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Boiler efficiency is defined as the heat added to the working fluid expressed as a percentage of heat in fuel being burnt. The theoretical limit to boiler efficiency is 100% unlike in case of turbo generator, whose efficiency is limited by cycle efficiency. Boiler heat only because it would be extremely difficult and not a paying proposition to recover it all. Thus maximum boiler efficiency is thought in terms of an optimum efficiency, which depends on fuel being burnt and the fact that waste products of combustion take away heat with them. Boiler efficiency depends solely on the boilers ability to burn the fuel and transfer the resulting heat to water and steam. The pressure and steam, although profoundly altering cycle efficiency and turbine efficiency, have no material effect on boiler efficiency. The boiler efficiency will depend to great extent on the skill of their designing but there is no fundamental reason for any difference between a high pressure boiler and a low pressure boiler or between a reheat and non-reheat. Generally speaking a large boiler would be expected to be more efficient than small boiler, and as increase in pressure and temperature have developed; it has been accompanied by an increase in size. So there might be tendency to think that higher efficiency of most modern boiler is due to advance steam cycle condition where as it is infect attributable to increase in physical size and improvement in the art of boiler making in general fuel burning in particular. A boiler, however must be able to meet the following design requirements : Be able to produce steam at required temperature and pressure over an appreciable range load take in feed at a temperature which varies with turbine load. Be capable of following changes in demand for steam without excessive pressure swing. Be reliable with high availability


THE DIRECT METHOD :- This method is straight forward and consist measuring in heat supplied to the boiler and heat added to the steam in the boiler in a given time. Efficiency (for non R.H. units) = (Enthalpy of steam Enthalpy of feed water) Steam Flow Quantity of coal Calorific Value = WS [ CpS (T T0) + L - CpW (T0 t) ] Mf C.V.

Where WS = steam flow rate CpS = specific heat of steam T T0 L T = S.H. steam temperature = saturation temperature of steam = latent heat of conversion = feed water inlet temperature

Mf = fuel burning rate CV = calorific value of fuel CpW = specific heat of steam The trouble with this method is that several of these quantities are difficult to measure particularly coal quantity, the steam quantity and CV of coal, the error in measuring is regaining popularity and is used more frequently because of simplicity and advance made in measurement techniques. THE LOSSES METHOD :Efficiency = 100% - losses

Thus if losses are known, the efficiency can be derived easily. An important advantage of this method is that the errors in measurement do not make significant changes in efficiency. Thus if boiler efficiency is 90% an error of 1% in direct method will result significant changes in efficiency. 90 0.9 = 89.1 to 90.9 In direct method, 1% error in measurement of losses, will result in Efficiency = 100 (10 + 1) = 90 0.1 = 89.9 to 90.1 Clearly the tolerance is narrow in losses method. BOILER LOSSES :1. Dry flue gas loss. 2. Wet flue gas loss (loss due to moisture in fuel and due to moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen in fuel). 3. Moisture in combustion air loss. 4. Unburnt carbon loss-carbon in ash loss. 5. Unburnt gas loss-due to incomplete combustion of carbon. 6. Radiation and unaccount losses. DRY FLUE GAS LOSS :This is the heat lost in the dry component of the gases, as these are discharged from the chimney at a temperature considerably higher than atmospheric temperature. Carbon and sulphur are the constituents in fuel that produces dry flue gas. Let us ignore S for the moment. Now C can burn to form CO2 or CO so the only gases in the dry flue gas will be CO2, CO, O2 and N2 the last two coming from combustion air. Now total wt. of dry products = mass of C in flue gas dry products per kg of C Therefore dry flue gas per kg of C = / / // Total dry products Mass of C in flue gases

/ // // The dry flue gas loss depends on two factors 1. Excess air 2. Air heater gas outlet temperature Both these factors are to be considered extent under the control of the operator. Excess air is the quantity of the air required to be fed over the theoretical amount of air required for complete combustion. This is required because with the theoretical air it is not possible to have all the O2 molecules come in contact with fuel particle at the right time resulting in poor combustion. If too little excess air supplied, fuel is not completely burnt, if too much quantity of air is supplied, the being carried up in the stack will be greater than the normal quantities. N2 which constitutes about 79% of the air merely a passenger, it requires fan power and carries away heat. The changes in the dry flue gas loss with excess air. Air infiltration should be controlled to limit this loss. Air in leakage apart from lowering boiler efficiency also affects performance of ESPs and increases ID fan loading. Air heater gas outlet temp. the air heater gas outlet temp. should be lowest from the point of overall efficiency, on the other hand this temp. is required to be high on account of corrosion. For Indian outlaws having low percentage of sculpture. The specified all gas outlet temperature is of the order of 130C. High heater air gas temperature reduces boiler efficiency drastically. Boiler operation should be aimed minimizing the causes if high gas exits temperature, which could be due to elements. A particular problem at cold end plates because of corrosion reduces A/II heat transfer surface. Cause of high gas temperature at air heater outlet Lack of soot blowing Deposits on boiler heat transfer surfaces. High excess air. Low final feed temperature.

