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MASS PROGRAM, FALL 2000

REVISED, NOVEMBER 2001

Svetlana Katok

Department of Mathematics

The Pennsylvania State University

University Park, PA 16802, U.S.A.

Preface

These notes are a result of the MASS course of the same title that I

gave in the MASS program in the Fall of 2000. The choice of the topic

was modivated by the internal beauty of the subject of p-adic analysis, an

unusual one in the undergraduate curriculum, and abundant opportunities

to compare it with its much more familiar real counterpart.

There are several pedagogical advantages of this approach. Both real

and p-adic numbers are obtained from the rationals by a procedure called

completion, which can be applied to any metric space by using different dis-

tances on the rationals: the usual Euclidean distance for the reals and a new

p-adic distance for each prime p, for the p-adics. The p-adic distance satisfies

the “strong triangle inequality” that causes surprising properties of p-adic

numbers and leads to interesting deviations from the classical real analysis

much like the renunciation of the fifth postulate of Euclid’s Elements, the

axiom of parallels, leads to non-Euclidean geometry. Similarities, on the

other hand, arise when the fact does not depend on the “strong triangle

inequality”, and in these cases the same proof works in the real and p-adic

cases. Analysis of the differences and similarities helps the students to better

understand the proofs in both contexts.

The material of these notes appears in several classical texts [1, 2, 3, 4,

5, 6, 7, 9], but either remains on an elementary level with more emphasis

on number theory than on analysis, or quickly leads to matters way too

sophisticated for the undergraduate students. My only contribution was to

choose the appropriate material, to simplify the proofs in some cases, and

to present it in the proper context.

I included several topics from real analysis and elementary topology

which are not usually covered in undergraduate courses (totally disconnec-

ted spaces and Cantor sets, points of discontinuity of maps and the Baire

category theorem, surjectiveness of isometries of compact metric spaces).

They enhanced the students’ understanding of real analysis and intertwined

the real and p-adic contexts of the course.

The course entailed a large number of homework problems (with empha-

sis on proofs) which appear in these notes. Besides solving the homework

problems, the students were asked to give presentations on additional topics.

1

2 PREFACE

The final presentations, some of which were quite advanced, included the

following of: Finite extensions of p-adic numbers and p-adic circles; Isome-

tries on the p-adic integers; The p-adic solenoid; The X-adic norm of power

series; The Signum function; Equireal triangulations; Euclidean models of

the p-adic integers; Graphical model of the Peano curve via Cantor set;

Revised harmonic series; On diagonal cubic equations.

CHAPTER 1

lectures – the field of p-adic numbers Qp , defined for any prime p.

Just like the field of real numbers R, the field Qp can be constructed from

the rational numbers Q as its completion with respect to a certain norm.

This norm depends on the prime number p and differs drastically from the

standard Euclidean norm used to define R. Nevertheless, in each of the

two cases, completion yields a normed field (R and Qp ), and this general

concept is studied in detail in §1.2. But first (§1.1), we recall the completion

procedure in the more familiar case of the reals (this takes us from Q to R),

and only then go on to its generalization to arbitrary normed fields (§1.3).

These preliminaries put aside, we come to the central section (§1.4) of

this chapter, where the construction of Qp is actually carried out.

The rest of the chapter is devoted to the algebraic and structural prop-

erties of the p-adic numbers. Here, as in subsequent chapters, we will be

constantly comparing Qp and R, stressing both their similarities and their

differences.

The real numbers, denoted by R, are obtained from the rationals by a

procedure called completion. This procedure can be applied to any metric

space, i.e., to a space M with a distance function d on it. Recall that a

function

d:M ×M →R

defined on all ordered pairs (x, y) of elements of a nonempty set M is said

to be a distance if it possesses the following properties:

(a) d(x, y) ≥ 0; d(x, y) = 0 iff x = y;

(b) d(x, y) = d(y, x) ∀x, y ∈ M ;

(c) d(x, y) ≤ d(x, z) + d(z, y) ∀x, y, z ∈ M .

We say that {rn } ∈ M is a Cauchy sequence if for any ε > 0 there exists a

positive integer N such that n, m > N implies d(rn , rm ) < ε. If any Cauchy

sequence in M has a limit in M , then M is called a complete metric space.

If M is not complete, there exists a metric space M such that

(a) M is complete;

(b) M contains a subset M 0 isometric to M ;

(c) M 0 is dense in M (i.e., each point in M is a limit point for M 0 ).

3

4 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

elements are equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences in M (two Cauchy

sequences xn and yn are called equivalent if d(xn , yn ) → 0). For the details,

see Theorem 1.3.4 below, where the particular case of metric spaces called

normed fields, which includes R, is considered.

For M = Q, we have the usual Euclidean distance between rational

numbers:

Notice that this distance “came from” the Euclidean norm on Q, which is

the ordinary absolute value, and is nothing but the usual distance between

points on the “number axis”.

A more familiar and less sophisticated description of the completion of

Q yielding R is based on decimal fractions. If represented as infinite decimal

fractions, rational numbers are characterized by the property that they are

eventually periodic (Exercise 1). On the other hand, any infinite decimal

fraction represents a point on the “number axis”, thus it is convenient to

identify real numbers with infinite decimal fractions. Every positive real

number a can be written as a decimal fraction

∞

X

a= ak 10−k , (1.1.2)

k=m

where m is a certain integer, and the coefficients or digits ak take the values

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

This representation is unique unless ak = 0 for all k > n, in which case a

has a second representation with a0n = an − 1, a0k = 9 for k > n, and a0i = ai

for i < n − 1.

It is easy to construct a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers which has

no limit in Q:

On the other hand, any equivalence class of Cauchy sequences of rational

numbers has a representative which is a sequence of partial sums of a series of

the form (1.1.2) whose limit is an infinite decimal fraction (Exercise 2), and

so does any sequence of infinite decimal fractions. In other words, the set of

real numbers is complete with respect to the Euclidean distance (Exercise 3),

and the construction of real numbers by means of infinite decimal fractions

is equivalent to the completion procedure with respect to the Euclidian

distance. This representation can be generalized to the representation to

the base g where g is an integer greater than or equal to 2 and thus

∞

X

a= ak g−k ,

k=m

1.2. NORMED FIELDS 5

where the coefficients ak take values in the set {0, 1, . . . , g − 1}. Note that

the exponents −k of g are descending and tend to −∞.

Practically, completion is often obtained by a different construction:

Theorem 1.1.1. Let M be a complete metric space and let X be a subset

of M . Then X is complete if and only if it is closed in M . In particular,

the closure of X in M can be taken as its completion.

Example 1.1.2. The completion of an interval (a, b) with respect to the

usual Euclidean distance is the segment [a, b], the closure of (a, b) in R.

For other examples, see Exercise 4.

Exercises

1. Prove that a number is rational if and only if its representation by an

infinite decimal fraction is eventually periodic.

2. Prove that any Cauchy sequence of rational numbers with respect to the

Euclidean distance has a representative which is a sequence of partial sums

of a series of the form (1.1.2).

3. Use the representation of real numbers as infinite decimal fractions to

prove that the set of real numbers is complete with respect to the Euclidean

distance, i.e., that any Cauchy sequence of real numbers has a limit.

4. Prove that the following metric spaces are not complete, and construct

their completions:

(a) R with the distance d(x, y) = | arctan x − arctan y|;

(b) R with the distance d(x, y) = |ex − ey |.

5. Prove that a metric space is complete if and only if the intersection of

every nested sequence of closed balls {Bn }, B1 ⊃ B2 ⊃ B3 ⊃ . . . whose radii

approach zero consists of a single point.

Definition 1.2.1. Let F be a field. A norm on F is a map denoted || · ||

from F to the nonnegative real numbers such that:

(1) ||x|| = 0 if and only if x = 0.

(2) ||xy|| = ||x|| ||y||, ∀x, y ∈ F.

(3) ||x + y|| ≤ ||x|| + ||y||, ∀x, y ∈ F (triangle inequality).

The norm is called trivial if ||0|| = 0 and ||x|| = 1 for all x 6= 0.

We denote the identity element in the field F by 1 and its additive inverse

by −1. Notice that, for any n ∈ N, we have

n · 1 := 1| + .{z

. . + 1} ∈ F.

n times

We shall denote this element by the same symbol n as the corresponding

natural number.

6 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

(a) k1k = k − 1k = 1;

(b) kxk = k − xk;

(c) kx ± yk ≥ | kxk − kyk |;

(d) kx − yk ≤ kxk + kyk;

(e) kx/yk = kxk/kyk.

(f) knk ≤ n ∀n ∈ N.

Proof. (a) k1k = k ± 1 · ±1k = k ± 1k2 =⇒ k ± 1k = 1.

(b) k − xk = k(−1) · xk = 1 · kxk.

(c) Follows from (b) and the triangle inequality for the norm (see Ex-

ercise 6).

(d) Follows from (b) and the triangle inequality.

(e) Follows from (a) and property (2) of the norm.

(f) Follows by induction from (a) and the triangle inequality.

This completes the proof.

Let d(x, y) = ||x − y||. It follows immediately from Definition 1.2.1 and

Proposition 1.2.2 that d is a distance function; indeed, 1.2.1(a) implies that

d(x, y) = 0 iff x = y, while 1.2.2(b) implies symmetry, and 1.2.2(d) yields

the triangle inequality. We say that this distance is induced by the norm

|| · || and will regard (F, k · k) as a metric space.

Definition 1.2.3. A sequence {an } in F is said to be

bounded if there is a constant C > 0 such that

kan k ≤ C ∀n;

• a null sequence if

lim kan k = 0,

n→∞

i.e., for any ε > 0 there is a N such that for all n > N kan k < ε;

• a Cauchy sequence if

lim kan − am k = 0,

n,m→∞

i.e., for any ε > 0 there is an N such that for all n, m > N we have

kan − am k < ε;

• convergent to a ∈ F (we write a = limn→∞ an ) if

lim kan − ak = 0,

n→∞

i.e. for any ε > 0 there is an N such that for all n > N kan − ak < ε.

It follows from the definition that any null sequence converges to 0, and

it follows from the triangle inequality that any converging sequence is a

Cauchy sequence: suppose limn→∞ an = a, then

ε ε

kan − am k = kan − a + a − am k ≤ kan − ak + ka − am k < + = ε

2 2

1.2. NORMED FIELDS 7

for n, m > N chosen for ε/2 in the definition of limit. In particular, every

null sequence is a Cauchy sequence. Further properties are listed below and

are obtained by the same standard technique (Exercise 7).

(a) Every Cauchy sequence is bounded.

(b) Let {an } be a Cauchy sequence and {n1 , n2 , . . . } be an increasing

sequence of positive integers. If the subsequence an1 , an2 , . . . is a

null sequence, then {an } itself is a null sequence.

(c) If {an } and {bn } are null sequences, so is {an ± bn }, and if {an } is

a null sequence and {bn } is a bounded sequence, then {an bn } is a

null sequence.

The following is a simple but very useful result.

Proposition 1.2.4. kxk < 1 if and only if limn→∞ xn = 0.

Proof. Let kxk < 1. Since kxn k = kxkn , we obtain

lim kxn k = 0,

n→∞

i.e., limn→∞ xn = 0. Conversely, if kxk ≥ 1, then for all positive n we have

kxn k ≥ 1, and therefore 0 6= limn→∞ xn .

Definition 1.2.5. We say that two metrics d1 and d2 on F are equivalent

if a sequence is Cauchy with respect to d1 if and only if it is Cauchy with

respect to d2 . We say two norms ||·||1 and ||·||2 are equivalent (||·||1 ∼ ||·||2 )

if they induce equivalent metrics.

Proposition 1.2.6. Let || · ||1 and || · ||2 be two norms on a field F .

Then || · ||1 ∼ || · ||2 if and only if there exists a positive real number α such

that

||x||2 = ||x||α1 , ∀x ∈ F. (1.2.1)

Proof. Suppose || · ||1 ∼ || · ||2 . If k · k1 is trivial, then by Exercise 8

k · k2 is also trivial, and hence (1.2.1) is satisfied for any α.

If k · k1 is nontrivial, then we can choose an element a ∈ F such that

kak1 6= 1. Replacing a by 1/a if necessary, we can assume that kak1 < 1.

Define

log kak2

α= .

log kak1

Notice that since the norms are equivalent, by Exercise 9 we have kak2 < 1

as well, hence both logarithms are negative and α > 0.

We will show that this α satisfies (1.2.1). First take x ∈ F with kxk1 < 1;

the cases kxk1 > 1 and kxk1 = 1 then follow from Exercise 9. Consider the

set

m

S= r= | m, n ∈ N, kxkr1 < kak1 . (1.2.2)

n

For any r ∈ S we ave

m

x

kxkm < kakn1 , . Fd so

1 an < 1.

1

8 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

m

x

an < 1,

2

and so kxk2 < kak2 , and kxk2 < kak2 .

m n r The same argument holds with k · k2

and k · k1 interchanged, so we also find

S = {r = m/n | m, n ∈ N, kxkr2 < kak2 }. (1.2.3)

By taking logorithms, we can rewrite conditions (1.2.2) and (1.2.3) as

log kak1 log kak2

r> , r> (1.2.4)

log kxk1 log kxk2

since all logarithms involved are negative. But then we must have

log kak1 log kak2

= ,

log kxk1 log kxk2

because otherwise there would be some r between these two numbers and

only one of the conditions in (1.2.4) would be satisfied. Therefore,

log kxk2 log kak2

= = α,

log kxk1 log kak1

which concludes the proof.

Now we describe all norms on Q equivalent to the absolute value | · |.

Proposition 1.2.7. ||x|| = |x|α , α > 0, is a norm on Q if and only if

α ≤ 1. In that case it is equivalent to the norm | · |.

Proof. Suppose α ≤ 1. The first two properties of the norm are obvi-

ous, so we only need to check the triange inequality. Assume that |y| ≤ |x|.

Then

|y| α

|x + y| ≤ (|x| + |y|) = |x| 1 +

α α α

|x|

|y| |y| α

≤ |x|α 1 + ≤ |x|α 1 + = |x|α + |y|α .

|x| |x|

The first inequality follows from to the fact that tα ≤ t for t ≥ 1, and the

second because tα ≥ t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

On the other hand, if α > 1, the triangle inequality is not satisfied: for

example, |1 + 1|α = 2α > |1|α + |1|α = 2.

Definition 1.2.8. A norm is called non-Archimedian if

||x + y|| ≤ max(||x||, ||y||)

always holds.

Remark. The non-Archimedian property of the norm implies the tri-

angle inequality. We will call this property the strong triangle inequality.

1.2. NORMED FIELDS 9

metric. Instead of the triangle inequality for the usual distance function

d(x, z) ≤ d(x, y) + d(y, z),

it satisfies the strong triangle inequality

d(x, z) ≤ max(d(x, y), d(y, z)).

The corresponding metric spaces are called ultra-metric spaces.

The following theorem is a necessary and sufficient condition for a norm

to be non-Archimedian.

Proposition 1.2.9. The following statements are equivalent:

(a) k · k is non-Archimedian;

(b) knk ≤ 1 for every integer n;

Proof. (a) ⇒ (b). We will prove this implication by induction.

Base of Induction. k1k = 1 ≤ 1.

Induction Step. Suppose that kkk ≤ 1 for all k ∈ {1, · · · , n − 1}; let us

prove that knk ≤ 1.

Observe that knk = k(n − 1) + 1k ≤ max{kn − 1k, 1} = 1.

From the inequality k1k = 1 ≤ 1 and the induction assumption, we have

knk ≤ 1 for all n ∈ N. Since k − nk = knk, we conclude that knk ≤ 1 for all

n ∈ Z.

(b) ⇒ (a).

Xn

n k n−k

||x + y|| = ||(x + y) || =

n n

x y

k

k=0

X n

Xn

≤ n ||x||k ||y||n−k ≤ ||x||k ||y||n−k

k

k=0 k=0

≤ (n + 1)[max(||x||, ||y||)] . n

√

||x + y|| ≤ n

n + 1 max(||x||, ||y||).

Letting n tend to ∞, we obtain

||x + y|| ≤ max(||x||, ||y||).

n

Here we used the fact that is an integer, and the well-known limit

k

√

n

lim n + 1 = 1.

n→∞

This proposition helps explain the difference between Archimedian and

non-Archimedian norms. It can be restated as follows: a norm is Archime-

dian if it has the Archimedian property: given x, y ∈ F , x 6= 0, there exists

a positive integer n such that |nx| > |y|.

10 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

assertion that there are integers with arbitrary large norms:

We leave to the reader to check that a norm is Archimedian (i.e., not non-

Archimedian) if and only if (1.2.5) is satisfied (Exercise 10).

The non-Archimedian property has other surprising implications.

Proposition 1.2.10. If the elements a, x of a non-Archimedian field F

satisfy the inequality kx − ak < kak, then kxk = kak.

Proof. By the strong triangle inequality,

kxk = kx − a + ak ≤ max(kx − ak, kak) = kak.

On the other hand,

kak = ka − x + xk ≤ max(kx − ak, kxk).

Now kx − ak > kxk would imply kak ≤ kx − ak, a contradiction. Therefore

kx−ak ≤ kxk, and kak ≤ kxk. So, kxk = kak. This completes the proof.

This can be restated in the geometrical language as follows: Any triangle

in an ultra-metric space is isosceles and the length of its base does not exceed

the lengths of the sides.

We leave the proof of the next rather surprising proposition to the reader

(Exercise 11).

closed ball B a,r = {x : ||x − a|| ≤ r} in F is its center.

We shall conclude this section by showing that an Archimedian norm

and a non-Archimedian one cannot be equivalent.

Proposition 1.2.12. Two equivalent norms (k · k1 ∼ k · k2 ) on a field F

are either both non-Archimedian or both Archimedian.

Proof. It follows from Exercise 9 that if k · k1 ∼ k · k2 , then for any

integer n we have knk1 > 1 iff knk2 > 1. Hence by Proposition 1.2.9 either

both norms are non-Archimedian or both are Archimedian.

Exercises

6. From the triangle inequality for the norm on a field F (Definition 1.2.1(3))

deduce that

(a) Every Cauchy sequence is bounded.

1.3. CONSTRUCTION OF THE COMPLETION OF A NORMED FIELD 11

sequence of positive integers. If the subsequence

an1 , an2 , . . .

is a null sequence, then {an } itself is a null sequence.

(c) If {an } and {bn } are null sequences, so is {an ± bn }, and if {an } is

a null sequence and {bn } is a bounded sequence, then {an bn } is a

null sequence.

8. Prove that if k · k1 ∼ k · k2 and k · k1 is trivial, so is k · k2 .

9. Prove that if k · k1 ∼ k · k2 , then kxk1 < 1 iff kxk2 < 1, kxk1 > 1 iff

kxk2 > 1, and kxk1 = 1 iff kxk2 = 1.

10. Prove that the norm k · k is Archimedian if and only if

sup{knk : n ∈ Z} = +∞.

11. Prove that if k · k is non-Archimedian, then any point of the closed ball

B a,r = {x : ||x − a|| ≤ r} in F is its center (and the same is true for the

open ball Ba,r = {x : ||x − a|| < r}).

12. Prove that if k · k is a non-Archimedian norm, then k · kα is also a

non-Archimedian norm for any α > 0. (Compare with Proposition 1.2.7 for

the Euclidean absolute value on Q.)

In this section, starting from an arbitrary normed field F (not necessarily

complete with respect to its norm || · ||), we will construct another field, F ,

containing F , and supply it with a norm (induced from the norm || · || of F )

in such a way that F will be a complete normed field.

We have already seen (§1.1) that in the case of the rational numbers sup-

plied with the ordinary (Euclidean) norm, the completion procedure yields

the reals R. The same procedure will be applied later (see §1.4) to Q endowed

with a completely different norm and will yield the p-adic numbers. In the

completion procedure, the main role will be played by Cauchy sequences:

it is equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences from F that will be declared

elements of the field F . So we begin by discussing Cauchy sequences in an

arbitrary normed field.

Cauchy sequences can be added, subtracted and multiplied (Exercise

13), so the set of all Cauchy sequences in (F, k · k), denoted by {F }, becomes

a commutative ring. Its identity element under addition is the sequence

0̄ = {0, 0, 0, . . . },

and its identity element under multiplication is the sequence

1̄ = {1, 1, 1, . . . }.

12 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

{1, 0, 0, . . . }{0, 1, 0, 0, . . . } = 0̄.

For every a ∈ F the Cauchy sequence

ā = {a, a, a . . . }

lies in {F }. Hence {F } contains a subring isomorphic to F . Of particular

importance is the set P of all null sequences. By Exercise 7(b) P is a subset

of {F }. In fact, P is an ideal in {F } (i.e., a subring such that for all p ∈ P

and all a ∈ F we have ap ∈ P ). Indeed, if {an } and {bn } are in P , so is

{an ± bn }, and if {an } is in P and {bn } is a bounded sequence (in particular

if it is Cauchy), then {an bn } is in P (Exercise 7(c)).

Let F = {F }/P . Its elements are equivalence classes of Cauchy se-

quences in (F, k·k), two Cauchy sequences being equivalent if their difference

is a null sequence. Notice that constant sequences

ā = {a, a, a, . . . },

where a ∈ F belong to different equivalent classes in F for different a. We

shall denote the equivalence class of a Cauchy sequence {an } by (an ), so

(an ) is an element of F . We will think of F as a subset of F , identifying

a ∈ F with ā ∈ F .

Theorem 1.3.1. F is a field.

