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Aung Kyaw Moe / Task 10 - Humanitarian Aid and Supply Chain

To: Date: RE: Francois Damba
28 May 2013


Dear Francois,
I have been informed that Water distribution to the refugees in the 5 Camps is currently carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture water section, supported by UNPF. As part of the contingency planning for the hurricane and to release local government resources to focus on the hurricane response, UNIRP has requested that SCILaid plan to take over water distribution to the refugees. We need to contribute to preparing a plan of how we would support this programme. Here I would like to make my presentation in two parts: first for the linkage between logistics and programmatic activities in water distribution and the second is about the actual coordination and implementation of water distribution in the area.

INVOLVEMENT OF LOGISTICS IN THE WATER DISTRIBUTION Helping Programme Staff to design the Programme In order to support the Water distribution programme we should start thinking about the programme design. This involves contributing our past logistics and supply chain knowledge and experiences into the assessment of the situation and to the feasibility and costing of logistical activities. Since the cost of logistics is a large percentage of the total cost of the operation of a particular programme, costing is very important aspect of running a programme. We can get information related with costing from the following sources: Price Lists Quarterly or Bi-annually updated Quotation and Bid Files Procurement/Purchase Orders and Contract files Payment request/Invoices

Financial data from Finance Section Supplier Catalogues/ Brochures/Pamphlets Service Advertisement in Supply related journals/magazines Phone Enquiry of Prices at various Suppliers On-line/Internet Price Browsing

As Supply and Logistics staff, we need to be involved in both the initial assessment and also in the plan of action for implementation of this water distribution programme. In this feeding information to the programme staff, we should include: Technical Specification of product to procure Sourcing of Goods, from local and international markets Estimated Lead-Times per each kind of items

We should ensure to support the logistics aspects of the water distribution programme to our program colleagues in discussion with them as early as possible and that feasibility of the programme. Movement of Goods and Machinery There are two kinds of movement involved in supporting water distribution programme. The first one is that of moving essential goods such as water purification tablets, water container and jerry cans, chlorine/bleaching powder and other water programme related materials. Another one is that of moving machinery and equipment for construction or reconstruction of water wells and water distribution pipe network, etc. Most usual items for movement in the water distribution programme are as follows: Drilling Machinery if needed to make new tube well Dewatering pumps and submersible pumps Hand Pumps, Pipes and fittings Water Containers, Bladders and Jerrycans Water Testing Kits such as Conductivimeters, pH meters and Oxymeters Fe Test Kits and Arsenic Test Kits Culture Medium Cold Storage facilities Water Purification Materials/ Chlorine Vehicles and Spare parts and Generators and Spare parts

Movement of Staff and People A Water distribution programme needs a lot of people to be involved with such as water and sanitation engineers, hygiene education programme managers, and other

ancillary workers. We may also be required to manage and control beneficiaries queuing at distribution centres in the water distribution process. Sometimes, we might also need to help people from other organizations for moving their staff. This might involve setting up a fleet operation or organising to transport medical teams to temporary clinics or distribution centres. In this regard, we must prepare to take action for the following things: Planning in advance for all transportation and discuss with the program staff about their needs Get ready for all vehicles in vehicle fleets by proper maintenances and repairs Instruct Drivers to fill Log Books and follows the in-house transport rules Stock enough fuels and lubricant, spare parts and other necessities for vehicle Keep communication devices such as Handsets and VHF radios in workable condition Coordinate

There might be transportation of patients requiring medical help or the moving of people for safety and security reasons, so we need to meet these medical emergencies situation. CO-ORDINATION OF ALL SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TO THE WATER DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMME Priority action checklist for our water distribution programme is as follows: Conduct a rapid need assessment of the beneficiaries. Contact government and partners to assess water and environmental sanitation needs. Provide technical support to Betaland government and partners in siting new camps or the displaced and in the layout of water and sanitation facilities. Assess staffing requirements and recruit accordingly (both from internal and external HR) Arrange for adequate funding, following SCILAID financial guidelines. Ensure safe drinking water. Organize local action if needed, such as trucking in water. Provide adequate family water kits, water purification supplies and other supplies for household-level sanitation. Based on demographic data, calculate water collection and storage needs and provide adequate jerrycans or appropriate alternatives. Promote hygiene by providing soap and issuing messages on preventing and treating diarrhoea, cholera and shigellosis. Identify and provide suitable latrine facilities. Facilitate safe excreta and solid waste disposal. Water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies People in emergency situations are generally much more predisposed to illness and death from disease often caused by a lack of sanitation, inadequate water

