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Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements

Annual Report 2001–2


Foreword by Hilary Benn

Protecting the public from violent and sexual offenders is a priority for us all.
Over the past few years, a number of measures have been introduced to
improve this protection, and the most recent are the Multi-Agency Public
Protection Arrangements (MAPPA), which began operating in April 2001.
The MAPPA place a duty on the police and the National Probation Service to
assess and manage risks posed by offenders in every community in England
and Wales. They do this work in partnership with other agencies, including the
Prison Service, the health services and local authority housing and social services.
As this report and the area reports will show, there is a great deal that the
MAPPA are doing as they develop their activities. In the most serious cases
they can recommend increased police monitoring, special steps to protect
victims and the use of closely supervised accommodation. Where appropriate,
they can disclose information to a range of people in local communities,
including schools and employers. Although it will never be possible completely
to eliminate risk, it is important that the public are aware of the steps that are
being taken to guard us from these risks by assessing, and then carefully
managing, them.
In June, we announced that members of the public would be invited to oversee
the work now being done under the MAPPA. I think it is only right that they
should play a role in protecting local communities and, in doing so, to be able
to reassure the public about the arrangements in place to do this. I also think
that we should all have access to information about the steps being taken in
our areas. This annual report together with the area reports, provide that
information, which is being made public for the first time.
I hope you find the report useful, informative and reassuring. I would, of course,
welcome any comments you have about how the MAPPA are working.

Hilary Benn MP
Parliamentary Under Secretary for Community and Custodial Provision
2/3

introduction

1 Protecting the public from sexual and violent


offenders is one of the Government’s highest
priorities. In order to build upon the good practice
which already existed and to strengthen existing
legislative arrangements for public protection, the
Government introduced new arrangements in the
Criminal Justice and Courts Services Act 2000.

This Act imposed a duty on each of


the 421 police and probation areas
(the ‘responsible authorities’) in
England and Wales to work together
to protect the public from sexual and
violent offenders and other offenders
who may cause serious harm to the
public. Arrangements which enabled
these duties to be discharged were
introduced in April 2001. The Act
also requires each area to publish
an annual report on how these
arrangements have worked. This
report provides:
• a summary of the roles the
responsible authorities and other
agencies have in delivering the
new arrangements;
• an outline of what those
arrangements are and how they
work, including an explanation
of how the risks posed by the
offenders with whom they deal are
assessed and effectively managed;
• a description of the way that
disclosure can exceptionally be
used to augment other public
protection measures; and,
• an outline of the work undertaken
with victims – a feature of public
protection work also strengthened
by the imposition of specific duties
on the National Probation Service.
2 Each area’s report will follow a similar
structure and gives information on
how the arrangements worked.

1 The City of London Police, the 43rd police service, is included in the London metropolitan area.
Evidence based We must work in ways which have a proven track
record of success and we are further developing the evidence base
for public protection work.
4/5

summary of roles
and responsibilities

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements 5 Essentially, existing practices


and legislative provision for the
3 The new arrangements represent a significant supervision of offenders are suitable
development in public protection. Introduced at the same for effectively managing most
offenders when they are released
time as the new National Probation Service (NPS) was from custody. The new arrangements
established, they strengthen work to which the criminal introduce additional measures to
justice system as a whole contributes and are based ensure that those who are assessed
as posing a high risk of serious
upon the critical need for effective inter-agency working. harm to the public and who cannot
For the first time we now have a statutory framework continue to be held in custody, are
for managing high risk sexual and violent offenders. also managed effectively. While all
offenders convicted of a sexual or
violent offence2 are initially covered
Whilst serious offenders can expect by the new arrangements, only
to serve long terms in prison, only those very few who are assessed
22 of the current population of over as posing potentially a high risk of
70,000 will never be released. So it serious harm are the subject of
is essential that effective and robust their detailed provision.
arrangements are in place to manage
serious offenders when back in 6 At the heart of the new provisions
the community. is the requirement imposed on the
responsible authorities (the police
4 The new arrangements have built and the NPS) to:
upon existing good practice and
further work is already in hand to “...establish arrangements for the
bed-in the new arrangements and purposes of assessing and managing
to optimise their effectiveness. the risks posed in that area by…
This further work is likely to include relevant sexual and violent offenders,
additional legislative provision and and other persons who are considered
will include the development of by them to be persons who may
performance standards and cause serious harm to the public.” 3
performance evaluation.
The Home Secretary is empowered
by the Act to issue guidance as
to the way police and probation
discharge their responsibilities.
This report reflects how the initial
guidance4, which the Home
Secretary issued in March 2001,
has been implemented.

