-

sz' (50,

ter."

34

lao-tze's tao-teh-king.
s7ii (41,
i.

= dt

2, etc.)t

212.

Sick of sickness, 133, 319.


Significant spirituality,

Schopenhauer, 22. Scotus Erigena, 24. Sea, 107. See "ocean."


23). 176.

=
(20, v.

in.
iii.

**!r

f& y a(> miao

(27,

32-

33), 189.

Self has several Chinese equiva-

= J^ skdn,
translated

lents

= ^F
43,

Silence (not talk), 98, 119, 125. (See also " taciturn.")

p^
iii.

yen

(2, iv.

11-12;
i.

(9,

iii.

13),

158

10-11;

56,

3-4),

"one-self,"

101.

150, 216, 234.

= %hsz* =
etc.;

(See

"body")
(7, ii.

2i,

etc.),

156;
100.
21,

translated
Ii tsz* (7,
57,

"own
i.

self,"
i.

17; 32,

ii.

10,

etc.; 73, iv.

= f chih = g| fu

Simple corresponds to various Chinese equivalents


(41,
ii.

36),

213;

translated "simple," 118.


(15,
ii.

39;

19,

ii.

17), 155, 197, 237, 262; trans-

17; 28, heading),

168,

174,

lated "for themselves," 100;

"of themselves" or "of

it-

189; translated "unseasoned wood," 104; transl'd "pure,"

= ^5 &Ljt>u
16-18), 155
{S3,

self," 113, 126, 134.


tsz'
;

106; translated "simplicity,"


(7,
i.

shang

translated "not

= wjfok,
i-

in.

(28,

ii.

22, etc.; 32,

live for themselves," 100.

Self assertion, 123.

Self-displaying, 108, 109.


jlj

= JK ski = ^ = @ $&
13
;

3ietc.; 57. "* 32), 191, 197, 204, 237; translated


5 37.

i2), 229.

"simplicity," in, 112, 113,


115, 116, 126.
ii.

tez* :AzVw (22,


i.

12-

:= f^ su

I 9 ii- I 5) 1 73\

trans-

24,

9-10), 179
tsz'

183.
is

lated " simple," 106.

Self -like

Jan,

==J8 yu
65,
i.

(S.
13),

M. Ch.,
143,
;

vi,

17;

translated

"Independent,"
(17,
iii.

"free,"

105

lated

trans250 "stupid," 95, and

15-16), 172.
-

"simple-hearted," 130.
I2 -i3),
Sin, 136.

"Intrinsic," 110(25, v
186.

jfe

keu

(78,

ii.

8),

270.
113,

"Natural way" or "development," 108, 130 (23, i. 3-4;


64,
iii.

Simplicity,
116, 126.

105,

112,

115,

28-29), 180, 250.


123,

"Spontaneous,"
(51,
ii.

297,

301

Sin Kie-Fou, 314. Solid, opposite of externality,


or thinness, 116. " intensity.")
of heaven, 301.
124.

13-14). 226.

(See also

Sense-gates, 125.

Sextus Empiricus, 320.

= J$ keu
Son

(38, v. 8), 207.

Sharp tools,

115. Cf.

"weapons."

Shu-King, quoted, 14-15, 321.

Sons and grandsons,

INDEX.

341
Paul, 23.

= "? US
230.

sz'

sun

(54,

ii.

1-2),

St.

Strauss, Victor von, 15 footnote,


soul), 101.
i.

Soul (animal

45, 289, 290,

293, 294, 298,

\\%

foh
'

(10,

3),

159.

300, 304, 305, 310, 311, 314.

Soul

(lit.

'abdomen "or " stom98, 102, 285.


(3, iv.

Straw-dogs, 99.

ach

"),

=^ =
^f?
iii.

ipJ ts'u

ken

(5,

i.

9-10,

==

JUl

fu

12

12,

iii.

6),

etc.),

153, 154.
(Cf. "quarrel,"

151, 162.

Strive, 131, 138.


100, 108.)

Soundless, 103.

= m hi
117;

(14,

i.

14), 165.

cha?ig

(8,

i.

12, ete.; 22,


iii.

Spinoza's causa sui, 12.


Spirit in the sense of spiritual

20, etc.;
ii.

66,

29, etc.;

8i,

13), 157, 180, 253, 274.

beings, 99; transl'd

"mind,"
"spook,"
11,

Su Cheh,
tent.")