supplies and poor hygiene practices. Diarrhoea and infectious diseases transmitted from faeces to mouth are the most well-known diseases resulting from poor water and sanitation. Therefore, water and sanitation are critical for survival in the initial stages of an emergency. The main objective of water supply and sanitation programmes in emergencies in Betaland is to reduce the transmission of diseases from faeces to mouth through the promotion of good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water and the reduction of health risks related to poor sanitation. SCILAIDs role and partners During emergencies, SCILAID is committed to meeting beneficiaries rights to water and sanitation, whether directly or through implementing partners. SCILAID is often called upon to take the lead on behalf of the UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in water, sanitation and hygiene programmes in emergency situations. In this, it is responsible for coordinating the work of the various UN agencies to see that essential needs are met and for supporting related government institutions to coordinate the emergency response whenever the UN and other implementing partners are involved. Although SCILAIDs water and sanitation role in emergencies varies from country to country, its direct contribution is typically to: Restoration of water sources. Trucking water in if necessary. Provision of technical expertise to ensure rapid response standards and policy guidelines are followed. Provide water containers and water purification mechanisms. Endowment of latrines and sanitation services. Make sure that hygiene and sanitation supplies are available. Prepare and disseminate information on safe water, sanitation and hygiene. Order additional supplies and equipment and oversee their distribution and use. Monitor and follow through with implementing partners

Safe drinking water In emergencies situations, clean, safe water for drinking, cooking and for personal hygiene is very essential to ensuring health and well-being, especially of children and women. The following steps give a general frame of implementation of what needs to be done. During the time of hurricane emergency, we should provide sufficient supplies of safe water for feeding centres, communal kitchens, health clinics, etc., and train staff to prevent contamination. We should also facilitate the provision of minimum quantities of safe water for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene to those affected, displaced or not, as long as supply mechanisms are disrupted. In addition, suitable containers for collecting and storing water are basic requirement for that situation and we must provide some quantity to the community.

If contamination is suspected or diarrhoea is present we should immediately facilitate bacteriological water testing. We must also promote conservation of available supplies and recycling help community monitoring of the condition and use of water and sanitation facilities. Since pumps are the major water points in the area, we must keep all pumps and delivery systems working in a good way. With Hurricane, there may be some danger of flood and if wells are reduced or insufficient. We should be preparing for the following list of things to do: 1. Collect rainwater where possible this is the first option if it rains. 2. Deepen existing wells and sink new wells where appropriate. Sometimes, the surface water is reduced or dried up. In this case we must protect and conserve available surface water by controlling access and constructing small dams, retention pits, etc. If wells are blocked, damaged or contaminated we should clean or re-sink when possible, then pump out and disinfect. Build replacements if needed. If piped distribution systems have been damaged, set up standpipes and/or distribution tanks as immediate, temporary measures Repair and disinfect system based on expert surveys. If available water is unsafe, collect rainwater where possible. Search for alternative sources (especially groundwater).Treat unsafe water until better-quality water is available. Some important points to consider (1) The minimum water requirement for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene in any household is 15 litres per person per day. (2) Springs may be considered as an alternative supply. In most cases only disinfection is required. (3) (In accordance with WHO standard) it is the presence of faecal coliforms (bacteria that reside in the colon) in a water supply that shows it has been contaminated by human or animal faeces. Concentrations are usually expressed per 100 ml of water. The following benchmarks are just for a rough guide: 010 faecal coliforms/100 ml = reasonable quality 10100 faecal coliforms/100 ml = polluted 1001,000 faecal coliforms/100 ml = dangerous 1,000 faecal coliforms/100 ml = very dangerous Family water kit We should prepare Family Water Kits in advance. The rapid distribution of family water kits can help families have water that is safe for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene in the first days and weeks after an emergency hits. The family water kit is good for 10 families for one month. It is one of the key emergency supplies. A Family Water Kit contains: 1. 10 litre collapsible container 2. 14 litres bucket with lid(HDPE) 3. Wrapped 100gm soap bar 4. 33 mg water purification Tablet (50 tab per pack) 20 pcs 10 pcs 50 pcs 10 pkt

Important things to do We should carefully calculate the number of family water kits needed, based on an