2 As defined by Section 68 of the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000.
3 Section 67, Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000.
4 Initial Guidance to the Police and Probation Services on Section 67 & 68 of the Criminal Justice
and Court Services Act 2000.
Professional judgement
No risk assessment tool is foolproof:
the key to effective assessment is
to use validated tools to inform
professional judgement.

good practice Duncan, aged 24, was convicted of sexual assaults on young children
in his care. He was sentenced to 28 months imprisonment and was
information sharing placed on the sex offender register. He was released from prison
Duncan on licence and his case was referred to the Multi-Agency Public
Protection Panel (MAPPP). As part of the regular monitoring of the
case it came to light that Duncan had begun to referee football
matches for boys’ teams in the local area. Using its powers to
disclose information to others, the MAPPP informed the local Football
Association. When there was a suggestion that he may be refereeing
at national tournament, the FA nationally was also informed.
Based on this pattern of behaviour, the MAPPP applied to court for a
sex offender order to help them manage the risk he posed. Amongst
other things, the order banned Duncan from refereeing. Although
he abided by the condition of the order, he committed an unrelated
offence which was immediately detected and he went back to prison.
When he is released he will remain subject to the sex offender order,
the requirement to register and to management by the MAPPP.
6/7 summary of roles and responsibilities

The role of the National 8 The establishment of these aims sentencing decisions. Before any of
Probation Service signalled the further shift in the focus those reports are written, and at the
of probation work from caring solely beginning of any supervision period,
for the offender to protecting the a thorough risk assessment will be
7 The wider context in which the new
public and enforcing the orders of completed. All subsequent work
arrangements were introduced
the court. Supporting these aims is with the offender is based upon
critically includes the establishment
the further statutory duty imposed on that assessment, which is regularly
of the NPS – for which legislative
the NPS to undertake victim contact updated. Details of how risk
provision was also given in the
work (more details of which are given assessment and risk management
Criminal Justice and Court Services
below in paragraphs 41-44); and the are integral to the new public
Act 2000. The NPS came into
priorities currently set for the NPS protection arrangements are given
being on 1st April 2001 replacing
by the Home Secretary of which the in paragraphs 30-38 below.
the former arrangements whereby
top three are:
probation services, although
substantially funded by central • more accurate and effective
government, were accountable assessment and management
The role of the Police
to 54 local probation committees. of risk and dangerousness;
10 Today’s police service is founded on
The NPS is funded entirely by
• more contact and involvement the principle that the prevention and
central government and is organised
with the victims of serious sexual detection of crime is central to its
in 42 areas – the same areas as
and other violent crime; and, purpose, although it acknowledges
the police service. The NPS was
that the manner by which this is
established with five statutory aims • the production and delivery
achieved has changed significantly
which underline the importance of of offender programmes which
over the years. Crime prevention
these new arrangements: have a proven track record in
comprises a range of measures that
reducing reoffending.
• the protection of the public; are undertaken in partnership with
other agencies and community groups.
• the reduction of reoffending;
9 On any given day the NPS supervises Whether through the use of closed
• the proper punishment of offenders; more than 200,000 offenders. Of circuit television, the development
those offenders 70 per cent will be and support of Neighbourhood Watch
• ensuring offenders’ awareness of
on a community sentence and 30 schemes, the distribution of crime
the effects of crime on the victims
per cent will be on licence having prevention literature, advising on
of crime and the public; and,
served the custodial part of a better physical security or improved
• the rehabilitation of offenders. prison sentence. The NPS prepares street lighting, the police are actively
235,000 reports for magistrates engaged in a variety of partnerships
and judges each year to assist in in their communities to prevent crime.

good practice Victim enquiry work with the student violently raped by Wayne
revealed her fears and anger about his future release. She was put
victim focus in touch with support agencies, but found it hard to “move on” while
Wayne Wayne still protested his innocence. Following MAPPP meetings,
the police were able to set up safety devices including alarms
which enabled her to recommence her studies. When Wayne
finally acknowledged his guilt, this information was passed on to
her promptly and she began to rebuild her confidence.
Much of this partnership working
has been formalised in the local
Crime and Disorder Reduction
Partnerships that bring together
police, local authorities and a range
of other people and agencies from
the local communities.