293, 299, 310, 316.

translated

Sufficiency, 114, 120. (See "con-

127.
jjj$

shan
ii.

(6,

i.

39,

i.

= J

tsu

(33,

i.

19; 44,

iii.

2),

etc.; 6o,

9, etc.),

154, 208,

199, 217.

209, 241.
Spirit, pure, in the sense of the

Superior, benevolence, 116.

_il %2>

shayig jan

(38,

i.

34-

essential of existence,

107.

35), 206.

= $5 tsing =
in. fj miao
i.

(See "essence.")
{21,
i.

Superior justice, 116.

38, etc.), 178.

= _k

?|

shang

i (38,

ii.

1-2)

Spirituality (spiritual), 97,

103,

206.

1, iii.
iii.

8, etc.;

15,

Superior man, 113; translated " noble man," 95.

27,

33),

148,

167,

= On -f chiUn

tsz

(S.

M. Ch.

189.

v, 2-3, etc., 31,

ii.

1-2, etc,),

Spontaneous, 123.
like.")

(See " self-

142, 143, 195.

Superior virtue, it 6.

Spurious, 303.

= Jl fi shang
205.

teh

(38,

i.

1-2),

Stammer,

= ^no

120.
(45,
ii.

12), 218.

Supple, 135.

(See "weak.")

Standard, 120, " model.")

315.

(Cf.

= J chang
State, 302.
Still,

Surface not clear, 103. Suzuki, Teitaro, 46.

(45,

iii.

12), 218.

Sze-Ma-Ch'ien,
277.

6, 7,

36, 43, 95,

104.

(See also "rest.")


(See "lowliness.")
(61,
ii.

Stoop, 128.

r
243.

Ma

15, etc.), 242,

Taciturn,

108.

(Cf.

"silent.")
i.

7f$ H
180.

hi yen

(23,

1-2),

Stout, 129.

34 2

LAO-TZE'S TAO-TEH-KING.
Tools, sharp, 115.
Tolstoi, 25, 26.

T'ai Chi, the great extreme, 15.


(Cf.

"Breath.")

Tan, 95, 278. Tanaka, K., 46. Tao, and Brahm, 8


formal," 10
10
;

Tranquillity.

(See "quietude.")

Treasure,
;

viz.,

moral character,

the

mean-

317.

ing of the term, 9; as "purely


;

as the absolute,

=W
69,

Treasures, 131, 132.

few
ii.

(67,

heading,

iii.

similar to Plato's term

26), 254, 258.

"idea," 10;
ified,

two kinds

of,

== ^>

$* to

ts'ang

(44,

ii.

6-7).

11; prior to God, 13; person-

217;

translated

"hoarder!

16

the world-mother,
;

weath," 120.
Trinitarianism, 295. Trinity, 119, 308, 312. (Cf. ic

16, 97,

123

the ancestor,

16,

133; the master, 16, 133; the

author

of
;

all

transforma;

= zL san
(Cf.
'

(42,

1.

9, etc.

21

tions, 16

and God, 16
its

per-

" yang"
also
'

"

yin"
1

sonified, 318; also 282, 286.

c7iz,"

" bodi
color]
!

s.

Tao Teh-King,
6
;

authenticity,

"breath," and

editions of the, 42.

True man,
the, 29.

definition of

2'

Taoist literature, 38.

not hurt,

28

Lao Tze

= $ $C wu
202.

Tasteless, 115.
zvei (35,
ii.

14-15),

Tsiao Hong, 319. Types, 107. (See also "form")

Taxes, 135.

^L

siang

(21,

i.

23), 177.

Teh

Ts'ing, a commentator, 308.

Tenderer, 132.

(See "weak.")
"delicate,"

Ugliness, 97.

Tenderness, 101, 115, 123, 125,


*Z5>
I 3^

= ^ 2VU
less"

(2,

i.

10)

149.

(Cf.

Unexpressed, 116. (See "name-

= %k jeu
52,
iii.

"supple," and "weak.")


(10,
i.

and "ineffable.")
103, 117, 119, 290,

12
i.

36,
;

ii.
i.

Unity,

101,

55,
i.

24

76,

5,

306, 307.

(See "oneness.")

etc.; 78,

3,

etc.), 159, 203,

Universe, 283.