Proof. It is easy to check that F , with operations defined as follows:

if {an } ∈ A and {bn } ∈ B, then A + B = (an + bn ) and A · B = (an · bn ),

is a commutative ring with the additive identity (0̄) and the multiplicative

identity (1̄). By Exercise 14, these operations do not depend on the choice

of representatives. Let us prove that F is a field. Let A be an equivalence

class in F different from the zero class (0̄) = P , and let {an } be any Cauchy

sequence in A. Since {an } is not a null sequence, there exist two positive

numbers c and N such that

kan k > c ∀n ≥ N.

Define a new sequence {a∗n } by

(

0 if 1≤n≤N −1

a∗n =

1/an if n ≥ N.

We claim that this is a Cauchy sequence. Indeed, if n, m ≥ N , then

1 1 kam − an k

0 ≤ ka∗m − a∗n k = − = ≤ c−2 kam − an k,

am an kam k · kan k

and the claim follows since {an } is a Cauchy sequence. Let us denote the

equivalence class of the sequence {a∗n } by A−1 . Then

{an }{a∗n } = { 0, . . . , 0 , 1, 1, 1 . . . },

| {z }

N −1 zeros

1.3. CONSTRUCTION OF THE COMPLETION OF A NORMED FIELD 13

where the Cauchy sequence on the right differs from 1̄ by the null sequence

{−1, . . . , −1, 0, 0, 0 . . . }.

| {z }

N −1 (−1)0 s

Now we extend the norm k · k from F to F .

Definition 1.3.2. For any A ∈ F put

kAk = lim kan k,

n→∞

In order to see that this norm is well defined, we must show that the

limit exists and does not depend on the choice of the Cauchy sequence {an }

in A. We have

|kan k − kam k| ≤ kan − am k

by Exercise 6, which implies that the sequence of real numbers {kan k} is

Cauchy with respect to the absolute value. Since the set of real numbers

R is complete, the limit defining k · k exists. Now take a second sequence

{a0n } ∈ A. By the same inequality we have

0 ≤ lim |kan k − ka0n k| ≤ lim kan − a0n k = 0,

n→∞ n→∞

Proposition 1.3.3. k · k is a norm on F .

Proof. We must verify the three properties listed in Definition 1.2.1.

(1) If A = (0̄), then {an } is a null sequence, and therefore kAk = 0. If

A 6= (0̄), then there exist positive numbers c and N such that for

all n ≥ N we have kan k ≥ c > 0. Hence kAk > 0.

(2) By the properties of real limits,

kABk = lim kan bn k = lim kan kkbn k = lim kan k lim kbn k = kAkkBk.

n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ n→∞

Now we can define bounded, Cauchy, and null sequences in F with re-

spect to the norm k · k.

Theorem 1.3.4. F is complete with respect to the norm k · k, and F is

a dense subset of F .

Proof. We first prove the second part. Let A ∈ F , and {am } be a

Cauchy sequence in F representing A. For each fixed positive integer n,

we consider the constant sequence an . Then the sequence {am − an }∞

m=1

represents A − (an ), and since {an } is Cauchy, we can write

14 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

n→∞ n,m→∞

a Cauchy sequence in F . By the density of F in F , for any An there exists

an element an ∈ F such that

1

kAn − (an )k < . (1.3.2)

n

Therefore {An − (an )} is null sequence, hence a Cauchy sequence in F . We

have

{(an )} = {An } − {An − (an )},

hence {(an )} is a Cauchy sequence in F , but since all its elements belong

to F , {an } itself is a Cauchy sequence in F . Let us denote the equivalence

class of {an } by A (in our notations, (an ) ∈ F ). From (1.3.1) and (1.3.2) it

follows that {A − (an )} and {An − (an )} are null sequences in F , and hence

their difference

{A − An } = {A − (an )} − {An − (an )}

lim kA − An k = 0,

n→∞

tinuity, i.e., if

A = lim (an ), B = lim (bn ),

n→∞ n→∞

then

A + B = lim (an + bn ), A · B = lim (an · bn ).

n→∞ n→∞

Exercises

13. Prove that if {an } and {bn } are Cauchy sequences, then so are

{an + bn }, {an − bn }, and {an bn }.

14. Prove that if {an } ∼ {a0n } and {bn } ∼ {b0n } are two pairs of equivalent

Cauchy sequences, then {an ± bn } ∼ {a0n ± b0n } and {an · bn } ∼ {a0n · b0n }.

15. Prove Proposition 1.3.5.

1.4. THE FIELD OF p-ADIC NUMBERS Qp 15

The basic example of a norm on the rational number field Q is the

absolute value | · |. The induced metric d(x, y) = |x − y| is the ordinary

Euclidean distance on the number line, and as was explained in §1.1, and

the completion procedure with respect to this norm gives us the field of real

numbers R.

Now let us ask ourselves the following question: Is the Euclidean distance

between rational numbers really the most “natural” one? Is there any other

way to describe the “closeness” between rationals? It turns out that the

answer to this question is YES.

The new ways of measuring distance between rational numbers come

from the following “arithmetical” construction.

Let p ∈ N be any prime number. Define a map | · |p on Q as follows:

( 1

pordp x

if x 6= 0

|x|p = (1.4.1)

0 if x = 0,

where

the highest power of p which divides x, if x ∈ Z,

ordp x =

ordp a − ordp b, if x = a/b, a, b ∈ Z, b 6= 0.

Remarks. 1. Notice that | · | can take only a “discrete” set of values,

namely {pn , n ∈ Z} ∪ {0}.

2. If a, b ∈ N, then a ≡ b (mod pn ) if and only if |a − b|p ≤ 1/pn .

Proposition 1.4.1. | · |p is a non-Archimedian norm on Q.

Proof. Property (1) in Definition 1.2.1 is obvious, and (2) follows from

ord(xy) = ord(x) + ord(y).

Let us verify (3). If x = 0 or y = 0, (3) is trivial, so assume x, y 6= 0. Let

x = a/b and y = c/d. Then we have

ad + bc

x+y = ,

bd

and

ordp (x + y) = ordp (ad + bc) − ordp (bd)

≥ min(ordp (ad), ordp (bc)) − ordp b − ordp d

= min(ordp a − ordp b, ordp c − ordp d)

= min(ordp x, ordp y).

Therefore,

1

|x + y|p = ≤ max(p− ordp x , p− ordp y )

pordp (x+y)

= max(|x|p , |y|p ) ≤ |x|p + |y|p .

Observe that we have also proved that | · |p is non-Archimedian.

16 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

the norm | · |p .

2. The norm | · |p1 is not equivalent to | · |p2 if p1 and p2 are different

primes (indeed, for the sequence xn = (p1 /p2 )n we have |xn |p1 → 0, but

|xn |p2 → ∞).

We are now ready for the definition of the main protagonist of these

lectures. Let p be a fixed prime. We define Qp to be the completion of Q

with respect to the p-adic norm | · |p (1.4.1). The p-adic norm is extended to

Qp according to Definition 1.3.2, and (Qp , | · |p ) is a complete normed field.

We call Qp the field of p-adic numbers. The elements of Qp are equivalent

classes of Cauchy sequences in Q with respect to the extension of the p-adic

norm. As has been pointed out earlier, Q can be identified with the subfield

of Qp consisting of equivalence classes of constant Cauchy sequences.

For some a ∈ Qp let {an } be a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers

representing a. Then by definition

|a|p = lim |an |p .

n→∞

Therefore, the set of values that | · |p takes on Qp is the same as it takes

on Q, namely {pn , n ∈ Z} ∪ {0} – a phenomenon quite different from what

happens with the Euclidean absolute value which, when extended from Q to

R, takes all nonnegative real values. Moreover, if |a|p 6= 0, then the sequence

of norms {|an |p } must stabilize for sufficiently large n!

Each equivalence class of Cauchy sequences defining some element of Qp

contains a unique canonical representative Cauchy sequence. In order to

describe its construction, we need the following lemma.

Lemma 1.4.2. If x ∈ Q and |x|p ≤ 1, then for any i there exists an

integer α ∈ Z such that |α − x|p ≤ p−i . The integer α can be chosen in the

set {0, 1, 2, . . . , pi − 1}, and is unique if chosen in this range.

Proof. Let x = a/b, where a and b are relatively prime (this is denoted

(a, b) = 1). Since |x|p ≤ 1, it follows that p does not divide b, and hence

b and pi are relatively prime. So, we can find integers m and n such that

mb + npi = 1. Let α = am. Then

|α − x|p = |am − a/b|p = |a/b|p |mb − 1|p

≤ |mb − 1|p = |npi |p = |n|p (1/pi ) ≤ 1/pi .

Finally, using the strong triangle inequality, we can add a multiple of pi to

the integer α to get an integer between 0 and pi for which |α − x|p ≤ p−i

still holds.

Theorem 1.4.3. Every equivalence class a in Qp satisfying |a|p ≤ 1 has

exactly one representative Cauchy sequence {ai } such that:

(a) ai ∈ Z, 0 ≤ ai < pi for i = 1, 2, . . .

(b) ai ≡ ai+1 (mod pi ) for i = 1, 2, . . .

1.4. THE FIELD OF p-ADIC NUMBERS Qp 17

sequence {ai } satisfying (a) and (b). For every j = 1, 2, . . . let N (j) be a

positive integer such that

|bi − bi0 |p ≤ p−j , ∀i, i0 ≥ N (j).

Observe that we may take the sequence N (j) to be strictly increasing with

j, so N (j) ≥ j.

Further, note that |bi |p ≤ 1 if i ≥ N (1) because for all i0 ≥ N (1) we have

|bi |p ≤ max(|bi0 |p , |bi − bi0 |p ) ≤ max(|bi0 |p , 1/p),

and

|bi0 |p −→ |a|p ≤ 1 as i0 → ∞.

From Lemma 1.4.2, we can find integers aj , 0 ≤ aj < pj such that

1

|aj − bN (j) |p ≤ .

pj

Let us show that aj ≡ aj+1 (mod pj ) and (bi ) ∼ (aj ).

The first assertion follows since

|aj+1 − aj |p = |aj+1 − bN (j+1) + bN (j+1) − bN (j) − (aj − bN (j) )|p

≤ max(|aj+1 − bN (j+1) |p , |bN (j+1) − bN (j) |p , |aj − bN (j) |p )

≤ max(1/pj+1 , 1/pj , 1/pj ) = 1/pj ,

To prove the second assertion, take any j; then for i ≥ N (j) we have

|ai − bi |p = |ai − aj + aj − bN (j) − (bi − bN (j) )|p

≤ max(|ai − aj |p , |aj − bN (j) |p , |bi − bN (j) |p )

≤ max(1/pj , 1/pj , 1/pj ) = 1/pj .

Hence

|ai − bi |p −→ 0 as i → ∞.

Now, let us prove uniqueness. If {a0i } is a different sequence satisfying

the requirements of the theorem with ai0 6= a0i0 for some i0 , then we have

ai0 6≡ a0i0 (mod pi0 ), since both ai0 and a0i0 are between 0 and pi0 . Then it

follows from (b) that for i > i0

i.e., ai 6≡ a0i (mod pi0 ). But this means exactly that

1

|ai − a0i |p > , ∀i ≥ i0 ,

pi0

which implies that (ai ) 6∼ (a0i ).

18 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

the representative sequence given by the previous theorem in the following

way

ai = d0 + d1 p + . . . + di−1 pi−1 ,

where all the di ’s are integers in {0, 1, . . . , p−1}. Our condition (b) precisely

means that

where the “p-adic digits” d0 through di−1 are all the same as for ai . Thus a

is represented by the convergent (in the p-adic norm, of course) series

∞

X

a= dn pn ,

n=0

which can be thought of as a number, written in the base p, that extends

infinitely far to the left, or has infinitely many p-adic digits. We will write

a = . . . dn . . . d2 d1 d0

and call this the canonical p-adic expansion or canonical form of a.

If |a|p > 1, then we can multiply a by a power of p (namely by pm = |a|p )

so as to get a p-adic number a0 = apm that does satisfy |a0 |p ≤ 1.

Then we can write

∞

X

a= dn pn , (1.4.2)

n=−m

where d−m 6= 0 and bi ∈ {0, 1, 2, . . . , p − 1}, and represent the given p-adic

number a as a fraction in the base p with infinitely many p-adic digits before

the point and finitely many digits after:

this representation is called the canonical p-adic expansion of a.

Remark. The uniqueness assertion in Theorem 1.4.3 is something we

do not have in the Archimedian case: e.g.

1.0000 · · · = 0.9999 . . . .

There are no such exceptions in the p-adic case. If two p-adic expansions

converge to the same p-adic number, they are the same, i.e., all their digits

are the same.

Definition 1.4.4. A p-adic number a ∈ Qp is said to be a p-adic integer

if its canonical expansion contains only nonnegative powers of p.

1.4. THE FIELD OF p-ADIC NUMBERS Qp 19

( ∞

)

X

Zp = ai p i

.

i=0

vergent subsequence.

a sequence of positive integers {nk } such that n1 < n2 < n3 < . . ..

Let {xk } be a sequence in Zp . Let us write out the canonical expansion

of each term,

xk = . . . ak2 ak1 ak0 .

Since there are only finitely many possibilities for the digits ak0 (namely,

0, 1, . . . , p − 1), we can find b0 ∈ {0, 1, . . . , p − 1} and an infinite subsequence

of {xk }, {x0k } such that the last digit of x0k is always b0 . The same trick

yields b1 ∈ {0, 1, . . . , p − 1} and a subsequence {x1k } of {x0k } for which the

last two digits are b1 b0 . This procedure can be continued, and we obtain

b0 , b1 , b2 , . . . together with a sequence of sequences

...............

such that each sequence is a subsequence of the preceeding one, and such

that each element of the nth row ends with bn . . . b1 b0 . For each j = 0, 1, . . .

we have

Therefore the diagonal sequence x00 , x11 , . . . is still a subsequence of the

original sequence, and it obviously converges to . . . b3 b2 b1 b0 .

(see Exercise 31). The same theorem is true for bounded sequences of real

numbers. Do you recall a proof? Can you model a proof for a sequence of

real numbers 0 ≤ xn ≤ 1 using the representation of real numbers by infinite

decimal fractions?

20 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

Exercises

16. What is the cardinality of Zp ? Justify your answer.

17. Prove that Zp = {a ∈ Qp | |a|p ≤ 1}.

18. Find the p-adic norm and the p-adic expansion of:

(a) 15, −1, −3 in Q5

(b) 6! in Q3

(c) 1/3! in Q3

19. Find the p-adic expansion of 1/p. What about 1/pk ?

20. Find the p-adic expansion of 1/2 if p is an odd prime.

The p-adic expansion allows us to perform arithmetical operations in Qp

in the same way as in R. Moreover, we will see that the operations in Qp

are, in fact, easier to perform than in R! Let

∞

X ∞

X

a= an pn , b= bn p n ,

n=−m n=−m

where an and bn are p-adic digits, a−m 6= 0, but possibly one or more of the

first digits b−m , b−m+1 , . . . are equal to 0. Then each

∞

X

a±b= (an ± bn )pn

n=−m

is a convergent series; however, in general it will not be in the canonical

form (1.4.2). The reduction to canonical form given by (Theorem 1.4.3)

corresponds to the standard addition (or subtraction) procedure from right

to left applied to p-adic numbers given in the form (1.4.3), and uses a system

of carries (similar to the one used for decimal fractions).

In order to illustrate the addition algorithm, let us find the canonical

p-adic expansion of −1 in Qp . We have 1 = . . . 00001. Let a = . . . a3 a2 a1 a0

satisfy 1 + a = 0 (then a = −1). Starting from the right, we must have

1 + a0 = 0, but since a0 is in the range {0, 1, . . . , p − 1}, the only way to

achieve this is to have 1 + a0 = p, and carry 1 to the left. Thus a0 = p − 1.

Continuing the procedure, we see that all the an are equal to p − 1, i.e.,

Multiplication can be performed in a similar way. Let

∞

X ∞

X

a= an pn , b= bn p n

n=−m n=−k

be given in canonical form. Multiplying the series term by term and rear-

ranging terms, we obtain

1.5. ARITHMETICAL OPERATIONS IN Qp 21

∞

X

ab = un p n ,

n=−m−k

where

u−m−k = a−m b−k ,

u−m−k+1 = a−m+1 b−k + a−m b−k+1 ,

............

This series again in general is not in canonical form, but the method of

Theorem 1.4.3 allows us to reduce it to such a form. Again, this corresponds

to the standard multiplication procedure performed on p-adic numbers given

in the canonical form (1.4.3).

To illustrate division, suppose we have a, b ∈ Qp and b 6= 0. Without

loss of generality we may assume that b ∈ Zp , b = . . . b2 b1 b0 with b0 6= 0,

while

a = . . . a3 a2 a1 a0 .a−1 . . . a−k

is an arbitrary p-adic number. Since b0 6= 0 and since the ring of residues

Z/pZ for a prime p is a field, we can always find a c−k ∈ {0, 1, . . . , p − 1}

such that c−k b0 ≡ a−k (mod p). Continuing the usual division procedure

(carrying, if necessary, 1 to the left), we obtain the quotient a/b in canonical

form.

It follows that if a = . . . a2 a1 a0 is a p-adic integer with a0 6= 0, then

its multiplicative inverse 1/a is also ... a p-adic integer! (This property of

p-adic integers may seem weird at first glance, but it is admittedly a nice

one to have.) On the other hand, since

∞

X

p· ai pi = a0 p + a1 p2 + · · · =

6 1 + 0p + 0p2 + . . . ,

i=0

it follows that p has no multiplicative inverse in Zp (of course, p has a

multiplicative inverse in Qp (Exercise 19)!). A similar argument shows that

a p-adic integer whose last digit a0 is zero has no multiplicative inverse in

Zp . We summarize this in the following proposition.

Proposition 1.5.1. A p-adic integer

a = . . . a1 a0 ∈ Zp

has a multiplicative inverse in Zp if and only if a0 6= 0.

We will denote the group of invertible elements in Zp by Z×

p,

(∞ )

X

Z×

p = ai p | a0 6= 0 .

i

i=1

This group is also called the group of p-adic units. By Exercise 21,

Z×

p = {x ∈ Zp | |x|p = 1}.

22 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

The following proposition follows at once from the definition of the p-adic

norm and Exercise 21.

Proposition 1.5.2. Let x be a p-adic number of norm p−n . Then x can

be written as the product x = pn u, where u ∈ Z×

p.

metical operations on natural numbers (written in base p). The familiar

algorithms are simply pursued indefinitely.

Here are some examples of arithmetical operations in Q7 :

. . . 263 × . . . 154 = . . . 455

. . . 30.2 − . . . 56.4 = . . . 40.5

. . . 421 : . . . 153 = . . . 615.

Exercises

21. Prove that Z×p = {x ∈ Zp | |x|p = 1}.

22. If a ∈ Qp has the canonical p-adic expansion

. . . an . . . a2 a1 a0 .a−1 . . . a−m ,

what is the canonical p-adic expansion of −a?

23. The integers 2,3,4 are invertible in Z5 . Find the 5-adic expansions of

their inverses. Find the expansion of 1/3 in Z7 .

24. Find the canonical p-adic expansion of:

(a) . . . 1246 × . . . 6003 in Q7 to 4 digits

(b) 1 : . . . 1323 in Q5 to 4 digits

(c) 900 − . . . 312.3 in Q11 to 4 digits

25. Find the p-adic norm of pn !.

26.* Find the p-adic norm of n!.

Any rational integer is also a p-adic integer (simply write its expansion

in base p). However, there are p-adic integers among rational fractions! We

have seen that

∞

X

−1 = (p − 1) pi ,

i=0

so that

∞

X 1 1

pi = , = . . . 1111,

i=0

1−p 1−p

which is in Zp . Note that the p-adic expansion of this p-adic integer is

infinite! See Exercise 27(a) for necessary and sufficient conditions for a p-

adic expansion to terminate.

1.6. THE p-ADIC EXPANSION OF RATIONAL NUMBERS 23

their p-adic expansion just like we recognize rationals among reals by their

decimal expansion.

Theorem 1.6.1. A canonical p-adic expansion (1.4.3) represents a ra-

tional number if and only if it is eventually periodic to the left.

Proof. Multiplying (if necessary) the given p-adic number x by a power

of p and subtracting a rational number, we may consider the case in which

x ∈ Zp has a periodic expansion of the form

The number a = x0 + x1 p + x2 p2 + · · · + xk−1 pk−1 is a rational integer and

x can be expressed as follows

1

a(1 + pk + p2k + . . . ) = a ,

1 − pk

hence a is a rational number. Conversely, suppose that

a X

= xi p i ∈ Z p .

b i≥0

We may assume that a and b are relatively prime integers and b is relatively

prime to p. Let us write out the p-adic expansion of a/b:

a

= x0 + x1 p + x2 p2 + · · · + xn−1 pn−1 + . . . ,

b

and let An = x0 + x1 p + x2 p2 + · · · + xn−1 pn−1 , 0 ≤ An ≤ pn − 1. Since An

is a rational integer, we have

a rn

= An + pn ,

b b

where rn is an integer. Hence rn = (a − An b)/pn , and therefore

a − (pn − 1)b a

≤ rn ≤ n .

pn p

For sufficiently large n, this implies −b ≤ rn ≤ 0, which means that rn takes

only finitely many values. Now we can write

rn rn+1 rn+1

x = An + pn = An+1 + pn+1 = An + xn pn + pn+1 .

b b b

This implies rn = xn b + prn+1 for all n. Since rn takes only finitely many

values, there exist an index m and a positive integer P such that rm = rm+P ,

hence

so that

(xm − xm+P )b = p(rm+P +1 − rm+1 ).

24 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

xm+P are digits in {0, 1, . . . , p − 1}, therefore xm = xm+P . If we substitute

this into (1.6.1), we also see that rm+1 = rm+P +1 . Repeating this argument,

we obtain

which proves that not only the sequence of digits xn , but also the sequence

of numerators rn , has a period of length P for n ≥ m.

