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CCNA BOOT CAMP

CCNA 1 PART 2

Decimal to Binary
172 Base 10 172
100 = 1 101 = 10 102 = 100 103 = 1000

1 10 100 1000

2 70 100
172

10101100
20 = 21 = 22 = 23 = 24 = 25 = 26 = 27 = 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 3

10101100 Base 2

1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

0 0 4 8 0 32 0 128 172

Hex to Binary to Decimal Chart

Introduction to TCP/IP Addresses


172.18.0.1 172.16.0.1

172.18.0.2
10.13.0.0 10.13.0.1

HDR SA DA DATA

172.16.0.2
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1

172.17.0.1

172.17.0.2

Unique addressing allows communication between end stations. Path choice is based on destination address. Location is represented by an address

IP Addressing
32 Bits Dotted Decimal Maximum
1

Network

Host

255
8 9

255
16 17

255
24 25

255
32

Binary

11111111 11111111
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

11111111 11111111
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

Example 172 16 122 204 Decimal Example 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100 9 Binary

IP Address Classes
8 Bits 8 Bits Host 8 Bits Host Host 8 Bits Host Host Host

Class A:

Network

Class B:
Class C:

Network Network

Network Network Network

Class D:
Class E:

Multicast
Research
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IP Address Classes
Bits: 1 8 9 Host 16 17 16 17 Host 24 25 24 25 Host 32 32

Class A:
Bits:

0NNNNNNN Range (1-126) 1 8 9

Class B:
Bits:

10NNNNNN
Range (128-191) 1 8 9 110NNNNN Range (192-223) 1 8 9 1110MMMM

Network
16 17 Network

Host
24 25

Host
32 Host 24 25 32

Class C:
Bits:

Network 16 17

Class D:

Multicast Group Multicast Group Multicast Group


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Range (224-239)

Host Addresses
172.16.2.2 10.1.1.1

10.6.24.2 E1
172.16.3.10 E0 172.16.2.1 10.250.8.11

172.16.12.12

10.180.30.118

172.16 Network

12 . 12 Host

Routing Table Network Interface


172.16.0.0 10.0.0.0 E0 E1
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Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)


Basically the method that ISPs (Internet Service Providers) use to allocate an amount of addresses to a company, a home Ex : 192.168.10.32/28 The slash notation (/) means how many bits are turned on (1s)

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Determining Available Host Addresses


Network Host

172

16

0
N

0
1 2 3 65534 65535 65536 2 65534 15
...

10101100 00010000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000001 00000000 00000011


...

11111111 11111101 11111111 11111110 11111111 11111111 2N 2 = 216 2 = 65534

...

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

IP Address Classes Exercise


Address 10.2.1.1 128.63.2.100 201.222.5.64 Class Network Host

192.6.141.2
130.113.64.16 256.241.201.10
16

IP Address Classes Exercise Answers


Address 10.2.1.1 128.63.2.100 201.222.5.64 192.6.141.2 130.113.64.16 256.241.201.10 Class A B C C B Nonexistent
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Network 10.0.0.0 128.63.0.0 201.222.5.0 192.6.141.0 130.113.0.0

Host 0.2.1.1 0.0.2.100 0.0.0.64 0.0.0.2 0.0.64.16

Subnetting
Subnetting is logically dividing a big network into smaller networks by BORROWING HOST BITS.
Advantage:
Can divide network in smaller parts Restrict Broadcast traffic Security Simplified Administration

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Formula
Number of subnets 2x-2 Where X = number of bits borrowed Number of Hosts 2y-2 Where y = number of 0s Block Size = Total number of Address Block Size = 256-Mask

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Addressing Without Subnets

172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.0.3

172.16.255.253 172.16.255.254 ...

172.16.0.0

Network 172.16.0.0

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Addressing with Subnets

172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0

172.16.2.0

Network 172.16.0.0

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Subnet Addressing
172.16.2.200 172.16.3.1 E1 172.16.2.2 E0 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.100 172.16.3.5

172.16.2.160

172.16.3.150

172.16 Network

2 . 160 Host

New Routing Table Network Interface


172.16.0.0 172.16.0.0 E0 E1
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Subnet Addressing
172.16.2.200 172.16.3.1 E1 172.16.2.2 E0 172.16.2.1 172.16.3.100 172.16.3.5

