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ABSTRACT

In robotics, obstacle avoidance is the task of satisfying some control objective subject to non-intersection or non-collision position of constraints. Normally obstacle avoidance is considered to be distinct from path planning in that one is usually implemented as a reactive control which a controller will then guide a robot along. Whenever robot senses any obstacle automatically diverts its position to left/right and follows the path. Robot consists of two motors, which control the side pair wheels of each and help in moving forward and backward direction. It senses the object with help of obstacle sensor. IR pair is used for detecting the obstacle. In this project we develop a robot such that it will be moving according to path assigned to it if at all there is any obstacle in between then the robot stops and change its direction. This sort of project is very much useful in the industries where the automated supervision is required. Hardware specification are Regulated power supply, Inverter Ic , IR sensor, DC Motor. Software tools are Proteous and Express PCB For circuit design and layout. This robot can be applied at the toys where children will play. ROBOT can be used for the army application by fixing a cam to it. We can apply number of IR pairs for the safe direction control. This project is considered to be the key link to the 3rd generation of robotics.

Chapter 1

Introduction
A robot obstacle detection system comprising: a robot housing which navigates with respect to a surface; a sensor subsystem having a defined relationship with respect to the housing and aimed at the surface for detecting the surface, the sensor subsystem including: an optical emitter which emits a directed beam having a defined field of emission, and a photon detector having a defined field of view which intersects the field of emission of the emitter at a finite region; and a circuit in communication with the detector for redirecting the robot when the surface does not occupy the region to avoid obstacles. Obstacle sensors are nothing but the IR pair. As the transmitter part travel IR rays from to receiver here also transmitter send the data receiver but these IR pair are places beside each other. So whenever the obstacle sensor found an obstacle in between its way the IR rays reflects in a certain angle. 1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

RIGHT MOTOR

FRONT SENSOR

Inverter Ic (7404)

MOTOR DRIVER

LEFT MOTOR

Figure1.1 Block Diagram 1.1.1 POWER SUPPLY:

Power supply can be broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function. The transformer is 230v AC supply. Transformers work only with AC and here we are using step down transformer because to step down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC (i.e.; 230v to12v). This transformer is fed into rectifier.

In bridge rectifier there are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC and it is most important and it produces full-wave with varying DC so that we go for smoothing capacitor it smooth the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple. By using regulator we can eliminate the ripple. In regulator to set DC output to a fixed voltage. 1.1.2 INVERTER IC (7404): Here we are using 7404 Inverter. This is used to control all the operations of a circuit to get the accurate result. The IC we use is of the 14 pins and consist of 6 ports. 1.1.3 DC MOTOR: Motors are used for the movement of the robot. Here we use the dc motor as it has the principle of the speed controlling. 1.1.4 OBSTACLE SENSOR: The obstacle senor is used avoiding the robot from the clash to any external devices or any obstacle which comes in its way. Here we are using the IR communications the transmitter and the receiver parts. The transmitter produces the IR rays and they are received by the receiver section.

Chapter 2

Embedded Systems
2.1 Introduction
An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform a dedicated function. An embedded system performs one or few pre-defined tasks usually with very specific requirements and often includes task-specific hardware and mechanical parts not usually found in a general-purpose computer. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it by reducing the size and cost of the product. Physically, the embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. In terms of complexity embedded systems run with a single microcontroller chip to very complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Mobile phones or handheld computers share some elements with embedded systems, such as the operating systems and microprocessors which power them but are not truly embedded systems themselves because they tend to be more general purpose allowing different applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected. As the embedded system is the combination of both software and hardware .Software deals with the languages like WINAVR, C, and VB etc., and Hardware deals with Processors, Peripherals, and Memory. Memory: It is used to store data or address. Peripherals: These are the external devices connected Processor: It is an IC which is used to perform some task Processors are classified into four types like: 1. Micro Processor (p) 2. Micro controller (c)

3. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) 4. Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC)

