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(jpetW (tyuuCL. A noun is a part of speech typically Noun denoting a person, place, thing, animal, or idea.

. A verb is a part of speech that conveys Verb an i action or a state of being. adoizS An adjective is a part of speech that Adjectiv describe word; the main syntactic role of j which is to qualify a noun or giving more information about the object signified. Pronou Pronoun is a part of speech that can replace noun, numeral or adjective. Numeral is a part of speech that expresses Numeral an abstract number, a numerical 0Wtiaa determination of objects or the order of l objects through counting Prepositions are words whose most central members characteristically express spatial relations in sentences. Typology as a branch of linguistics comes from "type" or "typical", hence, it aims at Typolog establishing similar general linguistic categories serving as a basis for the classification of languages of different types, irrespective of their genealogical relationship. Contrastive Universal Contrastive typology aims at establishing the most general structural types of languages on the basis of their dominant or common phonetical/phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic features. Universal typology which investigates all languages of the world and aims at singling out in them such features/phenomena which are common in all languages. usually investigates concrete languages, one of which is, as a rule, the native tongue. I General typology has for its object of investigation the most general phonetic, morphological, lexical, syntactic or stylistic features. This typological approach to the morphological structure of words in different languages. Partial typology investigates a restricted number of language feaftires/phenomena;

10 j Special or charactereological typology 1 General typology

' Partial typology MUDaie -

Special or charactereological typology, in contrast to universal typology, v . f -- -


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Areal typology

or example, the system of vowels/consonants, the means of word'ormation or the syntactic level units. j Areal typology investigates common and divergent features in languages of a particular geographical area with respect i to their mutual influence of one language 1 upon the other. ! Structural typology has for its object the j means of grammatical expression, the order of constituent parts at the level of words, word- combinations and sentences. Structural typology aims at identifying mainly dominant features, which characterise the structural type of each of j the contrasted languages. Functional typology, as can be understood from its name, investigates the frequency of language units in speech, the regularities and particularities of their use with the aim of expressing different meanings. Content typology investigates the types of possible meanings expressed by various language units and their forms in the contrasted languages. Qualitative typology., investigating predominant features (phonetic, morphological, syntactic) in the contrasted languages and characterising them according to the predominance of some of these qualities. Quantitative typology, the aim of this typology is to investigate the quantitative correlation of some features and phenomena and their identifying (dominant) role in the contrasted languages. Semasiological typology which investigates the ways of expressing meaning (the inner content) of language units in the contrasted languages. Onomasiological typology is a part of semasiological typology. Its object of investigation is isomorphic and allomorphic ways of giving family names and nicknames to people in different contrasted languages. Synchronic and diachronic typologies investigate language units or phenomena of

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Structural typology

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Functional typology

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Content typology _

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Qualitative typology

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Quantitative typology


Semasiological typology


Onomasiological typology


Synchronic and diachronic typologies