Higher elevation burners and in service at low load. Defective and by pass damper, causing gas short some heat transfer surfaces. Improper combustion. Low final feed heater temperature- this result in boiler being supplied with more fuel for a given outlet. Poor milling plants performance-incorrect PA/SA ratio causing delayed combustion. Air recalculation- reduces the heat removed from the flue gas. Low lineage before the combustion chamber. Low air heater gas outlet temperature Though in the short run, low gas outlet temperature improves efficiency,

in the long run it can result in low boiler efficiency because of deposited in its elements and corrosion. The deposited material may also cause loss of availability and reduction in heat transfer in the air heater. Cause of low air heater gas outlet temperature and remedies :Most obvious cause lighting and fact that under most condition oil firing is necessary for initial light up. The most remedy is to by pass the air heater until the gas temperature is high enough to permit normal operation. During periods of prolonged low firing rates Combustion is inefficient and consequently un-burnt combustible matter can collect on the air heater plates. Under suitable conditions, these materials can be ignited and an air heater fire results causing destruction air heater elements air heater temperature high alarms claims are now fitted to given an early warning. Another reason for low gas temperature is air leakage air across air heater seals. The rate leakage varies with the square root of the differential pressure across the square heater. Thus anything which increase air side pressure or reduces the gas side pressure will increase the air leakage across a heater. With seals in good condition, air leakage results in a drop of carbon dioxide of about 1% from inlet to outlet.

WET FLUE GAS LOSS a) Due to moisture in fuel :- Moisture that enters the combustion as part of fuel cause a heat loss because it must be heated from its initial temperature to leave boiler temperature to boiling point, then evaporated and finally super to leave boiler at the same temperature as flue gases. This loss is about 0.5 to 1%. Heatless per kg moisture in fuel = Cpw (100 1) + LII + Cps (t 100) = 4.2 (100 - 1) + 225 + 2 (T 100) = (2477 + 2T 4.2t) kj/kg = m (2477 + 2T 2.2t), M being moisture per kg fuel Where Cpw = specific heat of water = 4.2 kj/kg I, II is latent heat of vaporization at atmospheric pressure = -2257 kj/kg Cps = Mean specific heat of superheated steam at atmospheric pressure = kj/kg A part from this loss moisture also affects milling plants and consequently boiler efficiency. CARBON IN ASH LOSS :=A C 33820 kj/kg fuel 100

Where C% carbon in dry ash A-Mass of ash per kg fuel 33820- C.V. of carbon burnt to CO2 in kj/kg This loss depends on the fineness of pulverized fuel, excess air, and the combustion is not monitored properly the loss, which is normally about 1%, may be as high as 4-5%. This loss will be less if p.f. fineness is increased. However a limit is reached when extra cost of grinding is more than the reduction in loss optimum fineness is 70% through 200 mesh for medium volatile coals and 85% for down volatile and with more than 10% being retained in 150 (100 mesh) serve. Causes of high carbon in ash are :1. Coarse grinding

2. Mal adjustment of flame 3. Unequal loading of different mills 4. Incorrect P.A. air temperature Low temperature causes condensation and high temperature causes caking, both resulting in blocking of coal pipes. The causes of coarse grinding for a medium speed section mill of lopulco type include :1. Mill in need of adjustment e.g. rolls too far off the table, spring tension insufficient etc. 2. Exhauster speed too high relative to coal feed. 3. Weal fuel/air mixture i.e. high P.A. 4. Excessive air in leakage to mill. 5. Separator speed too low. Causes of low carbon in ash (Over grinding) 1. Exhauster speed too low. 2. Mill in need of adjustment e.g. rolls too low, spring tension too high. 3. Mill table dam ring too high. 4. Rich fuel/air mixture i.e. less P.A. 5. Separator speed too high. UNBURNT GAS LOSS :This is because of incomplete combustion of carbon i.e. C to CO only. Now weight of Carbon CO is given by / / / / / / // RADIATION AND UNACCOUNT LOSSES :-

Unaccounted losses include heat carried away ash, heat loss in bottom hopper seal water, loss from boiler casing to surrounding, losses due to unburnt volatile matter, loss due to combination of carbon and water vapour. These losses account for about 1% loss and are calculated by graphical methods and alignment charts. Radiation loss depends on the effectiveness of the boiler casing insulation. High quality insulation couple with water-cooled furnaces keeps the value low. Also the loss is reduced by taking forced draught air from inside the boiler house. The radiation heat is recalculated to the boiler via the warmer air supplied to the forced draught fan intakes, so reducing the loss appreciably. This is independent of variations in excess air. As a percentage, this loss varies with the size of unit, because surface area of casing is proportionately lower for a large unit than for a small unit. Moisture in combustion H2 + O H2O Moisture in air loss Let Wm is moisture in air/kg fuel Loss = Wm 2(T t) kj/kg fuel This is because moisture in air is already in vapor form, so no sensible heat is involved. This is usually very small and is not normally calculated. From this, so no sensible