11 These partnerships have been


central to the identification of local
crime problems and responsible for
the development, implementation and
monitoring of action plans to tackle
those problems. Robbery, domestic
burglary, anti-social behaviour and
vehicle crime are issues that have
confronted many communities and
often overlain problems associated
with persistent young offenders and
drug abuse.

12 However, to fight crime effectively


the police have had to target their
resources at the most active
offenders as well as the most
serious offenders in their communities.
This has required the development
of better criminal intelligence systems
that are capable of indicating who
the prolific offenders are and of
assisting in gathering evidence to
prosecute offenders. This intelligence-
led model of policing has been
successfully adopted across England
and Wales.

Individual offenders
It is a mistake to think that all sex
or violent offenders are the same.
Effective practice demands a clear
understanding of an individual’s
offending behaviour.
8/9 summary of roles and responsibilities

Other legislative 15 This work to protect the public has


been developed from an increasing Criminal Justice Act 1991
provisions which enhance
awareness of the nature of sexual
public protection and violent offending and its effect
This Act introduced compulsory
on victims, coupled with a need to
13 It was into this general context that supervision on release for all
do something about it. There have
the Sex Offenders Act 1997 was offenders who were sentenced to
always been difficult decisions to
introduced and certain convicted 12 months imprisonment or more.
be made about how far statutory
sex offenders began registering Before this Act prisoners were only
agencies should interfere in people’s
with their local police. Until that supervised after release from prison
lives to help make society safer.
point police generally dealt with if they got parole. Many of the sexual
The challenge lies in balancing the
sex offenders only when an offence and violent offenders were considered
need to protect the public on the
had been committed. This legislation too risky to get parole and so were
one hand, and in respecting the
meant that for the first time police unsupervised and free to do as they
individual’s rights to privacy and
were being notified of certain sex wished when they were released.
freedom on the other.
offenders in their community, some Now all who go to prison for 12
of whom were likely to pose a high months or more are supervised on
16 Over the last 10 years or so that
risk of further serious offending. licence by probation after release
balance has swung quite a long way
and are subject to rules about where
in favour of better public protection
14 It therefore became vital that police they can live and what they can do.
by making increased – though
developed their understanding of risk
proportionate and justified –
assessment and risk management This Act also enabled the Courts
requirements and restrictions on
in order to target effectively their to pass a custodial sentence longer
offenders. The measures to enhance
resources towards the highest risk than is commensurate with the
public protection which the Criminal
offenders. As a result, in many areas seriousness of the offence in order
Justice and Court Services Act built
the contacts between the local to protect the public from serious
upon and strengthened include:
police and probation services were harm from the offender.
strengthened: agreements were
established for sharing information
about offenders and for collaborating
in managing the risks these offenders
present. As practice developed, many
areas began to involve other agencies
such as housing, health and social
services. This multi-agency work
also began to look at other serious
offenders as well as sex offenders.
It is upon this good practice that the
new public protection arrangements
are founded.

Victim focused
Our motive for public protection
work is the protection of known
victims and the prevention of
further victimisation.
Sex Offenders Act 1997 Crime and Disorder Act 1998 Criminal Justice and Court
Services Act 2000
This Act requires many sexual This Act introduced extended
offenders to register their address sentences for serious sexual and In addition to setting up the new
with the police and to let the police violent offences. This means that public protection arrangements which
know if they move. The Home Office courts now have the power to order are the subject of this report, this Act
guidance that accompanied the Act that these offenders are subject to introduced: restraining orders and
required the police to assess and supervision on licence on release for exclusion orders (the former prohibits
manage the risks presented by the far longer than was the case before. the offender from doing anything
registered offenders. This can be for up to 10 years for specified in the order; and the latter
sex offenders and five years for prohibits an offender from entering a
violent offenders, on top of the specified location); arrangements for
Crime (Sentences) Act 1997 normal period of supervision. preventing unsuitable people from
working with children; and extended
This Act also introduced powers the powers to make certain offenders
This Act made it compulsory for to enable certain offenders to be subject to electronic monitoring so
courts to pass a life sentence on subject to electronic monitoring increasing its use.
people convicted of a second serious (tagging) and for the police to take
sexual or violent offence unless there out Sex Offender Orders on certain
are exceptional circumstances. convicted sex offenders for whom
there is reasonable cause to believe
that they pose a risk of serious harm
to the public.
10/11 summary of roles and responsibilities