Is it possible to determine from a p-adic expansion of a rational number

whether it is positive or negative? The answer is YES, and it is given in

Exercise 28.

Exercises

27. Prove that

(a) Zp ∩ Q = {a/b ∈ Q : p 6 | b},

(b) Z×

p ∩ Q = {a/b ∈ Q : p 6 | ab}.

28.* Let r ∈ Q. Prove that for an appropriate k ≥ 1, the p-adic expansion

of rpk can be represented in the form . . . aaaaab., where the fragments a and

b have the same number of digits. Prove that r > 0 is equivalent to b > a

in the usual sense (as integers written in base p).

29. Prove that the p-adic expansion of a ∈ Qp terminates (i.e., ai = 0

for all i greater than some N ) if and only if a is a positive rational number

whose denominator is a power of p.

√

Let us extract 6 in Q5 ; this means we want to find a sequence of 5-adic

digits a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , 0 ≤ ai ≤ 4, such that

From (1.7.1) we obtain a20 ≡ 1 (mod 5), which implies a0 = 1 or 4.

If a0 = 1, then

At the next step we have

1 + 1 × 5 ≡ (1 + 3 × 5 + a2 × 52 )2 ≡ 1 + 1 × 5 + 2a2 × 52 (mod 53 ) ,

which implies 2a2 ≡ 0 (mod 5) and therefore a2 = 0.

So, we get a series

a = 1 + 3 × 5 + 0 × 52 + . . . ,

where each ai after a0 is uniquely determined.

1.7. HENSEL’S LEMMA AND CONGRUENCES 25

−a = 4 + 1 × 5 + 4 × 52 + 0 × 53 + . . .

It is not very difficult to see that there exist numbers in Q5 which have

no square root (for example 2 + 1 × 5).

The above method of solving equations (like x2 −6 = 0 in Q5 ) can be gen-

eralized by using an extremely important result called “Hensel’s Lemma”.

Generalizing Remark 2 preceding Proposition 1.4.1, we say that a and

b ∈ Qp are congruent mod pn and write

a≡b (mod pn )

be a polynomial whose coefficients are p-adic integers. Let

F (a0 ) ≡ 0 (mod p) and F 0 (a0 ) 6≡ 0 (mod p). Then there exists a unique

p-adic integer a such that F (a) = 0 and a ≡ a0 (mod p).

p-adic expansion a = b0 + b1 p + b2 p2 + . . . inductively. At the k-th step of

induction, we will find ak = b0 + · · · + bk pk , the k-th approximation of a, by

using a p-adic version of Newton’s method (cf. the remark at the end of this

proof). Each ak will not be a true root of F (x), but only a “root modulo

pk+1 ” (i.e., we will have F (ak ) ≡ 0 (mod pk+1 )) for all k. In the limit as

k → ∞ we will obtain a, the required true root of F .

More precisely, we will prove the following statement by induction on k:

S(k): for any n ≥ 0 there exists a p-adic integer of the form

ak = b0 + b1 p = · · · + bk pk

The base of induction is obvious: taking b0 equal to the first p-adic digit

of a0 , we will have a0 ≡ a0 and F (a0 ) ≡ 0 (mod p).

Now let us perform the induction step, i.e., prove that S(k − 1) implies

S(k). To do this, we set ak = ak−1 + bk pk for some (as yet unknown) digit

bk satisfying 0 ≤ bk < p and expand F (ak ), ignoring terms divisible by pk+1 :

26 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

X

n

F (ak ) = F (ak−1 + bk pk ) = ci (ak−1 + bk )i =

i=0

X

n

= ci (aik−1 + iai−1 k k

k−1 b p + terms divisible by p

k+1

)

i=0

≡ F (ak−1 ) + bk pk F 0 (ak−1 ) (mod p).

Since F (ak−1 ) ≡ 0 (mod pk ) by the inductive assumption, we can write

F (ak ) ≡ αk pk + bk pk F 0 (ak−1 ) (mod p)

for some integer αk ∈ {0, 1, . . . , p − 1}. Thus we come to the following

equation for the unknown digit bk ,

which we can easily solve provided F 0 (ak−1 ) 6≡ 0 (mod p). But this is indeed

the case because we obviously have ak−1 ≡ a0 (mod p), so that

Dividing by F 0 (ak−1 ), we can find the required digit bk ,

−αk

bk = (mod p)

F 0 (ak−1 )

for which we will have F (ak ) ≡ 0 (mod pk+1 ), completing the induction

step.

Now, let

a = a0 + b1 p + b2 p2 + . . . .

Observe that F (a) = 0 since for all k we have

F (a) ≡ F (an ) ≡ 0 (mod pk+1 ).

The uniqueness of a follows from the uniqueness of the sequence {ak }.

Remark. In Newton’s method in the real case, if f 0 (an−1 ) 6= 0, we take

f (an−1 )

an = an−1 − .

f 0 (an−1 )

The correction term looks very much like the “correction term” in the proof

of Hensel’s lemma:

αn pn F (an−1 )

bn pn ≡ − 0 ≡− 0 (mod pn+1 ).

F (an−1 ) F (an−1 )

In one respect, however, Hensel’s Lemma is much better than Newton’s

method in the real case: the convergence to a root of the polynomial is

guaranteed in the p-adic case. In the real case, Newton’s method does not

always converge, it converges only for “fortunate” choices. For example, for

1.7. HENSEL’S LEMMA AND CONGRUENCES 27

√ √

x3 − x and the unfortuante choice a0 = 1/ 5, we get a1 = −1/ 5,

f (x) = √

a2 = 1/ 5, etc.

Let us recall that in Theorem 1.4.3 the canonical expansion of p-adic

numbers came out of a sequence of congruences. Hensel’s lemma confirms

this connection. The following theorem makes the connection between p-adic

numbers and congruences even more obvious.

Theorem 1.7.2. A polynomial with integer coefficients has a root in Zp

if and only if it has an integer root modulo pk for any k ≥ 1.

Proof. Let F (x) be a polynomial with coefficients in Z. Suppose a ∈ Zp

is its root, i.e.,

F (a) = 0. (1.7.2)

By Theorem 1.4.3 there exists a sequence of integers {a1 , a2 , . . . , ak , . . .} such

that

a ≡ ak (mod pk ) (ak = b0 + b1 p + b2 p2 + · · · + bk−1 pk−1 ).

Then F (ak ) ≡ F (a) (mod pk ) and F (a) = 0 imply

F (ak ) ≡ 0 (mod pk ). (1.7.3)

Conversely, suppose the congruence (1.7.3) has an integer solution ak

for any k ≥ 1. According to Theorem 1.4.5, the sequence {ak } contains a

convergent subsequence {aki }, limi→∞ aki = a. We want to show that a is

a solution of equation (1.7.2). Since a polynomial is a continuous function,

we have

F (a) = lim F (aki )

i→∞

(here we just use the fact that the limit of the sum is the sum of the limits

and the limit of the product is the product of limits, i.e., Theorem 1.3.5).

On the other hand,

F (aki ) ≡ 0 (mod pki ).

Therefore limi→∞ F (aki ) = 0, and thus F (a) = 0.

A practical consequence of Theorem 1.7.2 is the following. If a polyno-

mial with integer coefficients has no roots modulo p, then it has no roots in

Zp . It is usually not too hard to find its roots modulo p if it has any. If

a root modulo p is not a root of the derivative modulo p, then by Hensel’s

lemma, we can find a root in Zp .

The second condition (F 0 (a0 ) ≡ 0 (mod p)) in Theorem 1.7.1 is essential

(see Exercise 30.

We say that a rational integer a not divisible by p is called a quadratic

residue modulo p if the congruence

x2 ≡ a (mod p)

has a solution in {1, 2, . . . , p − 1}. Otherwise a is called a quadratic non-

residue.

28 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

root in Zp (p 6= 2) if and only if a is a quadratic residue modulo p.

Proof. Let P (x) = x2 − a, P 0 (x) = 2x. If a is a quadratic residue, then

a ≡ a20 (mod p)

for some a0 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , p − 1}. Hence P (a0 ) ≡ 0 (mod p). But

P 0 (a0 ) = 2a0 6≡ 0 (mod p)

automatically since (a0 , p) = 1, so that the solution in Zp exists by Hensel’s

lemma. Conversely, if a is a quadratic nonresidue, by Theorem 1.7.2 it has

no square root in Zp .

√

For example

√ −1 is in Z5 since −1+5 = 4 is a quadratic residue modulo

5, while −1 is not in Z3 since −1 + 3 = 2 is a quadratic nonresidue modulo

3.

√

Is p in Zp ?

Exercises

30. Construct a polynomial with integer coefficients which has a root

modulo 2, but no roots in Q2 .

31. Prove that any infinite bounded sequence in Qp has a convergent sub-

sequence.

32. Prove that if p 6= 2, a p-adic unit

u = c0 + c1 p + c2 p2 + . . .

is a square in Zp if and only if c0 is a quadratic residue modulo p.

33. Prove that the equation x3 − 1 = 0 has a solution a 6= 1 in Z7 and find

the first 3 digits in its canonical expansion.

34. Prove that the equation x5 − 1 = 0 has no solution a 6= 1 in Q7 . You

must explain why such roots of unity must be in Zp , not merely in Qp !

The Ostrowski Theorem.

We have seen that the field Q admits the p-adic norm | · |p for each prime

p, as well as the ordinary absolute value | · | (which is sometimes denoted by

| · |∞ for p = ∞, also referred to as the infinite prime). We shall prove now

that there are no other norms on Q, and hence the only completions of Q

are Qp for all prime p and R = Q∞ .

Theorem 1.8.1. (Ostrowski’s Theorem). Every nontrivial norm || · ||

on Q is equivalent to | · |p for some prime p or for p = ∞.

1.8. OSTROWSKI THEOREM 29

Proof. Suppose first that k·k is Archimedian, i.e., there exists a positive

integer n such that ||n|| > 1, and let n0 be the least such n. Then we can

write ||n0 || = nα0 for some positive real number α.

Now, write any positive integer n to the base n0 , i.e., in the form

n = a0 + a1 n0 + a2 n20 + . . . + as ns0 ,

where 0 ≤ ai < n0 , i = 0, . . . s, and as 6= 0. Then

||n|| ≤||a0 || + ||a1 n0 || + ||a2 n20 || + . . . + ||as ns0 ||

=||a0 || + ||a1 ||nα0 + ||a2 ||n2α

0 + . . . + ||as ||n0 .

sα

Since all of the digits ai are less than n0 (by our choice of n0 ), we have

||ai || ≤ 1, and hence

knk ≤ 1 + nα0 + n2α sα

0 + . . . + n0

−α −2α

≤ nsα

0 (1 + n0 + n0 + . . . + n−sα

0 )

∞

!

X 1 i

≤n α

,

i=0

nα0

because n ≥ ns0 . The expression in brackets is a finite constant independent

of n, which we call C. Thus

knk ≤ Cnα for all n = 1, 2, . . .

The same argument with nN in place of n yields

√

knN k ≤ CnN α ⇒ knk ≤ Cnα .

N

knk ≤ nα . (1.8.1)

Let us prove the opposite inequality. First, observe that

ns+1

0 > n ≥ ns0 .

Since

(s+1)α

n0 = kns+1

0 k = kn + n0

s+1

− nk ≤ knk + kns+1

0 − nk,

we have

(s+1)α

knk ≥ kns+1

0 k − kn0

s+1

− nk ≥ n0 − (ns+1

0 − n)α ,

because

kns+1

0 − nk ≤ (ns+1

0 − n)α

as was proved above. Thus

(s+1)α

||n|| ≥ n0 − (ns+1

0 − ns0 )α (since n ≥ ns0 )

1

[1 − (1 − )α ] = C 0 n0 ≥ C 0 nα

(s+1)α (s+1)α

= n0

n0

for some positive constant C 0 that does not depend on n.

30 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

As before, we now use this inequality for nN , take N th roots, and let

N → ∞, obtaining

||n|| ≥ nα . (1.8.2)

From (1.8.1) and (1.8.2), we deduce that ||n|| = nα for all n ∈ N. Using

property (2) of norms, we readily see that ||x|| = |x|α for all x ∈ Q. In view

of Proposition 1.2.6, we can conclude that such a norm is equivalent to the

absolute value | · |.

Now suppose that k · k is non-Archimedian, i.e., we have ||n|| ≤ 1 for all

positive integers n. Because we have assumed that || · || is nontrivial, we can

find n0 , the least n such that ||n|| < 1. Observe that n0 must be a prime

number, because if n0 = n1 n2 , with n1 , n2 < n0 , then ||n1 || = ||n2 || = 1,

and so ||n0 || = ||n1 || ||n2 || = 1. Denote the prime number n0 by p.

Next, we will prove that if n is not divisible by p, then knk = 1. Write

n = rp + s with 0 < s < p. By the minimality of p, ksk = 1. We also have

krpk < 1 since kpk < 1 (by choice) and krk ≤ 1 (by the non-Archimedian

property). Consequently,

kn − sk < ksk.

and by Proposition 1.2.10, knk = ksk = 1. Finally, given any n ∈ Z, we can

write n = pv n0 , where p does not divide n0 . Hence

knk = kpkv kn0 k = kpkv .

Let ρ = kpk < 1. Then ρ = (1/p)α for some positive real α. Therefore

knk = |n|αp .

Now, it is easy to show (using property (2) of the norm) that the same

formula holds with any nonzero rational number x in place of a. In view of

Proposition 1.2.6, we have || · || ∼ | · |p and this concludes the proof of the

theorem.

Proposition 1.8.2. (Product Formula.) Let Q× = Q − {0}. For any

x ∈ Q× we have Y

|x|p = 1,

p≤∞

where the product is taken over all primes of Q including the “prime at

infinity”.

Proof. It is sufficient to prove this formula when x is a positive integer,

the rest follows from the multiplicative property of the norm. So, suppose

that x = pa11 ·pa22 · · · pakk . Then |x|q = 1 if q 6= pi , |x|pi = p−a

i

i

for i = 1, . . . , k,

a1 a2 ak

and |x| = p1 · p2 · · · pk . The result follows.

The product formula establishes a close relationship between the norms

on Q. For instance, if we know the values of all but one norm, this allows

to recover the value of the missing one. This is very important in many

applications to algebraic geometry.

1.9. A DIGRESSION: WHAT ABOUT Qg IF g IS NOT A PRIME? 31

are roots in Q, then there are roots in R and in all Qp . Hence we can

certainly conclude that there are no rational roots if there is some p ≤ ∞

for which there are no p-adic roots (again, “∞-adic” means “real”). More

interesting would be a converse statement, but if we have p-adic roots for all

p including ∞, does it follow that we have a rational root? Here is a simple

example when such a converse statement holds.

Proposition 1.8.3. A number x ∈ Q is a square if and only if it is a

square in every Qp , p ≤ ∞.

Proof. For any x ∈ Q× we have

Y

x=± pordp (x) .

p<∞

u ∈ Z× (Proposition 1.5.2). If x is a square in Qp , then ordp (x) must be

even and u = v 2 for some unit v ∈ Z× . If we write out the factorization, we

see that x is a square in Q.

This is a manifestation of the so-called Global-to-Local Principle, which

asserts that the existence or nonexistence of solutions in Q (global solutions)

of a Diophantine equation can be detected by studying, for each p ≤ ∞,

the solutions in Qp (local solutions). Unfortunately, this principle is not

universal, but it holds in some important cases, for instance for quadratic

forms in several variables (Hasse-Minkowski Theorem).

Exercises

35. Two fields F and K are called isomorphic if there exists a map

ϕ : F → K such that

ϕ(a + b) = ϕ(a) + ϕ(b), ϕ(a · b) = ϕ(a) · ϕ(b).

(a) Prove that Qp and R are not isomorphic.

(b)* Prove that if p 6= q are two primes, then Qp and Qq are not

isomorphic.

36. Let p 6= 2 be a prime. Denote (Q× ×

p ) = {a | a ∈ Qp }. Prove that

2 2

p /(Qp ) has order 4, and find a complete set of coset

representatives for it.

In order to fully appreciate the beauty of p-adic numbers, let us see what

happens if we use a nonprime number g instead. In order to use the formula

(1.4.1) to define | · |g , we have to be a little more careful in the definition of

ordg (x) for a rational number a. If x ∈ Z, ordg (x) is still the highest power

of g which divides x. If x = a/b, the definition is different from the case in

which g is prime g = p, and in order to give it, we need the following lemma.

32 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

unique integer v and a pair of integers a0 and b0 such that a/b = gv a0 /b0 ,

g - a0 , (a0 , b0 ) = (g, b0 ) = 1.

Proof. Obviously, if g - a and (g, b) = 1, then we can choose v = 0.

If g|a, denote by gφ , where φ ≥ 1, the highest power of g that divides a.

Putting a0 = ag−φ and b0 = b, we will have g - a0 and (a0 , b0 ) = (g, b0 ) = 1,

and further

a a0

= gφ 0 ,

b b

proving the assertion for v = φ > 0.

Now assume that g - a and (g, b) > 1. Then b can be factored as b = b1 b2 ,

(b1 , b2 > 0) so that all prime factors of b1 divide g and (b2 , g) = 1. Similarly,

g can be written as g = g1 g2 (g1 , g2 > 0) so that all prime factors of g1

divide b1 , but (g2 , b1 ) = (g2 , b) = 1. There is a smallest positive integer ψ

such that b1 |gψ and hence also b1 |g1ψ . In the equation

a gψ gψ

gψ = 1 2 r,

b b1 b2

the quotient g1ψ /b1 is an integer. Therefore if we put

g1ψ ψ

a0 = g r and b 0 = b2 ,

b1 2

we obtain

a a0

= g−ψ 0 , g - a0 , (a0 , b0 ) = (g, b0 ) = 1,

b b

proving the assertion for v = −ψ > 0.

Now for x = a/b, we define ordg (x) to be the integer v from Lemma 1.9.1,

and define the corresponding norm as |a/b|g = g−v , This norm, however, will

not satisfy the multiplicative property (2) of Definition 1.2.1. For example,

1 1 1 1 1

= 10 ,

2

= 10 , but · =

2 = 103 < 102 · 102 .

20 50 20 50 10 1000 10

10 10

But, of course, if g = p is a prime, then this definition coincides with Defi-

nition 1.4.1.

In general

|ab|g ≤ |a|g |b|g , (1.9.1)

and | · |g is not a norm but a so-called pseudo-norm (see Exercise 37). Nev-

ertheless, d(x, y) = |x − y|g is still a distance function, and one can consider

the completion of Q with respect to this distance. Denoted by Qg , it is a

ring but not a field if g is not prime (see Exercise 38).

The following theorem is due to Hensel:

Theorem 1.9.2. If g = p1 p2 . . . pk is a product of distinct primes, then

Qg = Qp1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Qpk , the direct sum of p-adic fields.

1.9. A DIGRESSION: WHAT ABOUT Qg IF g IS NOT A PRIME? 33

p1 = 2, p2 = 5, but the general case is handled similarly without any com-

plications.

Consider a Cauchy sequence in Q relative to k · k10 . It defines a 10-adic

number

(10)

A = lim an ,

n→∞

and the existence of 10-adic limit implies the existence of 2-adic and 5-adic

limits which we denote by

(2) (5)

A2 = lim an , A5 = lim an ,

n→∞ n→∞

implies that of A. It is easy to see that the digits of A2 and A5 do not

depend on the Cauchy sequence {an } by means of which A was defined.

In particular, if A ∈ Q10 , it can be canonically expanded

∞

X

A= bn 10n . (1.9.2)

n=−f

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

n n n n n n

A2 = (bn 5 )2 = c 2 , A5 = (bn 2 )5 = dn 2n ,

n=−f n=−f n=−f n=−f

obtained by reduction to canonical form (Theorem 1.4.3). Thus we have

A = hA2 , A5 i, and from the rules for the sum, difference, and product of

g-adic and p-adic limits, we see that if B = hB2 , B5 i is a second 10-adic

number with B2 ∈ Q2 and B5 ∈ Q5 (the sum, difference and product are

defined componentwise).

Conversely, let A2 ∈ Q2 and A5 ∈ Q5 be arbitrary. We will show that

(p)

there exists an A ∈ Q10 such that A = hA2 , A5 i. For p = 2, 5, let {an } be

a sequence of rational numbers such that

n in k · kp .

Ap = lim a(p)

n→∞

(p)

There is no reason why the sequence {an } should converge in k·kq for q 6= p,

and it may not even be bounded relative to k · kq . In order to overcome this

difficulty, we consider the sequences

5n 2n

e(2)

n = , e(5)

n = .

2n + 5n 2n + 5n

It is easy to see that

(

1 if p=q

lim e(p) = δpq in k · kq , where δpq =

n→∞ n 0 if p 6= q.

34 1. CONSTRUCTION OF p-ADIC NUMBERS

(p)

It follows that there is an infinite subsequence ern such that

(

(q) Ap if p=q

lim a(p) e(p) =

n→∞ n rn 0 if p 6= q.

Hence

(10) (10)

n ern = hA2 , 0i, and lim an ern = h0, A5 i.

lim a(2) (2) (5) (5)

n→∞ n→∞

(2) (2) (5) (5)

Finally, we see that the sequence an = an ern + an ern converges to

hA2 , A5 i = A.

Exercises

37. Prove that if g is not a prime, then |·| is a pseudo-norm, i.e., it satisfies

(1) and (3) of Definition 1.2.1 and (1.9.1).

38. Prove that Q10 is not a field by displaying zero divisors.

39. * Look at the following sequence of integers:

6, 76, 376, 9376, 109376 . . .

