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Suggestions for Instructor Review Prior to Class FERM chapters 2225 Overview Though some students preparing for the FE exam may not have studied fluid mechanics, the concepts are based on physics and should be accessible with review. Be familiar with the formulas in the NCEES Handbook, particularly those indicating how to read the Moody friction factor diagram and drag coefficient tables. This lecture should follow the Statics lecture, which introduces calculations for moments and products of inertia. General Advice It will prove useful to memorize the following concepts and equations, rather than needing to look them up in the NCEES Handbook. Hydrostatics pressure equation Force magnitude and location due to hydrostatic pressure for horizontal and vertical plane walls Conservation of mass Conservation of energy Darcy equation Relative roughness equation Drag equation How to use the Moody diagram

9-1

9-1 Definitions Fluids Everything is a fluidgas, liquid, even objects we think of as solid. Granite flows; it takes eons, but it flows. For the FE exam, however, fluids are limited to substances that cannot support shear forces. Density Mass per unit volume. Specific Volume Volume per unit mass, the inverse of density (1/). Traditionally, specific volume is shown as a lower-case Greek upsilon, ; however, the NCEES Handbook uses an italic v as a symbol for velocity (which looks similar to the Greek upsilon.) The lower-case Greek nu, , is used for kinematic viscosity. The upper-case italic Roman letter V is used for volume, velocity of plate on film, and flow velocity. This makes the notation a little awkward, because there is no symbol for specific volume besides 1/. Specific Weight Weight per unit volume (g). Specific Gravity The ratio of fluid density compared to a standard substance, usually pure water.

9-2

Shear Stress Normal component: pressure Tangential component: ~ Newtons law of viscosity ~ Power law K = constant index (a material property) n = power law index (a material property) n < 1 pseudoplastic n > 1 dilatant n = 1 Newtonian Figure: Shear stress behavior of different types of fluids Fluids do not necessarily have to have a linear relationship (i.e., n = 1) for t. Other types of fluids: Bingham, pseudoplastic, and dilatant. Safe to assume that Bingham fluids will not appear on the FE exam and that problems dealing with pseudoplastic or dilatant fluids will be limited in scope.

9-3

Absolute Viscosity Ratio of shear stress to rate of shear deformation. Can be measured by putting a liquid in a container with a hole in it and measuring the time the liquid takes to drain out of the container. The longer the time, the greater the absolute viscosity. Surface Tension Force per unit contact length. Resulting from the energy necessary to create surfaces. Capillary Rise Generally, solids have lower surface energy when in contact with liquids than with gas. Thus liquids have an upwards meniscus at a wall and, in a narrow tube, the energy difference is enough to lift an appreciable column of liquid. Example: Capillary rise

9-4

9-2 Fluid Statics Gage and Absolute Pressure pabsolute = pgage + patmospheric Hydrostatic Pressure ~ In a static fluid, the pressure is dependent on the height of the fluid and independent of the surface area of the fluid (normal to the direction of gravity). The height of the fluid is referred to as head. Example: Fluid statics

Example (continued)

Manometers Figure: Open manometer ~ h1 is taken in the middle of the opening because that is the average pressure.

9-5

Example: Manometers

Barometer ~ A device used for measuring the absolute atmospheric pressure. ~ Contrary to common belief, barometers (and mercury thermometers) do not have a vacuum above the mercury; that space is filled with mercury vapor.

9-6

Center of Pressure The resultant force can be assumed to be directed through the center of pressure. The center of pressure is where the resultant force of the pressure will act. The location of the center of pressure is a function of the moment and product of inertia of the surface under pressure. Note that FERM Fig. 23.9 is confusing: the figure in NCEES p. 45 is much better.

Example 1 (continued)

9-7

Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy A floating body displaces fluid equal to its weight. Center of buoyancy is the centroid of the submerged part. A body that is less dense than a fluid in which it is submerged must have a restraining force equal to the buoyant force of the part held submerged, less the body weight (in air). A body that is denser than a fluid in which it is submerged has a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced, so the body appears to weigh less submerged.

