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Journal of School Social Work

A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.

Volume II March 2006

Issue 10

Special Editor: Dr K. S. Latha, MSW, MSc (Psy), MPhil, Ph D Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, K.M.C., Manipal. Contents
Visvesvaran P K Usha Jose K Rajini Gopinath Yashwanth S Dr Subbannayya K Dr Udaya Kumar G S Dr Nirmala B P Dr Krishna Reddy N Dr Latha K S Rajini Gopinath Nirmala B P Udaya Kumar G S Krishna Reddy N Kumudha R Bhavani Sankari T Dr Parthasarathy R Hemanth Roche J* Page 02 04 06 09 13 15 17 20 22 24 26 28

Editorial Some Thoughts on the Origin of Behaviour Problems The Common Problems of School Children Behaviour Modification to Tackle School Refusal Strategies to Improve Academic Performance in School Motivating Students - Role of Teachers Controlling Violence among Children Combating Teenage Stress The Need for Friendship The Need for Sex Education Student-Friendly Schools: A Check List School Mental Health: Problems AnFocus: Overview of the American of Standards Note: Views expressed by the contributors

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Problems of School Children The school is often described as a fear, anxiety and excess sensitivity, microcosm that mirrors the bodily symptoms without physical macrocosm (Walker 1959). There is cause, slow learning or mild mental sub a wealth of learning opportunities in normality. Behaviour problems such as this organization that is formal and truancy, lying, stealing, aggression, rigid, and yet pulsating with life and disobedience and abuse of growth. substances are also common. According to WHO estimates, 20-30 School social workers are trained to per cent of students have psycho- understand, work with and resolve all social problems and 3-12 per cent of the conflicting situations that daunt the them manifest mental disorders. young. They can, with the help of However, while some of the problems teachers, identify the students with are quite serious requiring problems or at risk, at the earliest and interventions by mental health initiate appropriate interventions. professionals, others can be tackled Academic underachievement and by teachers as well as the parents. student non-attendance are two of the Most of the problems are manifested most current and compelling issues during the developmental phase or that primary and secondary education during the transitional period. The face. common problems in the age group of In this special issue on the Problems 5-12 years are school refusal, poor of School Children, the coverage is academic achievement (specific on various aspects related to the learning disabilities), problems of common problems of children. About speech, restlessness or over activity, 16 articles which are directly or in some wetting and soiling, children with way related to the focus have been physical challenges as polio or received of which only 11 could be cerebral palsy, habit disorders such as used due to space constraint. The rest head banging, thumb sucking, nail will be published in due course biting and temper tantrums. The first article Some Thoughts on However in the age group of 12-16 the Origin of Behaviour Problems is years the problems are slightly an experiential account by Shri P. K. different. They are predominantly Visvesvaran, the former Principal of related to emotions- moodiness, Madras School of Social Work. anger, rebelliousness, depression, The article on The Common Problems March 2006 02 Journal of School Social Work
Editorial

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of School Children by Ms. K. Usha Jose throws light on the contributory factors. Behaviour Modification to Tackle School Refusal by Ms. Rajini Gopinath highlights the manifestations, causal factors, assessment and offers practical remedies for the same. Strategies to Improve Academic Performances in School by Shri. S. Yashwanth is a useful guide for the teachers to boost their students performance. Controlling Violence among Children by Dr. G.S. Udaya Kumar, Dr. B. P. Nirmala and Dr. N. Krishna Reddy highlights the dangers of anger and violence and gives quite simple techniques to handle the same. Motivating Students - Role of Teachers by Dr. K. Subbannayya touches on the factors of motivation and offers practical tips to teachers to motivate students for learning. The article Combating Teenage Stress by Dr. K. S. Latha and Ms.Rajini Gopinath outlines the sources of stress among adolescents, offers useful coping techniques and stresses on the parental role in reducing stress. The Need for Friendship by Dr. B. P. Nirmala, Dr. G. S. Udaya Kumar and Dr. N. Krishna Reddy of NIMHANS, Bangalore beautifully highlights the role of friends in the lives of children and offers some tips to distinguish good/

true friends from less reliable ones. The Need for Sex Education by Ms. R. Kumudha and Ms. T. Bhavani Sankari discusses the normal physiological change of menstruation in girls, and stresses the need to educate them by imparting sex education in schools. Dr. R. Parthasarathys StudentFriendly Schools: A Check List is quite helpful in distinguishing studentfriendly nature of such schools from others. Shri. J. Hemanth Roche in his article School Mental Health: An Overview of the American Standards throws light on various aspects of school mental health and extensively quotes the standards in UCLA. These articles suggest the prevalence of various problems in the primary and high school children. With the advent of newer technologies and the influence of media and the role of socialization being transferred from the parents to external agencies, some of the problems are becoming inevitable. Teachers and parents together have a crucial role to play in prevention of these and promotion of overall wellbeing of children.