228, 232, 266, 267, 269, 270.

Tetzugaku Kwan,
the

43, 299.

= ^>J31
259.

Unknowable,

133.

$u

chi

(71,

i.

1-2),

Thai-tsou-hoang-ti,

founder of
ad-

Ming dynasty and

Unlike, 316.
Unlikely, 131, 317.

mirer of Lao-Tze, 320. Three things a unity, 103.


"trinity.")

(Cf.

Unnameable,

97, 103.

Tiger, 122.

=
ii.

Unreason, 113, 124, 125. >F iS i u tao (3 *" 7~ 8


etc.;

JjL

hu

(50,

12, etc.), 224.

55,

ii.

24-25, etc.), 194,

Ti-Shun (Emperor Shun),

321.

233.

INDEX.

343
137
;

= W *I fei tao
229.

(53,

ii.

35-36),

denounced,
(S.

105,

106,

Unseasoned wood.
pie.")

(See " sim-

= gg
xi.
i.

116.

teh

M.
15,

Ch.,

vi.

14;

5; xiv.
;

13; 10, iv. 20; 21,


ii.
i.

= M ^P ivu
iii.

Unsophisticated, 98, 101.


chi(3,
v.

23, 28, 41,


etc.;

etc.

18,
i.

i;

4-5; io,

19,

i;

16, etc.; 38,

2,
i.

13-14), 152, 160.


17, 116, 282.

etc.;
13,
ii.

ii.

20,
i.

etc.; 49,
4,
i.

= ^Wi t u
208.

Unvirtue,

51,
;

etc.;

54.
ii.

teh (38,

3-4),

ii.

12, etc
ii.

55,
;

2
ii.

60,

38; 63,
79,
i.

65,

38, etc.;

Usefulness, 107.
Jii

25, etc.), 143, 145, 160,

i (20, vi. 5), 176.

172, 173, 177, 181, 189, 190,

Utility, 101, 118, 120, 132.

(See

205, 205-208,

212, 222, 225,

" function.")

226, 227, 230, 231, 232, 241,


246, 251, 271.
1

In the phrase '$ao yiien iteh " it has been

Vacuity.
Valley.

(See " empty.") (See " river-valley.")

translated "goodness," 129.


(Cf. "requite.")

Valley

spirit, 99.

Vital principle, 279.


(6,
i.

(Cf. "ch'i"

*fr

ku shdn,

1-2),

and " breath.")


Vitality (immaterial breath), ioi,
119.
(Cf.

154.

Vessel (frequently used in the sense of " useful man "), 102,

" breath.")
120.

Vitiation,

risks no,

(See

= H chH
41,
ii.

112, 119.
(28, iv. 5
;

"danger" and "immortal29,


i.

18

ity."

45), 191, 192, 213.

Vulgarity, 105.

Virility, 125.

Virtue,

17

the noble
;

man

of

Wang

Pi, 303, 317.

perfect, 95

reason and, 96

War-horses, 120.
Warlike, 132.

profound, 101; vast, 107; one who pursues his business


with, 108, 109
;

Wars,

will

be
is
;

suffi-

cient, 111; superior, 116; re-

sembles a vale, 118;


121
all
;

good,
feeds

= Jf Water, = 7K shui
8),

112, 113.

chiiin (30,

ii.

10), 193.

24, 100, 136.


(8,
i.

4, etc.;

78,

i.

is

faithful,

122
;

156, 269.

creatures,

122

is

gen-

Weak

or weakness, has several

uine, overflowing, etc., 124;

who
will

in all its solidity pos-

Chinese equivalents fg jeu (76, i. 6, etc


3,

78,

i.

sesses,

124

(cf.

"child");

be combined. 127; pro-

270; mostly translated "delicate"


etc.)

266,

267,

269,

found, 130; those

who

have,

and frequently used with

its

344
synonyms/6>/
i.

laotze's tao-teh-king.
(76,
;

i.

5-6; 78,
tsui,

i.

15-16

62,
i.

i.

3-4

64,

iii.

3-4),

266, 269
(76,
:

and

25-26; 76,
i5 2
.

12-13), 147, 150,


.

"supple"

i.

19-20), 266.

*53, i5 6

169,

197, 200,

= II joh
flf

In English

135, 136.

201, 204, 208, 209, 2ii, 214,


i.

(3, iv.
i.

