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Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements Guidance on the design and construction of in-situ concrete basement structures 8 November 2012
Concrete Basements Guidance on the design and construction of in-situ concrete basement structures 8 November 2012

Guidance on the design and construction of in-situ concrete basement structures

8 November 2012

Charles Goodchild

CEng., MCIOB, MIStructE Principal Structural Engineer The Concrete Centre

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements
Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 2007, issues for concrete basements: – Imminent introduction of the Eurocodes – Withdrawal of

2007, issues for concrete basements:

Imminent introduction of the Eurocodes

Withdrawal of BS 8110, BS 8007 etc

Revision to BS 8102

– ‘Recent’ information:

CIRIA C660

CIRIA C580

ICE Reducing the Risk Guide

Research

Previous references

CIRIA R139/R140

IStructE Design and construction of deep basements

Debate

Recognised need for up-to-date guidance

TCC proposal (with BSI B525/2 encouragement) Nary Narayanan approached and commissioned.

Concrete Basements

Main Authors

Nary Narayanan Clark Smith Partnership Charles Goodchild The Concrete Centre

Steering Group:

Alan Gilbertson Consultant (Chairman) Stuart Alexander WSP; Edwin Bergbaum Waterman; John Caine Curtins; Donal Coughlan Halcrow ; Roger Davies Ramboll ; Graham Hardwick John Doyle ; Bill Hewlett Costain ; Ratnam Kugananthan Laing O’Rourke ; Andy Lyle Capita ; Stuart Marchand Wentworth House; Mahesh Parmar Team 4 Consulting Alan K Tovey The Basement Information Centre ; Robert Vollum Imperial College ; Bjorn Watson SKM Anthony Hunt ; Rod Webster Concrete Innovation and Design ; Derek S Winsor Mott Macdonald ;

Corresponding members: Phil Bamforth The Solution Organisation;

Tony Jones Arup; Deborah Lazurus Arup.

Contributions

Robin Atkinson, Stephen Blundell, John Bungey, Sooren Chinnappa, John Clarke, Peter Goring, John Morrison, Zedi Nyirenda, Duncan Oughton, Ian Whyte & thanks to Andrew Bond.

Duncan Oughton, Ian Whyte & thanks to Andrew Bond. 1 s t full draft April 2008

1 st full draft April 2008

3 full meetings

15 versions/drafts

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements Symbols 1. Introduction 2. Outline of App. B: NA and SLS stresses 9. Design

Symbols

1. Introduction 2. Outline of

App. B: NA and SLS stresses 9. Design for SLS
App. B: NA
and SLS stresses
9. Design for SLS

(26 pp)

8. Design for ULS

App. A:

Design data

References

12. Case studies

11.

Specification

and details

design 3. Planning of basements (17 pp)

4. Ground

movements etc. 5. Selection of materials

6. Structural

design general

10. Worked example (26 pp)

7. Lateral earth pressures (28 pp)

Concrete Basements

2 Outline of the design process

Concrete Basements 2 Outline of the design process 1. 2. Establish Clients requirements Site surveys, etc
1. 2. Establish Clients requirements Site surveys, etc 3. Outline designs, methodology and proposals 4.
1.
2.
Establish Clients
requirements
Site surveys, etc
3. Outline designs,
methodology
and proposals
4. On approval do
detailed design
5. Construction

Concrete Basements

3 Planning a basement:

Grades (BS 8102)

1 basic utility

2 better utility

3 habitable (4) special

Types (BS 8102)

A

Barrier (Membrane) protection

B

Structurally integral protection

C

Drained protection

Forms

RC box

Contiguous/ secant piling Diaphragm

B Structurally integral protection C Drained protection Forms RC box Contiguous/ secant piling Diaphragm
B Structurally integral protection C Drained protection Forms RC box Contiguous/ secant piling Diaphragm

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 3 Planning a basement: Types Type A Barrier protection Type B Structurally integral protection

3 Planning a basement: Types

Concrete Basements 3 Planning a basement: Types Type A Barrier protection Type B Structurally integral protection