Multi-Agency partnership
Prison Service Social Services
17 In recognition of the importance of
the contributions other agencies
Close liaison with the Prison Service Social Services have the lead in
must make to ensure effective public
occurs in the identification and work on child protection and with
protection, the Home Secretary’s
management of offenders who may other vulnerable groups within
guidance about setting up the new
pose a risk of serious harm to the society. They have a major role to
arrangements required police and
public on their release. In addition play in local arrangements for the
probation to negotiate the involvement
to an assessment of the risks each protection of the public. Social
of social services, health and local
prisoner presents, prisons run Services Departments have a long
authority housing. They were also
accredited offending behaviour history of working in partnership to
required to work in close partnership
programmes which help reduce protect vulnerable children. Social
with the Prison Service. The
those risks before the prisoner is Services Departments are principally
contribution each of these agencies
released. Prisons also participate in linked to the new public protection
can make is as follows:
planning for the controlled release of arrangements in three major areas of
prisoners into the community, sharing their activity: the prevention of abuse;
information with police, probation and the assessment and protection of
other relevant agencies. children at risk; and rehabilitation.
Additionally, they are increasingly
becoming involved, with other
agencies, in work which focuses on
the perpetrator rather than the child
or the family.

good practice Leisure Watch is a multi-agency initiative developed by an


independent charity to take early action against sex offenders
leisure watch who target children at leisure centres. The scheme, piloted on a
local basis last summer in Northumbria, has been evaluated for
its effectiveness and will be rolled out in Northumbria this year.
In the pilot, local agencies including health, child protection, police
and probation worked closely together. They trained leisure staff in
how sex offenders target children, how to spot vulnerable children
most likely to be at risk and what action to take if they had
concerns about a visitor to the centre.
Good liaison is an important feature of Leisure Watch. In each
leisure centre a liaison officer is appointed, who links with a named
police officer whom they can contact if there are any concerns
about a visitor to the centre. The police officer will give a leisure
centre further information about an individual if necessary and
relay any concerns expressed to the force intelligence bureau.
Leisure Watch has the potential to be broadened to include
amusement arcades, parks, lifeguards on beaches and other
areas where children congregate.
18 Accommodation for offenders on
Health Services Housing release is one of the most difficult
and contentious issues surrounding
public protection. No one would
The involvement of professionals Many offenders, who do not have
wish to have someone who has
from the health services in the local suitable accommodation of their
been convicted of a sexual or
arrangements has been highly own, are released to hostels in the
violent offence living in their local
beneficial, not least in the case of first instance, but places are limited
community. Yet offenders have to live
those offenders who require mental and in high demand. We need to
somewhere. It is partly because of
health services. Police, probation ensure that when they are moving
this entirely justifiable concern that
and other agencies need the advice on from prison, hospital or hostels
the Government established the
of the health professionals on the they are housed in a way that is
new public protection arrangements.
appropriateness of any kind of health best for public protection. Local
These new arrangements ensure that
intervention with offenders who arrangements benefit from strong
a very thorough, well co-ordinated
present some level of risk to the links with experienced local housing
assessment of the release
community. Health services can also professionals who can advise on the
arrangements of each prisoner
contribute to the assessment and safest local housing options available
who may present a risk to the
management of risk. and who can provide links to the
public is made. Having assessed
variety of housing providers in the
the arrangements, plans are drawn
The proposed reform of the mental area. This is an area where, when
up and implemented which ensure
health legislation will highlight the particular difficulties arise, the
that any risk that an offender poses
importance of the full integration of National Probation Directorate
is properly managed.
health within the multi-agency public can assist by providing additional
protection arrangements and address resources (for example, very close
19 Without these new arrangements,
concerns over how people with supervision) deemed necessary to
which ensure that sexual and
certain types of mental illness can ensure the public is protected.
violent offenders are provided
be treated. These developments are
with appropriate accommodation,
likely to reconsider current provision
these offenders would be left to
under which those with a personality
make other possibly inappropriate
disorder cannot be compulsorily
arrangements. Experience tells us
detained if they pose a serious risk
that they would find accommodation
of significant harm to others as a
in locations which often tend to
result of their mental disorder.
house some of the more vulnerable
people in our society and so put the
The Department of Health is aware,
public at greater risk. Suitable
however, that the contribution of
housing allows the opportunity for
Mental Health Trusts to the multi-
monitoring and surveillance,
agency public protection arrangements
improves victim protection schemes,
is variable. The Department of Health
and enhances the prospects of
will issue guidance later this year to
safe resettlement of offenders.
ensure that all Mental Health Trusts
Examples of good practice in
are appropriately represented in
housing dangerous offenders include
the arrangements.
the use of people experienced in
working closely with high-risk cases
and arrangements between local
authorities which ensure that the
use of the most appropriate
accommodation is optimised.
12/13