13

36,
i.

n,

225, 244, 250, 266.


lish
:

In Eng100,
104,

etc.; 40,

6; 78,

4, etc.),

97,

98,

99,

151, 203, 2ii, 269.

In Eng-

113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119,

= tsui "supple," = Sc shzvai


(j6,
i.

lish: 98, 115, 118, 136.


20),

266
258;

= 5c T*
(2,
i.

122, 128, 130, 135.

fien hia
1-2; 13,

'
t

lit.

'

un-

translated

135.

der heaven

" (see

Notes 283)
6-7, etc.;
ii,

(69,

iii.

6),

iv.

translated "tenderer," 132.

22,

ii.

8-9, etc.; 25,


i.

9-10;

Weakest, 119. (See "weakness."

also

26, iv. 11-12; 28,


29,
i.

8-9, etc.;
i.
i.

3lS:
216.

4-5, etc.;
iii.

30,

118-9;
'

chijeu

(43,

i.

4-5),

12; 31, 35,


i-

29-30; 32,

Wheel, 101. (See "carriage.") Widowers, 117, 119.


Williams, S. Wells, 45, 295, 317; referred to throughout the

4-5 37, " 13-14 39, 33-34; 43, i. 1-2, etc.; 45, iii. 10-11 46, i. 1-2; 47, i.
i

ii.

5-6; 48,

ii.
i.

2-3, etc.; 49,


1-2, etc.; 54,

iii.
ii.

4-5;

52,

Notes and Comments.

42-43, etc.;
57,
i. i.

56,

iii.

37"3 8
ii.
;

Without
Without
155.

desire, the people, 98.

13-14, et c; 6o,

4-5;
63,

(Cf. "desireless.")

61,
iii.

6-7; 62, v. 23-24


etc.; 66,
i.

= 'F Wl

effort, 100.

11-12,

iii.

19-

i>u

chHn

(6, iii.

7-8),

20, etc.; 6y,


ii.

1-2, etc.; 70,

1-2; 77,

iii.

20-21),

148,

Womanhood, in.

(The same

164, 165, 179, 180, 184, 187, 189, 190, 191, 193, 196, 197,

word as " motherbird.") Word, (Tao as Logos), 10, 282. Words, alone extant, 95 have
;

201, 205, 209, 216, 218, 219,

220, 221, 223, 227, 231, 235,

an ancestor,

133.

236, 241, 242, 245, 246, 253,


2 54f

Work,

120.

(Cf. "function.")

255,

258,

World, has two equivalents


our text

in

times translated
pire," 97, 103,

some"the em108, 109, no,


268
;

== Wt

*ffl

wan
i.

zvuh

lit.

"the
2,

in,

112, 113, 114. 116,

119,

10,000 things,"
v. 1-2; 4,
8,
i.

(1, ii.

9-10;
i.

I20, 121, 122, 123, 124,


126, 127, 128, 129, I31,

125, I33,

12-13;
i.

5,
;

6-7;
i.

8-9;
34,
;

16,
i-

7-8

32,

136.

18-19;
i.

9-i. etc.; 37,


ii.

14-15

39,
i.

21-22

40,

ii.

3-4; 42,

12-13, etc.; 51,

World-honored, 125, 129. World's formation, the, 107. ^^chungfu, lit. "of

all

INDEX.
things the organisation" (21,
i.

345
(See

Yang, 278, 308.


principle.")

u positive

57-58), 178.

World's mother, has two Chi-

Yea, 106.

= 55 ~F "S

nese equivalents
?ien hia

Bf

wet

(20,

i.

5),

174.

(See

mu

>

lit-

also p. 297.)

"the mother
heaven,"
109, 123.
(25,

of the underii.

Yes, 106.

9-11; 52,

i.

Pnf

o (20,

i.

8),

174.

(See

7-9), 184, 227.

In English

also p. 297.)

= M %\ Z. #
t

(Cf. 16.)

Yin, 308.
ciple.")

(See "negative prin-

ivuh chi mu lit. " the mother of the ten thousand things" (i, ii.
In English
:

wan

Zoroastrian, 10.

9-12), 147.

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COPE, E. D. THE PRIMARY FACTORS OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION.


121 cuts.

Pp., xvi, 547.

Cloth, $2.00, net.

MULLER,
With

F.

MAX.