Embedded System

Software

Hardware

o o o

WINAVR C VB Etc.,

o o o

Processor Peripherals memory

Figure2.1 Block diagram of Embedded System 2.2 Examples of Embedded Systems An embedded system typically has a specialized function with programs stored on ROM. Examples of embedded systems are chips that monitor automobile functions, including engine controls, antilock brakes, air bags, active suspension systems, environmental systems, security systems, and entertainment systems. Everything needed for those functions is custom designed into specific chips. No external operating system is required. Another example is a chip for a microwave oven. It is specifically designed to run the front-panel controls and all the timing and electronics of the oven. Network managers will need to manage more and more embedded systems devices, ranging from printers to scanners, to handheld computing devices, to cell phones. All of these have a need to connect with other devices, either directly or through a wireless or directconnect network. Most will have custom operating systems or variations of existing operating systems (e.g., Microsoft Windows CE).

It's easy to picture nearly every electronic device as having an embedded system. For example, refrigerators, washing machines, and even coffee brewers will benefit in some way from embedded systems. A critical feature of an embedded system is its ability to communicate, so embedded systems support Ethernet, Bluetooth (wireless), infrared, or other technologies. A weather station on top of a building may employ an embedded system that gathers information from external sensors. This information can be pushed or pulled. In the push scenario, the data is automatically sent to devices that have requested it. In the pull scenario, users or network devices access the weather station to read the latest information. If the weather station is connected to the Internet, it may have its own IP address and, ideally, will provide information to anyone that accesses the IP address. In this sense, the weather station is acting as a mini-Web server. In fact, many embedded systems are basically Web servers on a chip. The chips contain HTTP and HTML functions, and custom applications appropriate for the environment in which the chip will be used. 2.3 Microcontrollers and Microprocessors A microcontroller (or MCU) is a computer-on-a-chip. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness, in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a PC). A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semi conducting integrated circuit (IC). The microprocessor was born by reducing the word size of the CPU from 32 bits to 4 bits, so that the transistors of its logic circuits would fit onto a single part. One or more microprocessors typically serve as the CPU in a computer system, embedded system, or handheld device. 2.4 Typical Microcontroller Architecture and Features The basic internal designs of microcontrollers are pretty similar. Figure 1.2, the block diagram of a typical microcontroller. All components are connected via an internal bus and are all integrated on one chip. The modules are connected to the outside world via I/O pins.

Figure 2.2 Basic Layout of Microcontroller The following list contains the modules typically found in a microcontroller. You can find a more detailed description of these components in later sections. Processor Core: The CPU of the controller. It contains the arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, and the registers (stack pointer, program counter, accumulator register, register file . . .). Memory: The memory is sometimes split into program memory and data memory. In larger controllers, a DMA controller handles data transfers between peripheral components and the memory. Interrupt Controller: Interrupts are useful for interrupting the normal program flow in case of (important) external or internal events. In conjunction with sleep modes, they help to conserve power. Timer/Counter: Most controllers have at least one and more likely 2-3 Timer/Counters, which can be used to timestamp events, measure intervals, or count events. Many controllers also contain PWM (pulse width modulation) outputs, which can be used to drive motors or for safe breaking (antilock brake system, ABS). Furthermore the PWM output in conjunction with an external filter be used to realize a cheap digital/analog converter.

Digital I/O: Parallel digital I/O ports are one of the main features of microcontrollers. The number of I/O pins varies from 3-4 to over 90, depending on the controller family and the controller type. Analog I/O: Apart from a few small controllers, most microcontrollers have integrated analog/digital converters, which differ in the number of channels (2-16) and their resolution (8-12 bits). The analog module also generally features an analog comparator. In some cases, the microcontroller includes digital/analog converters. 2.5 The UART: What it is and how it works The Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) controller is the key component of the serial communications subsystem of a computer. The UART takes bytes of data and transmits the individual bits in a sequential fashion. At the destination, a second UART re-assembles the bits into complete bytes. Serial transmission is commonly used with modems and for non-networked communication between computers, terminals and other devices. There are two primary forms of serial transmission: Synchronous and Asynchronous. Depending on the modes that are supported by the hardware, the name of the communication sub-system will usually include A if it supports Asynchronous communications and S if it supports Synchronous communications. Both forms are described below. Some common acronyms are: UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter 2.5.1 Synchronous Serial Transmission Synchronous serial transmission requires that the sender and receiver share a clock with one another, or that the sender provide a strobe or other timing signal so that the receiver knows when to read the next bit of the data. In most forms of serial Synchronous