Type A Barrier protection

Type B

Structurally integral

protection

Type C Drained protection

Table 3.4 Forms of rc basement construction related to site conditions and use of basement
Table 3.4
Forms of rc basement construction related to site conditions and use of basement space
Likely grade that can be achieved with different levels of vapour exclusion
Water
Form
Method
Water excl-
uding property
Likely
Additional measures
grade
table
Generally
RC box
Open
1
or 2
No additional measures
excavation or
3
(or (4))
Type A or (Type C)
below
– Table 3.4?
in temporary
Good if designed
as Type B to BS
EN 1992-3
lowest
works
Otherwise insufficient
Should be treated as Type A or as Type C.
floor level
Contiguous
Excavated
piling with
1
facing wall
floors act as
Insufficient.
Drained cavity
necessary
extnl.
No additional measures
after piling:
and 2
Designed concrete facing wall c
1
and 2
Drained cavity or int. membrane b
props
3
and (4)
Drained cavity/ membrane b / precautions a
Perman-
RC box
1
or 2
No additional measures
3
ently
In open
excavation -
managing
ground water
Good- if treated
as Type B and
design to BS EN
(or (4))
above
1992-3
External or internal membrane or
drained cavity and active
precautions a
lowest
Secant
Excavated
Insufficient.
Drained cavity
nec. Piling acc-
1
and 2
Drained cavity and internal tanking
basement
piling with
after piling:
3
and 4
floor level
facing wall
floors act as
Drained cavity and/or internal
membrane b and active precautions a
– variable
props
essible for repair
to high
Diaphragm
Excavated
Insufficient.
Drained cavity
necessary. Wall
accessible for
repair
1
and 2
A designed concrete facing wall c
walling
after piling:
1
and 2
Drained cavity and/or membrane
floors act as
props
3
(or (4))
Drained cavity and internal
membrane b and/or precautions a
Direction of increasing cost

Note : Based on CIRIA Report R140 [20] .

Key

a

Active precautions relate to heating and ventilation requirements to achieve the required internal environment.

b

Fully bonded waterproofing membrane applied on the inside face of the structural walls.

c

Facing walls may be designed to BS EN 1992-3, so where integrated with a designed slab form an RC box with the properties

and likely grades indicated for RC boxes above.

Concrete Basements

3 Planning a basement: Other subjects

Concrete Basements 3 Planning a basement: Other subjects • Surveys and ground investigations • Precautions near

Surveys and ground investigations

Precautions near underground tunnels, sewers & service mains

Working adjacent to existing structures: Party walls

Tolerance of buildings to damage

Space planning

Integrating basement with the superstructure

Fire safety considerations

Client approval

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 4 Ground movements and construction methods Construction methods: • Open excavation • Bottom –

4 Ground movements and construction methods

Construction methods:

Open excavation

Bottom up

Top down

Semi-top down

Groundwater

Options for basement walls:

In open excavations: R C walls

Incorporating temporary embedded

retaining walls

o

King post walls

o

Steel sheet piling

o

Contiguous piled wall

o

Secant piled wall

o Diaphragm walls Facing walls

Temporary works

piling o Contiguous piled wall o Secant piled wall o Diaphragm walls  Facing walls Temporary
piling o Contiguous piled wall o Secant piled wall o Diaphragm walls  Facing walls Temporary
piling o Contiguous piled wall o Secant piled wall o Diaphragm walls  Facing walls Temporary

Concrete Basements

5 Selection of materials

Concrete:

Benign soils:

5 Selection of materials Concrete: • Benign soils: RC30/37? Cement IIB-V (CEM I + 21%-35% fly

RC30/37? Cement IIB-V (CEM I + 21%-35% fly ash) or IIIA

(CEM I + 36% - 65% ggbs).

cf C35A?: requirements: C28/35 (equiv) -- WCR 0.55 CC 325 CEM I, IIB-V,)

R C30/3 7: requirements : C30/37

S3 WCR 0.55 CC 300 CEM I, IIA, IIB - S, IIB - V, IIIA, IVB - V B)

Aggressive soils: Advise producer of DC Class. For DC-2: FND-2? (C25/30)? More aggressive soils: Cement IIIB (CEM I + 66% - 80% ggbs) or IIVB-V (CEM I + 36%-55% fly ash)

Car Parks: C32/40? + provisos

Concrete Basements

5 Selection of materials

Waterproofing membranes and systems:

Selection of materials Waterproofing membranes and systems: • Category 1 – Bonded sheet membranes • Category

Category 1 Bonded sheet membranes

Category 2 Cavity drain membranes

Category 3 Bentonite clay active membranes

Category 4 Liquid applied membranes

Category 5 Mastic asphalt membranes

Category 6 Cementitious crystallisation active systems

Category 7 Proprietary cementitious multi-coat

renders, toppings and coatings

Admixtures for watertightness

Water stops at construction joints

Preformed strips rubber, PVC, black steel

Water-swellable water stops

Cementitious crystalline water stops

Miscellaneous post-construction techniques

(Re) injectable water bars

Rebate and sealant

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 6 Structural design – general Options for basement slabs • Soil-structure interaction • Beams

6 Structural design general

Options for basement slabs

Soil-structure interaction

Beams on elastic foundations

FEA

Options for basement walls

Temporary conditions: construction method and sequence

Permanent condition

Loads to be considered:

Slabs: column & wall loads, basement slab load, upward water pressure, heave.

Walls, lateral earth pressure, water pressure, compaction, loads from superstructure, imbalances.

Design ground water pressure

Normal’ and ‘maximum’ levels

Unplanned excavations

Allowances for cantilever retaining systems

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 7 Calculation of lateral earth pressures Angle of shearing resistance: • Granular soils: Estimated

7 Calculation of lateral earth pressures

Angle of shearing resistance:

Granular soils:

Estimated peak effective angle of shearing resistance

max = 30 + A + B + C

Clay soils

In the long term, clays behave as granular soils

exhibiting friction

and dilation.

(A - Angularity, B - Grading, C - N blows)

the long term, clays behave as granular soils exhibiting friction and dilation. (A - Angularity, B

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 7 Calculation of lateral earth pressures Examples: 1. Active pressures 2. At-rest pressures 3.

7 Calculation of lateral earth pressures

Examples:

1. Active pressures

2. At-rest pressures

3. Surcharge from imposed loads

4. Surcharge from pad foundation

5. Compaction

pressures

pressures 2. At-rest pressures 3. Surcharge from imposed loads 4. Surcharge from pad foundation 5. Compaction

Concrete Basements

8 Design for Ultimate Limit State EQU Equilibrium Limit State

for Ultimate Limit State EQU – Equilibrium Limit State STR & GEO – Structural and geotechnical

STR & GEO Structural and geotechnical Limit States

Combinations 1 and 2

and geotechnical Limit States • Combinations 1 and 2 • g F for ground water o

g F for ground water

o

Normal g F = 1.35

o

Most unfavourable g F = 1.20

Structural design

o

As ‘normal’ elements

o

3D nature of design

Concrete Basements

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

Control of cracking

for Serviceability Limit State ≡ Control of cracking 9.1 Causes of cracking and general principles of

9.1

Causes of cracking and general principles of crack control

9.2

General principles of crack control and minimum reinforcement

9.3

Sequence for verification of cracking

9.4

Test for restraint cracking

9.5

Minimum reinforcement

9.6

Crack widths and watertightness

9.7

Crack width calculations

9.8

Crack control without direct calculation

9.9

Deflection control

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.1 Causes of cracking and general principles of

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

9.1 Causes of cracking and general principles of crack control:

9.1.1 Early thermal effects

9.1.2 Autogenous and drying shrinkage

9.1.3 Restraints

9.1.4 Cracking due to restraint (early thermal and shrinkage

effects)

9.1.5 Cracking due to flexure

9.1.6 Cracking due to combinations of restraint and loading

Assumed that target limiting crack widths will give satisfactory performance

9.2 General principles of crack control and minimum reinforcement

Provision of minimum reinforcement does not guarantee any specific crack width. It is simply a necessary amount presumed by models to control cracking; but not necessarily a sufficient amount to limit actual crack widths.

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.3 Sequence for verification of cracking 8 Design

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

9.3 Sequence for verification of cracking

8

Design for ULS

9.4

Check whether section is likely to crack

9.5

Check minimum reinforcement

9.6

Determine limiting crack width

9.7

Calculate crack width

9.7.1 Crack width and crack spacing, w k = s r,max cr

Crack inducing strain:

9.7.2

cr due to edge restraint and early thermal effects.