outline of the
arrangements made

20 The new arrangements build upon existing 22 The initial guidance 6 which the
provisions, and provide a sharper focus in the Home Secretary issued on the
implementation of the MAPPA
assessment and management of the very few required the police and probation
offenders who present an exceptional risk. The new services (the ‘responsible authorities’)
arrangements also provide a strategic management in each of the 42 areas of England
and Wales to establish systems
framework to ensure that, in addition to the work of and procedures:
managing specific cases, the agencies involved in • for sharing information and for
public protection work in each area monitor and inter-agency working on all
review the effectiveness of those arrangements. relevant offenders;
• to ensure that those offenders
assessed as potentially posing
21 The practical issues of managing risk
the highest risk are referred to
in all cases start with the collation
a Multi-Agency Public Protection
and sharing of information, which are
Panel (MAPPP);
the essence of effective supervision
and public protection because it is • for the operation of the MAPPP;
upon them that the critical assessment
• to monitor and review the
of risk is based. The vast majority
effectiveness of the arrangements
of cases are assessed as being
made in respect of the statutory
appropriately dealt with by the NPS
duty and to revise them as
using conventional case management
necessary;
standards and procedures. A few
cases are assessed as presenting a • to consider resource allocation;
risk which is best managed through multi-agency training; and
well-established inter-agency co- community and media
operation. Of these an even smaller communication; and,
number are assessed as requiring
• to produce an annual report
referral to the multi-agency public
detailing the public protection
protection panels (or MAPPPs).
arrangements for the local area
So, while all offenders convicted of
and how their duties have been
a sexual or violent offence and who
discharged.
are sentenced to 12 months or
more imprisonment 5 fall within the
scope of the multi-agency public 23 In order to understand how the
protection arrangements (sometimes MAPPA have been implemented,
abbreviated to MAPPA), only a very it is helpful to describe the type
few are formally referred to and of offenders covered by the new
considered by the MAPPP. arrangements before considering
how the risks presented by them
are assessed and managed.
Sexual and violent • the vast majority of sexual offences 27 A ‘violent offender’ is someone who
offenders7 against children and adults are has committed “an offence which
committed by people they know leads, or is intended or likely to lead,
such as members of their own to a person’s death or physical injury,
24 Section 68 of the Criminal Justice
family, neighbours or friends or and includes an offence which is
and Court Services Act 2000
people who hold positions of required to be charged as arson”. 8
defines the offenders whom the
responsibility or care for them – As with sexual offenders, the
police and the NPS are required to
i.e. not by strangers; and, characteristics and motivation of
consider under the public protection
violent offenders are diverse and it
arrangements in three broad
• sexual offenders are not a is not possible to define a ‘typical’
categories: sexual offenders, violent
homogeneous group: not all sexual violent offender.
offenders and other offenders
offenders pose the same risk of
likely to pose a risk of serious harm.
reoffending; and although convicted 28 Although the third category of
No simple definition of either of the
sex offenders are predominantly offenders also covered by the
first two categories exists and the
men, sexual offences are committed arrangements is intentionally broad,
third category is by definition wide
by men, women and young people the police and the NPS work on the
to ensure that no offender who may
of all ages and social groups. basis of the following definition.
pose a risk of serious harm to the
An offender within this category is
public is excluded. It is therefore
26 Nevertheless, sexual offences someone who presents a risk of
worth examining the types of offender
cover a wide range of activity “harm which is life threatening or
who fall into these categories.
from possessing abusive child traumatic and from which recovery,
pornography to sexualised touching whether physical or psychological,
25 Sexual offenders covered by the
and rape. The harm caused to can be expected to be difficult or
new arrangements are those who
the victims of these offences is impossible”.9 Most of these offenders
have been convicted in the UK of a
considerable and may be direct or are likely to be people who have
sexual offence and either have a
indirect. For some, recovery from committed serious sexual or violent
requirement to register with police
the harm caused will be difficult or offences prior to the introduction of
under the Sex Offenders Act 1997
impossible. Furthermore, reported this legislation and they will include
or are not required to register but
crime is not a true reflection of the some mentally disordered offenders
have been given a prison sentence of
level of sex offending in our society and offenders from overseas who
12 months or longer since 1st April
because victims often find it have a right of residence in the UK.
2001. Additionally, the MAPPA cover
traumatic to report the offence
those offenders who were serving a
because it involves explaining to 29 Over 47,000 offenders are covered
sentence of 12 months or longer for
strangers what happened to them. by the MAPPA, of whom 18,513 are
a sexual or violent offence on 1st April
It is to help prevent any such harm registered sex offenders; 27,477 are
2001. Beyond this technical definition,
that the new public protection violent and other sexual offenders
the term ‘sex offender’ often
arrangements have been introduced. who are not required to register;
generates some anxiety and fear,
and 1,219 other offenders.
but it is important to recognise that:

5 Or its equivalent in terms of the Mental Health Act.


6 Initial Guidance to the Police and Probation Services on Section 67 & 68 of the
Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000.
7 Over 70 different sexual and violent offences are covered by the relevant legislation.
8 Section 161(3) Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentences) Act 2000.
9 A definition taken from the Offender Assessment System (OASys).
14/15 outline of the arrangements made

Rigorous risk assessment re-victimisation. The police will have


a history of his criminal offending
30 Critical to rigorous risk assessment and the nature of those offences.
is the collation and sharing of all Social services will know if there
the relevant information. The timely are any child protection concerns
exchange of clear, accurate, reliable involving him or his family and
and relevant information is essential housing and health services may
to the speedy identification of also hold current information
offenders who may pose serious identifying either the risk he poses
risks to the public. The new or the needs he has in maintaining
arrangements strengthen those a stable ‘offence-free’ lifestyle.
already in existence: when an agency
becomes aware of an individual who 32 Probably one of the most important
might present a serious risk of harm, developments in the area of risk
that agency will share details of that assessment is the roll-out over the
person with other partner agencies next two years throughout both the
within existing public protection Prison and National Probation
protocols. Simultaneously, it will also Services of the Offender Assessment
gather any information held within its System (OASys), which will ensure
own agency from the area where the consistency of approach, enhance
offender previously lived or was held. communication flows and hence
With a clear understanding of an the accuracy of risk assessments.
offender’s history and current OASys, which is consistent with
circumstances, a thorough risk and complements the assessment
assessment is then undertaken. mechanism now used by the police
to identify serious sexual and violent
31 The creation of MAPPA now provide offenders, is able to identify dynamic
a nationwide system for ensuring risk factors, which will vary, as well
that all the available information is as static actuarial risk factors such
gathered and shared with all the as those derived from past behaviour.
agencies which deliver services The joint development by the Police
contributing to public protection. and National Probation Services of
For example, in the case of an a violent and sex offender register
offender convicted of a violent sexual (ViSOR) will also assist in this work.
attack who is due to be released
from prison, there will be information 33 Risk assessments place offenders
held about him from a number of in one of four categories: low,
sources. From the prison service medium, high and very high. But
there will be details of his behaviour risk assessment is not just about
whilst in prison and any treatment describing how potentially dangerous
programmes that he attended someone might be. Critically, risk
and completed. The NPS has a assessment identifies what factors
responsibility to remain in contact place an offender in a particular risk
with the original victim, if the victim category which in turn enables the
chooses, and will make every effort police, the NPS and other agencies
to ensure the offender’s licence to target those factors and thereby
conditions minimise the possibility of effectively and safely manage the risk.
Risk assessment
Rigorous risk assessment in
every case is the foundation for
effective public protection work.

Alistair, aged 46, had one conviction for a sexual offence, but
good practice because it pre-dated the implementation of the Sex Offenders Act
in 1997, he was not required to be on the sex offender register.
close monitoring Although not immediately thought of as a high risk, when the
Alistair MAPPP began to receive reliable information on Alistair from
different sources they decided risk was increasing and they needed
to intervene.
Alistair was – legitimately by all appearances – involved in an internet
marketing scheme. He was active in fundraising, working at a school
and involved in a story-writing project. However, Alistair’s name had
been linked with someone under investigation for trading child porn
on the internet. The police also received information of concern
about his internet use.
The MAPPP was in a position to piece all the information together
– five reports in all from good sources. The team decided they
needed to tell others selectively about the information they had.
The Charity Commission was informed and those individuals with
responsibility for children in Alistair’s circle were advised to end
their contact with him. The police visited him and spoke to him.
The MAPPP continue to monitor him.
16/17 outline of the arrangements made