communication, if there is no data available at a given instant to transmit, a fill character must be sent instead so that data is always being transmitted. Synchronous communication is usually more efficient because only data bits are transmitted between sender and receiver, and synchronous communication can be more costly if extra wiring and circuits are required to share a clock signal between the sender and receiver. A form of Synchronous transmission is used with printers and fixed disk devices in that the data is sent on one set of wires while a clock or strobe is sent on a different wire. Printers and fixed disk devices are not normally serial devices because most fixed disk interface standards send an entire word of data for each clock or strobe signal by using a separate wire for each bit of the word. In the PC industry, these are known as Parallel devices. The standard serial communications hardware in the PC does not support Synchronous operations. This mode is described here for comparison purposes only. 2.5.2 Asynchronous Serial Transmission Asynchronous transmission allows data to be transmitted without the sender having to send a clock signal to the receiver. Instead, the sender and receiver must agree on timing parameters in advance and special bits are added to each word which is used to synchronize the sending and receiving units. When a word is given to the UART for Asynchronous transmissions, a bit called the "Start Bit" is added to the beginning of each word that is to be transmitted. The Start Bit is used to alert the receiver that a word of data is about to be sent, and to force the clock in the receiver into synchronization with the clock in the transmitter. These two clocks must be accurate enough to not have the frequency drift by more than 10% during the transmission of the remaining bits in the word. (This requirement was set in the days of mechanical teleprinters and is easily met by modern electronic equipment.) After the Start bit, the individual bits of the word of data are sent with the Least Significant Bit (LSB) being sent first. Each bit in the transmission is transmitted for exactly the same amount of time as all of the other bits, and the receiver looks at the wire at approximately halfway through the period assigned to each bit to determine if the bit is a 1 or

a 0. For example, if it takes two seconds to send each bit, the receiver will examine the signal to determine if it is a 1 or a 0 after one second has passed, then it will wait two seconds and then examine the value of the next bit, and so on. The sender does not know when the receiver has looked at the value of the bit. The sender only knows when the clock says to begin transmitting the next bit of the word. When the entire data word has been sent, the transmitter may add a Parity Bit that the transmitter generates. The Parity Bit may be used by the receiver to perform simple error checking. Then at least one Stop Bit is sent by the transmitter. When the receiver has received all of the bits in the data word, it may check for the Parity Bits (both sender and receiver must agree on whether a Parity Bit is to be used), and then the receiver looks for a Stop Bit. If the Stop Bit does not appear when it is supposed to, the UART considers the entire word to be garbled and will report a Framing Error to the host processor when the data word is read. The usual cause of a Framing Error is that the sender and receiver clocks were not running at the same speed, or that the signal was interrupted. Regardless of whether the data was received correctly or not, the UART automatically discards the Start, Parity and Stop bits. If the sender and receiver are configured identically, these bits are not passed to the host. If another word is ready for transmission, the Start Bit for the new word can be sent as soon as the Stop Bit for the previous word has been sent because asynchronou s data is selfsynchronizing, if there is no data to transmit, the transmission line can be idle.

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Chapter 3

Hardware
Hardware Modules: The Hardware modules of this project: Inverter (7404) 7805 L293D Motors Obstacle Sensor

3.1 Inverter (7404): 7404 is a NOT gate IC. It consists of six inverters which perform logical invert action. The output of an inverter is the complement of its input logic state, i.e., when input is high its output is low and vice versa.

