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CHAPTER 1: BASIC CONCEPTS Chemistry:

"The study of the properties of materials and the changes that materials undergo"

CHAPTER 1: BASIC CONCEPTS Chemistry: "The study of the properties of materials and the changes that

INTRODUCTION TO MATTER 1. Matter

"Matter is the physical material of the universe; it is anything that occupies space and has mass"

Matter can be divided into pure substance or mixture

Matter

∑ Matter can be divided into pure substance or mixture Matter Substance Mixture (2 or more

Substance

∑ Matter can be divided into pure substance or mixture Matter Substance Mixture (2 or more

Mixture (2 or more substances)

Element

Compound (2 or more elements)

2. Substances

A pure substance has a fixed composition and unique properties. Most matter in our daily lives is not a pure substance, but a mixture of substances. Pure substances are composed of either elements or compounds.

2.1 Elements

Definition : Substances which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means

Basic substances for all matter

Everything in the world is made up from only 109 different elements. 90% of the human body is composed of only three elements: Oxygen, Carbon and Hydrogen

Example of elements:

Element

Abbreviation

Carbon

C

Fluorine

F

Hydrogen

H

Iodine

I

Nitrogen

N

Oxygen

O

Phosphorus

P

Sulfur

S

Aluminum

Al

Barium

Ba

Calcium

Ca

Chlorine

Cl

Helium

He

Magnesium

Mg
Mg

Platinum

Pt

Silicon

Si

Copper

Cu (from

cuprum)

Iron

Fe (from ferrum)

Lead

Pb (from

plumbum)

Mercury

Hg (from

hydrargyrum)

Potassium

K (from kalium)

Silver

Ag (from

argentum)

Sodium

Na (from

natrium)

Tin

Sn (from

stannum)

2.2 Compounds

Definition : Substance composed of two or more elements.

United chemically in definite proportions by mass. For example: pure water is composed of the elements hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)

3. Mixtures

Definition : combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity and hence its own properties. Heterogenous mixtures are not uniform throughout the sample and have regions of different appearance and properties

Example: Mixture of water and oil

∑ United chemically in definite proportions by mass . For example: pure water is composed of

Homogenous mixtures are uniform throughout the sample and individual substances retain their individual chemical and physical nature. Homogenous mixtures are also called solutions; the most common type of solution is described by a solid (the solute) dissolved in a liquid (the solvent).

Example: Solution of water and sugar

∑ Homogenous mixtures are uniform throughout the sample and individual substances retain their individual chemical and

Individual components of mixtures retain their physical and chemical properties. → the components can be separated.

For example: ethanol can be separated from water by using distillation process. Miscible – two liquids that dissolve in one another without separating into layers Immiscible – two liquids that do not mix and form into separate layers.

Physical States of Matter

Matter can exist in 3 physical states:

  • 1. Gas

  • 2. Liquid

  • 3. Solid

Gas

No fixed volume or shape - it takes the volume and shape of its container. Can be compressed or expanded to occupy different volumes.

Liquid

Has a distinct volume No specific shape Takes the shape of the container

Cannot be compressed Solid

Has a definite shape and volume

Rigid

Cannot be compressed

MATTER SOLID
MATTER
SOLID
Definite volume Definite Rigid
Definite
volume
Definite
Rigid
LIQUID
LIQUID

definite volume NO definite shape

∑ Cannot be compressed Solid ∑ Has a definite shape and volume ∑ Rigid ∑ Cannot
∑ Cannot be compressed Solid ∑ Has a definite shape and volume ∑ Rigid ∑ Cannot
GAS
GAS

NO distinct

volume NO distinct shape Can be

compressed

∑ Cannot be compressed Solid ∑ Has a definite shape and volume ∑ Rigid ∑ Cannot

Physical and Chemical Properties

Every pure substance has a unique set of properties - characteristics which allow us to distinguish it from other substances. 2 general properties: physical and chemical.

Physical properties = properties that can be measured without changing the basic identity of the substance.

Example: Colour, hardness & density.

Chemical properties = properties of a substance that may change or "react" to form other substances.

Example: to explode, to combust.

Physical and Chemical Changes

Substances can undergo various changes in properties; either physical or chemical. Physical changes - a substance changes its physical appearance but not its basic identity. All changes of state (e.g. solid to liquid to gas) are physical changes.

Audi Majdan – DMC 101 – KLIUC 10

Chemical changes (or chemical reactions) – a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance.

∑ Chemical changes ( or chemical reactions) – a substance is transformed into a chemically different