Dr. K. S. Latha, Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

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Focus

Some Thoughts on the Origin of Behaviour Problems Visvesvaran P K* exceptionally so and they thought Introduction This article is based on the interviews that they could get away with the writer had with some of his occasional mischief-making. This colleagues who occupy positions of attitude is similar to the immunity importance today. The questions put factor, but it originated in an to each of them were: You occupy a assumption of a different kind. I am respectable position today. Were there important, therefore I can afford to occasions when, as a child, you misbehave. exhibited behaviour problems, even if Its an imperfect world anyway they were of a fleeting nature? To what Another reason they offered was that reasons would you attribute the adults everywhere had weaknesses of their own. Newspapers and same? magazines, movies, short stories and Assumed immunity Many of them said that, as children, plays were full of such tales, often they assumed they would be forgiven based on real life events. So they and their problem behaviour would be wont dare punish me, was the excused and no serious notice or prevalent attitude, because I am in no way different from them! action would be taken. This assumption emboldened them to Mental health undermined indulge in occasional acts of Some of my colleagues attributed their indiscretion (such as making loud, problems to the mental torture and uncouth noises aimed at girls in the discomfort to which they were next room, out of sight). Were they subjected by their fellow-students at granted immunity? Yes, in a way. They their school. There were bullies who made you feel ashamed of almost were let off with a warning. anything that you did or did not do Self-importance Some of them dared to misbehave now ashamed of your caste, of your need and then because they knew they were to visit the bathroom, of not lending intelligent and talented some were something (may be a pencil) that you
* Visvesvaran P K, DipSSA, M Phil retired as professor in the Madras School of Social Work and was its Principal for 9 years. He is currently lecturer for teachers in GOS Bala Vihar Training school. His articles and book reviews have appeared in the Indian Journal of Social Work published by Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. He is also the editor of Campus Mail, a quarterly brought out by the Madras School of Social Work, Chennai.

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needed badly yourself, of your haircut; yes, almost anything. Therefore when the occasion arose you, in your turn, hit a weaker boy who annoyed you or whose face you didnt like: Displacement, as the psychology people would call it. Conclusion The obvious conclusion is that bad behaviour has to be viewed quite

objectively and with a lot of empathy. Discipline the child, by all means but dont humiliate him/ her. And, as an adult, please remember that though today you are on the top of the world, probably you were not, in your own younger days, very different from the child before you who has, you are told, behaved like an ass.

Shri V. T. Titus, a member of the editorial board of Journal of School Social Work, reached his heavenly abode on 3rd february 2006. Editor, on behalf of the members of the editorial board, made obeisance for the departed luminary. He was born on 2nd February, 1919 and studied in Wesley High School, Chennai and graduated from M.C.C, Tambaram. He divided his time equally between studies and sports and participated in innumerable inter-school and intercollegiate matches and athletic meets. He was an outstanding footballer and the captain of the M.C.C. athletic team. In his own words, he learnt discipline and team spirit from the playground. Apart from B.A. (Hons) he did a two year diploma in Politics and Public Administration, Bachelor ofTeaching and also pursued a research degree (which was very rare in those days) in the University of Madras. He joined as Assistant Professor in Presidency College in the year 1943. He appeared for I.A.A.S. and was selected for the Indian Accounts Service. But, he preferred to stay with Madras Educational Service (MES). He was selected as District Educational Officer and in 1954 promoted as Deputy Director of Public Instructions. He served as Director of School Education, Commissioner for Government Examinations, Director of Libraries, Director of College Education and Vice-chancellor of Annamalai University. He was editor of a monthly Dynamic Education, and had authored several books. He is survived by his wife Smt Mary, daughter Smt Susan George, son Shri Alexander Titus and grandchildren Anupama, Abhai George, Ajay Titus, and Anitha Alexander. May his soul rest in peace.

