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Name: AGUILAR, AIMEE THERESE R.

Subject & Section: SOC & CUL AC09402

Assign #1 Date: April 19, 2012

SOCIOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENT THEORIES

Proponents MAX WEBER, (born

Theory
BUREAUCRACY THEORY
defined bureaucracy as referring to an organization of administrative hierarchy characterized by loyalty to the office, a highly specialized division of labor, and impersonal relationships based on prestige, power, and control. According to Weber, the defining features of bureaucracy sharply distinguish it from other types of organization based on nonlegal forms of authority. Weber observed that the advantage of bureaucracy was that it was the most technically proficient form of organization, possessing specialized expertise, certainty, continuity, and unity. In order to counteract bureaucrats, the system needs entrepreneurs and politicians.

Sociological implications
Weber perceived, rightly, that bureaucracy, like many other social concepts, constituted shorthand for complex systems and trends that work themselves out over time. They had to be understood in and through wider social contexts, functions and problems. The new structures of society were marked by the differentiation of the two functionally interchanging systems that had taken shape around the organizational cores of the capitalist enterprise and the bureaucratic state apparatus. Weber understood this process as the institutionalization of purposive-rational economic and administrative action. To the degree that everyday life was affected by this cultural and societal rationalization, traditional forms of life which in the early modern period were differentiated primarily according to one's trade were dissolved. In the political realm, Marx's ideas led to the establishment of governments using Marxist thought to replace capitalism with communism or socialism (or augment it with market socialism) across much of the world, whilst his intellectual thought has heavily influenced the academic study of the humanities and the arts. In Marxist theory, pure communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely associated individuals.

Educational implications
Max Webers bureaucratic theory resulted to different studies, principles and theories conducted by other sociologists. Some of these are have been used in studying various courses such as in the field of Management, Finance, Accounting, and Economics. Several examples are: Characteristics of the bureaucratic model, The 13 Scientific Management Principles (F.W. Taylor), Four Theories Of Bureaucratic Politics etc. When we are talking about bureaucracy, we are talking about a mindset, but one which exhibits a lot of variation. One of the areas where this mindset plays out has to do with control -- social control --and its ideal sanctioning system, criminal justice. Often, the following shorthand list of Weber's characteristics of bureaucracy is seen in criminal justice textbooks. In a communist society called for people with new loyalties, new motivations, and new concepts of individual and group life. Education was recognized as playing a strategic role in achieving this revolution and development. Specifically, education was called upon to produce, on the one hand, zealous revolutionaries ready to rebel against the old society and fight to establish a new order. It is said that having knowledge of communism will enable individuals to discipline themselves for the hard decisions, the responsible judgments and the sacrifices which will be made to insure the continued existence our race and freedom itself. (J. Edgar Hoover, 1962)

April 21, 1864, Erfurt, Prussia [now Germany]died June 14, 1920, Munich, Germany), German sociologist and political economist best known for his thesis of the Protestant ethic, relating Protestantism to capitalism, and for his ideas on bureaucracy. Webers profound influence on sociological theory stems from his demand for objectivity in scholarship and from his analysis of the motives behind human action.

KARL MARX, in full Karl THEORY OF COMMUNISM


Heinrich Marx (born May 5, 1818, Trier, Rhine province, Prussia [Germany]died March 14, 1883, London, England), revolutionary, sociologist, historian, and economist. Marx is popularly regarded as the father of modern socialism, which has also been called Marxism. He is best known for his early work The Communist Manifesto (called for the overthrow of the social system of capitalism and the creation of a new, free, and equal society).

In Marxist theory, pure communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely associated individuals. Communism is thus a form of socialisma higher and more advanced form, according to its advocates. Exactly how communism differs from socialism has long been a matter of debate, but the distinction rests largely on the communists adherence to the revolutionary socialism of Karl Marx.