(a) Prove that it can be continued in a unique way to obtain a 10-adic

integer α = . . . 109376 such that α2 = α.

(b) Prove that the equation x2 = x has 4 solutions in Z10 , namely

0, 1, α and β.

(c) Find the last 6 digits of β.

(d) Deduce that Z10 ≈ Z5 ⊕ Z2 (direct product of groups).

40. Prove that there is no relation of order > on Qp possessing the following

properties:

(a) if x > y, then z + x > z + y for any z;

(b) if x > 0 and y > 0, then xy > 0;

(c) if xn > 0 and the limit exists limn→∞ xn = x exists, then x ≥ 0.

CHAPTER 2

The field of p-adic numbers in many ways is analogous to the field of real

numbers: it is a normed field, and it is complete with respect to the metric

given by the p-adic norm (Theorem 1.3.4). Both R and Qp are completions

of Q, both contain Q as a dense subset, and hence are separable. The field R

is locally compact, i.e., each point is contained in a compact neighborhood,

and so is Qp , as we shall see shortly (Theorem 2.1.8).

Let us first examine the basic notions and theorems which hold for both

R and Qp by the token of both being metric spaces. An open ball in R is

an open interval B(a, r) = |x − a| < r. Open intervals form the base of the

induced topology in R.

The notion of open ball of radius r ∈ R+ centered at a ∈ M can be

defined in every metric space (M, d) by setting

B(a, r) = {x ∈ M | d(a, x) < r}.

In Qp the open balls are the sets

B(a, r) = {x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p < r},

and since the p-adic norm has a discrete set of values, namely {0, pn | n ∈ Z},

we need only consider balls of radii r = pn , where n ∈ Z.

Let us recall that in a metric space M , a set A ⊂ M is called open if

for any x ∈ M there exists an open ball B(a, r) ⊂ M containing x. A set

A ⊂ M is called closed if its complement X − M is open.

Let us first consider the sphere in Qp :

S(a, r) = {x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p = r}.

Here a surprise lies in store for us.

Proposition 2.1.1. The sphere S(a, r) is an open set in Qp .

Proof. Let x ∈ S(a, r), < r. We will show that B(x, ) ⊂ S(a, r).

Let y ∈ B(x, ). Then |x − y|p < |x − a|p = r, and by Proposition 1.2.10

|y − a|p = |x − a|p = r, which exactly means that y ∈ B(a, r).

This is very strange since in Rn (in particular in R) the spheres are

certainly not open sets! Let us see what this strange property implies.

Proposition 2.1.2. The balls in Qp are both open and closed.

35

36 2. TOPOLOGY OF Qp VERSUS THAT OF R

Proof. Any ball B(a, r) is open in every metric space, since any point

x ∈ B(a, r) is in B(a, r), which is contained in B(a, r). In order to prove

that B(a, r) is closed in Qp , we will show that its complement,

C = {x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p ≥ r}

is open. But C = S(a, r) ∪ D, where

D = {x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p > r}.

The set D is open (this is true in every metric space). To see that, let y ∈ D.

Then |y − a|p = r1 > r. We claim that the open ball B(y, r1 − r) is contained

in D. Indeed, if it were not, then there would be an x ∈ B(y, r1 − r) such

that |x − a|p ≤ r. But

r1 = |y − a|p = |a − x + x − y|p ≤ |a − x|p + |x − y|p < r + r1 − r = r1 ,

a contradiction. The proposition now follows because the union of two open

sets is open.

Now let us recall that a point x ∈ M is a boundary point of a set A ⊂ M

if any open ball centered in x contains points that are in A and points that

are not in A, and a set A is closed iff it contains all its boundary points. It

follows from the definition that S(a, r) IS NOT a boundary of the open ball

B(a, r)! Proposition 2.1.2 immediately implies that B(a, r) has no boundary

at all! And, of course, the closed ball

(2.1.1)

={x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p < pn+1 } = B(a, pn+1 ).

is not the closure of the open ball B(a, pn )!

It follows from (2.1.1) that all statements proved above for open balls

hold for closed balls in Qp .

Here is another paradoxical property of balls in Qp . It was in the home-

work (Exercise 11), but we will give the proof here for the sake of complete-

ness.

Proposition 2.1.3. If b ∈ B(a, r), then B(b, r) = B(a, r), in other

words, every point of a ball is its center.

Proof. Let x ∈ B(b, r). Then by our assumption,

|a − b|p < r, |b − x|p < r,

and therefore by the strong triangle inequality,

|a − x|p = |(a − b) + (b − x)|p ≤ max(|a − b|p , |b − x|p ) < r,

hence B(b, r) ⊂ B(a, r). Since the condition |a−b|p < r for b to lie in B(a, r)

is identical with that for a to lie in B(b, r), we also obtain B(a, r) ⊂ B(b, r),

proving that the two balls coincide.

Here is an additional property of balls in Qp .

2.1. ELEMENTARY TOPOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 37

contained in the other, i.e.,

B(a, r) ∩ B(b, s) 6= ∅ ⇒ B(a, r) ⊂ B(b, s) or B(a, r) ⊃ B(b, s).

Proof. Let us assume that r ≤ s, and y ∈ B(a, r) ∩ B(b, s). Then by

Proposition 2.1.3, we have B(a, r) = B(y, r) and B(b, s) = B(y, s). But

B(y, r) ⊂ B(y, s), and the required inclusion follows.

Proposition 2.1.5. The sphere S(a, r) is both open and closed.

Proof. We know already (Proposition 2.1.1) that S(a, r) is open. We

know also that B(a, r) is closed, and since B(a, r) is also open, its comple-

ment, {x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p ≥ r} is closed. But S(a, r) is the intersection of

these two closed sets, and as such is closed.

The set of all balls in R is not countable since the set of all positive real

numbers is not countable (Cantor’s Theorem); the same is true for the set

of centers a and the set of radii ρ, so it is true all the more for the set of all

balls B(a, ρ) in R. A completely different result holds for the set of all balls

in Qp .

Proposition 2.1.6. The set of all balls in Qp is countable.

Proof. Write the center of the ball B(a, p−s ) in its canonical form

∞

X

a= an pn ,

n=−m

and let

X

s

a0 = an pn .

n=−m

Clearly, a0 is a rational number, and |a − a0 |p < p−s , i.e. a0 ∈ B(a, p−s ).

Then by Proposition 2.1.3

B(a0 , p−s ) = B(a, p−s ).

Here both the centers and the radii come from countable sets. Therefore

the product set of all pairs (a0 , s) is also countable and so is the set of all

balls in Qp .

Definition 2.1.7. A set K in a metric space is called sequentially com-

pact if every infinite sequence of points in K contains a subsequence con-

verging to a point in K.

According to Heine-Borel Theorem, for metric spaces this property is

equivalent to compactness. (Recall that a set K is called compact if any

open cover of K contains a finite subcover.)

We have already seen (Theorem 1.4.5) that Zp is sequentially compact.

Therefore Zp is compact, and so is any ball in Qp by Exercise 31. This

implies the following result:

38 2. TOPOLOGY OF Qp VERSUS THAT OF R

We also have the following unexpected statement.

Proposition 2.1.9. The space Zp is complete.

Proof. Since any Cauchy sequence in Zp contains a subsequence con-

verging to an element in Zp , say a, the sequence itself must converge to a.

This proves the completeness of Zp

Theorem 2.1.10. The set Z is dense in Zp .

Proof. Let x = . . . a2 a1 a0 ∈ Zp . For each n ∈ N, set

X

n

xn = . . . 00an an−1 . . . a0 = ai pi .

i=0

Definition 2.1.11. A topological space X is said to be zero-dimensional

if for any a ∈ X and any neighborhood U of a (i.e., any ball centered at a)

there is a set V , a ∈ V ⊂ U which is both open and closed.

Definition 2.1.12. A topological space X is called disconnected if one

can find two open sets U and V such that U ∩V = ∅, X = (X ∩U )∪(X ∩V )

and neither X ∩U nor X ∩V is empty. A set X which cannot be decomposed

this way is called connected. A set X is called totally disconnected if the only

connected subsets of X are the empty set and the points {a}, (a ∈ X).

Any interval in R are connected, i.e., it cannot be decomposed in a

disjoint union of two nonempty sets both of which are open and closed.

Theorem 2.1.13. The topology on Qp is zero-dimensional and Qp is

totally disconnected.

Proof. For each a ∈ Qp and each n ∈ N the set

Un (a) = {x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p ≤ p−n } = {x ∈ Qp | |x − a|p < p−n+1 }

is an open and closed neighborhood of a. Hence in its topology the space

Qp is zero-dimensional. Suppose a ∈ A so that A 6= {a}. Then there is an

n ∈ N such that Un (a) ∩ A 6= A. Therefore,

A = (Un (a) ∩ A) ∪ (Qp − Un (a) ∩ A),

where both Un (a) and its complement Qp − Un (a) are open and nonempty;

this implies that A is not connected.

Let us return to the multiplicative group Q×

p of the field Qp . We have

× ×

seen (Exercise 36) that if p 6= 2 then Qp /(Qp )2 has order 4 and is iso-

morphic to Z/2Z ⊕ Z/2/Z. For p = 2 the group Q× × 2

2 /(Q2 ) is isomorphic

to Z/2Z ⊕ Z/2/Z ⊕ Z/2Z ⊕ Z/2/Z and admits the set of representatives

{±1, ±5, ±2, ±10}.

2.2. ALGEBRAIC PROPERTIES OF p-ADIC INTEGERS 39

p ) of the group Qp is open in Qp .

2

x = p2n u2 for some n ∈ Z and u ∈ Z× × 2

p . Let x ∈ (Qp ) , and y ∈ Qp be

such that |x − y|p < p−2n . Then by the isosceles triangle property (see

Proposition 1.2.10), we have |y|p = |x|p = p−2n , and hence y = p2n v. Then

we have |y − x|p = p−2n |v − u2 |p < p−2n , hence |v − u2 | < 1, which means

that the two units have the same first digit. It now follows from Hensel’s

lemma that v is also a square in Zp , and so, y ∈ (Q× 2

p) .

We have already seen that the p-adic integers Zp differ in many ways

from the ordinary integers Z. Here we will see that their algebraic properties

are just as good, if not better, than those of Z.

Proposition 2.2.1. The ring Zp is an integral domain.

Proof. This follows because Zp is contained in Qp , which is a field, and

hence contains no zero divisors.

Let Fp = Z/pZ be the finite field with p elements. The map

∞

X

a= ai pi 7→ a0 (mod p)

i=0

defines a ring homomorphism called reduction mod p. This homomorphism

is surjective, and its kernel is

( ∞

) ( ∞

)

X X

{a ∈ Zp | a0 = 0} = ai p i

= p ai+1 p i

= pZp .

i=1 i=0

Since the quotient is a field, the kernel pZp is a maximal ideal of the ring

Zp .

Corollary 2.2.2. The ring Zp has a unique maximal ideal, namely,

pZp = Zp − Z×

p.

must contain an element from its complement, a ∈ Z×

p . Since I is an ideal,

−1

1 = a · a ∈ I, but then I = Zp .

Proposition 2.2.3. The ring Zp is a principal ideal domain. More

precisely, its ideals are the principal ideals {0} and pk Zp for all k ∈ N.

Proof. Let I 6= {0} be an ideal in Zp , and 0 6= a ∈ I be an element of

maximal norm (since the norm takes discrete values, such an element can

always be found). Assume that |a|p = p−k for some k ∈ N. Then a = pk ,

where is a unit. Then pk = −1 a ⊂ I, hence (pk ) = pk Zp ⊂ I. Conversely,

for any b ∈ I, |b|p = p−w ≤ p−k . We can write

b = pw 0 = pk pw−k 0 ∈ pk Zp .

40 2. TOPOLOGY OF Qp VERSUS THAT OF R

We discussed the existence of square roots in Qp in §1.7 as an application

of Hensel’s Lemma. Another application has to do with finding which roots

of unity are in Qp . Recall that an element in the field ζ is called an mth root

of unity if ζ m = 1; it is called a primitive mth root of unity if, in addition,

ζ n 6= 1 for 0 < n < m.

Proposition 2.2.4. For any prime p and any positive integer m rela-

tively prime to p, there exists a primitive mth root of unity in Qp if and only

if m|(p − 1). In the latter case, every mth root of unity is also a (p − 1)st

root of unity. The set of (p − 1)st roots of unity is a cyclic subgroup of Z×p

of order (p − 1).

Proof. Let m|(p − 1); then p − 1 = km for k ≥ 1, and therefore any

mth root of 1 is also a (p − 1st ) root of 1. Let

f (x) = xp−1 − 1, f 0 (x) = (p − 1)xp−2 .

Take x0 ∈ Z×

p to be any rational integer satisfying 1 ≤ x0 ≤ p − 1. Then

since |f 0 (x0 )|p = 1, and Hensel’s lemma applies, giving exactly p−1 solutions,

which are (p−1)st roots of 1. The first digits of these roots are 1, 2, . . . , p−1.

Conversely, if α ∈ Qp is an mth root of 1, αm = 1, we must have |α|p = 1,

i.e., α ∈ Zp . If α0 is its first digit, then αm0 ≡ 1 (mod p), hence m divides

×

p − 1, the order of (Z/pZ) . Since the polynomial xp−1 − 1 cannot have

more than p − 1 roots, these roots must be all the roots of unity in Qp . It

is clear that the roots of unity form a group under multiplication. Finally,

any finite subgroup of any field is cyclic, and so the group of (p − 1)st roots

of unity is a cyclic subgroup of Z× p of order (p − 1).

(why?) and will be discussed in §3.6.

The (p − 1)st roots of unity are related to the signum function sgnp (x)

introduced in the next theorem.

n

Theorem 2.2.5. For any x ∈ Zp the limit limn→∞ xp exists. This

limit is denoted by sgnp (x) and has the following properties:

(a) sgnp (x) depends only on the last digit in the canonical p-adic ex-

pansion of x, x0 ;

(b) sgnp (xy) = sgnp (x) · sgnp (y);

(c) sgnp (x) = 0 if x0 = 0, and is a (p − 1)th root of 1 if x0 6= 0.

Proof. Let x0 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , p − 1}. First we show that the sequence

n

{xp0 } converges. By Euler’s Theorem,

ϕ(pn )

x0 ≡1 (mod pn ),

2.2. ALGEBRAIC PROPERTIES OF p-ADIC INTEGERS 41

number of integers smaller than m and relatively prime to m. Observe that

since p is a prime, we have ϕ(pn ) = pn − pn−1 . Thus,

n −pn−1 n n−1

xp0 ≡ 1 (mod pn ), xp0 ≡ xp0 (mod pn ),

and hence n

p pn−1 1

x0 − x 0 ≤ n.

p p

n

Since 1/pn → 0 as n → ∞, the sequence {xp0 } is Cauchy, and by the

completeness of Zp , it converges to a limit in Zp , which we denote by

n

sgnp (x0 ) = limn→∞ xp0 . The limit obviously exists for x0 = 0, so sgnp (x) is

defined for x0 ∈ {0, 1, 2, . . . , p − 1}, and sgnp (0) = 0. Next we show that the

limit exists for all x ∈ Zp and is defined by the first digit x0 of x. For this

we will need the following lemma.

Lemma 2.2.6. Suppose x ∈ Zp with the first digit x0 . Then we have

|xp − xp0 |p ≤ p−1 |x − x0 |p .

Proof of the lemma. Let x = x0 + α, with |α|p ≤ p−1 . Then

! ! !

p p−1 p p−2 2 p p

x −

p

xp0 = x α+ x α + ··· + α

1 0 2 0 p

! ! ! !

p p−1 p p−2 p p−1

= (x − x0 ) x0 + x0 α + · · · + α .

1 2 p

p p−j j−1

Since | j x0 α |p ≤ p−1 for j ≥ 1, by the strong triange inequality we

obtain

|xp − xp0 |p ≤ p−1 |x − x0 |p .

Applying the lemma, we obtain

n n−1

p pn n−1

x − x0 ≤ p−1 xp − xp0 ≤ · · · ≤ p−n |x − x0 |p ,

p p

n

pn

which implies that limn→∞ x exists and is equal to limn→∞ xp0 . Thus we

have defined sgnp (x) for all x ∈ Zp , and property (a) is satisfied. Property

(b) follows from the property of limits:

n n n n n

lim (xy)p = lim (xp )(y p ) = lim xp lim y p .

n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ n→∞

It remains to show that if x0 ∈ {1, 2, . . . , p − 1}, then sgnp (x0 ) is a (p −

1)st root of 1. Using (b) and the Little Fermat Theorem (which is Euler’s

Theorem for n = p), we obtain

p−1

sgnp−1

p (x0 ) = sgnp (x0 ) = sgnp (1) = 1.

The values of sgnp (x) are thus solutions of the equation y p − y = 0. Since

Qp is a field, this equation cannot have more than p solutions in Qp , and

42 2. TOPOLOGY OF Qp VERSUS THAT OF R

hence in Zp . Consequently, the only solutions of this equation are the values

of the signum function.

Let

1 2 1 2 1 2 8

C0 = I = [0, 1], C1 = 0, ∪ , 1 , C2 = 0, ∪ , ∪ ∪ ,1 , ...

3 3 9 9 3 3 9

Cn is the union of 2n closed intervals, each of length 3−n , and

C0 ⊃ C1 ⊃ C2 ⊃ . . . . Each Cn is closed, hence

∞

\

C := Cn 6= ∅

n=0

is a closed subset of the unit interval I.

Let us represent real numbers in I = [0, 1] as infinite fractions in base 3.

Notice that all endpoints of the intervals comprising Cn have two expansions

in base 3, e.g.

2 1

= 0.02 = 0.012222 . . . , = 0.1 = 0.022222 . . . ,

9 3

and one of them does not contain the digit 1. By choosing the represen-

tation of the endpoints which contains no 1’s, we see that every point of

C can be expressed by an expansion in base 3 containing only the digits 0

and 2. Conversely, every point of I expressed by an expansion in base 3

containing digits 0 and 2 belongs to the intersection of the sets Cn : if the

first digit is 0, it belongs to [0, 0.02222 . . . ], if the first digit is 2, it belongs

to [0.2, 0.2222 . . . ], the second digit determines whether it belongs to the left

(0) or right (2) interval of C2 , etc.

We can summarize the above discussion as follows.

Proposition 2.3.1. The Cantor set C consists of all points of I that

can be represented in base 3 by the digits 0 and 2.

Clearly the Cantor set contains the (countable) collection of endpoints

of all the deleted intervals. Does it contain any other points? Yes, and in

fact lots of them, as the next statement asserts.

Proposition 2.3.2. The Cantor set C is not countable.

Proof. This follows from the Cantor diagonal process. Assume that C

is countable, list all its points and represent them in base 3:

x1 =0.a11 a12 , . . .

x2 =0.a21 a22 , . . .

Construct the point

c = 0.c1 c2 . . .

2.3. THE CANTOR SET 43

2.3.1, but is different from all listed points (x1 , x2 , . . . ) in C, a contradiction.

Remark. In our iterative procedure for constructing C, at each step we

threw out the “middle third” of every remaining interval. One can modify

the construction, throwing out, say, one fourth or one tenth or some other

part of the remaining intervals. For a paradoxal property of such modified

Cantor-like sets, see Problem 49.

Definition 2.3.3. A set is called perfect if it does not contain isolated

points.

Proposition 2.3.4. The Cantor set C is perfect.

Proof. Suppose x ∈ C and S be any interval containing x. Since

x ∈ ∩∞ n=0 Cn it follows that x ∈ Cn . Let In be the interval of Cn which

contains x. For large enough n we have In ⊂ S. Let xn be an endpoint

of In such that xn 6= x. By the construction of C, we have xn ∈ C and

xn ∈ S. Thus, any interval S containing x contains other points of C, so C

is perfect.

We will see that the Cantor set presents a geometric model for p–adic

integers for any prime p. Before we proceed, we recall the definitions of con-

tinuous maps between metric spaces, as well as of some important particular

classes of continuous maps.

Definition 2.3.5. Let (X, d) and (Y, ρ) be two metric spaces. Then

• a map f : X → Y is called continuous if for each open set V ⊂ Y its

inverse image f −1 (V ) is an open set in X;

• the map f is called open if for any open set U in X its image f (U ) is

open in Y ;

• the map f is a homeomorphism if it is continuous and bijective with

continuous inverse;

• the map f is continuous at the point x if for any neighborhood A of

f (x) in Y its inverse image f −1 (A) contains a neighborhood of x;

• the map f is uniformly continuous if for each ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0

such that d(x1 , x2 ) < δ implies ρ(f (x1 ), f (x2 )) < ε.

Theorem 2.3.6. The set of dyadic integers Z2 is homeomorphic to the

Cantor set C.

Proof. Let us consider the following map:

∞

X ∞

X 2ai

ψ: ai 2 7→

i

.

i=0 i=0

3i+1

We will show that ψ is a homeomorphism. First, we observe that, by the

uniqueness of representation in both Z2 and C, ψ is a bijection.

44 2. TOPOLOGY OF Qp VERSUS THAT OF R

interval in the partition of I into subintervals of length 1/3N , but since

closed intervals comprising CN do not have common endpoints, x1 and x2

belong to the same component IN of CN , and hence their first N digits

agree.

Conversely, if the first N digits of x1 , x2 ∈ C agree, they belong to the

same component IN ⊂ CN . On the other hand, the first N digits of two

2-adic numbers y1 and y2 agree if and only if |y1 − y2 |2 < 1/2N . Since both

1/2N and 1/3N tend to 0 as n → ∞, we conclude that ψ and ψ −1 are both

continuous.

Corollary 2.3.7. The Cantor set C is totally disconnected.

