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E4-E5 (E&WS)-Synchronization of Telecom NW

Rev. Date 16.03.11

Chapter 3

Synchronization of Telecom Network

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E4-E5 (E&WS)-Synchronization of Telecom NW

Rev. Date 16.03.11

Synchronization
Telecom traffic is constantly increasing both in fixed as well as in mobile (including new 3G systems) telephone network. More and more information is being transported at higher and higher data speeds and therefore the Synchronization of the traffic in the networks is becoming increasingly important. Telecommunications reliability is based on the data signals being synchronized and clocked using the same clock everywhere in the network. Network synchronization is one important part in network planning, especially on SDH network. The basic clock in the SDH networks is called E1, and it must be exactly 2.048 MHz. In a fully synchronized SDH network, there is a very stable and accurate atomic (caesium) clock of 2.048 MHz that functions as a "master clock" or primary reference clock (PRC). The quality of PRC clock always accuracy better than 10exp-12. The PRC is distributed throughout the network using the transmission backbone comprising of DWDM and SDH transport network. The clock is regenerated in the networks nodes in slave clocks called as synchronization supply units (SSUs). The SSUs are clock generator and distributor of the accuracy better than 10exp-11. The SSUs can also temporarily (up to hold over time) be used as PRCs if the input connection from the master clock is interrupted. The SSUs regenerate and distribute the clock thus received from PRC through a chain of SECs (SDH Equipment Clocks). The SECs are the clocks in the network elements (see Figure below). This clock regeneration is never completely perfect; rather, each regenerated clock will have variations in frequency and phase. The more nodes passed "en route", the less stable the clock will be. The same is shown as given below:

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E4-E5 (E&WS)-Synchronization of Telecom NW

Rev. Date 16.03.11

PRC: Primary Resource Clock SEC: SDH Equipment Clock

Synchronization Planning: while extending PRC clock from one node to other
node through transmission network of SDH and DWDM few guidelines are required to be kept in mind. This is essential as the clock quality keeps on getting deteriorated as and when it crosses number of nodes. Following is the salient planning rules: From one PRC maximum 10 numbers of SSUs can be supported. Between two SSUs maximum 20 NE can be placed. In total maximum 60 numbers of NEs can be supported in one PRC chain.

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E4-E5 (E&WS)-Synchronization of Telecom NW

Rev. Date 16.03.11

However, the above figures are theoretical figures and as such they may be adjusted as per the quality of transmission network, so that the quality of clock in the network always remains comparable to PRC clock i.e. better than 10exp-12 accuracy.

PRS Co-located PRS & TSG SSU 1 20 K=1 SSU 1 Rule 1 K < 10 SSUs K=2 2 SSU 1 20 K=3 SSU Rule 2 N < 20 SECs SEC (NE with SONET/SDH Equipment Clock) K=1 SS 1 20 SSU K=1 SSU K=2

1 1

2 PRS 20 1 2

PRS

BSNL Synchronization Plan:


It is proposed to have 21 numbers of PRCs with two caesium tubes (mostly at all Level-1 TAX locations) for geographical diversity and for ensuring the minimum nodes slippage. However, in view of the requirement for the orderly distribution of the PRC clock throughout the transmission network, it is proposed to locate the SSUs at the convergent nodes of the existing DWDM backbone rings. Overlapping with DWDM network enables to transport the clock on a number of SDH rings to as many district head quarters, where SSUs are proposed to be located. Most of these nodes are co-located with
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E4-E5 (E&WS)-Synchronization of Telecom NW

Rev. Date 16.03.11

the Level I TAX stations. Thus these 21 PRCs are expected to supply clock for all the Transmission, Switching and Access elements in the transmission geographic area, also called as the PRC timing Island. The SSU at the PRC location depends on the PRC itself for the first master clock input. In case of failure or deterioration of the PRC, the SSU depends on the other three PRC clock inputs received from the nearest three PRCs. In the event of complete failure of the PRC inputs or in the event of the deterioration of clock quality all the PRCs below the GPS standard, the SSU draws the clock from the GPS clock, which shall be in-built in SSU. It is proposed to place at least one SSU at each of the SSA Headquarter. Thus at least 322 SSUs shall be required for distributing the clock. In the cities, where more than 3 lakh DELs are available, there will be at least 3 SSUs in the same city for distributing the clock across the city network. Similarly in all the cities with more than one Lakh DELs but less than 3 Lakh DELs two SSUs are proposed in the same city for distributing the clock.

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