Ensuring risk is as being very high will an agency • requirement to live at a particular
robustly managed refer the case to the MAPPP. The address and to observe a curfew
MAPPP ensures and enables that enforced with an electronic tag;
joint agency discussion, planning and
34 Armed with the information provided • prohibition on entering
management of the risk takes place.
by a rigorous assessment of the risks certain localities;
an offender may present, plans for
35 Clearly, central to the effective • prohibition on making contact with
managing those risks are drawn up.
management of any risk is good certain individuals or groups of
Typically, where the risks posed by
supervision which comprises two people – and particularly victims;
an individual are assessed as low
key elements: imposing the right and,
or medium, those offenders are
conditions and enforcing them.
managed through the normal • restrictions on the type of
For those offenders who are under
mechanisms available for offenders, employment they may have.
some form of statutory supervision,
that is without referral to the MAPPP
licence conditions address the risks
but which may include, for example, Failure to keep to any of these
identified in the assessment. While
formal probation supervision and conditions will lead to the NPS
the exact terms and conditions of
registration as a sex offender. In taking enforcement action which
the licence under which an offender
cases in which risk is assessed as may result in custody. The NPS now
will be supervised in the community
being high but not the highest, inter- has standards which require a much
may vary, these are the types of
agency work enables effective risk more rigorous enforcement of licence
conditions which are often applied
management. Only in a very few conditions than was previously
to an offender’s licence:
cases in which the risk is assessed exercised by probation officers.

Robust risk management


Work to manage the risks
posed by offenders is founded
on robust multi-agency monitoring,
surveillance and management.
36 Additionally, for those whose risk is the police may take such measures 38 The effectiveness of these
assessed as being particularly high as surveillance and/or an application programmes help strengthen the
and for whom it may be difficult for a sex offender order. ability of the NPS to deliver against
to establish satisfactory release its five statutory aims, particularly the
arrangements (accommodation, for 37 In addition to the imposition of reduction of re-offending, ensuring
example), MAPPPs may refer a case licence conditions and rigorous offenders’ awareness of the effects
in exceptional circumstances to the supervision arrangements (and the of crime and on victims and the
Public Protection Group of the NPS. enforcement of them if they are rehabilitation of offenders. The NPS
In 2001/2002 173 cases were breached), the NPS now delivers a already runs programmes which
referred to the Public Protection range of programmes for offenders address sexual offending and
Group. The Public Protection Group which have been proven to reduce impulsive behaviour, and others
can assist by enlisting the support the chances of reoffending. which enhance problem-solving
and co-operation of police and Attendance on such programmes skills and victim awareness. These
probation in other parts of the can be made a licence condition programmes will be supported by
country, and by providing short-term and therefore subject to the scrutiny other programmes that target
additional resources where these are of supervision as well. Central to substance abuse and domestic
deemed necessary (for example, the importance of these programmes violence which are being developed.
funding extra supervision). In very is their effectiveness in getting
rare cases, for example where an offenders to take responsibility for
offender is not subject to statutory their own behaviour.
licence conditions and supervision,

good practice Finding high risk offenders suitable, stable accommodation is


essential for public protection for two reasons. First, for offenders
high risk trying not to reoffend, a secure home is a vital part of a return to
outreach workers normality. Secondly, for those who continue to pose a risk, a vigilant
and responsible landlord and a fixed address help allow effective
monitoring or surveillance by probation and police.
So important is joint working that, in one area, probation and the
local authority have created two joint posts for high-risk outreach
workers. Their job is not only to set up the accommodation so that
the offender is quickly settled in a stable location, but they also
make sure the correct information is available to everyone including
details of relevant convictions. They monitor for significant changes
in behaviour, and they routinely keep in contact with the police and,
in the case of higher risk offenders, the MAPPP team.
Their work brings greater confidence to both agencies, allowing
housing providers and probation resettlement to build on each
other’s strengths.
18/19

disclosure

39 Although the exchange of confidential information 40 A decision to disclose information of


between agencies is fundamental to the risk management this highly sensitive nature to a third
party will always need to be justified
process, it must comply with the Data Protection Act thoroughly. Such a decision will
1998 and the Human Rights Act 1998. It is against this only be taken as part of a carefully
background that the controversial issue of disclosing managed process which will require
the proposed disclosure to be
information by agencies to the public arises. It is therefore authorised by a senior police officer
worth outlining the circumstances in which the police are who must assess each case on its
allowed to disclose information about sexual and violent merits. The Court of Appeal has
recently ruled10 that disclosure of
offenders to members of the public or other organisations details of the identity and whereabouts
who are not formal members of the MAPPA. of an offender can only be authorised
when, after all the relevant factors
have been considered, it is deemed
necessary for the protection of the
public and the disclosure is part of
a risk management plan.