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Pin Diagram:

Figure3.1 Pin diagram of 7404

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Pin Description:

Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Function Input/output of 1st inverter Input/output of 2nd inverter Input/output of 3rd inverter Ground (0V) Output/input of 4th inverter Output/input of 5th inverter Output/input of 6th inverter Supply voltage; 5V (4.75 - 5.25 V)

Name Input1 Output1 Input2 Output2 Input3 Output3 Ground Output4 Input4 Output5 Input5 Output6 Input6 Vcc

3.2 Voltage regulator (LM7805): It is a self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator IC. The 78xx family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their easeof-use and low cost. For ICs within the family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating the output voltage (for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts). The 78xx lines are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Although

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designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Features Output Current up to 1A Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

Figure 3.2 7805 terminal 3.3 Motor Driver (L293D):

L293D is used as driver IC.L293d is an IC used for driving different types of motors. The PIN diagram is shown in below figure. It contains four non-inverting drivers placed as two pairs. Each pair may individually be enabled or disabled through ENABLE input. Each driver is capable of sourcing or sinking 600mA of current with a peak value of 1.2A. Vs (PIN 8) is for motor power supply voltage input, with a minimum limit of 5V and a maximum of 36V. Vss (PIN 16) is a logic level input voltage with a minimum rating of 5V.

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To drive a motor, only a pair of drivers is necessary which may be connected with poles of the motor directly. Signals marked as input may be driven by port PINs of any microcontroller. The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage, high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids, DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors.

Figure 3.3 Pin Diagram of L293D

Specifications:

Symbol Vs Vss

Parameter Supply voltage Logic supply voltage

Value 36V 36V

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Vi Ven Io Ptot TstgTj

Input voltage Enable voltage Peak o/p current Total power dissipation at TPINs=90 C Storage and junction temperature

7V 7V 1.2A 4W -40 to 150 C

3.4 Motor : 3.4.1 DEFINITION: Motor is a device that creates motion, not an engine; it usually refers to either an electrical motor or an internal combustion engine. It may also refer to:

Electric motor, a machine that converts electricity into a mechanical motion


o

AC motor, an electric motor that is driven by alternating current

Synchronous motor, an alternating current motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current and resulting magnetic field which drives it

Induction motor, also called a squirrel-cage motor, a type of asynchronous alternating current motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction

DC motor, an electric motor that runs on direct current electricity

Brushed DC electric motor, an internally commutated electric motor designed to be run from a direct current power source

Brushless DC motor, a synchronous electric motor which is powered by direct current electricity and has an electronically controlled commutation system, instead of a mechanical commutation system based on brushes

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Electrostatic motor, a type of electric motor based on the attraction and repulsion of electric charge

Servo motor, an electric motor that operates a servo, commonly used in robotics.

3.4.2 DC Motor A DC motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy that can be used to do many useful works. DC motors comes in various ratings like 6V and 12V. It has two wires or pins. When connected with power supply the shaft rotates. You can reverse the direction of rotation by reversing the polarity of input.

Figure 3.4 Dc Motor Motor gives power to your MCU. Means power to do physical works, for example move your robot. So it is essential to know how to control a DC motor effectively with a MCU. We can control a DC motor easily with microcontrollers. We can start it, stop it or make it go either in clockwise or anti clock wise direction. We can also control its speed but it will be covered in latter tutorial. The design of the brushed DC motor is quite simple.

Permanent magnets Electro-magnetic windings

3.4.3 Principle When a rectangular coil carrying current is placed in a magnetic field, a torque acts on the coil which rotates it continuously. When the coil rotates, the shaft attached to it also rotates and thus it is able to do mechanical work.

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Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.

3.4.4 Construction:

Figure 3.5 Parts of Dc motor Parts of a DC Motor: Armature A D.C. motor consists of a rectangular coil made of insulated copper wire wound on a soft iron core. This coil wound on the soft iron core forms the armature. The coil is mounted on an axle and is placed between the cylindrical concave poles of a magnet. Commutator A commutator is used to reverse the direction of flow of current. Commutator is a copper ring split into two parts C1 and C2. The split rings are insulated from each other and

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mounted on the axle of the motor. The two ends of the coil are soldered to these rings. They rotate along with the coil. Commutator rings are connected to a battery. The wires from the battery are not connected to the rings but to the brushes which are in contact with the rings.