9.7.3

cr due to edge restraint and long term effects

9.7.4

cr due to end restraint

9.7.5

cr due to flexure (and applied tension)

9.7.6

cr due to a combination of restraint and loading

 c r due to flexure (and applied tension) 9.7.6  c r due to a

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.4 Test for restraint cracking A section will

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

9.4 Test for restraint cracking A section will crack if:

r =

R ax free

=

K[([c T 1 +ca )R 1 + ([c T 2 R 2 )+ cd R 3 ]

ctu

where

K

=

allowance for creep

 

=

0.65 when R is calculated using CIRIA C660

 

=

1.0 when R is calculated using BS EN 1992-3

c

 

=

coefficient of thermal expansion (See CIRIA C660 for values). See Table A6 for typical values

T 1

 

=

difference between the peak temperature of concrete during hydration and ambient

 

temperature °C (See CIRIA C660). Typical values are noted in Table A7

ca

 

=

Autogenous shrinkage strain value for early age (3 days: see Table A9)

R

1 ,

R 2 ,

=

restraint factors. See Section A5.6 For edge restraint from Figure L1 of BS EN 1992-3 for short- and long-term thermal and long- term drying situations. For base-wall restraint they may be calculated in accordance with CIRIA C660. Figure L1 may be used with CIRIA C660 methods providing an adjustment for creep is made (See Figure A2 and note). For end restraint, where the restraint is truly rigid 1.0 is most often used, for instance in infill bays. This figure might be overly pessimistic for piled slabs.

This figure might be overly pessimistic for piled slabs. R 3 T 2 = long-term drop

R

3

T 2 = long-term drop in temperature after concreting, °C. T 2 depends on the ambient temperature during concreting. The recommended values from CIRIA C660 for T 2 are 20°C for concrete cast in the summer and 10°C for concrete cast in winter. These figures are based on HA BD 28/87 [60] based on monthly air temperatures for exposed bridges. Basements are likely to follow soil temperatures so T 2 = 12°C may be considered appropriate at depth.

cd

ctu

= drying shrinkage strain, dependent on ambient RH, cement content and member size (see BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp. (3.9) or CIRIA C660 or Table A10). CIRIA C660 alludes to 45% RH for internal conditions and 85% for external conditions.

= tensile strain capacity may be obtained from Eurocode 2 or CIRIA C660 for both short term and long term values

Concrete Basements

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.5 Minimum reinforcement where A s,min = k

9.5 Minimum reinforcement

where

A s,min = k c k A ct (f ct,eff /f yk )

k

c

=

A

coefficient to account for stress distribution.

 

=

1.0 for pure tension. When cracking first occurs the cause is usually early thermal effects and the whole section is likely to be in tension.

k

=

A

coefficient to account for self-equilibrating stresses

=

1.0 for thickness h < 300 mm and 0.65 for h > 800 mm (interpolation allowed for thicknesses between 300 mm and 800 mm).

A

ct

=

area of concrete in the tension zone just prior to onset of cracking. A ct is determined from section properties but generally for basement slabs and walls is most often based on full thickness of the section.

f

ct,eff

==

f

ctm

mean tensile strength when cracking may be first expected to occur:

for early thermal effects 3 days

for long-term effects, 28 days (which considered to be a reasonable approximation) See Table A5 for typical values.

f

yk

=

characteristic yield strength of the reinforcement.

=

500 MPa

[1] CIRIA C660 Recent research [61] would suggest that a factor of 0.8 should be applied to f ct,eff in the formula for crack inducing strain due to end restraint. This factor accounts for long-term loading, in-situ strengths compared with laboratory

strengths and the fact that the concrete will crack at its weakest point. TR 59 [62] concludes that the tensile strength of concrete subjected to sustained tensile stress reduces with time to 6070% of its instantaneous value.