THREE INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON THE SCIENCE OF THOUGHT. THREE LECTURES ON THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE.
The Oxford University Extension
Predecessors."
112 pages.

a correspondence on "Thought Without Words," between F. Muller and Francis Galton, the Duke of Argyll, George J. Romanes and others. 128 pages. Cloth, 75 cents. Paper, 25 cents.

Max

2nd Edition.

Lectures, with a Supplement, ". My Cloth, 75 cents. Paper, 25c.

ROMANES, GEORGE JOHN.


An Exposition

DARWIN AND AFTER DARWIN.


of the Darwinian Theory and a Discussion of PostDarwinian Questions. Three Vols., $4.00. Singly, as follows 1. The Darwinian Theory. 460 pages. 125 illustrations. Cloth, $2.00. Heredity and Utility. Pp. 338. $1.50. 2. Post-Darwinian Questions. Post-Darwinian Questions. Isolation and Physiological Selection. 3.
:

Pp.

181.

$1.00.

AN EXAMINATION OF WEISMANNISM. 236 pages. Cloth, $1.00. Paper, 35c. THOUGHTS ON RELIGION.
Edited by Charles Gore, M.
Pages,
184.

A.,

Canon

of Westminster.

Third Edition,

Cloth, gilt top, $1.25.

RIBOT, TH. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATTENTION. THE DISEASES OF PERSONALITY. THE DISEASES OF THE WILL.
set, cloth,

Authorised translations. ^z.75, net.

Cloth, 75 cents each.

Paper, 25 cents.

Full

MACH, ERNST.
THE SCIENCE OF MECHANICS.
A Critical and Historical Exposition
by T.
J.

McCormacx.

250 cuts.

POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Second Edition. 382 pages. 50 cuts. Cloth, THE ANALYSIS OF THE SENSATIONS.
Pp. 208.
37 cuts.

of its Principles. Translated m., gilt top. $2.50. 534 pages.

gilt top.

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GOODWIN, REV.
HOLYOAKE,
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146.

T. A.
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LOVERS THREE THOUSAND YEARS AGO.


As Indicated by the Song of Solomon. Pp. 41. Boards, G. J. ENGLISH SECULARISM. A Confession of Belief.
Cloth, 50c, net.

CORNILL, CARL HEINRICH. THE PROPHETS OF ISRAEL. Popular Sketches from Old Testament History. THE RISE OF THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL.
See Epitomes of Three Sciences, below.

Pp., 200,

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BINET, ALFRED. THE PSYCHIC LIFE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS. Authorised translation. 135 pages. Cloth, 75 cents; ON DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS.
Studies in Experimental Psychology.
93 pages.

Paper, 25 cents.

Paper, 15 cents,

WAGNER, RICHARD.
A PILGRIMAGE TO BEETHOVEN. A Novelette. Frontispiece, portrait of
Beethoven. Pp.40. Boards, 50c

WEISMANN, AUGUST.
GERMINAL SELECTION.
Pp.
73.

As a Source of Definite Variation.

Paper, 25c.

NOIRE, LUDWIG. ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE. Pp. FREYTAG, GUSTAV. THE LOST MANUSCRIPT. A Novel.
2 vols.

57.

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MARTIN LUTHER.
Illustrated.

953 pages.

Extra cloth,

$4.00.

One

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Pp. 130.

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Paper, 25c.

HERING, EWALD. ON MEMORY, and THE


SYSTEM.
Pp.
50.

SPECIFIC ENERGIES OF

THE NERVOUS

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TRUMBULL,

M. M.

THE FREE TRADE STRUGGLE IN ENGLAND. Second Edition. 296 pages. Cloth, 75 cents; paper, 25 cents. WHEELBARROW: Articles and Discussions on the Labor Question With portrait of the author. 303 pages. Cloth, $1.00 paper, 35 cents. EARL GREY ON RECIPROCITY AND CIVIL SERVICE REFORM.
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With Comments by Gen. M. M. Trumbull.


Selected and translated by Paul Carus.

Price, 10 cents.

GOETHE AND SCHILLER'S XENIONS.


Album
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OLDENBERG,
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H. ANCIENT INDIA: ITS


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LANGUAGE AND RELIGIONS.


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CARUS, PAUL. THE ETHICAL PROBLEM. 90 pages. Cloth, 50 cents Paper, FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS.
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Second

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CL,

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HOMILIES OF SCIENCE.
317 pages.