Figure 3.6 Basic Commutator Brushes: Two small strips of carbon, known as brushes press slightly against the two split rings, and the split rings rotate between the brushes. The carbon brushes are connected to a D.C. source. 3.4.5 Working of a DC Motor When the coil is powered, a magnetic field is generated around the armature. The left side of the armature is pushed away from the left magnet and drawn towards the right causing rotation.

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Figure 3.7 A Simple Electric Motor When the coil turns through 900, the brushes lose contact with the commutator and the current stops flowing through the coil. Direction of Rotation A DC Motor has two wires. We can call them as positive terminal and negative terminal, although these are pretty much arbitrary names (unlike a battery where these polarities are vital and not to be mixed!). On a motor, we say that when the + wire is connected to + terminal on a power source, and the - wire is connected to the - terminal source on the same power source, the motor rotates clockwise (if you are looking towards the motor shaft). If you reverse the wire polarities so that each wire is connected to the opposing power supply terminal, then the motor rotates counter clockwise. Notice this is just an arbitrary selection and that some motor manufacturers could easily choose the opposing convention. As long as you know what rotation you get with one polarity, you can always connect in such a fashion that you get the direction that you want on a per polarity basis.

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Figure 3.8 DC Motor Rotation vs Polarity Facts:

DC Motor rotation has nothing to do with the voltage magnitude or the current magnitude flowing through the motor.

DC Motor rotation does have to do with the voltage polarity and the direction of the current flow.

Motor Start and Stop: Starting a motor is a very hazardous moment for the system. Since you have an

inductance whose energy storage capacity is basically empty, the motor will first act as an inductor because current cannot change abruptly in an inductor, but the truth of the matter is that this is one of the instances in which you will see the highest currents flowing into the motor. Stopping the motor is not as harsh as starting. The reason why the motor stops so fast is because as a short is applied to the motor terminals, the Back EMF is shorted. Because Back EMF is directly proportional to speed making Back EMF = 0.

3.4.6 Advantages and Disadvantages: Advantages:

Easy to understand design

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Easy to control speed Easy to control torque Simple, cheap drive design

Disadvantages:

Expensive to produce Can't reliably control at lowest speeds Physically larger High maintenance Dust

3.5 OBSTACLE SENSOR:

Figure 3.9 Obstacle Sensor This sensor is a short range obstacle detector with no dead zone. It has a reasonably narrow detection area which can be increased using the dual version. Range can also be increased by increasing the power to the IR LEDs or adding more IR LEDs The photo below shows my test setup with some IR LED's (dark blue) as a light source and two phototransistors in parallel for the receiver. This setup works like a first LDR

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but with IR. It has a range of about 10-15cm (4-6 inches) with my hand as the object being detected.

3.5.1 Circuit of obstacle sensors:


Starting from the left you can see two IR LEDs with a resistor and transistor in series. The transistor allows the processor to turn the LEDs on or off. This is necessary to tell the difference between the ambient IR from daylight and indoor lighting and the reflected light from the LEDs that indicates the presence of an object. Next we have two phototransistors in parallel with a 1M resistor in series. You could use only one but I wanted to cover a wider area so my transistors will point in slightly different directions. If either one detects IR it will allow more current to flow. Since volts=current x resistance, even a small increase in current will create a reasonable increase in voltage across the 1M resistor. Unfortunately the low input impedance of many A/D converters will act like a small resistor in parallel with the 1M resistor and dramatically reduce the output to the processor. This is where our BC549 transistor comes in to save the day. In conjunction with the 1K and 10K resistors it amplifies the signal so that the analog input on the processor gets a nice strong signal. The BC549 is not too critical and it has hfe of 490 when measured with a multimeter. You should probably have hfe of at least 200-300. This has the advantage that you can flex the leds and transistors outward to cover a large area. This is a reversing sensor to prevent him reversing into anything and as such will cover a wide area. I will make single Led/Phototransistor sensors for front left and front right. This will allow him to avoid crashing into obstacles when his rangefinder/object tracker is looking elsewhere. Note: That the phototransistors are slightly forward of the blue LEDs. This helps stop stray light from the LEDs being detected.