An Educational Luminary Passes Away

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The Common Problems of School Children Usha Jose K* Introduction fearfulness is laughed at or punished The family is the prime mover in the or ignored, children may grow up to be successful development of children. shy, withdrawn and unable to express There is no substitute for the support emotions in a normal way. and love that a family provides to a Socialization problems child. Sometimes it is necessary and Play is important to a childs important to assist a family to develop development. By playing, a child the ability to fulfill its role in the life of exercises mind and body and absorbs the child. Parenting skills and the basic lessons about the world. Parents means to be a parent are not gifts can help a child to play. But now the automatically acquired along with a reverse is happening. Children are marriage certificate. Every week, a nowadays glued to the television sets quarter of a million children die in the and internet and have lost the physical developing world. Many millions more activity. They prefer to play solitary live on ill health and poor growth. A technology games and not group fundamental cause of this tragedy is games and thus socialization with poverty. There are many problems in other children is practically unavailable. school going children. They prefer internet games and Emotional problems cartoons. Play builds knowledge and Young children easily become angry, experience and helps a child grow in frightened and tearful. Patience, curiosity, confidence and control. So, understanding, and sympathy with the the importance of physical activity childs emotions will help the child grow games should be imparted to the kids up happy, well balanced and well to solve the interpersonal problems behaved. A childs emotions are very and for greater understanding of real and powerful, even if they others. sometimes seem unreasonable to Health problems adults. Parents need to understand Children should be taught to wash and sympathize with the childs hands with soap and water especially emotions. If crying or anger or
Focus
* Ms Usha Jose K, MSW, MSc (Psy), M.Phil is a lecturer in Department of Social Work, Loyola College, Chennai. She has 15 years of field experience and had organized various training programmes in STI, HIV/AIDS, women issues and health related problems. email: ushashaju@yahoo.com and ushajosek@hotmail.com

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after defecation and before handling food. Disposal of faeces should be done properly. Boiling of potable water can solve problems water contamination. Eating raw food is to be avoided. It should be washed or cooked as cooking kills germs. Food should be cooked right through especially meat and poultry. School children are very fond of aerated drinks like colas and packaged drinks that contain minimal calories, preservatives and artificial colours which are harmful to them. Instead, they should be encouraged to drink tender coconut water, which is healthy and has natural minerals, potassium and vitamins. Unhealthy eating habits There are foods which are called energy-dense foods and nutrientdense foods. Energy-dense foods provide us with lots of calories but do not give the nutrients that we require to grow and keep well. For example, chocolates, ice cream, potato chips and soft drinks. The nutrient-dense foods provide us with calories as well as nutrients in the right amount to make us go, grow and glow. Example: Chappati, rice, dals, rajmah, vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products. Children should be taught about this in their childhood itself. Our eating habits undergo change as new

types of foods are added or replace traditional foods. Whatever be the mix of foods we give children, the principle should remain the same that is: plenty of fruits and vegetables, moderation in salt and sugar, use healthy fats in limited quantities and avoid unhealthy fats. If not followed the next generation is in great chaos. Discipline problems The essentials elements of discipline are Consistent rules and laws that foster socially approved behaviour. Immediate reward for the child whenever a socially approved behaviour is exhibited. Consistent behaviour and just action from both the parents when the child violates social rules. Disciplining should be done in a warm and loving way. While discipline is necessary for the healthy growth of a child in the society, authoritarian discipline and permissive discipline are unhealthy. Using dialogue is a healthy discipline. There will be problem and social adjustment will be poor if the child is not disciplined. Physical, social and environmental factors The factors that affect the children are Lack of safe drinking water Lack of proper housing and sanitation. March 2006 07