9-8

9-3 Fluid Dynamics Hydraulic Radius for Pipes ~ RH is the area divided by the wetted perimeter. ~ To find the hydraulic radius, use the area for a circular segment (A), then find the arc length (s) from the NCEES Handbook. Rh = A/s A = (r2( - sin )) s = 2r arccos (r - d)/r Example: Hydraulic radius Note: Caution students on the unit of the angle should be in radians, NOT degrees. Continuity Equation ~ Mass must be conserved in a flow, so the rate at which mass flows must be conserved as well. ~ If the fluid is incompressible or the flow is continuous (no compression change), then 1 = 2; thus simplify the continuity equation.

9-9

Field (Bernoulli) Equation ~ Energy is conserved in a fluid flow. The Bernoulli equation represents the energy of the system. ~ The simplest form of the Bernoulli equation neglects losses and only includes pressure, potential, and kinetic energies. It is valid for incompressible fluids along the same streamline.

Example: Fluid dynamics Note that in the example as given, the pipe cannot be of constant cross-section, otherwise the pressure at 15 m depth would be negative.

Example (continued)

9-10

Flow of a Real Fluid ~ The Bernoulli equation is improved by taking the head loss due to friction into account.

Fluid Flow Distribution ~ The velocity of a fluid flow depends on how far the fluid is from the walls of pipe.

Reynolds Number ~ We need the Reynolds number to find out how turbulent the flow is, because friction loss in fluids is less when the flow is turbulent.

9-11

Hydraulic Gradient ~ Pressure head decreases as a function of distance traveled because pressure head is lost due to friction. ~ The hydraulic gradient is the decrease in pressure head per unit length of pipe.

9-4 Head Loss in Conduits and Pipes Darcy Equation ~ Since the friction loss is not a linear relationship, the friction factor f is used to account for the nonlinearity. f is a function of the Reynolds number and relative roughness (i.e., specific roughness divided by hydraulic diameter). Figure: Since the friction factor is not a linear function, it must be looked up on the Moody (Stanton) diagram. Its worthwhile taking lecture time to explain how to read this chart, which is in the NCEES Handbook and FERM.

9-12

Minor Losses in Fittings, Contractions, and Expansions ~ The accuracy of the Bernoulli equation is improved by taking into account the loss due to fittings in the line and contractions or expansions in the flow area. ~ The loss depends on the velocity of the flow and the characteristics of the fittings, contractions, or expansions. These characteristics are accounted for by a loss coefficient C. Explain loss coefficients for entering and exiting a pipe.

9-5 Pump Power Equation ~ Q is the quantity of flow. ~ h is the head increase to be added to the flow.

9-6 Impulse-Momentum Principle ~ Sum of forces = rate of momentum entering minus the rate of momentum leaving. Pipe Bends, Enlargements, and Contractions ~ The force is resolved into its x and y components.

9-13

Example (continued)

Example (continued)

9-14

9-7 Impulse-Momentum Principle Jet Propulsion ~ The force of the jet from an orifice on a tank is related to the energy in the flow. The energy in the flow is equal to the difference in potential energy between the surface and the orifice.

Moving Blades

9-15

Impulse Turbine ~ Figures: Impulse turbine and turbine power graph ~ Equations: Turbine power

9-8 Multipath Pipelines The pressure when the pipes separate and join is the same, so the head loss is the same. It has to be, because if one were greater than the other then the flow would move back up the other pipe. Since the pressure is the same, the head loss is the same regardless of the path.

9-9 Speed of Sound Speed of sound in a fluid is a function of its compressibility. Mach number the ratio of the objects speed to the speed of sound in the medium through which the object is traveling Example: Speed of sound

9-16

9-10 Fluid Measurements Pitot Tube ~ A device to measure the velocity in a flow.

Venturi Meters ~ A device for measuring the flow rate in a pipe system. ~ Cv = coefficient of velocity (see the NCEES Handbook table).

9-17

Example (continued)

Orifices ~ An orifice meter is analyzed similarly to a venturi meter. C is the meter coefficient, depending on the orifice opening (see the NCEES Handbook table).

9-18

Submerged Orifice ~ If the characteristics of a submerged orifice are known, the flow rate through the orifice can be calculated.

Drag Coefficients for Spheres and Circular Flat Disks ~ This chart gives drag coefficients as a function of Reynolds numbers.

9-19

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