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Figure 3.10 Circuit Diagram of Obstacle Sensor 3.5.2 Features


Modulated IR transmitter Ambient light protected IR receiver 3 pin easy interface connectors Bus powered module Indicator LED Up to 12 inch range for white object Can differentiate between dark and light colors.

3.5.3 Applications

Proximity Sensor Obstacle Detector Sensor Line Follower Sensor Wall Follower Sensor

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Chapter 4

Infrared Technology

4.1 Introduction: As next-generation electronic information systems evolve, it is critical that all people have access to the information available via these systems. Examples of developing and future information systems include interactive television, touch screen-based information kiosks, and advanced Internet programs. Infrared technology, increasingly present in mainstream applications, holds great potential for enabling people with a variety of disabilities to access a growing list of information resources. Already commonly used in remote control of TVs, VCRs and CD players, infrared technology is also being used and developed for remote control of environmental control systems, personal computers, and talking signs. For individuals using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices, infrared or other wireless technology can provide an alternate, more portable, more independent means of accessing computers and other electronic information systems. 4.2 Wireless Communication: Wireless communication, as the term implies, allows information to be exchanged between two devices without the use of wire or cable. Information is being transmitted and received using electromagnetic energy, also referred to as electromagnetic radiation. One of the most familiar sources of electromagnetic radiation is the sun; other common sources include TV and radio signals, light bulbs and microwaves. The electromagnetic spectrum classifies electromagnetic energy according to frequency or wavelength (both described below). As shown in Figure 1, the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from energy waves having extremely low frequency (ELF) to energy waves having much higher frequency, such as x-rays.

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Figure 4.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum In Figure 8, A horizontal bar represents a range of frequencies from 10 Hertz (cycles per second) to 10 to the 18th power Hertz. Some familiar allocated frequency bands are labelled on the spectrum. Approximate locations are as follows. (Exponential powers of 10 are abbreviated as 10exp.) 10 Hertz: extremely low frequency or ELF. 10exp5 Hertz: AM radio. 10exp8 Hertz: FM radio. 10exp16 Hertz: Infrared (frequency range is below the visible light spectrum). 10exp16 Hertz: Visible Light. 10exp16 Hertz: Ultraviolet (frequency range is above the visible light spectrum). 10exp18 Hertz: X-rays.] 4.3 Infrared Technology: Infrared radiation is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum between microwaves and visible light. In infrared communication, an LED transmits the infrared signal as bursts of non-visible light. At the receiving end a photodiode or photoreceptor detects and captures the light pulses, which are then processed to retrieve the information they contain. Figure 9 depicts an infrared energy wave and a radio energy wave, and illustrates the two different energy wavelengths. As is expected based on the electromagnetic spectrum, the infrared wave is higher frequency and therefore shorter wavelength than the radio wave. Conversely, the radio wave is lower frequency and therefore longer wavelength than the infrared wave.

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Figure 4.2 A radio frequency energy wave superimposed upon an infrared energy wave The above illustrates the inverse relationship between frequency and wavelength. The infrared energy wave completes nearly 5 and a half cycles in the time that the radio frequency wave completes 2 cycles. ] Infrared technology is highlighted because of its increasing presence in mainstream applications, its current and potential usage in disability-related applications, and its advantages over other forms of wireless communication. Some common applications of infrared technology are listed below. 1. Augmentative communication devices 2. Car locking systems 3. Computers, Headphones 4. Emergency response systems 5. Environmental control systems 6. Home security systems 4.4 IR Advantages: 1. Low power requirements: therefore ideal for laptops, telephones, personal digital assistants. 2. Low circuitry costs: $2-$5 for the entire coding/decoding circuitry. 3. Simple circuitry: no special or proprietary hardware is required, can be incorporated into the integrated circuit of a product 4. Higher security: directionality of the beam helps ensure that data isn't leaked or spilled to nearby devices as it's transmitted