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Pollution of water, Urbanization, industrialization, migration and unemployment Poverty. Alcoholism, drug addiction. Crime and Child marriage. Emotional changes and problems Increased activity of hormones during adolescence produces changes in their emotional state. They experience frequent changes in the mood, ranging from a feeling of extreme happiness to a feeling of sadness. Sometimes adolescents find themselves unable to control themselves and wonder why they reacted in the way they did. It is a result of hormonal changes and sex drive working reciprocally in boys and girls. Sex drive is a natural biological instinct. The immediate outcome of the sex drive for the adolescent is attraction towards members of the opposite sex, infatuation with selected persons and a need for sexual gratification. This can lead to many problems for the school going children
References

between the age of 10 and 19 years. Conclusion Childhood has been extolled by poets and philosophers as a period of innocence and receptivity to the beauties of nature and the finer impulses of the human heart. A child needs the nurturance and protection from parents. While teachers, doctors, or social workers have been professionally trained, parents have to rely on their own instinct and experience to perform a task that is very challenging. The role of teachers with family and community is very important. Many of the problems can be solved if they support families under stress. Here some of the problems in the school going children have been examined but it is not the end of all problems or total solution. To sum up, try to understand childs behaviour and find out the reasons. If the problem persists despite best efforts, refer the child to counsellors.

Hugh Hawes and Christine (1993): Children for Health, The Child to Child Trust in association with UNICEF Trainer Manual (1994): Early Childhood Care and Development , Christian childrens fund. Hriday An invitation to a Healthy Heart and an Active life- Brochure. NCERT: Learning for Life NACOs Guide

"The gem cannot be polishedwithout withoutfriction, friction,nor norman man perfected perfected The gem can not be polished without trials." Chinese Chinese Proverb without trials. proverb Journal of School Social Work March 2006 08

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Behaviour Modification to Tackle School Refusal Rajini Gopinath* Introduction Bernstein, 1991). Going to school usually is an exciting School refusal vs truancy and enjoyable event for young A child or adolescent who refuses children. But for some, it brings fear to attend school experiences and anxiety leading to a refusal to significant distress about attending attend school. School refusal is an school. emotional problem that can be very The parents are aware of the stressful for the children, families and absence. school personnel. It has been defined There is absence of antisocial as child motivated refusal to attend behaviour. school or difficulty remaining in school The child tends to be ashamed or for the entire day and difficulty embarrassed at his or her inability to attending school associated with attend school which is in contrast to emotional distress, especially anxiety truancy. and depression. Approximately 1 to Symptoms of school refusal 5% of all school aged children have The presenting symptoms include fear, school refusal. The rate is similar panic, crying episodes, temper between boys and girls. It can occur tantrums, threats of self-harm and throughout the entire range of school somatic symptoms (headache, years but peaks at 5 to 7 years and 11 stomachache, nausea, diarrhoea) that to14 years. are present in the morning but improve Though school refusal is not a formal if the child is allowed to stay at home psychiatric diagnosis, children and (Bernstein et al 1997). adolescents with school refusal may The behaviour is targeted at suffer from anxiety and depression. persuading the parents to allow the The most common comorbid child to stay at home. The symptoms psychiatric conditions include often start after a holiday break or separation anxiety, phobia, panic weekend. disorder, post-traumatic stress Short-term sequelae disorder (PTST), major depressive Poor academic performance. disorder, dysthymia, and adjustment Family difficulties. disorder. (Last and Strauss 1990; Problems with peer relationships.
Focus
*Ms Rajini Gopinath is Lecturer in Psychiatric Social Work, Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal.E-mail: rajini_gopinath@yahoo.com

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Long-term consequences Academic underachievement Employment difficulties Increased risk for psychiatric illness Causal factors Avoidance of specific fears provoked by the school environment like difficult tests or teachers. Escape from aversive social situations like problems with classmates or teachers. Separation anxiety. Attention-seeking behaviours. Performance anxiety due to attention-concentration problem or a learning disability. Family functioning Problems with family functioning also contribute to school refusal in children. Dysfunctional family interactions that correlate with school refusal include: Over dependency Detachment with little interaction among family members Isolation with little interaction outside the family unit High degree of conflict Communication problems within families Problems in role performance especially in single parent families (Kearney and Silverman 1995; Bernstein et al 1999). Assessment Because children with school refusal 10

present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, a comprehensive evaluation is recommended. Assessment should include a complete medical history and physical examination, history of the onset and development of school refusal symptoms, associated stressors, school history, peer relationships, family functioning, psychiatric history, substance abuse history, and a mental status examination. Identification of specific factors responsible for school avoidance behaviors is important. Collaboration with school staff is necessary for successful management. Several psychological assessment tools like teacher and parent rating scales, self report measure and clinician rating scales have been developed. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (Kearney 2002) includes a child, parent, and teacher form and examines school refusal in correlation to negative and positive reinforcers. Treatment The primary treatment goal for children with school refusal is early return to school. Refusal worsens the longer the child remains at home. A multimodal, collaborative team approach should include the physician, child, parents, school staff, and mental health professionals March 2006

