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What is Stainless Steel?

Stainless steels are iron-based alloys containing a minimum of 10.5% Chromium with or without
other alloying elements.
The term "STAINLESS" implies a resistance to staining, rusting, and pitting in the general normal
environment.
Stainless Steels are technically known as "heat and corrosion resisting steels". That means they
have in general a higher resistance to corrosion in some definite environment, as well have a
higher resistance to scaling at high temperature. With specific restrictions in certain types, the
stainless steels can be shaped and fabricated in conventional ways. They can be produced and
used in the as-cast condition, shapes can be produced by powder-metallurgy techniques, cast
ingots can be rolled or forged. The rolled product can be drawn, bent, extruded, or spun.
Stainless Steel can be further shaped by machining, and it can be joined by soldering brazing,
and welding. It can be used as an integral cladding on plain carbon or low-alloy steels.

Classification of Stainless Steels


Based on alloy contents, internal structure, magnetic or non magnetic properties, and other
qualities, stainless steels can be broadly classified into under noted five categories.
1. Martensitic Stainless Steels
Martensitic Stainless steel contain 11 to 18 % chromium along with carbon in specific percentage,
making it hardenable by air cooling. These stainless steels are extensively used for cutlery,
knives surgical instruments, industrial blades, chemical plant equipments, aerospace applications
and other industrial components. In addition to chromium and carbon elements like nickel,
molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten etc. are also added in some special purpose grades.
2. Ferritic Stainless Steels
These stainless steels contain chromium in the range of 11 to 30% with no or very little nickel, are
ferromagnetic in nature and generally not hardenable by heat treatment, provide good corrosion
resistance and good formability at low cost, and are extensively used for many automotive
components. Inferior weldability of these steel can be improved by alloying with titanium or
columbium A 15430 is the general purpose stainless steel of this group.
3. Austenitic Stainless Steel
These steels contain 16 to 30% chromium 6 to 20 % nickel and low carbon content, has excellent
corrosion resistance, high ductility and toughness. Work hardening during cold working helps to
get desired mechanical properties. These can not be hardened by heat treatment. In AISI 200
series steels, nickel is partially substituted by manganese and nitrogen is also added which helps
in improvement of corrosion resistance, strength and stabilisation of austenitic structure. In some
grades, copper is also added to improve cold forming and corrosion resisting properties.
Austenitic grades are most widely used stainless steels.
200 series grades are having higher strength than 300 series stainless steel.
4. Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
These steels contain titanium, copper, niobium, aluminum, tantalum, phosphorous which
precipitates during ageing or heat treatment and improve the mechanical properties of the alloy.
Precipitation hardening steels are of three types viz, austenitic, semi austenitic and martensitic
are corrosion and oxidation resistant and retain its strength at elevated temperature. These are
mostly used in aerospace applications.
5. Duplex Stainless Steels
In these steels structure is controlled in order to give equal ferrite and austenite to develop
excellent corrosion resistance property to with stand chloride steels corrosion cracking. These
steels exhibit higher yield strength than the austenitic grades and better resistance to chloride
corrosion, of these properties makes it suitable for fabrication of various industrial equipments for
typical corrosive environments, where austenitic or ferritic grades are generally found unsuitable.

Grades
Stainless Steel Grades
Grade

C%(Max.) Si% Mn% P%

S%

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

Other%

AISI 303

0.15

1.00

2.00 0.200 0.150 17.00/19.00 0.60(optional) 8.00/10.00

AISI 304

0.08

1.00

2.00 0.045 0.030 18.00/20.00

8.00/10.50

AISI
304L

0.030

1.00

2.00 0.045 0.030 18.00/20.00

8.00/12.00

AISI 310

0.25

1.50

2.00 0.045 0.030 24.00/26.00

19.00/22.00

AISI
310S

0.08

1.50

2.00 0.045 0.030 24.00/26.00

19.00/22.00

AISI 316

0.08

1.00

2.00 0.045 0.030 16.00/18.00

2.00/3.00

10.00/14.00

AISI
316L

0.030

1.00

2.00 0.045 0.030 16.00/18.00

2.00/3.00

10.00/14.00

AISI
316Ti

0.08

1.00

2.00 0.045 0.030 16.00/18.00

2.00/3.00

10.00/14.00

Ti=5xC%Min to Max 0.70%

AISI 321

0.08

1.00

2.00 0.045 0.030 17.00/19.00

9.00/12.00

Ti=5xC%Min to Max 0.70%

AISI 347

0.08

1.00

2.00 0.040 0.030 17.00/19.00

9.00/13.00

Columbium + Tantalum 10xC% Min


to 1.10 Max)