The area of reinforcement obtained using this value may well

need increasing during the remaining design process

Concrete Basements

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

9.6 Crack widths and watertightness

Table 9.2 Tightness Classes

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.6 Crack widths and watertightness Table 9.2 Tightness
Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.6 Crack widths and watertightness Table 9.2 Tightness

Concrete Basements

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

9.6 Crack widths and watertightness

Tightness Classes- notes:

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.6 Crack widths and watertightness Tightness Classes- notes:
Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.6 Crack widths and watertightness Tightness Classes- notes:

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.6 Crack widths and watertightness -recommendations Table 9.4

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

9.6 Crack widths and watertightness -recommendations

Table 9.4 Summary of crack width recommendations

 

Construction

Expected performance of

Crack width requirement

Tight

 

w k mm

 

type a and water

-ness

Flex-

Restraint/

table

structure

Class

ural

axial

w

k,max [9]

w

k,1 [10]

A

Structure itself is not considered watertight

Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 1992-3. See Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for RC structure

0

0.30

0.30

e

B

high

Structure is almost watertight

Design to Tightness class 1 of BS EN 1992-3. See Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for flexural cracks but 0.2 mm to 0.05 mm for cracks that pass through the section

1

0.30

b

0.05 to

permanently high water table

 

0.20

 

(wrt h d /h)

B

variable

Structure is almost watertight

Design to Tightness class 1 of BS EN 1992-3. See Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for flexural cracks but 0.2 mm for cracks that pass through the section

1

c

0.30 b

0.20

fluctuating water table

 

B

low d

Structure is watertight

Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 1992-3. See Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for RC structures

0

c

0.30

0.30

 

under normal conditions.

 

water table permanently below underside of slab

Some risk under

 

exceptional conditions.

C

Structure itself is not considered watertight

Design to Tightness class 0 of BS EN 1992-3. See Table 9.2. Generally 0.3 mm for RC structure.

0

0.30

0.30

e

Design to Tightness Class 1 may be helpful for

 

construction type C

(1) c

(0.3)

(0.05 to 0.20 or 0.20)

Key b Where the section is not fully cracked) the neutral axis depth at SLS should be at least x min (where x min > max {50 mm or 0.2 × section thickness}) and variations in strain should be less than 150 × 10 6 .

Concrete Basements

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

9.7

Crack width calculations

9.7.1

Crack width, w k = s r,max cr

where

Crack width, w k = s r , m a x  c r where s

s r,max = Maximum crack spacing = 3.4c + 0.425 (k 1 k 2 /p,eff )

where

 
 

c

=

nominal cover, c nom

 

k

1

=

0.8

 

(CIRIA C660 suggests 1.14)

 

k 2

=

1.0

for tension (e.g. from restraint)

=

0.5

for bending

=

(1 + 2 )/21 for combinations of bending and tension

 

=

 

diameter of the bar in mm.

 

p,eff

=

A s /A c,eff

A c,eff for each face of a wall is based on 0.5h; 2.5(c + 0.5); (h x)/3where

h

= thickness of section

x

= depth to neutral axis.

cr

= Crack-inducing strain

= (Restrained strain effect of crack formation) over 2 debonding lengths

= (Mean strain in steel mean strain in concrete) over 2 debonding lengths

.

= (cs - cm

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Concrete Basements

Consider a crack in a section:

Concrete Basements Consider a crack in a section: S S S S 0 0 0 0
S S S S 0 0 0 0 Plan (or section) Strain in reinforcement ε
S
S
S
S
0
0
0
0
Plan (or section)
Strain in reinforcement
ε
ε
s
s
εsm
εsm
Strain
 sm -  cm
ε
ε
ctu
c
c
εcm
εcm
εε == 00
Strain in concrete
s r,max
s
r,max

w k = s r,max cr

Concrete Basements

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

cr

= Crack-inducing strain

=

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

c r = Crack-inducing strain = . . . . . . . . . .

9.7.2

Early age crack-inducing strain cr = K[c T 1 +ca R 1 0.5 ctu

9.7.3

Long term crack-inducing strain cr = K[([c T 1 +ca )R 1 + ([c T 2 R 2 )+ cd R 3 ] 0.5 ctu

9.7.4

End restraint crack-inducing strain cr = 0.5e k c kf ct,eff [1 + (1/e )/E s

9.7.5

Flexural (and applied tension) crack-inducing strain

cr = ( sm cm ) = [ s k t (f ct,eff / p,eff ) (1 + e p,eff /E s

cr 0.6 (s )/E s

Concrete Basements

9 Design for Serviceability Limit State

Concrete Basements 9 Design for Serviceability Limit State 9.8 Crack control without direct calculation  

9.8

Crack control without direct calculation

 

don’t do it!