172.16.2.160

172.16.3.150

172.16 Network

160

New Routing Table Network Interface


172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 E0 E1
24

Subnet Host

Subnet Mask
IP Address

172
255 11111111

16

Default Network Mask

255 0 0 11111111 00000000 00000000

Also written as /16, where 16 represents the number of 1s in the mask

Subnet Mask

255

255

255

0
25

Also written as /24, where 24 represents the number of 1s in the mask

Decimal Equivalents of Bit Patterns


128 64 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 32 0 0 0 1 16 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 = = = = 0 128 192 224

1
1 1

1
1 1

1
1 1

1
1 1

0
1 1

0
0 1

0
0 0

0
0 0

=
= =

240
248 252

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

0
1

=
=

254
255
26

Subnet Mask Exercise

Address 172.16.2.10 10.6.24.20

Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 255.255.240.0

Class

Subnet

10.30.36.12

255.255.255.0

30

Subnet Mask Exercise Answers

Address 172.16.2.10 10.6.24.20 10.30.36.12

Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 255.255.240.0 255.255.255.0

Class B A A

Subnet 172.16.2.0 10.6.16.0 10.30.36.0

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Broadcast Addresses
172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0 172.16.3.255 (Directed Broadcast) 255.255.255.255 (Local Network Broadcast) 172.16.255.255 (All Subnets Broadcast)
32

172.16.2.0

Addressing Summary Example


172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192

Host Mask Subnet Broadcast First Last


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Addressing Summary Example


172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192

10101100 11111111

00010000 11111111

00000010 10100000 Host 11111111 11000000 Mask


Subnet Broadcast First Last
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Addressing Summary Example


172 16 2 160

172.16.2.160 255.255.255.192

10101100 11111111 10101100

00010000 11111111 00010000

00000010 10|100000 Host 11111111 11|000000 Mask 00000010 10|000000 Subnet

172.16.2.128
172.16.2.191 172.16.2.129 172.16.2.190

10101100
10101100 10101100

00010000
00010000 00010000

00000010 10|111111

Broadcast

00000010 10|000001 First 00000010 10|111110


Last
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Subnet Planning
20 Subnets 5 Hosts per Subnet Class C Address: 192.168.5.0 192.168.5.16 Other Subnets

192.168.5.32

192.168.5.48

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Exam Question
Determine Subnet and Broadcast address
192.168.0.100/27

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Exercise
192.168.10.54 /29 Mask ? Subnet ? Broadcast ?

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Exercise
192.168.10.130 /28 Mask ? Subnet ? Broadcast ?

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Exercise
192.168.10.193 /30 Mask ? Subnet ? Broadcast ?

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Exercise
192.168.1.100 /26 Mask ? Subnet ? Broadcast ?

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Broadcast Addresses Exercise

Address 201.222.10.60 15.16.193.6 128.16.32.13 153.50.6.27

Subnet Mask 255.255.255.248 255.255.248.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128

Class

Subnet

Broadcast

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Broadcast Addresses Exercise Answers


Address Subnet Mask Class C A B Subnet 201.222.10.56 15.16.192.0 128.16.32.12 Broadcast 201.222.10.63 15.16.199.255 128.16.32.15

201.222.10.60 255.255.255.248 15.16.193.6 128.16.32.13 255.255.248.0 255.255.255.252

153.50.6.27

255.255.255.128

153.50.6.0

153.50.6.127

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VLSM
VLSM is a method of designating a different subnet mask for the same network number on different subnets Can use a long mask on networks with few hosts and a shorter mask on subnets with many hosts With VLSMs we can have different subnet masks for different subnets.

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Variable Length Subnetting


VLSM allows us to use one class C address to design a networking scheme to meet the following requirements:
Bangalore Mumbai Sydney Singapore WAN 1 WAN 2 WAN 3 60 Hosts 28 Hosts 12 Hosts 12 Hosts 2 Hosts 2 Hosts 2 Hosts
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Networking Requirements
Bangalore 60

WAN 1

WAN 2

WAN 3

Mumbai 60

Sydney 60

Singapore 60

In the example above, a /26 was used to provide the 60 addresses for Bangalore and the other LANs. There are no addresses left for WAN links 80

Networking Scheme
Mumbai 192.168.10.64/27

28

WAN 192.168.10.129 and 130

WAN 192.198.10.133 and 134

192.168.10.128/30

192.168.10.132/30
WAN 192.198.10.137 and 138

192.168.10.136/30

60

12

12

Sydney 192.168.10.96/28 Bangalore 192.168.10.0/26

Singapore 192.168.10.112/28
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VLSM Exercise
2

12
40 2 2

25

192.168.1.0
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VLSM Exercise
192.168.1.64/26 40 2 192.168.1.4/30 192.168.1.8/30 2 2 192.168.1.12/30 192.168.1.16/28