AISI 410

0.15

1.00

2.00 0.040 0.030 11.50/13.50

AISI 416

0.15

1.00

1.25 0.060 0.150 12.00/14.00 0.60(optional)

AISI 420

0.15

1.00

1.00 0.040 0.030 12.00/14.00

AISI 430

0.12

1.00

1.00 0.040 0.030 16.00/18.00

AISI 431

0.20

1.00

1.00 0.040 0.030 15.00/17.00

1.25/2.50

Alloy Steel Grades


Grade

C%(Max.)

Mn%

Si%

Cr%

Mo%

Ni%

F-1(SA-182)

0.28 Max

0.60/0.90

0.045 0.045

P%

S%

0.15/0.35

0.44/0.65

F-2(SA-182)

0.05/0.21

0.30/0.80

0.040 0.040

0.10/0.60

0.50/0.81

F-5(SA-182)

0.15 Max

0.30/0.60

0.030 0.030 0.50 MAX.

4.00/6.00

0.44/0.65

0.50 MAX.

F-5a (SA-182)

0.25 Max

0.60 Max

0.040 0.040 0.50 MAX.

4.00/6.00

0.44/0.65

0.50 MAX.

F-6a(SA-182)

0.15 Max

1.00 Max

0.040 0.030 1.00 MAX.

11.5/13.5

0.50 MAX.

F-9(SA-182)

0.15 Max

0.30/0.60

0.030 0.030

0.50/1.00

8.00/10.00

0.90/1.10

F-11 class -I (SA-182)

0.05/0.15

0.30/0.60

0.030 0.030

0.50/1.00

1.00/1.50

0.44/0.65

F-11 class -2 (SA-182)

0.10/0.20

0.30/0.80

0.040 0.040

0.50/1.00

1.00/1.50

0.44/0.65

F-11 class 3 (SA-182)

0.10/0.20

0.30/0.80

0.040 0.040

0.50/1.00

1.00/1.50

0.44/0.65

F-12 class -I (SA-182)

0.05/0.15

0.30/0.60

0.045 0.045 0.50 MAX.

0.80/1.25

0.44/0.65

F-12 class-II (SA-182)

0.10/0.20

0.30/0.80

0.040 0.040

0.10/0.60

0.80/1.25

0.44/0.65

F-21 class -I (SA-182)

0.05/0.15

0.30/0.60

0.040 0.040 0.50 MAX.

2.65/3.35

0.80/1.06

F-22 class -I (SA-182)

0.05/0.15

02.30/0.60 0.040 0.040 0.50 MAX.

2.00/2.50

0.87/1.13

LF2
(SA -350)

0.20/0.25

1.20/1.35

0.025 0.025

0.20 MAX.

0.80 MAX.

F-429

0.12 Max

1.00 Max

0.040 0.030 0.75 MAX.

0.15/0.30

14.00/16.00

0.44/0.65

Other%

V=0.30
Cb=0.20

0.25 MAX.

0.50 MAX.

F-430

0.12 Max

1.00 Max

0.040 0.030 0.75 MAX.

16.00/18.00

0.50 MAX.

EN-19

0.35/0.45

0.50/0.80

0.050 0.050

0.10/0.35

0.90/1.50

0.20/0.40

EN-24

0.35/0.45

0.45/0.70

0.050 0.050

0.10/0.35

0.90/1.40

0.20/0.35

1.30/1.80

EN-353

0.20 MAX.

0.50/1.00

0.050 0.050 0.35 MAX.

0.75/1.25

0.80/0.15

1.00/1.50

EN-354

0.20 MAX.

0.50/1.00

0.050 0.050 0.35 MAX.