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5. Few international regulatory constraints: IrDA (Infrared Data Association) functional devices will ideally be usable by international travellers, no matter where they may be 6. High noise immunity: not as likely to have interference from signals from other devices 4.5 IR Disadvantages: 1. Line of sight: transmitters and receivers must be almost directly aligned (i.e. able to see each other) to communicate 2. Blocked by common materials: people, walls, plants, etc. can block transmission 3. Short range: performance drops off with longer distances 4. Light, weather sensitive: direct sunlight, rain, fog, dust, pollution can affect transmission 5. Speed: data rate transmission is lower than typical wired transmission 4.6 Health Risks: Any time electric current travels through a wire, the air, or runs an appliance, it produces an electromagnetic field. It is important to remember that electromagnetic fields are found everywhere that electricity is in use. While researchers have not established an ironclad link between the exposure to electromagnetic fields and ailments such as leukemia, the circumstantial evidence concerns many people. In scientific terms, human body can act as an antenna, as it has a higher conductivity for electricity than air. Therefore, when conditions are right human body may have experienced a small "tingle" of electric current from a poorly grounded electric appliance. As long as these currents are very small there isn't much danger from electric fields, except for potential shocks. , Human body also has permeability almost equal to air, thus allowing a magnetic field to easily enter the body. Unfortunately body cannot detect the presence of a strong magnetic field, which could potentially do much more harm. In terms of wireless technology, there are no confirmed health risks or scientific dangers from infrared or radio frequency, with two known exceptions:

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1. Point-to-point lasers which can cause burns or blindness. 2. Prolonged microwave exposure which has been linked to cancer and leukaemia. Therefore, most health concerns related to electromagnetic fields are due to electricity in day-to-day use, such as computer monitors and TVs. These dangers, if any, are already in the home and work place, and the addition of wireless technology should not be seen as an exceptional risk. The strength of the electromagnetic field (EMF) decreases as the square of the distance from the field source. 4.7 Security: Electromagnetic frequencies currently have little legal status for protection and as such, can be freely intercepted by motivated individuals. As presented earlier in the advantages and disadvantages of infrared versus radio frequency transmission, what might be considered an advantage to one method for transmission could turn out to be a disadvantage for security? For example, because infrared is line-of-sight it has less transmission range but is also more difficult to intercept when compared to radio frequency. Radio frequency can penetrate walls, making it much easier to transmit a message, but also more susceptible to tapping. A possible solution to security issues will likely be some form of data encryption. Data encryption standards (DES) are also being quickly developed for the exchange of information over the Internet, and many of these same DES will be applied to wireless technology. 4.8 Importance of Standards: Several of the wireless devices demonstrated during the presentation have benefited to some degree from standardization. For example, a universal IR remote was once priced at roughly $100.00.The X10 devices that were demonstrated in the presentation not only rely on but have benefited from the 60 HZ AC standard which applies to most of North America. As a result these devices are now numerous and inexpensive. One final example demonstrating the importance of standards is the relationship of augmentative alternative communication

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(AAC) devices to the General Input Device Emulating Interface (GIDEI) standard. Any AAC device programmed to use the GIDEI protocol can access any PC or Macintosh running the DOS, Windows, or Macintosh version of Serial Keys.

Chapter 5

CIRCUIT

5.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Figure 5.1 Circuit Diagram

5.2 CIRCUIT LEVEL DESCRIPTION:


Basically the circuit consists of the following blocks: Power Supply Sensors Inverter 7404

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Driver Motors

Let us take the overview of each block one by one. .

Inverter ic (7404) This is the most important block of the system. 7404 is the decision making logical device which is operated on the principal of inversion of the input chip.

Motor Driver Circuit The motor driver circuit consists of a driver IC L293D and two motors. The connections are shown as in figure 4.1.5. One of the two supplies is for IC and other is to provide sufficient current for motor rotation. The pins 2, 7 and 10,15 are the inputs of motor from the microcontroller. The outputs of the IC are taken from pins 3, 6, 11, 14. These pins are used to control the rotation of the motors according to the commands from microcontroller.