12

25

192.168.1.32/27
192.168.1.0

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VLSM Exercise
2
8 2 5

2 35 15

192.168.1.0
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Summarization
Summarization, also called route aggregation, allows routing protocols to advertise many networks as one address. The purpose of this is to reduce the size of routing tables on routers to save memory Route summarization (also called route aggregation or supernetting) can reduce the number of routes that a router must maintain Route summarization is possible only when a proper addressing plan is in place Route summarization is most effective within a subnetted environment when the network addresses are in contiguous blocks
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Summarization

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Supernetting
Network 172.16.12.0 172.16.13.0 172.16.14.0 172.16.15.0 11000000 11000000 11000000 Network Network
16 8 4 2 1

Subnet

11000000

10101000 00001100 00000000 10101000 00001101 00000000 10101000 00001110 00000000 10101000 00001111 00000000 11111111

255.255.255.0 11111111

11111111

00000000

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Supernetting
Network 172.16.12.0 172.16.13.0 172.16.14.0 172.16.15.0 11000000 11000000 11000000 Network Network
16 8 4 2 1

Subnet

11000000

10101000 00001100 00000000 10101000 00001101 00000000 10101000 00001110 00000000 10101000 00001111 00000000 11111111

255.255.252.0 11111111
172.16.12.0/24 172.16.13.0/24 172.16.14.0/24 172.16.15.0/24

11111100

00000000

172.16.12.0/22
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Supernetting Question

What is the most efficient summarization that TK1 can use to advertise its networks to TK2?

A. 172.1.4.0/24, 172.1.5.0/24, 172.1.6.0/24, 172.1.7.0/24 B. 172.1.0.0/22 C. 172.1.4.0/25, 172.1.4.128/25, 172.1.5.0/24, 172.1.6.0/24, 172.1.7.0/24 D. 172.1.0.0/21 E. 172.1.4.0/22

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In the implementation of VLSM techniques on a network using a single Class C address, which subnet mask is the most efficient for point to point serial links?

a. b. c. d. e.

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.240 255.255.225.248 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.254


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In the implementation of VLSM techniques on a network using a single Class C address, which subnet mask is the most efficient for point to point serial links?

a. b. c. d. e.

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.240 255.255.225.248 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.254


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Which of the following describe private IP addresses? (Choose two) a. Addresses chosen by a company to communicate with the internet. b. Addresses that cannot be routed through the public internet. c. Addresses that can be routed through the public internet. d. A scheme to conserve public addresses.
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Which of the following describe private IP addresses? (Choose two) a. Addresses chosen by a company to communicate with the internet. b. Addresses that cannot be routed through the public internet. c. Addresses that can be routed through the public internet. d. A scheme to conserve public addresses.
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Refer to the exhibit. What IP address should assigned to Workstation A? a. b. c. d. e. 192.168.1.143/28 192.168.1.144/28 192.168.1.145/28 192.168.1.159/28 192.168.1.160/28

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Refer to the exhibit. What IP address should assigned to Workstation A? a. b. c. d. e. 192.168.1.143/28 192.168.1.144/28 192.168.1.145/28 192.168.1.159/28 192.168.1.160/28

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If an Ethernet port on a router was assigned an IP address of 172.16.112.1/20, what is the maximum number of hosts allowed on this subnet? a. b. c. d. e. 1024 2046 4094 4096 8190

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If an Ethernet port on a router was assigned an IP address of 172.16.112.1/20, what is the maximum number of hosts allowed on this subnet? a. b. c. d. e. 1024 2046 4094 4096 8190

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Refer to the exhibit. A new subnet with 12 hosts has been added to the network. Which subnet address should this network use to provide enough usable addresses while wasting the fewest addresses?

a. b. c. d.

192.168.10.80/28 192.168.10.80/29 192.168.10.96/28 192.168.10.96/29

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Refer to the exhibit. A new subnet with 12 hosts has been added to the network. Which subnet address should this network use to provide enough usable addresses while wasting the fewest addresses?

a. b. c. d.