9.9

Deflection control

 

As ‘normal’ design

9.10

Minimising the risk of cracking

9.10.1 Materials use cement replacements, aggregates with low ac, avoid high strength concretes

9.10.2 Construction construct at low temperatures, use GRP or steel formwork, sequential pours

9.10.3 Detailing use small bars at close centres, avoid movement joints, prestress?

Concrete Basements

10 Worked Example

Concrete Basements 10 Worked Example

Concrete Basements

10 Worked Example

Concrete Basements 10 Worked Example Commentary: In slab 53T : end restraint critical In walls 10T:
Concrete Basements 10 Worked Example Commentary: In slab 53T : end restraint critical In walls 10T:

Commentary:

In slab 53T : end restraint critical

In walls 10T: edge restraint critical Iterations required/ refinements: f ct,eff , e , ct = 0.8, end restraint, concrete, construction methodology Use CIRIA C660 rather than BS EN 1992-3

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements 11 Specification and construction details 11.1 Specification: • BS EN 13670 • NSCS /

11 Specification and construction details

11.1 Specification:

BS EN 13670

NSCS / NBS

ICE specification for piling and embedded retaining walls

11.2 Joints

Construction joints

Water stops

11.3 Miscellaneous

Preformed strips PVC, black steel

Water-swellable water stops

Kickers

(Re) injectable epoxy water bars

Formwork ties

Membranes & coatings

Admixtures & additives

Service penetrations

Drainage

Underpinning

& additives • Service penetrations • Drainage • Underpinning 11.4 Inspection, remedials & maintenance

Concrete Basements

12 Case studies

Concrete Basements 12 Case studies
Concrete Basements 12 Case studies

Concrete Basements

References

Concrete Basements References
Concrete Basements References

Concrete Basements

Appendix A: Design data

Concrete Basements Appendix A: Design data A1 Combination factors A2 Design angle of shearing resistance A3

A1

Combination factors

A2

Design angle of shearing resistance

A3

Pressure coefficients K ad and K pd

A4

Bending moment coefficients for rectangular plates

A5

Design data for crack width formulae

A5.1

f ctm (f ct,eff ), mean tensile strengths of concretes

A5.2

c , coefficient of thermal expansion

A5.3

T 1 , difference between the peak temperature of concrete during hydration and ambient temperature °C

A5.4

ca , autogenous shrinkage strain

A5.5

cd , drying shrinkage strain

A5.6

R, restraint factors

A5.7

ctu , tensile strain capacity of concrete

A5.8 Moduli of elasticity of concrete Ecm and modular ratio, a e

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements Appendix B: Neutral Axes and SLS stresses B1 Neutral axis at SLS (cracked section

Appendix B: Neutral Axes and SLS stresses

B1

Neutral axis at SLS (cracked section and no axial stress)

B2

SLS stresses in concrete, σ c and reinforcement, σ s (cracked section and no axial stress)

B2.1

Singly reinforced section

B2.2

Doubly reinforced section

B3

SLS stresses in concrete, σ c , and in reinforcement, σ s due to flexure and axial load (cracked section)

B3 SLS stresses in concrete, σ c , and in reinforcement, σ s due to flexure

Concrete Basements

Concrete Basements This guide covers the design and construction of reinforced concrete basements and is in
Concrete Basements This guide covers the design and construction of reinforced concrete basements and is in

This guide covers the design and construction of reinforced concrete basements and is in accordance with the Eurocodes.

The aim of the guide is to assist designers of concrete basements of modest depth, i.e. not exceeding 10 metres. It will also prove relevant to designers of other underground

structures. It brings together in one

publication the salient features for the design and construction of such water- resisting structures.

The guide has been written for generalist structural engineers who have a basic understanding of soil mechanics.

Concrete

Basements

Guidance on the design and

construction of in-situ concrete

basement structures

Thank you

Concrete Basements Guidance on the design and construction of in-situ concrete basement structures Thank you
Concrete Basements Guidance on the design and construction of in-situ concrete basement structures Thank you
Concrete Basements Guidance on the design and construction of in-situ concrete basement structures Thank you