estimate of the number of affected families and find out how many family water kits have been stocked by the our office in Dhetra or are otherwise available to be purchased in the Betaland local market, the SCILAID regional office or regional supply hubs. If they are not yet available in the local language, have instructions for using the kit translated into the local language and printed at low cost. It is very important to develop locally appropriate family water kits in preparedness. What to be emphasized here is that Instructions for using the kit, in the local language or using pictographs can be developed and printed ahead of time, along with key hygiene messages. Trucking water To fulfil a communitys water needs during an emergency Trucking water (also called water tankering) should be considered a short-term solution, to be used only as long as it takes to pipe water in, develop other sources or move the population. However, it is sometimes the only way to ensure that people have safe drinking water, and is often unavoidable in the early stages of an emergency or when a population is mobile. Water tankers from the military, fire services, dairies or bottled drink factories, including breweries can be temporarily utilized for that purpose. Important things to do We should carefully calculate the amount of water the target population needs. Given normal minimum requirements of 15 litres per person per day, for example, a population of 1,000 would need 15,000 litres per day. Another thing is to identify available water, milk or other tankers, or flatbed trucks that can be made into tankers by fitting them with bladder or rigid tanks. Here the important point is to choose the most reliable tankers and drivers available. Enough quantity of drivers is made to be available to cover absence for sickness and breaks. The below mentioned points should be implemented for smooth and fast transport of water by trucking: Provide a tank at the destination so that tankers can discharge rapidly. Provide hard and well-drained surfaces at tanker filling and discharge points, as well as enough space for tankers to wait in line and turn around. Provide pumps for filling and emptying tankers rapidly. Chlorinate water in tankers during filling and monitor free chlorine residual during discharge.

In the large scale emergency situation, just a single load of a water tanker with a capacity of 8,000 litres can meet the normal minimum requirements (15 litres) of 500 people for a single day. But we must keep in our view that trucking water can be expensive and impractical and should be avoided if there is another cheaper and workable option. Moreover, Water trucking is an option only if there are good or serviceable roads and it can be easily disrupted by insecurity, strikes and bad road conditions. Certain destinations must be prioritized for delivery to community services (hospitals, health posts and schools), then only water should be delivered to public distribution points.

Treating water at Household level There are two main reasons of purifying water: (1) to remove, as much as possible, contaminating solids (by the process of precipitation, coagulation and filtration), and (2) to remove or destroy (through disinfecting) disease-causing organisms in the water. We should have to providing bleach, chlorine and water purification tablets as well as instructions for their use at the onset of the Hurricane emergency to help refugee families quickly obtain water that is safe for drinking, cooking and hygiene. The water purification tablets or powders can be used for treatment at the household level in the early days of an emergency, while longer-term solutions are being put in place later. When flood induced by Hurricane comes, surface water is particularly prone to be dirty and almost always needs to be treated. If the water source is clean (clear, not dirty), only disinfection is necessary. Important things to do We must prepare to do the following things Estimate the number of families who may need household purification supplies. Order and distribute SCILaid family water kit (or its locally designed equivalent) if it can be made available quickly. The family water kit contains the necessary water purification supplies, including containers and tablets. One family water kit is good for 10 families for one month. If family water kits are not available, estimate the number of water purification tablets or Chlor-Floc sachets that are needed. Confirm specific quantities of water that can be purified per dose based on instructions for the actual product used. Procure the products locally or internationally.

Most people are not accustomed to using water disinfection products, it is very important to provide written in local language or pictogram instructions along with oral instructions and information. Bleaching powder and chlorine tablets will only disinfect the water; they will not remove solids whereas Chlor-Floc sachets are capable of purifying water, disinfecting and removing solids. All water purifying chemicals and solutions should be stored in tightly closed containers made of dark glass, ceramic or plastic (not metal) and kept in a cool and dark place. We have to set up some cold storage for keeping culture medium for testing water quality intact. Collecting and storing water at the household level In emergencies like hurricane, SCILAID is committed to providing jerrycans (or suitable alternatives such as plastic buckets or barrels) to affected beneficiaries families who need a way to collect and store water for washing, cooking and bathing.

Each household/family should have at least two clean water collection containers of 1020 litres, plus enough clean water storage containers to ensure there is always water in the household. The amount of storage capacity required depends on the size of the household and the consistency of water availability. At least we need to provide a storage capacity of approximately four litres per person would be appropriate for situations where there is a constant daily supply. Important things to do Calculate the number of families who are in need of water collection and storage containers based on demographic data or rough population estimates of the number of refugees (In refugee camp setting of Betaland, whichever agency is in charge of setting up or running the camp should have a working estimate of the number of families and total population of the camp.) If some people who are still living at home but affected by the hurricane, the local authorities of Betaland should know how many families are being targeted. Ensure that each beneficiarys family has at least two water collection containers of 1020 litres. Provide rigid high-density polyethylene tanks (capacity of 5002,000 litres) which are useful for water storage at community, school and health posts. Water containers should be covered and all hygiene protocols must be ensured to follow. Cups or other utensils should not be dipped into disinfected water.

Coordination with other Agencies Finally, the keyword for the success of any programmatic activity is Coordination. We need to fully coordinate within SCILaid and with other humanitarian agencies working in Betaland. Linking every aspect of logistics and programmatic implementation, sharing knowledge and information and helping each other make the running of water distribution programme proper and smooth.

Best Regards, Aung Kyaw Moe Logistics Officer Sub-Office (SCILaid Betaland)