THE IDEA OF GOD. Fourth edition. 32 pages. Paper, 15 cents. THE SOUL OF MAN. With 152 cuts and diagrams. 458 pages. Cloth, $3.00. TRUTH IN FICTION. Twelve Tales with a Moral. Fine laid paper, white and gold binding, gilt edges. THE RELIGION OF SCIENCE.
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Pp. in.

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Second, extra edition.

PRIMER OF PHILOSOPHY.

Price, 50 cents.

R. S. L. edition, 25c.

Pp. 103.

THREE LECTURES:
ioc.
(2)

240 pages.

Second Edition.

Cloth, $1.00.

Paper, 25c.

(1) The Philosophy of the Tool. Pages, 24. Paper, Our Need of Philosophy. Pages, 14. Paper, 5c. (3) Science

THE GOSPEL OF BUDDHA. According to Old Records. 4th Edition. Pp., 275. Cloth, Si. 00. Paper, 35 cents. In German, $1.25. BUDDHISM AND ITS CHRISTIAN CRITICS.
Pages,
311,

a Religious Revelation.

Pages,

21.

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KARMA. A Story

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of Early Buddhism. 2nd Edition.

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Life.

GARBE, RICHARD. THE REDEMPTION OF THE BRAHMAN. A Tale of Hindu Laid paper. Gilt top. 96 pages. Price, 75c. Paper, 25c. THE PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA.
Pp.
89.

Cloth, 50c.

Paper, 25c.

EPITOMES OF THREE SCIENCES.


1.

The Study of
ogy.
C.

Sanskrit. By H. Oldenberg, 2. Experimental PsycholBy Joseph Jastrow. 3. The Rise of the People of Israel. By H. Cornill. 140 pages. Cloth, reduced to 50 cents.

The Religion of Science Library.


A
collection of bi-monthly publications, most of

which are reprints of


Yearly, $1.50.

books published by The Open Court Publishing Company.


Separate copies according
to prices quoted.

The books

are printed upon

good paper, from large

type.
its

The
The
No.
1.

Religion of Science Library, by

extraordinarily reasonable price,


all

will place a large

number

of valuable

books within the reach of

readers

following have already appeared in the series

2.

The Religion of Science. By Paul Carus. 25c. Three Introductory Lectures on the Science of Thought.

By

F.

Max

Muller.
3.

25c.

4.
5. 6.

7.
8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13.
14. 15. 16.

Three Lectures on the Science of Language. By F. Max MOller. 25c. The Diseases of Personality By Th. Ribot. 25c. The Psychology of Attention. By Th. Ribot. 25c. The Psychic Life of Micro-Organisms. By Alfred Binet. 25c. The Nature of the State. By Paul Carus. 15c. On Double Consciousness. By Alfred Binet. 15c. Fundamental Problems. By Paul Carus. 50c. The Diseases of the Will. By Th. Ribot. 25c. The Origin of Langztage By Ludwig Noire. 15c. The Free Trade Struggle in England. By M. M. Trumbull. 25c. Wheelbarrow on the Labor Question. By M. M. Trumbull. 35c. The Gospel of Buddha. By Paul Carus. 35c. The Primer of Philosophy By Paul Carus. 25c. On Memory\ and The Specific Energies of the Nervous System. By Prof.
.
. .

17.

18. 19.

20. 21.

22. 23.

24.
25.

26.
27.
28.

Ewald Hering. 15c. The Redemption of the Brahman. A Tale of Hindu Life. By Richard Garbe. 25c. An Examination of Weismannism. By G. J. Romanes. 35c. On Germinal Selection. By August Weismann. 25c. Lovers Three Thousand Years Ago. By T. A. Goodwin. 15c. Popular Scientific Lectures. By Ernst Mach. 35c. Ancient India : Its Language and Religions. By H. Oldenberg. 25c. The Prophets of Ancient Israel. By Prof. C. H. Cornill. 25c. Homilies of Science. By Paul Carus. 35c. Thoughts on Religion. By G. J. Romanes. 50 cents. The Philosophy of Ancient India. By Prof. Richard Garbe. 25c. Martin Luther. By Gustav Freytag. 25c. English Secularism. By George Jacob Holyoake. 25c.
On
Orthogenesis.

29.

By Th. Eimer.

25c.

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