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ES 65 - Fluid Mechanics Take Home (Topic: Chapter 3, textbook)

May 22, 2013

Note: You are encouraged to write your understanding of the problem, and of what to do in order to solve the problem, even if you find yourself having algebraic/numerical difficulties in actually doing so; let me see what you are thinking, instead of just what you happen to write down. IN SHORT, NO EXPLANATION ON HOW YOU ARRIVE TO YOUR FINAL ANSWER, EVEN IF IT IS CORRECT, MEANS ZERO SCORE!!. PS. IF YOU ARE CAUGHT CHEATING, AUTOMATICALLY YOUR SCORE FOR THIS EXAM IS ZERO. (IF YOU LET YOUR CLASSMATES COPY YOUR WORK, YOU ARE STILL LIABLE FOR CHEATING!!)

1. A wind tunnel is designed to draw in air from the atmosphere and produce a velocity of 100 m/s in the test section. The fan is located downstream of the test section. What pressure is to be expected in the test section if the atmospheric temperature and pressure are: a. -20 oC, 90 kPa? b. 20 oC, 92 kPa? c. 0 oC, 95 kPa? 2. A fireman reduces the exit area on a nozzle so that the velocity inside the hose is quite small relative to the exiting velocity. What is the maximum exiting velocity and what is the maximum height the water can reach if the pressure inside the hose is: a. 700 kPa? b. 1400 kPa? c. 100 psi? 3. An aircraft flying at 10,000 feet uses a Pitot-static tube to measure speed. The instrumentation on the aircraft provides the differential pressure as well as the local static pressure and the local temperature. The local static pressure is 9.8 psig, and the air temperature is 25 oF. The differential pressure is 0.5 psid. Find the speed of the aircraft in mph. 4. The apparatus shown in the figure is used to measure the velocity of air at the center of a duct having a 10 cm diameter. A tube mounted at the center of the duct has a 2 mm diameter and is attached to one leg of a slant-tube manometer. A pressure tap in the wall of the duct is connected to the other end of the slant-tube manometer. The well of the slant-tube manometer is sufficiently large that the elevation of the fluid in it does not change significantly when fluid moves up the leg of the manometer. The air in the duct is at a temperature of 20 oC, and the pressure is 150 kPa. The manometer liquid has a specific gravity of 0.7, and the slope of the leg is 30 deg. When there is no flow in the duct, the liquid surface in the manometer lies at 2.3 cm on the slanted scale. When there is no flow in the duct, the liquid moves up to 6.7 cm on the slanted scale. Find the velocity of the air in the duct. Assuming a uniform velocity profile in the duct, calculate the rate of flow of the air.

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5. A rugged instrument used frequently for monitoring gas velocity in smoke stacks consists of two open tubes oriented to the flow direction as shown and connected to a manometer. The pressure coefficient is 1.0 at A and -0.3 at B. Assume that water, at 20 oC, is used in the manometer and that a 5 mm deflection is noted. The pressure and temperature of the stack gases are 101 kPa and 250 oC. The gas constant of the stack gases is 200 J/kg K. Determine the velocity of the stack gases.

6. Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y downwards for a jet directed downwards. The initial radius R and the head of fluid is H. 7. Determine the flow rate in the setup shown.

8. A pipe inclined at 45 deg to the horizontal converges from 0.2 m dia to 0.1 m at the top over a length of 2 m. At the lower end the average velocity is 2 m/s. Oil of specific gravity 0.84 flows through the pipe. Determine the pressure difference between the ends, neglecting losses. If a mercury manometer is used to measure the pressure, determine the reading of the manometer difference in m of mercury. Oil fills the limbs ever mercury in the manometer. 9. A device used to measure the velocity of fluid in a pipe consists of a cylinder, with a diameter much smaller than the pipe diameter, mounted in the pipe with pressure taps at the forward stagnation point and at the rearward side of the cylinder. Data show that the pressure coefficient at the rearward pressure tap is -0.3. Water with a density of 1000 kg/m3 flows in the pipe. A pressure gage connected by lines to the pressure taps shows a pressure difference of 500 Pa. What is the velocity in the pipe?

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