Proof. It follows from Proposition 2.1.13 that Z2 is totally disconnec-

ted. But then so is C (by Theorem 2.3.6).

coincides with X. A subset A ⊂ X is called nowhere dense in X if X \ A is

dense in X.

As a consequence of Corollary 2.3.7, we see that the Cantor set does

not contain any interval (for closed sets this is equivalent to being nowhere

dense).

Now let us consider Zp . There is a special Cantor set homeomorphic

to it: the set of all real numbers in I = [0, 1] whose expansion in base

2p − 1 has even digits. It is obtained by a procedure similar to that of

obtaining the “middle third” Cantor set C. To obtain C1 , we divide I into

2p−1 equal subintervals and delete every second open interval. The set C1 is

characterized by the fact that it consists of all points in I that can be written

in base 2p − 1 as 0.a1 a2 . . . with a1 even. Repeating the same procedure

with every subinterval of C1 , we obtain a closed set C2 of points with the

first two digits a1 and a2 even, and so on. The intersection C p = ∩∞ n=0 Cn is

a Cantor-like set, which is noncountable and perfect. The map

∞

X ∞

X 2ai

ψp : ai pi 7→ .

i=0 i=0

(2p − 1)i+1

similar to the argument proving Theorem 2.3.6.

Moreover, the spaces Zp and Z2 are homeomorphic for any prime p. In

order to prove this, it now suffices to construct a homeomorphism of two

Cantor sets, C p and C. As it often happens in mathematics, a generaliza-

tion often makes life easier. So, we are going to prove a more general fact

(Theorem 2.3.11), but first we need two lemmas.

Lemma 2.3.9. Suppose A ⊂ R is an open set. Then A is the disjoint

union of at most countably many open intervals.

2.3. THE CANTOR SET 45

Proof. It follows from [R, Theorem 2.47] that the connected compo-

nents of A are open intervals. The following argument, very common in

analysis, uses the fact that Q is dense in R: each connected component of

A contains a rational point, and since the set of all rational points is count-

able, and the connected components of A are disjoint, the set of connected

components is at most countable.

Lemma 2.3.10. Suppose f : A → B is a monotone bijection between two

subsets of R. Then f is a homeomorphism.

Proof. Note that f −1 is also a monotone bijection, so we need only

show that a monotone bijection is continuous. It is sufficient to check that

the preimage of an open set in B is open as a subset of A. Suppose (a, b) ⊂ R.

Then (a, b) ∩ B is an open set in B, and

f −1 ((a, b) ∩ B) ={x ∈ A | f (x) ∈ (a, b)} = {x ∈ A | a < f (x) < b}

={x ∈ A | f −1 (a) < x < f −1 (b)} = (f −1 (a), f −1 (b)) ∩ A,

which is obviously open in A, as required.

Theorem 2.3.11. Any compact perfect totally disconnected subset A of

the real line is homeomorphic to the Cantor set C.

Proof. Since the set A is compact, it is bounded; since it is totally

disconnected, the set A is also nowhere dense (does not contain any interval).

Let m = inf A (the greatest lower bound) and M = sup A (the least upper

bound). We will construct a strictly monotone function F : [m, M ] → [0, 1]

such that F (A) = C. The set [m, M ] − A is the union of at most countably

many disjoint intervals without common ends (since A is perfect). This set

of intervals cannot be finite since A is nowhere dense, so it is countable. We

denote this set of disjoint intervals by I.

We are going to define a bijection between the set I and the set of

intervals of the complement to the Cantor set C. Take one of the intervals

whose length is maximal (there are finitely many of them); denote it by

I. Define F on the interval I1 as the increasing linear map whose image

is the interval [1/3, 2/3]. Consider the longest intervals I21 and I22 to the

left and to the right of I. Map them linearly onto [1/9, 2/9] and [7/9, 8/9]

respectively, and so on. Continuing this process, we eventually obtain a

strictly monotone bijective map [m, M ] − A → [0, 1] − C. In order to prove

this, we note that the maximal length of the intervals chosen at each step of

the process is decreasing, and since for each interval I ∈ [m, M ] − A there

are only finitely many intervals in [m, M ] − A of length greater than |I|, we

conclude that all intervals in [m, M ] − A will be eventually taken. Thus,

there is a bijection between the set of intervals I in [m, M ] − A and the

set of their images in [0, 1] − C which preserves the order of the intervals,

i.e., A is to the left of B iff F (A) is to the left of F (B). Thus the map

[m, M ] − A → [0, 1] − C is a bijection. It is strictly monotone within each

interval in [m, M ] − A by construction, and if x and y, belong to different

46 2. TOPOLOGY OF Qp VERSUS THAT OF R

intervals and x < y, then F (x) < F (y) since F preserves the order of

intervals. The map F can be extended by continuity to the endpoints of

the deleted intervals E as a monotone increasing map. For any point a ∈ A

consider the subset

La = {x ∈ E | x < a}

and define F (a) = sup{f (x) | x ∈ La }. Since a = sup(La ) and the function

F is monotone increasing on [m, M ] − A ∪ E, the map F extends to the

whole closed interval [m, M ] as a monotone increasing map. Restricting it

to A and using Lemma 2.3.10, we see that the desired homeomorphism with

C has been constructed.

Corollary 2.3.12. The spaces Z2 and Zp are homeomorphic.

Another remarkable consequence of the previous considerations is the

following construction.

Theorem 2.3.13. There exists a continuous map of the unit interval I

onto the unit square I 2 .

Proof. This construction is due to A. Chindiapine.

Consider the map f : C → C 2 described in Exercise 45. It is a homeo-

morphism, hence a continuous map. Now let g : C → I be the map described

in Exercise 43 composed with the homeomorphism between C and Z2 . It is

also a continuous map. Its square g2 : C 2 → I 2 is a surjective continuous

map. Thus we obtain a continuous map g2 ◦ f : C → I 2 of the Cantor set C

onto the unit square I 2 . Since C ⊂ I, we can extend it by linearity to the

intervals of the complement to C to obtain the desired continuous map of I

onto I 2 .

by an iterative procedure.

Exercises

41. Prove that a map is continuous iff it is continuous at every point.

42. Prove that the image of a connected set under a continuous map is

connected.

43. Consider the map ϕ : Qp → R, which maps each p-adic number to a

real number in base p according to the rule

. . . b2 b1 b0 .b−1 b−2 . . . b−k → b−k . . . b−2 b−1 .b0 b1 b2 . . . ,

(a) Prove that ϕ is a continuous map of Qp onto the set of nonnegative

real numbers R+ .

(b) Prove that ϕ maps Zp onto the closed interval [0, 1].

(c) Prove that ϕ is not bijective.

EXERCISES 47

44. Consider the map f : I → I 2 of the unit interval I onto a unit square

I 2 given by

f : (0.x1 x2 x3 x4 . . . ) 7→ (0.x1 x3 x5 . . . , 0.x2 x4 x6 . . . )

(in order to make this a well-defined map, we forbid “tails” consisting of

9’s). Prove that f is discontinuous.

45. Consider the map f : C → C 2 of the Cantor set C onto its square C 2

given by

f : (0.x1 x2 x3 x4 . . . ) 7→ (0.x1 x3 x5 . . . , 0.x2 x4 x6 . . . ).

Prove that f is a homeomorphism.

46. Given any two dense countable subsets A, B of the open interval (0, 1),

find a monotone increasing map ψ : (0, 1) → (0, 1) taking A to B. Conclude

that A and B are homeomorphic.

47.* Let A = Q ∩ [0, 1], and B = Q ∩ (0, 1). Prove that A and B are

homeomorphic.

48.* Is there a nonempty perfect set in R which contains no rational

number?

49. Modify the construction of the Cantor set C so as to obtain a set

homeomorphic to C but of positive measure, i.e., a Cantor-like set on [0, 1]

such that the sum of lengths of its complementary intervals is less than 1.

CHAPTER 3

Elementary analysis in Qp

In this section we study basic convergence properties of sequences and

series in Qp . The most important fact has already been noted: Qp is a

complete metric space, hence every Cauchy sequence converges. Cauchy

sequences are characterized as follows 1 .

Theorem 3.1.1. A sequence {an } in Qp is a Cauchy sequence, and

therefore convergent, if and only if it satisfies

n→∞

Proof. If {an } is a Cauchy sequence, then

lim |am − an |p = 0.

m→∞,n→∞

sequences in any metric space.

The converse is certainly not true in R (give a counterexample) but is

true in ultra–metric spaces. Indeed, assume (3.1.1) This means that for any

ε > 0 there exists a positive integer N such that for any n > N , we have

|an+1 − an |p < ε.

Now take any m > n > N and examine |am − an |p , using the strong triangle

inequality.

|am − an |p =|am − am−1 + am−1 − am−2 + · · · − an |p

≤ max(|am − am−1 |p , |am−1 − am−2 |p , . . . |an+1 − an |p ) < ε,

which completes the proof.

P∞

Now let us consider a series i=1 ai in Qp . P We say that this series

converges if the sequence ofPits partial sums, Sn = ni=1 ai , converges in Qp

and converges absolutely if ∞ i=1 |ai |p converges (in R).

As in R, it follows from the triangle inequality that the absolute conver-

gence of a series implies its convergence in Qp .

P P

Proposition 3.1.2. If the series |ai |p converges in R, then ai con-

verges in Qp .

1The proof of this characterization of Cauchy sequences in Q was Problem 1 on the

p

Midterm Exam. For the sake of completeness, we present this proof here.

49

50 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

P

Proof. Since |ai |p converges, it is Cauchy, i.e., for any ε > 0 there

exists an integer N such that for all n, m satisfying m > n > N , we have

X

m

|ai |p < ε.

i=n+1

By the triangle inequality,

X

m X

m

|Sm − Sn |p = ai ≤ |ai |p < ε,

p

i=n+1 i=n+1

P

which implies that {Sn } is Cauchy and so the series ai converges in Qp .

As usual, we expect something much better in Qp . Indeed, the following

result is a consequence of Theorem 3.1.1.

P

Proposition 3.1.3. A series ∞ n=1 an with an ∈ Qp converges in Qp if

and only if limn→∞ an = 0, in which case

X∞

an ≤ max |an |p .

p n

n=1

Proof.

P

The series converges if and only if the sequence of partial sums

Sn = ni=1 ai converges. But an = Sn+1 − Sn . It follows from Theorem 3.1.1

that an tends to 0 if and

P

only if the series converges.

P∞

Now assume that ∞ n=1 an converges. If n=1 an = 0, there is nothing

to prove. If not, since an → 0, it follows from Exercise 50 that there exists

an integer N such that

X∞ XN

an = an

p p

n=1 n=1

and

max{|an |p | 1 ≤ n ≤ N } = max |an |p .

n

By the strong triangle inequality,

XN

an ≤ max{|an |p | 1 ≤ n ≤ N } = max |an |p ,

p n

n=1

which completes the proof.

This proposition is false in R, as Problem 2 of the Midterm Exam as-

serted. The most obvious example of a series in R whose general

P

term tends

to 0, but which does not Pconverge, is the harmonic

P

series 1/n. But there

are other examples, e.g. (1/n) log n and all prime p 1/p.

P

Definition 3.1.4. A series ∞ n=0 an converges

P

unconditionally if for any

reordering of the terms an → a0n the series ∞ 0

n=0 an also converges.

Qp , however, the converse is also true.

3.1. SEQUENCES AND SERIES 51

∞ P

Theorem 3.1.5. If n=0 an converges, it converges unconditionally,

and the sum does not depend on the reordering.

Proof. Let ε be an arbitrary real number and N be an integer such

that for any n > N we have |an |p < ε, |a0n |p < ε, and

X∞ X

N

an − an < ε. (3.1.2)

p

n=1 n=1

PN P

Put S = n=1 an and S 0 = N 0 0

n=1 an , and denote by S1 and S1 , respectively,

the sums of all terms of S for which |an |p > ε, and of all the terms of S 0

for which |a0n |p > ε. It is clear that S1 and S10 have the same terms, hence

S1 = S10 . The sum S differs from S1 by the terms satisfying |an |p < ε, and

S 0 from S10 by the terms satisfying |a0n |p < ε. Therefore |S − S1 |p < ε and

|S 0 − S10 |p < ε, so that |S − S 0 |p < ε. Combining this with (3.1.2), we obtain

X∞ X

N

an − a0n < ε.

p

n=1 n=1

P∞ 0

Since ε → 0 and N → ∞, we see that the series n=1 an converges and

∞

X ∞

X

an = a0n ,

n=1 n=1

as claimed.

This is quite different from the result in real analysis, where reordering

the terms of a series can change its convergence or its sum; they do not

chnage provided that the series converges absolutely (by the Dirichlet The-

orem). (Do you remember how to prove this?). Theorem 3.1.5 is even more

surprising because, just as in the real case, the following result holds:

P∞

Theorem 3.1.6. There exists a series n=1 an in Qp which converges,

but does not converge absolutely.

Proof. Let us consider the following consecutive terms of the series:

1; p repeated p times; p2 repeated p2 times; etc. These terms tend to 0,

hence the series converges. However,

∞

X

|an |p = 1 + p · p−1 + p2 · p−2 + · · · = ∞,

n=1

as claimed.

The following result is about switching the order of summations in double

series, a rather subtle subject in the real case.

Theorem 3.1.7. Consider the p-adic numbers bij ∈ Qp , i, j = 1, 2, . . .

such that for any ε > 0 there exists an integer N = N (ε) for which

max(i, j) ≥ N ⇒ |bij | < ε.

52 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

XX XX

bij and bij

i j j i

P P

Proof. It is clear that the inner series j bij and i bij converge (the

first one, for all i and the second one for all j). In addition, for all i ≥ N

we have

X

bij ≤ max |bij |p < ε,

p j

j

X

bij < ε.

p

i

This says that both double series converge. In order to check that their

sums are equal, we write

X∞ X

∞ XN X

N XN X

∞ ∞ X

X ∞

bij − bij = bij + bij < ε,

p p

i=1 j=1 i=1 j=1 i=1 j=N +1 i=N +1 j=1

which can be true for any ε only if the series are equal.

Exercises

50. Suppose limn→∞ an = a in Qp . Prove that either limn→∞ |an |p = 0 or

there exists an integer N such that |an |p = |a|p for all n > N .

n

51. Prove that the sequence an = 23 converges in Q3 and find its limit.

52. (The “harmonic” sequence.)

(a) Show that the sequence 1, 1/2, 1/3, . . . does not converge in Qp but

has converging subsequences.

(b) * Prove that {1, 1/2, 1/3, . . . } is dense in the set {x ∈ Qp | |x|p ≥ 1}.

P∞

53. Prove that n=1 n! · n = −1 in Qp for any p.

54. Using the ideas of the previous exercise, show that in Qp , for any P ,

we have

∞

X ∞

X

n · (n + 1)! = 2;

2

n5 · (n + 1)! = 26.

n=1 n=1

3.2. p-ADIC POWER SERIES 53

A formal power series is an expression of the form

∞

X

f (X) = an X n

n=0

where an ∈ Qp and X is an indeterminate. The set of all power series in X

with coefficients in the field F is denoted by F [[·]].

Given xP∈ Qp , we consider the corresponding numerical power series

f (x) to be ∞ n

n=0 an x . We already know that it converges if and only if

|an xn |p → 0.

Just as in the Archimedian case (power series over R or C), we define

the “radius of convergence” to be

1

r= 1/n

. (3.2.1)

lim sup |an |p

Recall that lim sup of a sequence is the least upper bound (sup) of the set

of limit points of this sequence. Therefore, in case 0 < r < ∞, for any

1/n

C > 1/r there are only finitely many |an |p greater than C. The following

proposition justifies the term “radius of convergence”.

P∞

Proposition 3.2.1. Suppose that 0 < r < ∞. Then the series

n=0 an x converges if |x|p < r and diverges if |x|p > r.

n

|an xn |p = (r|an |1/n

p ) (1 − ε) .

n n

1/n

Since there are only finitely many n for which |an |p > 1

r−εr/2 , we have

!n !n

(1 − ε)r 1−ε

lim |an x |p ≤ lim

n

= lim = 0.

n→∞ (1 − 12 ε)r n→∞ 1 − 12 ε

Similarly, if |x|p > r, we write |x|p = (1 + ε)r. Then

|an xn |p = (r|an |1/n n n

p ) (1 + ε) .

1/n

Since there are infinitely many n for which |an |p > 1

r+ 12 εr

, we have

!n !n

(1 + ε)r 1+ε

lim sup |an x |p ≥ lim

n

= lim 6= 0.

n→∞ (1 + 12 ε)r n→∞ 1 + 12 ε

What happens on the “boundary” |x|p = r? In the Archimedian case

(R or C) the behavior on the boundary of the interval or disc of convergence

may be quite Pcomplicated. For example, the usual logarithmic power series

log(1 + x) = ∞ n=1 (−1)

n+1 xn /n has radius of convergence 1. If |x| = 1, it

54 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

In the non-Archimedian case, the answer is the same for all points of

|x|p = r. This is because the series converges if and only if |an xn |p → 0, and

this depends only on the norm |x|p , not on the specific value of x.

P

Let us take the same example ∞ n=1 (−1)

n+1 xn /n. Then

p =1

n→∞

(Exercise 55). The series converges for |x|p < 1 and diverges for |x|p > 1.

If |x|p = 1 |an xn |p = pordP n ≥ 1, hence the series diverges for all such x as

well.

Lemma 3.2.2. Every f (X) ∈ Zp [[X]] converges in {x ∈ Qp | |x|p < 1}.

P

Proof. Let |x|p < 1, and f (x) = ∞ n=0 an x . Since for any n ≥ 0

n

n n

converges.

Example 3.2.3. Let a ∈ Zp be fixed, then

∞

!

X a

fa (X) = X n ∈ Zp [[X]].

n=0

n

Here

!

a a(a − 1) . . . (a − n + 1)

= and fa (X) := (1 + X)a .

n n!

a

Lemma 3.2.4. If a ∈ Zp , n ≥ 0, then n ∈ Zp .

Proof. For each n ≥ 0 consider

X(X − 1) . . . (X − n + 1)

Pn (X) = ∈ Q[X].

n!

As any polynomial, Pn defines a continuous map Qp → Qp . If m, n are

n ∈ N, then for a ∈ N we have

positive integers, m

!

a

Pn (a) = ∈ N.

n

Thus the continuous function Pn maps N to N. By continuity, it maps the

closure of N to the closure of N. We have seen in the proof of Theorem

2.1.10 that N is dense in Zp ; this means that Pn : Zp → Zp .

m

Remark. It is not difficult to see directly that if m, n ∈ Z, then n ∈ Z.

How?

The following result is similar to one in real analysis:

P

Lemma 3.2.5. Let f (x) = an xn , an ∈ Qp , be a p-adic series whose

region of convergence is an open and closed ball D ⊂ Qp . Then f : D → Qp

is a continuous function on D.

EXERCISES 55

leave the case x = 0 to the reader (Exercise 56). Let |x − x0 |p < δ, where

δ < |x|p will be chosen later. Then |x|p = |x0 |p by the isocseles triangle

property. We have

X∞

|f (x) − f (x0 )|p = (an xn − an x0 ) ≤ max |an xn − an x0 |p

n n

p n

n=0

n−1

)|p .

n

But

n−1 n−1 i−1

x + xn−2 x0 + · · · + x0 ≤ max xn−i x0 = |x|n−1

p .

p 1≤i≤n p

Therefore

δ

|f (x) − f (x0 )|p ≤ max(|x − x0 |p |an |p |x|n−1

p )< max(|an |p |x|np ).

n |x|p n

Since |an xn |p is bounded as n → ∞, we obtain |f (x) − f (x0 )|p < ε for a

suitable δ.

Proposition 3.2.6. The radius of convergence of the power series

∞

X

f (X) = an X n ∈ Qp [[X]]

n=0

and that of its formal derivative

∞

X

Df (X) = nan X n−1

n=1

are equal, i.e., rf = rDf .

Proof. For any n ∈ N we have |n|p ≤ 1. Then

rDf = lim sup |nan |1/n−1

p = lim sup |nan |1/n

p = lim sup |an |1/n

p = rf ,

n→∞ n→∞ n→∞

as asserted.

The following example shows that the behavior of the power series and

its derivative on the boundary

P

of the region of convergence may differ. The

power series f (X) = ∞ n=0 X pn has radius of convergence equal to 1 and

P

diverges for |x|p = 1, while itsPderivative Df (X) = ∞ n pn −1 converges

n=1 p X

∞

for |x|p = 1 (since the series n=1 pn converges).

Exercises

55. Prove that limn→∞ pordp n/n = 1

56. Let

∞

X

f (X) = an X n ∈ Qp [[X]]

n=0

56 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

1/n

be a power series with r = 1/ lim sup |an |p . Prove that if r = 0, then f (x)

converges if and only if x = 0, and if r = ∞, then f (x) converges for all

x ∈ Qp .

P

57. Prove the continuity at x = 0 of the power series f (x) = ∞ n

n=0 an x .

58. Prove that

n − Sn

ordp (n!) = ,

p−1

where Sn is the sum of digits of n written in base p.

Let us consider the formal power series

∞

X Xn

log(1 + X) = (−1)n+1 . (3.3.1)

n=1

n

Since its coefficients are rational numbers, it is an element of Q[[X]]. We

have seen that the corresponding power series in Qp , which we denote by

lnp (1 + x) in order not to confuse it with the logarithm in base p, and call

the p-adic logarithm, converges for |x|p < 1. (We shall reserve the notation

log(1 + x) for the corresponding numerical power series in R).

Similarly, we define the series

∞

X (x − 1)n

lnp (x) = (−1)n+1 ,

n=1

n

which converges for x ∈ B = {x ∈ Zp | |x − 1|p < 1} = 1 + pZp .