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Factors that have been proved effective for treatment/ improvement are parental involvement and early return or exposure to school. Behaviour interventions Behaviour approaches for the treatment of school refusal are primarily exposure based treatments. They include systematic desensitization which means graded exposure to the school environment, relaxation training through emotive imagery, contingency management, and social skills training. Cognitive behaviour therapy includes specific instructions for children to help gradually increase their exposure to the school environment. In cognitive behaviour therapy, children are encouraged to confront their fears and are taught how to modify negative thoughts. Educational support therapy It is a combination of informational presentations and supportive psychotherapy. Children are encouraged to talk about their fears and identify differences between fear, anxiety, and phobias. Children are given information to help them overcome their fears about attending

school. Parent-teacher interventions Parents are given behaviourmanagement strategies such as escorting the child to school, providing positive reinforcement for school attendance, and decreasing positive reinforcement for staying at home. Parents also benefit from cognitive training to help reduce their own anxiety and understand their role in helping their children make effective changes. Recommendations are also made to the school staff to prepare for the childs return, use of positive reinforcement and academic, social and emotional accommodations. Conclusion The outcome is best in younger children and those who have been out of school for a short time. A change of school is usually unhelpful because the problems tend to recur in the new setting. The childs return to school may need to be in small steps with consolidation of success at each stage .It is important for parents to take a firm and consistent line over keeping to the school return plans.

Smt Revathy, Chennai, a special educator and an expert Mathematician has consented to be the special editor for the April 2006 issue of Journal of School Social Work. Focus: Study Skills. Please send your articles to jssw.india@gmail.com or post to Journal of School Social Work, 8, (New 14), Sridevi Colony, 7th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083 before 22nd March 2006. Journal of School Social Work March 2006 11

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References:

Bernstein, G.A.(1991): Comorbidity and Severity of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Clinic Sample. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 43-50. Bernstein,G.A., et al., (1997): Somatic Symptoms in Anxious-Depressed School Refusers. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 661-668. Bernstein,G.A. et al., (1999): Family Dimensions in Anxious-Depressed School Refusers. Journal of anxiety disorders, 13, 513-528. Fremont,W.P.(2003: School Refusal in Children and Adolescents. American Family Physician.68, 1555-1560. Kearney,C.A.(2002): Identifying the Function of School Refusal Behaviour: A Revision of the School Refusal Assessment Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 24 , 235-245. Kearney,C.A.,Silverman,W.K.(1995): Family Environment of Youngsters with School Refusal Behaviour:A Synopsis with Implications for Assessment and Treatment. American Journal of Family Therapy,23, 59-72. Last,C.G., Strauss,C.C.(1990). School Refusal in Anxiety-Disordered Children and Adolescents. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 31-35.

Subscription Annual subscription of Rs. 240.00 (Rs. Two hundred and forty only) or the life subscription of Rs. 2400.00 (Rs. Two thousand four hundred only) may please be sent by crossed demand draft/ Bankers cheque (or money order) drawn in favour of Journal of School Social Work. Please send the following information along with subscription to Journal of School Social Work, 8 (New 14), Sridevi Colony, Seventh Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083. Tamil Nadu. Name/ Designation: __________________________________________ Name of the Institution/ Department: ___________________________ Postal address: ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ___________________ PINCODE:_____________ Phone: Mobile: email: Amount Rs. _______ DD No:_________drawn on ________ dated ____ On behalf of the contributors and some subscribers, Journal of School Social Work will be sent as gift (for six months) to the designated schools or individuals. Editor 12 Journal of School Social Work March 2006
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Strategies to Improve Academic Performance in School Yashwanth S* Introduction instructions. The school plays an important role in Let oral instructions be brief and the overall development of a child. The repeat the instruction at least once. degree of a childs academic Consider providing written performance also depends on how well instructions and directions to the school can harness the childs supplement oral instructions. academic potential and how it can Use visual aids. improve it. Break up instructions, assignments Factors affecting performance and homework into small steps. Academic performance depends on Improve reading comprehension by various factors -- the teachers, the teaching her to underline key words or classroom atmosphere, the teaching topics with a highlighter. methods and curriculum. Improve listening comprehension by Though the improvement of many of teaching her to take notes of key the above factors can be expensive concepts. and time-consuming there are many Provide special signals or cues to classroom modifications that can be remind her to get back on task. put in place to help improve school .Improving organizational skills performance, memory and attention, Establish a daily checklist of impulse control, organization, and self- assignments. esteem. A discussion could be held Keep a special notebook in which with the school teachers regarding the she can record homework implementation of these techniques. assignments, project or report due Improving memory and attention dates, and test schedules. span Improving productivity Seat the child in an area with least Divide work sheets and distraction, near the teacher if possible. assignments into sections. Consider using a study corner, Reduce the amount of homework especially for independent work and and written classwork, especially keep the work area uncluttered. Give clear and unambiguous
Focus
.* Yashwanth S M.Sc, Dept. of Biochemistry, K.M.C. Manipal-576 104