Fig5.2: Motor driver circuits

The enable pins, the pins 1 and 9 are also connected to the microcontroller 89s52. This enables and disables the driver IC according to the commands from the microcontroller. Voltage Regulator: A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active

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electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. There are two types of regulator are Positive Voltage Series (78XX) and Negative Voltage Series (79XX) 78XX: 78 indicate the positive series and XX indicates the voltage rating. Suppose 7805 produces the maximum 5V.05indicates the regulator output is 5V. 79XX:78 indicate the negative series and XX indicates the voltage rating. Suppose 7905 produces the maximum -5V.05indicates the regulator output is -5V.These regulators consists the three pins they are

Pin1: It is used for input pin. Pin2: This is ground pin for regulator Pin3: It is used for output pin. Through this pin we get the output.

Fig 5.3: Regulator circuit

Sensor Circuit The sensors used in this project are three IR Receiver Transmitter LEDs. The connections are shown as follows. As the receiver a photo diode is used, produce a zero voltage level when it receives the signal.

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To microcontroller

Figure 5.4 Ir sensor

Figure 5.5 Basic Diagram of IR sensor

5.3 Working After finishing the assembling work, connect the 9V battery via battery snap. Then, see what happens. The robot will automatically start traveling on the unstructured path without hitting any objects. When the left IR module senses any obstacles on its way, it will turn right till it stops sensing. Similarly, it will turn left when the right IR module senses obstacles. If both the sensors sense an obstacle, then the robot will stop moving. 5.4 COMPONENTS USED:
VALUE

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1) RESISTORS:
150 ohm 510 k

QUANTITY 1

2) CAPACITOR:

VALUE QUANTITY 10 uF VALUE 4 QUANTITY 1 2 2

3) ICs:

7404, L293D 7805 LM324N

4) MISCELLANEOUS:

COMPONENT 6V ,200 RPM DC MOTOR Red LED IR LED White LED 9V DC BATTERY Potentiometer

QUANTITY 2

2 2 2 1 -

5.5 HARDWARE TESTING:-

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1. Continuity test:First of all we checked the PCB that all the tracks are as per the design of PCB and showing continuity with the help of multimeter and PCB layout. 2. Short circuit test:Then we checked the PCB for any unwanted short circuits with the help of multimeter and PCB layout.

3. Soldering:In the next step, we soldered the required components. And then checked that there are no any unwanted shorts occurred due to soldering without putting IC's and keeping power supply off. 4. Power supply test:In the next step, we put power supply on and checked whether required voltage is appearing at the required voltage is appearing at the required points i.e.+Vcc and GND at the respective points. We took care of not connecting IC's in the circuit while performing this test.

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Chapter 6
KEY FEATURES OF OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

6.1. ADVANTAGES Collision control. It Provides Safe Navigation. This is the basic of all robot and has a Wide scope of extensions

6.2. LIMITATIONS The performance of this robot mainly depends on the sensors and number of sensors. The IR sensor used here is of commercial application so it may easily undergo interference.

6.3. PROBLEMS FACED Although the concept & design of the project seemed perfect, there were some problems faced while actual implementation: The arrangement of sensor: The arrangement of sensor should be in such a way that the receiver detects the reflected signal from obstacle and it should not pick the transmitted signal.

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6.4. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS Adding a Camera: If the current project is interfaced with a camera (e.g. a Webcam) robot can be driven beyond line-of-sight & range becomes practically unlimited as networks have a very large range. Use as a fire fighting robot: By adding temperature sensor, water tank and making some changes in programming we can use this robot as fire fighting robot. We can extend this project with wireless technology by IR (or) RF (or) ZIGBEE. We can use the DTMF receiver by using the mobile phone. This robot can be used for pick and place the required object by giving directions to the robot but IR pair should be replaced depending upon the application.

Conclusion

The mini project is obstacle detection and the avoidance robot Using all the above adaptive control processes which are able to traverse a given route autonomously negotiating difficult obstacles while protecting it from collisions. Our ROBOT successfully implements line tracking and range detection and obstacle avoidance. Hence it can be further used in Automobiles and industrial automation

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