0.75/1.30

0.10/0.20

1.50/2.00

20MM Cr5

0.17/0.22

1.10/1.40

0.035 0.035

0.15/0.35

1.00/1.30

SAE8620

0.17/0.23

0.70/0.90

0.040 0.040

0.20/0.35

0.40/0.60

0.15/0.25

0.40/0.70

EN-36A

0.15 Max

0.30/0.60

0.050 0.050

0.10/0.35

0.60/1.10

3.00/3.75

EN-36B

0.15 Max

0.30/0.60

0.050 0.050

0.10/0.35

0.60/1.10

EN-36B

0.12/0.18

0.30/0.60

0.050 0.050

0.10/0.35

0.60/1.10

3.00/3.75
0.10/0.25

3.00/3.75

Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels


(% Max.)
Type

Trade Design

Si

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Other

600

A-286

0.08

0.40

1.40

15.00

26.00

1.30

V0.3,Ti2.0,
Al 0.35,B 0.003

17-10P

0.12

0.25

0.030

0.60

0.75

17.00

10.00

Austenitic

Semi-Austenitic
631

17-7PH

0.07

0.020

0.010

0.40

0.60

17.00

7.00

Al 1.15

632

PH 15-7Mo

0.07

0.020

0.010

0.40

0.60

15.00

7.00

2.20

Al 1.15

633

AM-350

0.10

0.020

0.010

0.25

0.80

16.50

4.30

2.75

N 0.10

634

Am-355

0.13

0.020

0.010

0.25

0.95

15.5

4.30

2.75

N 0.10

630

17-4PH

0.04

0.020

0.010

0.60

0.25

16.0

4.00

cu 3.2, cb+Ta 0.25

635

Stainless W

0.07

0.50

0.50

16.5

6.75

Al 0.40, Ti 0.8

Martensitic

Duplex Stainless Steel


Type

Si

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Cu

% Ferrite

329

0.08

0.045

0.03

1.00

2.0

26.00

5.00

1.0/2.0

60-70

2.0/4.00

0.1
(Min.)

1.3/4.0

50

0.2

0.5

30-50

Ferralium-225
(Cobot corpn.)

0.08

0.04

0.04

2.00

3 RE-60

0.03

0.03

0.03

1.7

1.5

18.5

4.7

2.7

U-50 (Creusot Lorie)

0.03

0.04

0.03

1.0

2.00

20.0/22.0

5.5/8.5

2.0/3.0

2.00

24.0/27.0

4.5/6.5

50

Mechanical Properties
MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Grade

Tensile Strength
Ksi Mpa

Yield Strength(02 % offset)


Ksi Mpa

Elongation in 2"
(50.80mm)
%

Hardness
(Rockwell)

403

70

483

45

310

25

B80

410

70

483

45

310

25

B80

414

120

827

105

724

15

B98

Product
Form

416

75

517

40

276

30

B82

(Bar)

416 Sc

75

517

40

276

30

B82

(Bar)

420

95

655

50

345

25

B92

(Bar)

420 F

95

655

55

379

22

220 (Brinell)

(Bar)

422

145

1000

125

862

18

320 (Brinell)

(Bar)

431

125

862

95

655

20

C24

(Bar)

440 A

105

724

60

414

20

B95

(Bar)

440 B

107

738

62

427

18

B96

(Bar)

440 C

110

758

65

448

14

B97

(Bar)

FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS


Tensile Strength
Ksi Mpa

Yield Strength
(02 % offset)
Ksi Mpa

Elongation in 2"
(50.80mm)
%

Hardness
(Rockwell)

405

65

448

40

276

25

B75

409

65

448

429

70

483

35

241

20

B75

40

276

30

B80

430

75

517

50

345

25

B85

430 F

95

655

85

586

10

B92

430 F Se

95

655

85

586

10

B92

434

77

531

53

365

23

B83

436

77

531

53

365

23

B83

442

80

552

45

310

20

B90

446

80

552

50

345

20

B83

Grade

Product
Form

(Plate)

(Wire)

(Bar)

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Grade

Tensile Strength
Ksi Mpa

Yield Strength
(02 % offset)
Ksi Mpa

Elongation in 2"
(50.80mm)
%

Hardness
(Rockwell)