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repetitive assignments such as math problems and spelling words that she can do accurately. Vary the type of activities Vary the way the presentation. Provide one on one instruction or small groups to introduce major concepts. Improving performance Provide extra time to complete assignments and tests. Consider providing oral testing instead of or in addition to written tests. Remind the student to slow down. Give extra weight to the content of an assignment when grading, and do not take off points for poor handwriting or minor spelling errors. Protecting self-esteem Avoid criticizing children who perform poorly in the presence of other children. Give positive feedback when s/he stays on task, pays attention or works hard at an assignment. Find things that s/he has special
Reference:

interest or strength in and encourage them to do these activities. Improving behaviour and impulse control Provide special signals or cues when she is beginning to misbehave. Give clear expectations of what behaviours are expected in the classroom. Be consistent in your expectations and in the consequences for misbehaviour. Conclusion Good academic performance depends on how well the school and its teachers can introduce and implement these techniques. Sometimes following some of these techniques can be quite stressful for the teachers. But these are minor problems compared to the exhausting task of shaping the child into an adult. Thus, through the successful implementation of the above techniques in the school, a child could achieve academic excellence.

http:// www keepkidshealthy.com /adolescent/adolescentproblem.spp.html InformaInfo on Bala Swarna Jwala Awardees tion BSJ Pranay (VIII standard) and his sister BSJ Sejal (VI standard) studying in Bhavans

Rajaji Vidhyashram, Kilpauk, received Bala Swarna Jwala Awards 2005 instituted by Journal of School Social Work for their skill in roller skating. It is heartening to note that they have been nominated for young achievers award by Infosys and had also been honoured by Tamil Nadu Ice Skating Association (TISA).

*City Express, The New Indian Express, Chennai edition, dated 25th February, 2006. 14 Journal of School Social Work March 2006

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Motivating Students - Role of Teachers Dr Subbannayya K* Over the years, teachers have Patience watched students disinterested and Persistence. unmotivated in studies and often And, of course, not all students are grunting the Oh, hell and damn that motivated by the same values, needs, came from the experience of working desires, or wants. Some of the with students who wouldnt learn. The students, for example, will be motivated long sighs of frustration and then the by the approval of others, some by discussion of the fact that students overcoming challenges. are largely unmotivated, unwilling Researchers have begun to identify slugs taking up my time and best those aspects of the teaching situation performances are not uncommon in that enhance students self-motivation (Lowman, 1984; Lucas, 1990; Weinert staff rooms. Some students seem naturally and Kluwe, 1987; Bligh, 1971). To enthusiastic about learning, but many encourage students to become selfneed-or expect-their teachers to motivated independent learners, inspire, challenge, and stimulate them: instructors can do the following: Effective learning in the classroom Give frequent, early, positive depends on the teachers ability ... to feedback that supports students maintain the interest that brought beliefs that they can do well. students to the course in the first place Ensure opportunities for students success by assigning tasks that are (Ericksen, 1978, p. 3). However, there is no single magical neither too easy nor too difficult. Help students find personal meaning formula for motivating students. Many factors affect a given students and value in the material. motivation to work and to learn (Bligh, Create an open and positive atmosphere. 1971; Sass, 1989): Help students feel that they are Interest in the subject matter valued members of a learning Perception of its usefulness community. General desire to achieve Research has also shown that good Self-confidence everyday teaching practices can do Self-esteem
Focus

*Dr Subbannayya K is Professor of Microbiology,


Email: dr_s_kotigadde@yahoo.com

K.M.C., Mangalore- 575 001.