Theorem 3.3.1. The p-adic logarithm satisfies the fundamental property

lnp (xy) = lnp (x) + lnp (y).

Proof. The following identity

holds for formal power series. One can check directly (by expanding and

reordering terms) that all coefficients of the resulting series reduce to zero.

Alternatively, notice that the series (3.3.1) determines the real logarithmic

function, which clearly satisfies (3.3.2). This means that the series repre-

senting the left-hand side of (3.3.2) vanishes for all real X and Y in (−1, 1)

and hence, after rearrangement of terms (which does not affect the conver-

gence and the sum P

of the real series since the latter converges absolutely),

can be written as cn,m X n Y m with all cn,m = 0. Choosing any α, β ∈ pZp ,

then α + β + αβ ∈ pZp and

lnp (1 + α) + lnp (1 + β) − lnp (1 + α)(1 + β).

Since all series above converge, by applying Theorem

P

3.1.7 we can rearrange

the terms to rewrite the above series in the form cn,m αn β m with all cn,m =

0, and the assertion follows.

3.3. SOME ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS 57

∞

X Xn

exp(X) = .

n=0

n!

The corresponding numerical power series in R converges everywhere. Now

we will study the corresponding power series in Qp ; it is called the p-adic

exponential and denoted by expp (x). The next theorem will probably come

as a surprise.

Theorem 3.3.2. The p-adic exponential expp (x) converges in the disc

Dp = {x ∈ Qp | |x|p < rp }, where rp = p−1/(p−1) , and diverges otherwise.

Proof. First we will find the radius of convergence of this power series

rp using formula (3.2.1). Here an = 1/n!. Using Exercise 58, we obtain

1

n−Sn

= p p−1 .

n! p

From the formula

1

rp = 1/n

,

lim sup |an |p

we obtain (using the fact that rp is a power of p) the relation

1 n − Sn 1

ordp rp = lim inf ordp an = lim inf − =−

n n(p − 1) p−1

(the last equality is valid since

n − Sn Sn

lim − = −1 + lim = −1),

n→∞ n n→∞ n

and thus rp = p−1/(p−1) . Now let us see what happens when |x|p = p−1/(p−1) ,

i.e., when ordp (x) = 1/(p − 1). We can write

n − Sn n Sn

ordp (an xn ) = − + = .

p−1 p−1 p−1

m

If n = pm , then Sn = 1 and ordp (apm xp ) = 1/(p − 1), hence we have

lim |an xn |p 6= 0 for |x|p = p−1/(p−1) ,

n→∞

Remark. If p = 2, the radius of convergence is equal to 1/2, hence

ln2 (x) converges in 4Z2 .

If p > 2, the radius of convergence is equal to p−1/(p−1) which is not

among the possible values of the p-adic norm, 1/p < p−1/(p−1) < 1, therefore

lnp (x) converges in pZp .

Proposition 3.3.3. We have expp (x + y) = expp (x) expp (y) if x, y be-

long to Dp , the region of convergence of the p-adic exponential.

Proof. Since this is true for formal power series, the result follows as

in the proof of Proposition 3.3.1.

58 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

− p−1

1

Proposition 3.3.4. If x ∈ Dp = {|x|p < p }, then

| expp (x) − 1|p < 1,

i.e. expp (x) is in the domain of lnp (x) and

lnp (expp (x)) = x. (3.3.3)

Conversely, if x ∈ Dp ,

− p−1

1

| lnp (1 + x)|p < p ,

and

expp (lnp (1 + x)) = 1 + x. (3.3.4)

Proof. The relations (3.3.3) and (3.3.4) follow from the corresponding

relations for formal power series, so all we need is to check that all the series

involved converge.

If x ∈ Dp , then expp (x) converges, and by Proposition 3.1.3,

xn

| expp (x) − 1|p ≤ max | |p .

n n!

Using Exercise 58, we obtain

xn

− n − n n

< p p−1 pordp (n!) < p p−1 p p−1 = 1.

n! p

In order to prove the second part, we need an estimate for ordp (n).

−1

Lemma 3.3.5. ordp (n) − n

p−1 ≤ p−1 .

1 < n < p, ordp (n) = 0 and we have a strict inequality. For p > n, we have

the following upper bound for ordp (n) (cf. Exercise 55 above):

log n

ordp (n) ≤ .

log p

Then

n−1 n − 1 log n

− ordp (n) ≥ − . (3.3.5)

p−1 p−1 log p

Let

x − 1 log x

f (x) =− .

p−1 log p

We have f (p) = 0 and f 0 (x) > 0 for x > p. Thus f (x) is increasing, in

particular, for n > p we have

n − 1 log n

− > 0;

p−1 log p

this, combined with (3.3.5), gives the desired inequality.

3.4. CAN A p-ADIC POWER SERIES BE ANALYTICALLY CONTINUED? 59

xn

| lnp (1 + x)|p ≤ max | |p .

n n

Using the lemma, we obtain

xn

− n − 1

< p p−1 pordp (n) ≤ p p−1 ,

n p

− p−1

1

hence | lnp (1 + x)|p < p .

Example 3.3.6. Let p = 2. Then −1 ∈ {x ∈ Z2 | |x − 1|2 < 1} since

| − 1 − 1|2 = 1/2 < 1. Therefore the 2-adic logarithm ln2 (−1) can be

computed by using power series, namely

22 23

ln2 (−1) = ln2 (1 − 2) = − 2 + + + ··· .

2 3

On the other hand, we have

0 = ln2 (1) = ln2 (−1) + ln2 (−1) = 2 ln2 (−1),

hence ln2 (−1) = 0. This means that as n → ∞, the sum

22 23 2n

2+

+ + ··· +

2 3 n

gets closer and closer in 2-adic norm to 0, i.e., is divisible by higher and

higher powers of 2. More precisely, for any M there exists an n such that

22 23 2n

2M 2 + + + ··· + .

2 3 n

Can you estimate the highest power of 2 which divides

22 23 2n

2+ + + ··· + ?

2 3 n

Suppose we have a function defined by a power series on some disk.

Can we extend the definition to some greater region in some “reasonable”

manner? In real analysis we can do that: even though the power series for

log(x + 1) diverges for x > 1, we have a nice function log defined for all

positive numbers. The way we go about extending the definition is usually

to pick a point α inside the radius of convergence and find a new power

series about α. Unfortunately, this doesn’t work in Qp :

Proposition 3.4.1. Let

∞

X

f (X) = an X n ∈ Qp [[X]]

n=0

60 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

m ≥ 0, define !

∞

X n

bm = an αn−m , (3.4.1)

n=m m

∞

X

g(X) = bm (X − α)m (3.4.2)

m=0

Then

(a) (3.4.1) converges for all m, so bm is well defined for any m;

(b) g(X) has the same disk of convergence D;

(c) ∀λ ∈ D g(λ) = f (λ).

Proof. Since α ∈ D, for each m we have

!

n

n−m

an α ≤ |an αn−m |p = |α|−m

p (an α |p → 0,

n

m

p

n

since m ∈ Z and f (x) converges at α. This proves (a).

Now if λ ∈ D,

∞ ∞ X

!

X X n

f (λ) = an (λ − α + α) =n

an αn−m (λ − α)m (3.4.3)

n=0 n=0 m≤n

m

This looks just like a partial sum of g(x), except we need to rearrange

its terms. To that end, we must show that the double series converges

“uniformly”. So let us make this into a series infinite in both indices:

Let (

n

an αn−m (λ − α)m if m ≤ n

βn,m = m

0 if m > n.

We would like to show that βm,n → 0 uniformly in both indices. That is,

we want to find an N such that if either m > N or n > N , then βm,n < ε.

We have the following estimate:

!

n

m

|βm,n |p = an αn−m

(λ − α) ≤ |an αn−m (α − λ)m |p .

m

p

We can find a point r1 ∈ D such that r = |r1 |p ≥ |α|p and ≥ |λ|p . (Say,

choose r1 = α or r1 = λ depending on which has bigger norm.) Then

|α|m

p ≤r

m by construction, and

|λ − α|n−m

p ≤ max(|α|p , |λ|p )n−m ≤ r n−m

by construction and by the non-Archimedian property; so

|βn,m |p ≤ |an αn−m (λ − α)m |p ≤ |an |p r n

which tends to zero as n → ∞ independently of m, i.e.

∀ε > 0 ∃N ∀n > N |βm,n |p < ε

3.5. ZEROS OF p-ADIC POWER SERIES 61

either n ≥ m =⇒ n > N =⇒ |βm,n |p < ε

or n < m =⇒ βm,n = 0, so |βm,n |p = 0 < ε.

Thus we can use Theorem 3.1.7 to rearrange the sum in (3.4.3):

∞ X

! ∞ X ∞ ∞ X ∞

X n X X

f (λ) = an an−m (λ − a)m = βn,m = βn,m

n=0 m≤n

m n=0 m=0 m=0 n=0

∞ X ∞

!

X n

= an an−m (λ − a)m = g(λ).

m=0 n=m

m

We picked an arbitrary λ in D and found that g converges at λ; so g converges

on all of D. Notice that the roles of f and g are symmetrical, so starting

with g and constructing f , we see that f converges whenever g does, and

that concludes the proof of the theorem.

So, in contrast with the real case, this gives us no new domain of defi-

nition. Another question to ask is: What sort of “nice” continuation do we

actually want? In the real case, a function is called analytic if it is defined by

a power series in a neighborhood of every point. Let us consider a function

defined on Zp and equal to 1 on pZp and 0 on Zp \pZp = Z× p . Since both sets

are open, f can be written as a (constant) power series in a neighborhood

of every point in Zp , but such a function does not look like an “analytic”

function! So we need a better definition of analytic function before we can

ask about analytic continuation.

The following

P

theorem deals with functions f : Zp → Qp given by power

series f (X) = ∞n=0 an X which converge for all x ∈ Zp . Such functions are

n

characterized by the fact that the series converge for |x|p = 1, i.e.

lim an = 0.

n→∞

Theorem 3.5.1 (Strassman’s Theorem). Let

∞

X

f (X) = an X n ∈ Qp [[X]]

n=0

be a nonzero power series (i.e., a series not all of whose coefficients are

zero). Suppose that limn→∞ an = 0, so that f (x) converges for all x ∈ Zp .

Let N be the integer defined by

(a) |aN |p = max |an |p ,

(b) |an |p < |aN |p for n > N .

Then f : Zp → Qp defined by x 7→ f (x) has at most N zeros.

Remark. Since an → 0, |an |p attains its maximum for a finite set of

indices n1 , n2 , . . . , nk ; then N = nk , the largest index of an with maximal

norm.

62 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

Base of induction. For N = 0 our assumption means that |a0 |p > |an |p

for all n > 0. We want to prove that f (x) has no zeros in Zp . If

0 = f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + ...

we have

|a0 |p = |a1 x + a2 x2 + ...| ≤ max |an xn |p ≤ max |an |p < |a0 |p ,

n≥1 n≥1

which is a contradiction.

Induction step. We shall explicitly factor out one zero, and show that

the quotient is a new power series with a smaller N . Suppose

|aN |p = max |an |p and |an | < |aN |p for n > N,

n

∞

X ∞ n−1

X X

f (x) = f (x) − f (α) = an (xn − αn ) = (x − α) an xj αn−1−j .

n=1 n=1 j=0

n − j − 1, we obtain

∞

X ∞

X

f (x) = (x − α) bj xj = (x − α)g1 (x), where bj = aj+1+k αk .

j=0 k=0

Now we have

|bj |p ≤ max |aj+1+k |p ≤ |aN |p for all j from 0 to ∞

since aN has maximal norm, further

|bN −1 |p = |aN + aN +1 α + aN +2 α2 + ...|p = |aN |p ,

and if j > N

|bj |p ≤ max |aj+k+1 |p ≤ max |aj |p < |aN |.

k≥0 j≥N +1

So bN −1 has maximal norm, and it is the last one with maximal norm,

so the magic number for g1 is N − 1. By the inductive assumption, g1 has

at most N − 1 zeros, so f has at most N zeros, namely the N − 1 zeros of

g1 and α.

P

Corollary 3.5.2. Let f (X) = an X n be a power series that converges

in Zp , and let α1 , α2 , . . . , αm be the roots of f (X) in Zp . Then there exists

a power series g(x) that converges in Zp but has no zeros in Zp for which

f (X) = (X − α1 ) · · · (X − αm )g(X).

3.5. ZEROS OF p-ADIC POWER SERIES 63

f (X) = (X − α1 )g1 (X),

where g1 (X) converges in Zp and has at most m − 1 zeros. Continuing this

process, we factor out all m zeros of f to obtain gm (X) = g(X).

P

Corollary 3.5.3. Let f (X) = an X n be a power series which con-

verges in p Zp for some m ∈ Z. Then f (X) has a finite number of zeros in

m

n

P

Proof. Let g(X) = f ((pm X) = an pmn X n . Since f converges in

p Zp , g converges in Zp . The claim now follows from Theorem 3.5.1.

m

P

Example 3.5.4. Let f (X) = ∞ n n

n=0 p X . Let us find the region of

convergence and estimate the number of zeros from above. The radius of

convergence r is calculated using formula (3.2.1) with |an |p = |pn |p = p−n :

r = p. If |x|p = p, we have

|pn xn |p = |pn |p |x|np = p−n+n = 1,

does not tend to 0. Therefore the series converges for

{|x|p < p} = {|x|p ≤ 1} = Zp .

The sequence |pn |p = p−n is decreasing, so p0 = 1 has maximal norm. A

direct application of the Strassman Theorem gives N = 0, i.e., the power

series f (X) has no zeros in its region of convergence.

Corollary 3.5.5. Consider two p-adic power series

X X

f (X) = an X n , g(X) = bn X n

n≥0 n≥0

that f (α) = g(α), then an = bn for all n ≥ 0.

Proof. Apply Corollary 3.5.3 to f (X) − g(X). It has infinitely many

zeros in pm Zp , hence represents a zero power series. Therefore all coefficients

of f (X) and g(X) are equal, i.e., an = bn for all n ≥ 0.

P

Corollary 3.5.6. Suppose the series f (X) = n≥0 an X n converges in

pm Zp . If the function defined by f (x) is periodic, i.e. there exists a constant

τ ∈ pm Zp such that f (x + τ ) = f (x) for all x ∈ pm Zp , then f (X) = const.

Proof. It is easy to see that the function f (X) − f (0) has zeros at τ n

for all n ∈ Z. Since τ ∈ pm Zp , which is an ideal, we have nτ ∈ pm Zp .

Therefore the function f (x) − f (0) has infinitely many zeros in pm Zp , which

implies that f (X) − f (0) = 0, i.e., f (X) = const.

64 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

This is quite different from the classical case in which sine and cosine

functions are periodic and “entire”, i.e., are given by power series which

converge everywhere. The difference, of course stems from the fact that for

power series in R or C, if τ is a period, then, in contrast with the p-adic

case, all the points nτ do not belong to a bounded interval or disc.

P

Corollary 3.5.7. Let f (X) = n≥0 an X n be a p-adic power series

which is entire, i.e. converges for all x ∈ Qp . Then f (x) has an at most

denumerable set of zeros. Furthermore, if the set of zeros is not finite, it

forms a sequences zn , |zn |p → ∞ as n → ∞.

Proof. The set of zeros in each bounded disc pm Zp , m ∈ Z, is finite.

Exercises

59. Use Strassman’s Theorem to show that for p 6= 2 we have lnp (x) = 0

iff x = 1. If p = 2, show that lnp (x) = 0 iff x = ±1.

60. Find the region of convergence and say all you can about the zeros of

the following p-adic power series:

P

(a) P p−n X n ,

(b) n!X n .

61. Define the p-adic analogs of the sine and cosine functions, and deter-

mine their regions of convergence. Show that if p ≡ 1 (mod 4) then there

exists an i ∈ Qp such that i2 = −1, and the classical relation

expp (ix) = cosp (x) + i sinp (x)

holds for any x in the common region of convergence.

Consider the region of convergence of expp ,

1

We have seen in §3.3 that if p 6= 2, then Dp = pZp and D2 = 4Z2 . The maps

expp : Dp → 1 + Dp , lnp : 1 + Dp → Dp .

are inverse to each other (Theorem 3.3.4). The fundamental properties of

logarithmic and exponential functions can be translated into the language

of groups in the following way.

Proposition 3.6.1. The p-adic logarithm lnp defines an isomorphism

of groups

lnp : 1 + Dp → Dp ,

where 1 + Dp is regarded as a multiplicative group and Dp as an additive

one; the inverse isomorphism is expp .

3.6. FURTHER PROPERTIES OF p-ADIC EXPONENTIALS AND LOGARITHMS 65

there is no x ∈ 1 + Dp , x 6= 1, such that xm = 1 for some positive integer

m.

Proof of Corollary 3.6.2. The additive group Dp is torsion-free

since in the field Qp , the relation my = 0 implies y = 0, and the asser-

tion follows.

Remarks. 1. This means that lnp gives a one-to-one correspondence

between the groups 1 + Dp and Dp , under which the image of the product

is the sum of the images. In particular, the proposition asserts that lnp is

injective, i.e., no two numbers in Dp have the same lnp . Notice that Dp

is the biggest disk on which lnp is injective. For p = 2, Dp is the domain

of convergence for lnp , hence we must look for an example for p = 2. We

have seen (Example 3.3.6) that | − 1 − 1|2 = 1/2, so −1 is in 1 + 2Z2 , the

domain of ln2 , but not in 1 + D2 = 1 + 4Z2 , the domain of exp2 . Indeed,

ln2 (1) = ln2 (−1) = 0, so the injectivity of lnp is violated as soon as we leave

1 + D2 .

2. This isomorphism is analogous to the real case, in which log and

exp give mutually inverse isomorphisms between the multiplicative group of

positive real numbers and the additive group of real numbers.

Proof of Proposition 3.6.1. First let us check that 1 + Dp is a mul-

tiplicative subgroup of Zp . This follows from the fact that Dp is an ideal in

Zp : if x, y ∈ Dp , x + y + xy ∈ Dp and consequently (1 + x)(1 + y) ∈ 1 + Dp .

The rest is a direct corollary of Theorem 3.3.4.

But better yet, the exponential is an isometry! To prove that we need

the following proposition.

Proposition 3.6.3. For x ∈ Dp we have

(a) | expp (x)|p = 1;

(b) lnp (1 + x)|p = |x|p ;

(c) |1 − expp (x)|p = |x|p .

Proof. For an integer n ≥ 1, Sn ≥ 1 (the sum of the digits of n written

in base p). Therefore

n − Sn n−1

ordp (n!) = ≤ .

p−1 p−1

− 1

On the other hand, ordp (n) ≤ ordp (n!). Let rp = p p−1 be the radius of Dp .

We have n−1

|n|p ≥ |n!|p ≥ p− p−1 = rpn−1

and !n−1

xn xn |x|p

≤ ≤ |x|p < |x|p < 1

n p n! p rp

for n ≥ 2 and 0 < |x|p < rp .

66 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

the following way:

|a|p > |b|p =⇒ |a + b|p = |a|p : the strongest wins.

We write

∞

X xn

expp (x) = 1 + x + .

n=2

n!

Since

∞

X xn

|1|p = 1 and x + < 1,

n=2

n! p

lnp (1 + x)|p = |x|p and|1 − expp (x)|p = |x|p ,

completing the proof.

Remark. This is an alternative and a shorter way to obtain the esti-

mates of Proposition 3.3.4.

Corollary 3.6.4. The maps

expp : Dp → 1 + Dp , and lnp : 1 + Dp → Dp .

are isometries.

Proof. Let x, y ∈ Dp . Then

| expp (x) − expp (y)|p =| expp (y)|p | expp (x − y) − 1|p

=| expp (x − y) − 1|p = |x − y|p ,

showing that the exponential is an isometry. Since expp (lnp (1 + x)) = 1 + x,

we have

| lnp (1 + x) − lnp (1 + y)|p = |(1 + x) − (1 + y)|p = |x − y|p ,

which means the logarithm is also an isometry.

We shall conclude this section by showing that expp and lnp satisfy the

same differential equations as the ordinary exponential and logarithm:

1

exp0p (x) = expp (x) and ln0p (x) =

x

in their respective regions of convergence.

First, let us review the notion of derivative (in the context of p-adic

numbers).

Definition 3.6.5. Let X ⊂ Qp , a ∈ X be an accumulation point of X.

A function f : X → Qp is differentiable at a if the derivative f 0 (a) of f

at a

f (x) − f (a)

lim

x→a x−a

exists.

A function f : X → Qp is differentiable on X if f 0 (a) exists at all a ∈ X.

3.6. FURTHER PROPERTIES OF p-ADIC EXPONENTIALS AND LOGARITHMS 67

Notice that the definition of the derivative indeed makes sense since Qp

is a normed field. The derivative possesses the following standard properties.

• The well-known rules for derivatives of sum, product, quotient and

composition (chain rule) carry over without any complications.

Pn

• Consequently,

P

the derivative of a polynomial P (x) = i

i=0 ai x is equal

to P 0 (x) = ni=1 nan xn−1 .

• Rational functions (quotients of two polynomials) are differentiable.

• Differentiable functions are continuous.

P

We proved (see Proposition 3.2.6) that if fP(X) = ∞ n

n=0 an X is a power

∞ n−1

series, then its formal derivative DF (X) = n=1 nan X has the same

radius of convergence. Just as in the real and complex case, the formal

power series Df (X) indeed represents the derivative f 0 (x) in its region of

convergence:

Proposition 3.6.6. Consider the power series

∞

X

f (X) = an X n ∈ Qp [[X]]

n=0

P∞

and suppose that f (x) = n=0 an xn converges in an open ball U ∈ Qp . Then

f (x) is differentiable in U and for all x ∈ U , we have

∞

X

f 0 (x) = nan xn−1 .

n=1

More generally, f (x) has derivatives of all orders in U which are given by

∞

!