Product
Form

201

95

655

45

310

40

B90

202

90

612

45

310

40

B90

205

120.5

831

69

476

58

B98

301

110

758

40

276

60

B85

302

90

612

40

276

50

B85

302 B

95

655

40

276

55

B85

303

90

621

35

241

50

(Bar)

303 Se

90

621

35

241

50

(Bar)

304

84

579

42

290

55

B80

304 L

81

558

39

269

55

B79

S30430

73

503

31

214

70

B70

304 N

90

621

48

331

50

B85

305

85

586

38

262

50

B80

308

115

793

80

552

40

309

90

621

45

310

45

B85

309 S

90

621

45

310

45

B85

310

95

655

45

310

45

B85

310 S

95

655

45

310

45

B85

314

100

689

50

345

40

B85

316

84

579

42

290

50

B79

316 F

85

586

38

262

60

B85

316 L

81

558

42

290

50

B79

316 N

90

621

48

331

48

B85

317

90

621

40

276

45

B85

317 L

86

593

38

262

55

B85

321

90

621

35

241

45

B80

329

105

724

80

552

25

230
(Brinell)

330

80

552

38

262

40

B80

347

95

655

40

276

45

B85

348

95

655

40

276

45

B85

384

75

517

35

241

55

B70

(Plate)

(Wire)

(Strip)

(Wire)

PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS


Yield Strength (0.2% offset)

Tensile Strength

ksi

Mpa

Ksi

Mpa

Aged 720 C

100

690

145

Aged 705 C

98

676

144

630

Aged 480 C

185

1275

631

Aged 565 C

190

1310

632

Aged 565 C

205

633

CR Tempered

634

CR Tempered

635

Aged 510 C

Type

Condition

600
17.10P

Elongation

Hardness Rockwell

1000

24

C 29

993

20

C 32

200

1380

14

C 44

205

1415

C 13

1415

215

1480

C 44

190

1310

210

1450

10

210

1450

230

1585

12

170

1170

190

1310

C 50

DUPLEX STEEL
Type

Yield Strength
Ksi Mpa

Tensile Strength
Ksi Mpa

329

80

550

105

724

25

Ferralium-25.5

70

480

107

740

20

3 RE-60

65

450

102-131

700-900

30

U-50

46-64

315-440

86-116

590-80

20-25

Elongation

Equivalent Grades
EQUIVALENT SPECIFICATIONS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES
AISI
USA

IS
India

DIN
Germany

AFNOR
France

JIS
Japan

BS
Britain

SIS
Sweden

UNS

UNI
Italy

301

10 Cr 17 Ni 7

1.4310

Z 12 CN 17-08

SUS 301

301 S 21

142331

S 30100

X 12 Cr Ni 1707

304

04 Cr 18 Ni 10

1.4301

Z 6 CN 18-09

SUS 304

304 S 15

142333

S 30400

X 5 Cr Ni 1810

304 L

02 Cr 18 Ni 11

1.4306

Z 2 CN 18-10

SUS 304 L

304 S 11

142352

S 30403

X 2 Cr Ni 1811

142361

S 31008

X 6 Cr Ni 2520

142347

S 31600

X 8 Cr Ni Mo 1713

310 S
316

1.4845
04 Cr 17 Ni 12 Mo

1.4401

SUS 310 S
Z 6 CND 17-11

SUS 316

316 S 31

1.4436
316 L

02 Cr 17 Ni 12 Mo 2

1.4404

1.4435
321

04 Cr 18 Ni 10 Ti 20

409

1713

142343
Z 2 CND 17-12

SUS 316 L

316 S 11

Z 2 CND 17-13

142348

S 31603

X 2 Cr Ni Mo 1713

142353

321

Z 6 CNT 18-12

SUS 321

321 S 31

1.4512

Z 5 CT 12

SUS 409

409 S 17

1.4016

Z 8 C 17

SUS 430

430 S 17

142337

X 2 Cr Ni Mo 1712

S 32100

X 6 Cr Ni Ti 1811

S 40900

410 S
430

05 Cr 17

142320

S 43000

X 2 Cr 17 17C