192.168.10.80/28 192.168.10.80/29 192.168.10.96/28 192.168.10.96/29

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IOS Management
IOS Internetwork Operating System The operating systems used by Cisco routers and switches are called IOS. The IOS file itself is several MB in size and is stored in a semi-permanent memory area called flash.
100

IOS Management

101

IOS Management
Accessing the Cisco IOS on a Device
Methods: Console, Telnet or SSH, AUX port

102

IOS Management

103

IOS Management
Cisco IOS Modes

104

IOS Management
IOS Prompt Structure

105

IOS Management
Moving between the Modes
Output similar to a Cisco switch

106

IOS Management

107

IOS Management
IOS Command Convention

108

IOS Management

109

IOS Management

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IOS Management
Hot Keys and Shortcuts
Tab - Completes the remainder of the command or keyword Ctrl-R - Redisplays a line Ctrl-Z - Exits configuration mode and returns to the EXEC Down Arrow - Allows user to scroll forward through former commands (Ctrl-N) Up Arrow - Allows user to scroll backward through former commands (Ctrl-P) Ctrl-Shift-6 - Allows the user to interrupt an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Ctrl-C - Aborts the current command and exits the configuration mode

Commands and keywords can be abbreviated to the minimum number of characters that identifies a 111 unique selection.

IOS Examination Commands Identify the purpose of the show command and several of its variations

IOS Output show version

Other show outputs


show arp - Displays the ARP table of the device. show mac-address-table - (switch only) Displays the MAC table of a switch. show startup-config - Displays the saved configuration located in NVRAM. show running-config - Displays the contents of the currently running configuration file show ip interfaces - Displays IPv4 statistics for all interfaces on a router. To view the statistics for a specific interface, enter the show ip interfaces command followed by the specific interface slot/port number. Another important format of this command is show ip interface brief. This gets a quick summary of the interfaces and their operational states. When a --More-- prompt appears, press the Spacebar to view the next portion of output. To display only the next line, press the Enter key.

Other IOS Configuration Modes

Configuring Host Names


If the hostname is not explicitly configured, a router uses the factory-assigned default hostname "Router." (Switch for a Cisco switch) It is a good practice to create the naming convention at the same time as the addressing scheme to allow for continuity within the organization. Device host names are only used by administrators when they use the CLI to configure devices. Unless configured to do so, the devices themselves do not use these names when they discover each other and interoperate.

Configuring Host Names


To negate the effects of a command, preface the command with the no keyword.

Limiting Device Access Passwords and Banners


Passwords are the primary defense against unauthorized access to network devices. The passwords introduced here are:
Console password - limits device access using the console connection Enable password - limits access to the privileged EXEC mode Enable secret password - encrypted, limits access to the privileged EXEC mode VTY password - limits device access using Telnet

Use strong passwords that are not easily guessed. In our labs, simple passwords such as cisco or class will be used. These passwords are considered weak and easily guessable.

Configuring Console Passwords

Use Cisco CLI Commands to Perform Basic Router & Switch Configuration and Verification
Service Password-Encryption - causes the encryption of passwords to occur when a password is configured. The command applies weak encryption to all unencrypted passwords; weak encryption; irreversible

Banner MOTD
Because banners can be seen by anyone who attempts to log in, the message must be worded very carefully. Any wording that implies that a login is "welcome" or "invited" is not appropriate.

Checking Configuration Files

Backing Up Configurations Offline

Configuration files should be stored as backup files in the event of a problem. Configuration files can be stored on a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server, a CD, a USB memory stick, or a floppy disk stored in a safe place. A configuration file should also be included in the network documentation..

Backup Configurations with Text Capture (HyperTerminal)


Use a text file to backup and restore config settings

Configuring Router Ethernet Interfaces

Configuring Router Serial Interfaces

Interface Descriptions

Explain the purpose of assigning interface descriptions to a router

Configuring Switch Interfaces

Test the Stack


Ping indicators: (!) - receipt of an ICMP echo reply; (.) - indicates a timed out while waiting for a reply; (U) ICMP unreachable message

Interface Testing

Testing the Local NIC Assignment


Use the ping command to determine if the IP protocol is properly bound to an NIC

Testing Gateway Connectivity

Testing Remote Connectivity

Testing the Path to a Remote Host

Interpreting Test Results


Identify several conditions that might cause the test to fail

Use Common Utilities to Establish a Relative Performance Baseline for the Network
A baseline is a process for studying the network at regular intervals to ensure that the network is working as designed. It is more than a single report detailing the health of the network at a certain point in time. One method for starting a baseline is to copy and paste the results from an executed ping, trace, or other relevant command into a text file.

Use Common Utilities to Establish a Relative Performance Baseline for the Network
Use the output of the traceroute command, saved into logs, and repeated over time, to establish relative network performance

Learning About Nodes on a Network


The arp command provides for the mapping of physical addresses to known IPv4 addresses. Another method for collecting MAC addresses is to employ a ping sweep

Learning About Switched Connections


One additional tool that can be helpful is a mapping of how hosts are connected to a switch.