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Basics of Comm.

Networks

Media
Wires (or RF, IR) connecting together the devices that make up a LAN Twisted pair
y M Most t common: y STP: shielded twisted pair y UTP: unshielded twisted pair

(e.g. ( g Telephone p cable, Ethernet 10BaseT) )

Coaxial cable
y Thin (similar to TV cable) y Thick (e.g., g 10Base5, ThickNet)

Fiber Wireless

Hubs routers Hubs, routers, bridges


Hub
y Device that acts as a central p point for LAN cables y Take incoming data from one port & send to all other ports

Switch
y Moves data from input to output port. y Analyzes l packet k to d determine d destination port and d makes k a virtual l connection

between the ports.

Concentrator or repeater
y Regenerates g data passing p g through g it

Bridge
y Connects two LANs or two segments of a LAN y Connection at data link layer (layer 2)

Router
y Determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded y Connects different types of local and wide area networks at network layer (layer 3)

Networking Topology

Bus Network

Networking Topology

Tree Network

Networking Topology

Star Network

Networking Topology

Ring Network

Networking Topology

Mesh Network

Baseband: Ethernet
Standardized by IEEE as 802.3 standard S d 100 Mb Speeds: Mbps - 1 Gbps Gb typical l today d
y Ethernet: 10 Mbps y Fast Ethernet: 100 Mbps y Gigabit Ethernet: 1 Gbps y 10 Gbps, 100 Gbps

Network access method is Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
y Node first listens to network to see if busy y y Send y Sense if collision occurred y Retransmit if collision

Ethernet media
Bus topology (original design)
y originally thick coax (max 500m): 10Base5 y then then thin coax ( (<200m): 200m): 10Base2 y BNC connector

Star topology (central hub or switch)


y y y y y

8 pit RJ-45 connector, UTP cable, 100 meters range 10BaseT for 10 Mbps 100BaseT for 100 Mbps 1000BaseT for 1 Gbps Cables
y CAT-5: unshielded twisted pair y CAT-5e: designed for 1 Gbps y CAT-6: 23 gauge conductor + separator for handling crosstalk better

Wireless Ethernet media


W l ( Wireless (star topology) l )
y 802.11 (1-2 Mbps) y 802.11b 802 11b (11 Mbps - 4-5 Mbps realized) y 802.11a (54 Mbps - 22-28 Mbps realized) y 802.11g (54 Mbps - 32 Mbps realized) y 802.11n (108 Mbps - 30-47 Mbps realized)

ethernet h

Access Point

Connecting g to the Internet


y DOCSIS modem via cable TV service y DSL router
y Ethernet converted to ATM data stream y Up to 20 Mbps up to ~ 2 km. y POTS limited l d to 300-3400 Hz y DSL operates > 3500 Hz

y Modem
y Data modulated over voice spectrum

(300-3400 Hz) y Serial interface to endpoint y V.92: 48 kbps downstream, near 56 kbps up y Use U PPP or SLIP to b bridge d IP protocol l