X n

(k)

f (x) = k! an xn−k .

n=k

k

The coefficients of the original power series can be expressed as follows

f (k) (0)

ak = .

k!

Now we can compute the derivatives of expp and lnp by using their power

series expansions.

Proposition 3.6.7. (a) The function expp is differentiable in Dp ,

exp0p (x) = expp (x).

(b) The function lnp is differentiable in 1 + pZp ,

1

ln0p (x) = .

x

Proof. Indeed,

∞

X X

nxn−1 xn−1

exp0p (x) = = = expp (x).

n=1

n! n=1

(n − 1)!

68 3. ELEMENTARY ANALYSIS IN Qp

Similarly,

∞

X X∞

n(x − 1)n−1 1

ln0p (x) = (−1)n+1 = (−1)n−1 (x − 1)n−1 = ,

n=1

n n=1

x

as claimed.

Now we will use p-adic logarithms to determine whether pth roots of

unity are in Qp .

Theorem 3.6.8. The (pn )th roots of unity are not in Qp , except for

p = 2 and n = 1.

n

Proof. Let p 6= 2. Let xp = 1. Then we must have |x|p = 1, i.e.

n

x ∈ Zp , and for its first digit x0 we have xp0 ≡ 1 (mod p). However, the

order of each element of the multiplicative group (Z/pZ)× must divide its

order, (p − 1), thus we conclude that x0 = 1. Therefore x ∈ 1 + pZp . It

follows from the injectivity of lnp (Proposition 3.6.1) that lnp (x) = 0 if and

n

only if x = 1. Since xp = 1, we obtain

n

0 = lnp (1) = lnp (xp ) = pn lnp (x), hence lnp (x) = 0,

which implies x = 1.

If p = 2, however, we have ln2 (−1) = ln2 (1) = 0 (See Example 3.3.6),

and a similar argument shows that x = −1 is a nontrivial square root of

unity in Q2 , but no (2n )th roots of unity are in Q2 for n > 1.

CHAPTER 4

p-adic functions

In this chapter we will study p-adic functions of a p-adic variable. Let

us recall Definition 2.3.5 for the case in which X = Zp and Y = Qp , both

endowed with the p-adic metric.

Definition 4.1.1. A function f : Zp → Qp is called continuous at the

point a ∈ Zp if for each ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that |x − a|p < δ

implies |f (x) − f (a)|p < ε for all x ∈ Zp .

A function f : Zp → Qp is continuous if it is continuous at all points

a ∈ Zp .

A function f : Zp → Qp uniformly continuous if for each ε > 0 there

exists a δ > 0 such that |x − y|p < δ implies |f (x) − f (y)|p < ε for all

x, y ∈ Zp .

Example 4.1.2. Since the space Zp is totally disconnected, the charac-

teristic function of any ball U ∈ Zp ,

(

1 if x ∈ U

ξU (x) =

0 if x ∈ Zp \ U,

is continuous. This is clear since both the ball U and its complement Zp \ U

are open.

This notion can be generalized as follows.

Definition 4.1.3. A function f : Zp → Qp is called locally constant if

for each x ∈ Zp there exists a neighborhood Ux 3 x (e.g. a ball of radius

p−m for some m ∈ N centered at x, {y ∈ Zp | |x − y|p < p−m }) such that f

is constant on U .

Proposition 4.1.4. Locally constant functions are continuous.

Proof. Obvious from the definition.

The next proposition follows from the compactness of Zp (Theorem

1.4.5):

Proposition 4.1.5. Let f : Zp → Qp be a locally constant function.

Then Zp can be written as the union

[

k

Zp = Uxi

i=1

69

70 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

of finitely many disjoint balls such that the function f is constant on each

of these balls. In particular, the set {f (x) | x ∈ Zp } of all values assumed

by f on Zp has only finitely many distinct elements.

Proof. Let us consider the set of balls Ux from the definition of a

locally constant function. It forms a cover of Zp . By the compactness of Zp ,

this cover contains a finite subcover Ux1 , . . . , Uxk . Recall that two balls in

an ultra-metric space are either disjoint or contained in one another, so if

we delete the balls which lie inside other balls, we obtain a cover of Zp by

disjoint balls.

Corollary 4.1.6. Any locally constant function on Zp is uniformly

continuous.

Proof. Let p−mi be the radius of Uxi , i = 1, 2, . . . , k, and m = maxi mi .

We will prove that δ = p−m works for any ε > 0. Indeed, suppose that

|x − y|p < p−m . Since x ∈ Uxi for some i, and each point of the ball is

its center, we may assume x = xi . Then |xi − y|p < p−m ≤ p−mi , i.e.,

f (y) = f (xi ) = f (x)

which are dense in Zp (Theorem 2.1.10), so sometimes we will consider

functions from N to Qp , from Z to Qp , and more generally, from E → Qp

where E ⊂ Zp .

Definition 4.1.7. Let E be a subset of Zp , not necessarily compact. A

function f : E → Qp is called a step function on E if there exists a positive

integer t such that

f (x) = f (x0 ) for all x, x0 ∈ E such that |x − x0 |p ≤ p−t .

The smallest integer t for which this property holds is called the order of f .

It is clear from the definition that a a step function is uniformly contin-

uous and also locally constant on E.

For each positive integer t let us construct an explicit partition of E as

follows. Let Nt = {0, 1, 2, . . . pt − 1}. For each x ∈ Zp we write its canonical

expansion,

x = x0 + x1 p + · · · + xt−1 pt−1 + · · · ,

and let

Nx = x0 + x1 p + · · · + xt−1 pt−1 . (4.1.1)

Then Nx ∈ Nt and

|x − Nx |p ≤ p−t . (4.1.2)

For each N ∈ Nt put

E(N ) = E ∩ U (N, t), where U (N, t) = {x ∈ Zp | |x − N |p ≤ p−t < p−t+1 }.

4.1. LOCALLY CONSTANT FUNCTIONS 71

We have seen that any x ∈ Zp belongs to some U (N, t), and since for any

N, M ∈ Nt we have |N − M |p > p−t , it follows that the balls U (N, t) are

disjoint. Therefore

t −1

p[

E= E(N ) (4.1.3)

N =0

is a partition of E. Now we can prove the following unexpected theorem.

Theorem 4.1.8. Any step function on N or Zp is periodic.

Proof. Let E = N or Zp , and f : E → Qp be a step function of order t.

Consider the partition (4.1.3) of E described above. If x, y ∈ E(N ), we have

|x − y|p = |(x − N ) + (N − y)|p ≤ p−t by the strong triangle inequality, and

hence f (x) = f (y). Notice that if x ∈ E(N ), then x + pt ∈ E(N ). Therefore

f (x + pt ) = f (x) for x ∈ E,

i.e., f is periodic.

In real analysis, functions continuous on a closed interval can be approx-

imated uniformly and arbitrarily closely by real step functions. A similar

result holds for p-adic functions.

Theorem 4.1.9. Let E be either N or Zp . A function f : E → Qp is

uniformly continuous on E if and only if for every positive integer s there

exists another positive integer t = t(s) and a step function S : E → Qp of

order at most t such that

|f (x) − S(x)|p ≤ p−s for any x ∈ E. (4.1.4)

Proof. Assume that f and S satisfy (4.1.4). If x0 satisfies

|x − x0 |p ≤ p−t ,

then we have

S(x) = S(x0 ), |f (x) − S(x)|p ≤ p−s , |f (x0 ) − S(x0 )|p ≤ p−s ,

therefore

|f (x) − f (x0 )|p = |(f (x) − S(x)) − (f (x0 ) − S(x0 )|p ≤ p−s ,

which proves that f is uniformly continuous.

Conversely, assume that f is uniformly continuous on E, and denote by

s and t = t(s) two positive integers such that

|f (x) − f (x0 )|p ≤ p−s if x, x0 ∈ E and |x − x0 |p ≤ p−t . (4.1.5)

Let Nx be as in (4.1.1), and define a function S : E → Qp by

S(x) = f (Nx ) if x ∈ E.

Then S is a step function of order at most t. By (4.1.2) and (4.1.5),

|f (x) − S(x)|p = |f (x) − f (Nx )|p ≤ p−s ,

which proves the theorem.

72 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

Exercises

In the first three problems, x is an element of Zp and is assumed to be

written in canonical form

x = x0 + x1 p + x2 p2 + · · · ,

where the coefficients xn are the p-adic digits 0, 1, 2, . . . , p − 1.

62. Decide whether the following functions are uniformly continuous on

N, or are continuous on Zp :

(a) f (x) = x0 + x1 x2 ;

(b) f (x) = P (x0 , x1 , x3 ) where P is a polynomial in its arguments with

coefficients in Zp ;

(c)

(

1 if x0 = 0

f (x) =

x/x0 6 0.

if x0 =

63. Are any of the functions in Exercise 62 locally constant or step func-

tions? Fully justify your answer.

64. Which of the two following functions are (i) continuous; (ii) locally

constant on N?

∞

X ∞

X

f (x) = xn ; f (x) = xn n!.

n=0 n=0

(

0 if x = 0,

f (x) =

1/|x|p 6 0.

if x =

Decide whether f is (i) continuous and (ii) locally constant on Zp .

Let E be a subset of Zp , and x0 ∈ E an accumulation point of E. We

now list some properties of continuous functions on E.

Theorem 4.2.1. Let f : E → Qp , g : E → Qp .

1) f is continuous at x0 ∈ E if and only if for every sequence {xn }, satisfying

limn→∞ xn = x0 , we have

lim f (xn ) = f (x0 ).

n→∞

If, in addition g(x0 ) 6= 0, then f /g is continuous at x0 as well.

The proof is exactly the same as in real analysis, and we leave it to the

reader.

Now we give several examples of discontinuous functions.

4.2. CONTINUOUS AND UNIFORMLY CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS 73

1

f (x) = ,

x−c

where c ∈ Zp . If c ∈ / N, then the denominator does not vanish in N, and

therefore by Theorem 4.2.1, f is continuous on N (but not uniformly con-

tinuous – can you prove this?). However, f is not bounded on N. Indeed,

since c is a p-adic integer, we can find elements in N for which |x − c|p is

arbitrarily small, and hence |f (x)|p is arbitrarily large. If c ∈ N, then f is

not continuous at the point c.

Example 4.2.3. The following examples use the specifics of p-adic num-

bers and look very different from examples in real analysis. Nevertheless,

they have real analogs which will be discussed in §4.3. Let {an } be a null

sequence of p-adic integers such that an 6= 0 for all n. To this sequence we

associate two functions f1 : Zp → Qp and f2 : Zp → Qp by setting

( (

ax if x ∈ N ax if x ∈ N

f1 (x) = f2 (x) =

0 if x ∈

/ N (but in Zp ), 1 if x ∈

/ N (but in Zp ).

Both f1 and f2 are discontinuous at the points of N; To see that, let x ∈ N,

then limn→∞ x + pn = x, and

lim f1 (x + pn ) = lim ax+pn = 0

n→∞ n→∞

and similarly for f2 .

Let us prove that f1 is continuous at all points x ∈ Zp \ N. Indeed, take

any sequence xn → x, and let xrn be its subsequence contained in N. Then

axrn → 0, as a subsequence of a null sequence, and hence f1 (xn ) → 0.

The function f2 is discontinuous at all points of Zp . Indeed, if x ∈ Zp −N,

take a sequence {xn } ∈ N such that xn → x. Then f2 (xn ) → 0, but

f2 (x) = 1 6= 0.

Since Zp is compact, we have the following theorem (cf. Rudin, Theorem.

4.19).

Theorem 4.2.4. Every function f : Zp → Qp continuous on Zp is uni-

formly continuous and bounded on Zp .

The following theorem will be very important for us later, especially for

the case in which E = N; in that case its closure E coincides with Zp .

Theorem 4.2.5. Let E be a subset of Zp and E be its closure. Let

f : E → Qp be a function uniformly continuous on E. Then there exists a

unique function F : E → Qp uniformly continuous and bounded on E such

that

F (x) = f (x) if x ∈ E.

74 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

xn → X as n → ∞. (4.2.1)

(Only the case when X ∈ / E is of interest.) Since f is uniformly continuous

on E, for any positive integer s there exists another positive integer t = t(s)

such that (4.1.5) is satisfied. By (4.2.1) there is an integer N = N (t) such

that

|xn − X|p ≤ p−t whenever n ≥ N.

Therefore for n, m ≥ N we also have

|xm − xn |p = |(xm − X) − (xn − X)|p ≤ p−t ,

and hence by (4.1.5)

|f (xm ) − f (xn )|p ≤ p−s .

This means that {f (xn )} is a p-adic Cauchy sequence. Let us denote its

limit by L = limn→∞ f (xn ).

It is easy to see that the limit does not depend on the sequence xn → x.

Indeed, let {x0n } be another sequence and x0n → X. Then {xn − x0n } will be

a null sequence, and by the uniform continuity of f , {f (xn ) − f (x0n )} is also

a null sequence; but this implies that also

L = lim f (x0n ).

n→∞

F (X) = lim f (xn )

n→∞

Now we show that the function F is uniformly continuous on E. Let X

and X0 be two points in E satisfying |X − X0 |p ≤ p−t . Choose x and x0 in

E so that

|x − X|p ≤ p−t , |x0 − X0 |p ≤ p−t ,

|f (x) − F (X)|p ≤ p−s , |f (x0 ) − F (X0 )|p ≤ p−s .

It follows that

|x − x0 |p = |(x − X) + (X − X0 ) − (x0 − X0 )|p ≤ p−t ,

hence by (4.1.5) we have |f (x) − f (x0 )|p ≤ p−s . Therefore,

|F (X) − F (X0 )|p =

| − (f (x) − F (X)) + (f (x) − f (x0 )) + (f (x0 ) − F (X0 ))|p ≤ p−s ,

proving the uniform continuity of F on E.

Finally, F is bounded on E. Indeed, otherwise there would exist an

infinite sequence {Xn } ∈ E such that

lim |F (Xn )|p = ∞. (4.2.2)

n→∞

4.3. POINTS OF DISCONTINUITY AND THE BAIRE CATEGORY THEOREM 75

Since E and hence E are subsets of a compact set Zp , there exists a subse-

quence {Xrn } such that the limit

X0 = lim Xrn

n→∞

exists. Since all points are in E and E is a closed set, we have X0 ∈ E. Now

F is uniformly continuous on E and therefore continuous at X0 . But this

implies

lim F (Xrn ) = F (X0 ).

n→∞

contrary to (4.2.2).

To prove the uniqueness of F , we assume that there is a second function

F ∗ with the same properties. Then F − F ∗ is uniformly continuous on E

and identically 0 on E. Since E is dense in E, by continuity F − F ∗ is also

identically 0 on E.

The function f1 of Example 4.2.3 has a close relative in real analysis,

called the Riemann function r : R → R defined by

(

1/q if x is rational x = p/q, (p, q) = 1

r(x) =

0 if x is irrational.

This function is continuous at all irrational points and discontinuous at all

rational points. The function f2 of Example 4.2.3 also has an analog in real

analysis (see Exercise 66) which is discontinuous at all points of R, and is the

characteristic function of the set of rational numbers; this is the Dirichlet

function: (

1 if x is rational,

χQ (x) =

0 if x is irrational.

A natural question arises: Is it possible to construct a real function

discontinuous at all irrational points and continuous at all rational points,

and, similarly, a p-adic function discontinuous at all points in Zp \ N and

continuous at of points of N? The answer is “NO” to both questions, and

the reason is the Baire category theorem, which holds for all complete metric

spaces.

Let (X, ρ) be a metric space. Let G denote the family of all open subsets

in X, and F denote the family of all closed subsets in X. By the definition

(see §2.1), each element in F is the complement of a unique element in G

and vice versa. Open sets and closed sets have the following properties.

Proposition 4.3.1. (a) If C ⊂ G is any collection of open sets,

then ∪G∈C G belongs to G, and if G1 , . . . , Gn ∈ G is any finite col-

lection of open sets, then ∩ni=1 Gi belongs to G.

(b) If C ⊂ F is any collection of closed sets, then ∩F ∈C F belongs to F,

and if F1 , . . . , Fn ∈ F is any finite collection of closed sets, then

∪ni=1 Fi belongs to F.

76 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

Thus, G is closed under arbitrary unions and finite intersections, and

F is closed under arbitrary intersections and finite unions. It is easy to

construct examples in which the countable intersection of open sets is not

open, and the countable union of closed set is not closed. However, such

sets are so important in analysis that they deserved special names.

Definition 4.3.2. A set A ⊂ X is called of type Gδ if it can be repre-

sented as the countable intersection of open sets; a set A ⊂ X is called of

type Fσ if it can be represented as the countable union of closed sets.

Theorem 4.3.3. Suppose (X, ρ) and (Y, d) are two metric spaces and

f : X → Y is any map. Then the set of all points where f is continuous is

of type Gδ .

Proof. Let A ⊂ X. Define the oscillation of f on A as the element of

the extended real number set R ∪ ∞ given by

ω(A) = sup{d(f (x), f (y)) | x, y ∈ A}.

For x0 ∈ X, define the oscillation of f at x0 by setting

ω(x0 ) = lim ω(B(x0 , δ)).

δ→0

Wε = {x ∈ X | ω(x) < ε}

is open.

Proof of the lemma. Let x0 ∈ Wε . Then ω(x0 ) < ε. This means

that there exists a δ > 0 such that x, y ∈ B(x0 , δ) implies d(f (x), f (y)) < ε.

Let z ∈ B(x0 , δ/2). If z1 , z2 ∈ B(z, δ/2), then z1 , z2 ∈ B(x0 , δ), and hence

d(f (z1 ), f (z2 )) < ε.

This shows that ω(B(z, δ/2)) < ε. Thus ω(z) < ε, and Wε is open.

In order to conclude the proof of the theorem, we observe that

∞

\

{x | ω(x) = 0} = W1/n ,

n=1

hence (see Exercise 71) the set of continuity of the function f is Gδ .

Corollary 4.3.5. The set of discontinuity of any function f : X → Y

is of type Fσ .

Proof. Exercise 70.

Theorem 4.3.6 (Baire Category Theorem). Let (X, ρ) be a complete

metric space, and S = ∪∞

n=1 Sn , where all the sets Sn are nowhere dense in

X. Then X \ S is dense in X. In particular, X cannot be expressed as the

countable union of nowhere dense sets.

EXERCISES 77

is dense in X, we will show that (X \ S) ∩ B0 6= ∅. Inductively choose a

nested sequence of balls Bn = Bn (xn , rn ) with rn < 1/n such that

Bn+1 ⊂ Bn \ Sn+1 .

To see that this is possible, note that Bn \ Sn+1 6= ∅ since Sn+1 and hence

Sn+1 is nowhere dense. Thus we can choose some point xn+1 ∈ Bn \ Sn+1 .

Since Sn+1 is closed, we have

dist(xn+1 , Sn+1 ) > 0,

so we can choose Bn+1 as claimed. The sequence {xn } is Cauchy since, for

n, m > N , we have

2

ρ(xn , xm ) ≤ ρ(xn , xN ) + ρ(xN , xm ) < .

N

Since X is complete, there exists an x ∈ X such that xn → x. But xn+1

belongs to Bn for all n, so

∞

\

x∈ Bn ⊂ B0 ∩ (X \ S),

n=1

as claimed.

Now we can prove the following theorem.

Theorem 4.3.7. There is no function f : R → R which is continuous at

all rational points and discontinuous at all irrational points.

Proof. According to Corollary 4.3.5, it is sufficient to prove that the

set of irrational numbers is not of type Fσ . Suppose it is:

∞

[

R\Q= Fn ,

n=1

where all the sets Fn are closed. Then each Fn is nowhere dense since

otherwise there would be an interval which contains a dense set of points of

Fn , which is impossible since Fn , being closed, would have to contain that

interval, contradicting the fact that R \ Q contains no interval.

Now observe that Q is of type Fσ since it is the union of its points,

which are closed. Thus we have expressed the set of real numbers R, a

complete metric space, as the countable union of nowhere dense sets, which

contradicts the Baire category theorem.

Exercises

66. Construct a function f : R → R which imitates the function f2 of

Example 4.2.3 and prove that it is discontinuous at all points of R.

67. Prove Proposition 4.3.1.

68. Let X be a metric space. Prove that

(a) If F is closed, then it is of type Gδ .

78 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

69. Find a set in Fσ ∩ Gδ which is neither open nor closed.

70. Prove that if A is of type Fσ , then its complement X \ A is of type Gδ

and vice versa.

71. Prove that f is continuous at x0 if and only if ω(x0 ) = 0.

72. Prove that there is no function f : Zp → Qp which is continuous at all

points of N and discontinuous at all points of Zp \ N.

The Mean Value Theorem is a cornerstone of the differential calculus.

It says that for each x 6= y in the domain of a differentiable function f there

exists a ζ between x and y such that

f (y) − f (x) = f 0 (ζ)(y − x) (4.4.1)

holds. Therefore, if f 0 (x) = 0 for all x, then (4.4.1) implies that f (x) = f (y).

This is not true for p-adic functions: there are nonconstant functions

whose derivative is identically zero, and there is not much hope for the

Mean Value Theorem, even if we leave out the word “between”, which is

meaningless in the p-adic context. The following examples will demonstrate

what goes on in the p-adic case.

Example 4.4.1. Let E ⊂ Zp be a subset without isolated points, and

let f be a locally constant function on E. Then for each a ∈ E there exists

an ε > 0 such that if x ∈ E satisfies |a − x|p < ε, then f (x) = f (a). Thus

f (x) − f (a)

=0 if |a − x|p < ε,

x−a

hence f is differentiable on E and f 0 (a) = 0 for all a ∈ E!