good practice Vince, aged 40, was released on licence from a seven year prison
sentence for the rape of his sister-in-law. Prior to imprisonment
disclosure and he had lived near to his large family. During imprisonment he
victim liaison was divorced.
Vince His victim was contacted before his release so that her views could
be considered before any decisions were taken about the conditions
under which he might be released. Her views contributed to Vince
being excluded from his home area and ordered to have no contact
with his children. Any breach would mean a return to prison.
Vince was put in closely supervised accommodation and placed
under curfew. He twice attempted to establish new relationships,
both times with women with learning difficulties. On both occasions
the police visited the women and disclosed information about his
past which they would otherwise not have been aware of.
working with victims

41 The criminal justice system has for a long time Sir William Macpherson’s report (into
been criticised for not taking enough notice of the Stephen Lawrence’s murder), which
have a far broader application than
needs of victims of crime. This has resulted in the investigation of racist incidents
legislation to ensure that improvements are made. and crime. The recommendations
Amongst the most important changes were made extended to the specific care
necessary in liaising with families
by the Victims Charters of 1990 and 1996. of victims where incidents had been
of a very serious or critical nature.
In response the police have
Additionally, the Probation Circular
acknowledged the particular needs
61/1995 and National Standards
of sensitive and vulnerable witnesses
1995 required probation services to
and have continued to work in close
contact victims of sexual and violent
co-operation with other agencies
offenders who have been sentenced
such as Victim Support and their
to a term of four years imprisonment
Witness Service. The police offer
or longer. Section 69 of the Criminal
support to the victims of sexual,
Justice and Court Services Act
violent and other offenders from the
2000, imposed a statutory duty upon
point when an offence is reported
the NPS to undertake victim contact
until the ending of the court process.
work, which substantially extended
the provision for victims.
44 There are also now a number of
other arrangements in place to
42 This new duty requires the NPS to
meet the needs of victims of crime
consult and notify victims about the
and these include:
release arrangements of all offenders
convicted of a sexual or violent • the Prison Service victims’ help line
offence leading to a sentence of (0845 7585112 open 9am-4pm,
12 months or more in custody. In Monday – Friday, calls charged
discharging this duty the NPS will at local rates) to report concerns
contact the victims and offer to meet about unwanted contact from
them but only if they (the victims) so a prisoner or concerns about
wish. The purpose of this and any possible temporary release,
further meetings is to inform victims parole, or release on licence;
of what happens to prisoners after
• the Victim Supportline
sentence and to advise on how they
(0845 30 30 900 run by the charity,
may make representations about the
Victim Support – calls charged at
conditions of the prisoner’s release.
local rates) which provides free,
This duty is supported by detailed
confidential information and
guidance for probation practitioners
support and details Victim Support
working with victims.
local services and other relevant
organisations; and,
43 The police are also more conscious of
and committed to the need of working • local probation offices
more effectively with victims, especially which are listed in the telephone
following the recommendations of directory.

10 In the case of R v. North Wales Police ex parte A, B & CD.


20/21

good practice Les, aged 56, was convicted of indecently assaulting a teenage
boy he had befriended and plied with drink and drugs. He was
safer resettlement sentenced to four years custody, assessed as a high-risk offender
Les and put on the sex offender register. On his release, he was placed
under licence with condition that he stayed in a hostel. However,
his behaviour at the hostel in targeting a younger resident led to
recall to prison before any further offending could take place.
Near the end of his sentence, as he came up for re-release, it was
the responsibility of the MAPPP to manage the risk he presented
when his licence ran out and there was no scope to recall him
to prison. The solution was to house him in a development of
bungalows for the elderly, where there were no neighbouring
children and there was a police station close by. Local beat officers
were briefed about his history.
After some minor concerns about his behaviour, a police officer
witnessed Les with a boy who appeared to be drunk. The officer
saw Les kiss the boy on the cheek. Les was immediately arrested
and charged with indecent assault, an offence for which he was
sentenced to eight years.
The MAPPP’s assessment, planning, close monitoring, information
sharing and early intervention meant they were able to take swift,
decisive action to minimise any risk this offender posed to the public.
For further information contact:
Police and probation
Telephone numbers can be found in the
local section of this report and in local
telephone directories.

Home Office
Customer Services 0870 000 1585

National Victim Supportline


0845 30 30 900
This report is also available in html and text only format at www.onlinemappa.info
Published by the Home Office Communication Directorate July 2002