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Full wave rectifier: center taped and bridge form.

BJTS: base- emitter forward biased and base collector reverse biased. Cut-off, saturation, Active regions. Cut-off: when base current is zero. Saturation: when both base-emitter and base-collector becomes forward biased. BJT as an amplifier: Amplification: linearly increase in amplitude of a signal. Inverted and depend upon Collector resistor. BJT as a switch: BJT is off when base current is nil. When both base-emitter and base-collector junction become forward biased.

Common Emitter Amplifier: Phase inversion. Emitter is at ground due to bypass capacitor. Common Collector Amplifier: No phase inversion. Input resistance high and low output resistance. Common Base Amplifier: Input resistance low and high output resistance No phase inversion. Power amplifiers: Class A, B, AB, and C. Class A - has low efficiency of less than 40% but good signal reproduction and linearity. Class B - is twice as efficient as class A amplifiers with a maximum theoretical efficiency of about 70% because the amplifying device only conducts (and uses power) for half of the input signal. Class AB - has an efficiency rating between that of Class A and Class B but poorer signal reproduction than class A amplifiers. Class C - is the most efficient amplifier class as only a very small portion of the input signal is amplified therefore the output signal bears very little resemblance to the input signal. Class C amplifiers have the worst signal reproduction.

JFETS: Works with reverse baise Gate-source. Pinch-off voltage: drain current becomes contant. Cutoff: Vgs=-Vds. High input resistance.

MOSFETS: Gate input is electrically insulated from the main current carrying channel and is therefore called an Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor or IGFET. Depletion Type - the transistor requires the Gate-Source voltage, (VGS) to switch the device "OFF". The depletion mode MOSFET is equivalent to a "Normally Closed" switch. Enhancement Type - the transistor requires a Gate-Source voltage, (VGS) to switch the device "ON". The enhancement mode MOSFET is equivalent to a "Normally Open" switch. Depletion MOSFETS: The Depletion-mode MOSFET, which is less common than the enhancement types is normally switched "ON" without the application of a gate bias voltage making it a "normally-closed" device. Enhancement MOSFETS: The more common Enhancement-mode MOSFET is the reverse of the depletion-mode type. Here the conducting channel is lightly doped or even undoped making it non-conductive. This results in the device being normally "OFF" when the gate bias voltage is equal to zero.