It follows that there is plenty of nonconstant functions whose derivative

is identically zero. This is not only in contrast with real analysis, but also

in contrast

P

with analytic functions i.e., functions given by power series. Let

f (x) = ∞ n=0 an x , x ∈ R, and E be its region of convergence. Indeed, if f

n 0

3.6.6, all coefficients of the power series ak vanish for k ≥ 1, so f (x) = a0 , a

constant.

We have seen that the set of functions {f : Zp → Qp | f 0 = 0}, also

called pseudo-constants, contains locally constant functions. The following

example destroys the natural conjecture that all pseudo-constants are locally

constant.

Example 4.4.2. There exists an injective (and therefore not locally con-

stant) function f : Zp → Zp whose derivative is 0.

4.4. DIFFERENTIABILITY OF p-ADIC FUNCTIONS 79

P∞

Proof. Let x = n=0 an p

n ∈ Zp , and let us set

∞

X

f (x) = an p2n .

n=0

Now if

∞

X ∞

X

x= an pn ∈ Zp and y = bn p n ∈ Z p

n=0 n=0

satisfy |x − y|p = p−j for some j = 0, 1, 2, . . . , then

a0 = b0 , a1 = b1 , . . . , aj−1 − bj−1 , aj 6= bj ,

and hence |f (x) − f (y)|p = p−2j . Thus we have

|f (x) − f (y)|p = |x − y|2p for all x, y ∈ Zp .

We conclude that f is injective (f (x) = f (y) implies x = y) and

f (x) − f (y)

= |x − y|p → 0 as y → x,

x−y

p

i.e., f0 = 0 identically.

This example brings us to the definition of a Lipschitz function.

Definition 4.4.3. Let E ⊂ Zp and α > 0. A function Zp → Qp satisfies

a Lipschitz condition of order α if there exists a constant M > 0, called the

Lipschitz constant), such that for all x, y ∈ E we have

|f (x) − f (y)|p ≤ M |x − y|αp .

The function of Example 4.4.2 is Lipschitz of order 2. Notice that in

real analysis if a function f satisfies a Lipschitz condition of order > 1, then

f 0 = 0, so that f is necessarily constant.

In real analysis, Rolle’s Theorem says that if f : [a, b] → R is continuous

and differentiable on (a, b), and f (a) = f (b), then there exists a ζ ∈ (a, b)

such that f 0 (ζ) = 0. Here is an example of a p-adic function for which

Rolle’s Theorem fails.

Example 4.4.4. Let f : Zp → Qp be given by

f (x) = xp − x.

We have f (0) = 0, f (1) = 0, f 0 (x) = pxp−1 − 1. Since |f 0 (x) + 1|p ≤ 1/p,

i.e., f 0 (x) ∈ −1 + pZp , it follows that f 0 (x) 6= 0 for all x ∈ Zp .

Another anomaly of p-adic functions turns up when we consider the local

invertibility of (continuously) differentiable functions. In real analysis, for

such a function f , if f 0 (x0 ) 6= 0, then f is locally invertible in a neighborhood

of x0 . For p-adic functions, we have the following striking example.

Example 4.4.5. There exists a differentiable function f : Zp → Qp such

that f 0 (x) = 1 for all x ∈ Zp , but for which f (pn ) = f (pn − p2n ) for all

n ∈ N, so f is injective in no neighborhood of 0.

80 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

|x|p = p−n (the strongest wins), so the discs Bi are pairwise disjoint. Define

(

x − p2n if n ∈ N, x ∈ Bn

f (x) =

x if x ∈ Zp \ ∪n Bn .

Since pn ∈ Bn , we have f (pn ) = pn − p2n . On the other hand, pn − p2n is in

no Bm (an easy check). Therefore, f (pn − p2n ) = pn − p2n , i.e., f is injective

in no neighborhood of 0.

To prove that f 0 = 1, we consider the function g(x) = x − f (x),

(

p2n if n ∈ N, x ∈ Bn

g(x) =

0 if x ∈ Zp \ ∪n Bn .

Since g(x) is locally constant on Zp \ {0}, we have g0 = 0 on Zp \ {0}, so we

only need to check that g0 (0) = 0. Let x ∈ Zp , x 6= 0, then

g(x) − g(0) |p |p = p−n

2n

if n ∈ N, x ∈ Bn

| |p = |x|p

x 0 if x is in no Bm .

Hence g0 (0) = limx→0 g(x)/x = 0. Thus f 0 (x) = 1 for all x ∈ Zp .

and isometries of Qp

In real analysis, continuously differentiable functions are differentiable

functions whose derivative is continuous. We have seen (Example 4.4.5)

that for p-adic functions it is not enough to have local invertibility. It turns

out that this problem can be avoided by giving a stronger definition of a

continuously differentiable function in the p-adic case.

Definition 4.5.1. Let E ⊂ Qp be a non-empty set without isolated

points, and f : E → Qp . The first difference quotient Φ1 f of f is a function

of two variables x, y given by

f (x) − f (y)

Φ1 f (x, y) = , (x, y ∈ E, x 6= y)

x−y

defined on E × E \ ∆, where ∆ = {(x, x) | x ∈ E} is the diagonal. We say

that f is continuously differentiable (or C 1 ) at a ∈ E if

lim Φ1 f (x, y)

(x,y)→(a,a)

any ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that |x − a|p < δ and |y − a|p < δ,

(x, y) ∈ E × E \ ∆ imply

f (x) − f (y)

− f (a) < ε.

0

(4.5.1)

x−y p

4.5. CONTINUOUSLY DIFFERENTIABLE FUNCTIONS AND ISOMETRIES OF Qp 81

a continuous derivative on E. The converse is not true. In fact, let f be the

function of Example 4.4.5. Then

f (pn ) − f (pn − p2n )

lim = 0 6= 1 = f 0 (0).

n→∞ p2n

2. For real functions, the continuity of f 0 guarantees the existence of the

limit

f (x) − f (y)

lim

(x,y)→(a,a) x−y

(where the limit is taken over all x, y ∈ [a, b] for which x 6= y) because

f (x) − f (y)

= f 0 (ζ)

x−y

for some ζ between x and y by the Mean Value Theorem.

Now we will look into the local invertibility for C 1 p-adic functions.

Local injectivity is easy.

Proposition 4.5.2. Let E ⊂ Qp be a nonempty subset of Qp without

isolated points, and f : E → Qp be C 1 at some a ∈ E. If f 0 (a) 6= 0, then

there exists a neighborhood U of a such that

|f (x) − f (y)|p = |f 0 (a)|p |x − y|p (x, y ∈ E ∩ U ).

In other words, f /f 0 (a) is an isometry on a (relative) neighborhood of a. In

particular, f is injective on a neighborhood of a.

Proof. By the definition of C 1 functions, there exists a δ > 0 such that

x 6= y, |x − a|p < δ and |y − a|p < δ, imply

f (x) − f (y)

| − f 0 (a)|p < |f 0 (a)|p .

x−y

Now the isosceles triangle property implies

|f (x) − f (y)|p

= |f 0 (a)|p .

|x − y|p

Are all isometries of Qp surjective? In all familiar metric spaces (e.g. R,

R2 , R3 , the hyperbolic plane) they are. But this is not a universal property

of isometries, as the following simple example shows.

Consider E = {x ∈ R | x ≥ 0} with the Euclidean distance d(x, y) =

|x − y|. Then the translation f (x) = x + 1 is, obviously, an isometry, but it

is not surjective.

Isometries of Qp are surjective because of the following two properties

of Qp :

• Qp is locally compact.

• Any translation x 7→ x + a (a ∈ Qp ) is a bijective isometry of Qp .

82 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

spaces.

Proposition 4.5.3. Every isometry of a compact metric space into itself

is surjective.

Proof. Let (X, d) be a compact metric space and f : X → X be an

isometry. Assume f is not surjective, i.e., that there is a y ∈ X such that

y ∈/ f (X). Then it is easy to see that there exists an open ball B(y, r)

such that B(y, r) 6⊂ f (X). Indeed, otherwise there would exist a sequence

yn → y such that yn = f (xn ). Since X is compact, the sequence {xn }

contains a converging subsequence, {xnk }, such that limk→∞ xnk = x ∈ X.

Since limk→∞ ynk = y and f is continuous (as any isometry), we conclude

that f (x) = y, a contradiction. Thus the required open ball B(y, r) exists.

Now it suffices to prove that an isometry of a compact metric space

cannot “miss” an open ball. A neat way to see that is to introduce the

notion of capacity. Let r > 0 be a fixed real number, and let us cover X by

balls of radius r. Each such cover contains a finite subcover. We call the

minimal number of balls of radius r which cover X its capacity and denote

it h(X, r). The image of a compact metric space f (X) is compact (Rudin,

Theorem 4.14). The following result asserts that capacity does not change

under isometries.

Lemma 4.5.4. If f : X → X is an isometry of a compact metric space

into itself and r > 0, then h(X, r) = h(f (X), r).

Proof of the lemma. Let X ⊂ B1 ∩ B2 ∩ · · · ∩ BN be a cover of X

by N balls of radius r. Since f is an isometry, it is injective and hence maps

X onto f (X) bijectively. Therefore it maps each ball

Bi = B(xi , r) = {x ∈ X | d(x, xi ) < r}

onto a ball in f (X),

f (Bi ) = {x ∈ f (X) | d(x, f (xi ) < r} = B(f (xi ), r).

Thus

f (X) ⊂ f (B1 ) ∪ f (B2 ) ∪ · · · ∪ f (BN ),

and therefore h(f (X), r) ≤ h(X, r). But the same argument applied to the

function f −1 : f (X) → X gives us h(X, r) ≤ h(f (X), r), which completes

the proof of the lemma.

Returning to the proof of Proposition 4.5.3, recall that according to our

original assumption, the isometry f : X → X is not surjective; hence there

exists an open ball B(y, r) not contained in f (X). Let h = h(X, r/2) and

B1 ∪ B2 ∪ · · · ∪ Bh ⊃ X (4.5.2)

be a minimal cover of X by h balls of radius r/2. Notice that if the set

Bi ∩ B(y, r/2) is not empty, then Bi ∩ f (X) = ∅. This means that if

we delete Bi from the cover (4.5.2), it will still be a cover of f (X). Thus

h(f (X), r/2) < h(X, r/2), contradicting Lemma 4.5.4.

4.6. INTERPOLATION 83

Proof. Let f : Qp → Qp be an isometry which is not surjective. If

f (0) = a, then g(x) = f (x) − a is also an isometry of Qp which is not

surjective. Then there is a point y not in g(Qp ). Let |y|p = r. Since g is an

isometry and g(0) = 0, it maps the closed ball B = B(0, 2r) into itself, and

y∈ / g(B). Since B is a compact metric space, this contradicts Proposition

4.5.3.

Exercises

73. Let f : Zp → Zp be defined by the formula

∞

! ∞

X X 2

n

f an p := an pn .

n=0 n=0

f0

Prove that = 0, i.e., f is a pseudo-constant.

74.* Let f : Zp → Zp be defined by the formula

∞

! ∞

X X

n

f an p := an pn! .

n=0 n=0

= 0, and f satisfies a Lipschitz condition for

each positive α.

75. Let f : Zp → Zp be defined by the formula

∞

! ∞

X X

n

f an p := a2n pn .

n=0 n=0

4.6. Interpolation

Let a1 , a2 , . . . , be a sequence in Qp . It can be regarded as a function,

namely the function f : N → Qp given by f (n) = an . Since N is a dense

subset of Zp , Theorem 4.2.5 implies that there exists at most one continuous

function F : Zp → Qp such that F (n) = f (n) for all n ∈ N. If such a function

F exists, we say that {an } can be interpolated. Of course, a similar definition

can be given for two-sided sequences . . . a−1 , a0 , a1 , . . . and sequences such

as a0 , a1 , . . . .

If f (n) = an is uniformly continuous of N, it follows directly from The-

orem 4.2.5 that it can be interpolated. Conversely, suppose that f (n) = an

can be interpolated to a continuous function F : Zp → Qp . Then F is

uniformly continuous on Zp by Theorem 4.2.4, and hence on N. Thus a

sequence a0 , a1 , . . . in Qp can be interpolated if and only if for each ε there

is an N such that

|n − m|p ≤ p−N implies |an − am |p < ε. (4.6.1)

84 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

It turns out that it is not necessary to consider all the positive integers

n, m for which |n − m|p ≤ p−N , but it suffices to check (4.6.1) only for n, m

which differ by a large power of p. More precisely, we have the following

result.

Proposition 4.6.1. Let a1 , a2 , . . . be a sequence in Qp . It can be inter-

polated if and only if for any ε > 0 there is an N such that

n = m + pN implies |an − am |p < ε. (4.6.2)

Proof. If f (n) = an is uniformly continuous, then for any ε > 0 there

is an N for which (4.6.1) holds. In particular it holds for n = m + pN since

the latter implies |n − m|p ≤ p−N . We must show that the seemingly weaker

condition (4.6.2) implies uniform continuity. Given ε > 0, let us find an N

for which (4.6.2) holds. Let n, m ∈ N ∪ {0} satisfy |n − m|p ≤ p−N . Then

n − m is divisible by pN , so that n = m + bpN for some b ∈ N. We have

X

b

an − am = (am+jpN − am+(j−1)pN ).

j=1

Our condition (4.6.2) implies that the p-adic norm of each of the summands

is less than ε. By the strong triangle inequality, |an − am |p < ε.

In some sense the uniform continuity of the sequence {an } is a property

opposite to being a Cauchy sequence. The following easy proposition gives

us a lot of examples of not uniformly continuous sequences, which therefore

cannot be interpolated.

Proposition 4.6.2. Let {an } be a nonconstant Cauchy sequence of p-

adic numbers. Then it cannot be interpolated.

Proof. Suppose {an } can be interpolated to the continuous function

f : Zp → Qp so that f (n) = an . Since N is dense in Zp , for any x ∈ Zp − N

there is a sequence of integers nk converging to x. The sequence {an } is

Cauchy and hence converges to some limit c ∈ Qp . Therefore ank converges

to the same limit, and by continuity we have f (x) = limk→∞ ank = c.

Further, since Zp −N is also dense in Zp , for any n ∈ N there exists a sequence

xk ∈ Zp −N such that n = limk→∞ xk . Then an = f (n) = limk→∞ f (xk ) = c,

i.e., {an } is a constant sequence, a contradiction.

For the sake of completeness, we will prove a few properties of uniformly

continuous functions (some of them were already used in Theorem 4.2.5).

Proposition 4.6.3. Let E ⊂ Zp , f : E → Qp and g : E → Qp be

uniformly continuous functions on E. Then f + g, f − g and f g are also

uniformly continuous on E.

Proof. For any integer s > 0 there exists an integer t > 0 such that

|x − y|p ≤ p−t implies

|f (x) − f (y)|p ≤ p−s and |g(x) − g(y)|p ≤ p−s .

4.6. INTERPOLATION 85

there exists an integer u > 0 such that |f (x)|p ≤ pu and |g(x)|p ≤ pu . Now

let x, y ∈ E and |x − y|p ≤ p−t . Then

|(f (x) ± g(x)) − (f (y) ± g(y))|p = |(f (x) − f (y)) ± (g(x) − g(y))|p ≤ p−s ,

Corollary 4.6.4. Any polynomial P (x) with coefficients in Qp is uni-

formly continuous on any subset E ⊂ Zp .

Proof. This follows from the fact that f (x) = c and f (x) = x are

uniformly continuous on any E ⊂ Zp .

Corollary 4.6.5. Let

!

x x(x − 1) . . . (x − n + 1)

=

n n!

x

be the binomial coefficient, where n ∈ N and x ∈ Zp . Then Pn (x) = n is

uniformly continuous on Zp and | nx |p ≤ 1, i.e., nx ∈ Zp .

Proof. Since Pn (x) = nx is a polynomial with rational coefficients, it

is uniformly continuous on Zp by Corollary 4.6.4. Let x ∈ Zp . There exists

a sequence {xm } ∈ N such that x = limm→∞ xm , and by the continuity of

Pn (x), we have

! !

xm x

lim = .

m→∞ n n

xm xm

Since each n is a rational integer, we have | n |p ≤ 1. Hence

! !

x x

m

= lim ≤ 1,

n m→∞ n

p p

x

i.e., n ∈ Zp .

x

(Compare with Lemma 3.2.4, where we only proved that n ∈ Zp for

any x ∈ Zp .)

Now we will look at p-adic exponents. Our goal is to find out for what

p-adic numbers a ∈ Qp the sequence 1, a, a2 , a3 , . . . can be interpolated to

yield a continuous “exponential” function f (x) = ax .

Theorem 4.6.6. The sequence 1, a, a2 , . . . can be interpolated if and only

if a ∈ 1 + pZp .

Proof. First we carry out some estimations of powers.

Lemma 4.6.7. Let 0 < ε < 1. Then the inequality |y − 1|p ≤ ε implies

|y p − 1|p ≤ τ |y − 1|p , where τ = max(ε, p−1 ) < 1.

86 4. p-ADIC FUNCTIONS

! ! !

p p 2 p p

y −1=

p

a+ a + ··· + a

1 2 p

! ! !

p p p p−1

=(y − 1) + a + ··· + a .

1 2 p

We have | pj aj−1 |p ≤ p−1 for j = 1, . . . , p − 1 and |ap−1 |p ≤ εp−1 ≤ ε.

Therefore |y p − 1|p ≤ τ |y − 1|p , where τ = max(ε, p−1 ).

It follows from Theorem 2.2.5 that

n

(1) limn→∞ ap = 1 if and only if

(2) a ∈ 1 + pZp .

To finish the proof, we make use of Proposition 4.6.1. The sequence

n

1, a, a2 , . . . can be interpolated iff |aj+p − aj |p tends to 0 uniformly in j.

Notice that if |a|p < 1, then the sequence {an } tends to 0, and therefore by

Proposition 4.6.2 cannot be interpolated. So we may assume that |a|p = 1.

Then

n n n

|aj+p − aj |p = |a|jp |ap − 1|p = |ap − 1|p ,

which tends to 0 uniformly in j if and only if (1), and hence (2), holds.

The function

ax = lim an (x ∈ Zp , a ∈ 1 + pZp )

n→x

has the following properties, which we will not prove: for all x, y ∈ Zp and

any a ∈ 1 + pZp

(a) ax ∈ 1 + pZp ,

(b) ax+y = ax ay ,

(c) a−x = (ax )−1 ,

(d) expp (px) = (expp p)x ,

(e) (ax )0x=0 = lnp (a),

P x

(f) ax = ∞ n=0 n (a − 1) .

n

Exercises

76. Prove that for each j ∈ N the p-adic sequence

1j , 2j , 3j , . . .

can be interpolated.

77. Prove that for each j ∈ N the p-adic sequence

1 2 3

, j , j ,...

pj p p

can be interpolated.

78. Prove that the p-adic sequence n 7→ (−1)n can be interpolated if and

only if p = 2.

Contents

Preface 1

1.1. Analysis: from Q to R; the concept of completion 3

Exercises 5

1.2. Normed fields 5

Exercises 10

1.3. Construction of the completion of a normed field 11

Exercises 14

1.4. The field of p-adic numbers Qp 15

Exercises 20

1.5. Arithmetical operations in Qp 20

Exercises 22

1.6. The p-adic expansion of rational numbers 22

Exercises 24

1.7. Hensel’s lemma and congruences 24

Exercises 28

1.8. Metrics and norms on the rational numbers.

The Ostrowski Theorem. 28

Exercises 31

1.9. A digression: what about Qg if g is not a prime? 31

Exercises 34

2.1. Elementary topological properties 35

2.2. Algebraic properties of p-adic integers 39

2.3. The Cantor set 42

Exercises 46

3.1. Sequences and series 49

Exercises 52

3.2. p-adic power series 53

Exercises 55

3.3. Some elementary functions 56

3.4. Can a p-adic power series be analytically continued? 59

3.5. Zeros of p-adic power series 61

87

88 CONTENTS

Exercises 64

3.6. Further properties of p-adic exponentials and logarithms 64

Chapter 4. p-adic functions 69

4.1. Locally constant functions 69

Exercises 72

4.2. Continuous and uniformly continuous functions 72

4.3. Points of discontinuity and the Baire category theorem 75

Exercises 77

4.4. Differentiability of p-adic functions 78

4.5. Continuously differentiable functions

and isometries of Qp 80

Exercises 83

4.6. Interpolation 83

Exercises 86

Bibliography 89

Bibliography

1. Z.I. Borevich and I.R. Shafarevich, Number Theory, Academic Press, New York, 1966

2. F. Q. Gouvêa, p-adic Numbers: An Introduction, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

New York, Second Edition, Universitext, 2000

3. A.A. Kirillov and A.D. Gvishiani, Theorems and Problems in Functional Analysis,

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1982

4. A.A. Kirillov, Chto Takoe Chislo?, Sovremennaia Matematika dlia Studentov, Nauka,

Moscow, 1993

5. N. Koblitz, p-adic Analysis, p-adic Analysis and Zeta-Functions, Springer-Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg New York, Graduate texts in Mathematics, 1984

6. K. Mahler, p-adic Numbers and their Functions, Cambridge University Press, 1973

7. A. M. Robert, A Course in p-adic Analysis, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New

York, 2000

8. W. Rudin, Principles of Mathematical Analysis, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York, 1976

9. W.H. Schikoff, Ultrametric Calculus, An Introduction to p-adic Analysis, Cambridge

Studies in Adv. Math. 4, Cambridge University Press, 1984

89

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