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more to counter student apathy than special efforts to attack motivation directly (Ericksen, 1978). Most students respond positively to a wellorganized course taught by an enthusiastic instructor who has a genuine interest in students and what they learn. Thus activities you undertake as a teacher to promote learning will also enhance students motivation.
References:

The teacher should believe in the fundamental and inherent worth of each and every student, as well as in himself or herself. Students who establish an identity with their institution take more pride in their education, are more committed to success. Teachers must provide a supportive environment within their sphere of influence.

Barbara Gross Davis, (1999): Motivating Students: Tools for Teaching , University of California, Berkeley.

A Curious and Happy Coincidence! Visvesvaran P K* We had expressed in one of our recent editorials (in the December 2005 issue of Journal of School Social Work, to be precise) the fond wish that modern technology would come to the rescue of the visually challenged and their dependence on scribes to do any writing for them will be eliminated. Now comes the happy news that our wishes have indeed come true: Visually challenged can use computers for exams and a voice software makes the services of a scribe unnecessary! (See the New Indian Express, dated 31.01.2006 page 1.) We are doubly happy it has come so soon after our own prediction, if we may call it so. We hope the new technology will be pressed into service forthwith, and the visually challenged pupils will be promptly trained to use the same. It will certainly prove to be a boost to their self-esteem and sense of self-reliance.
* Visvesvaran P K is part-time Social Work lecturer, MCC, Tambaram, Chennai.

Back numbers of Journal of School Social Work from Volume I issue 01 to Volume II issue 08, in e-form (.pdf files) that can be read using Acrobat Reader, will be sent to the subscribers and contributors on request. Please quote your subscriber number and/ or the issue in which your article was featured. P.J. Naidu 16 Journal of School Social Work March 2006

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Controlling Violence among Children Dr Udaya Kumar G S* Dr Nirmala B P** Dr Krishna Reddy N*** The pattern of violence among children but it is difficult to undo the damage that is different from adults in its cause and might already have occurred. It is manifestation. Though the children are rightly said Anger begins in folly and not perpetrators of rape, murder, ends in repentance. Anger, which kidnap etc. they do indulge in less precedes violence, is a choice; there intensive, smaller degree violence, are many ways of coping and solving which has become a menace. problems without resorting to anger. Children get into violence due to Violence like hitting head to the wall, provocation by the older children, other bashing, bulling, ragging, slashing wrist children or cues from the environment. (deliberate self harm) and blackmail, They tend to react to the situation are also different varieties of violence. rather than responding to it. Their These problems are categorized as anger is short-lived in most of the behaviour problems or anti social instances. If they are unable to control behaviour and recommended for the anger there might be chances of reformation and correction rather than becoming violent without punishment as they are under 18 years understanding of the consequences of of age. the act. There is a need to develop Given below are small practice steps control over anger by them selves which can keep your anger outburst in apart from preventing the environment control. Dont neglect even if they cues. appear too simple and elementary. Some children tend to be destructive. Autosuggestion Frequent bouts of anger can damage The first step in anger control lies in health, shatter relationships and make just repeating the following sentence life hell for you. Very often an angered every day first thing in the morning and person is filled with remorse and guilt especially in situations when you are when he comes back to the senses, prone to get anger. I will control my
Focus
*Dr Udaya Kumar G S, M.S.W., M.Phil (PSW), Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore-560 029 **Dr Nirmala B P, M.S.W., M.Phil (PSW), Ph.D. Psychiatric Social Worker, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore-560 029 *** Dr Krishna Reddy N, M.S.W., M.Phil (PSW), Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore-560 029

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mind. I will not get angry under any circumstance. Breathe deeply and exhale slowly. Repeat several times until your anger comes down. Stop and think of the consequences. Your angry spells in the past have caused and what is likely to happen now, if you give in to your anger. Avoid When you feel that, you are likely to explode, immediately leave the place or change the topic or avoid the person provoking your rage. Try counting 1, 2, 3. Keep counting till the wave of anger passes. Alternatives Grind your teeth, clench your fists, punch a pillow, hit a wall, and perform aerobics, as alternatives to striking out the other person and also for working off your feelings. Compare looks Look at the mirror when you are cheerful and compare it when you are worked up and see how ugly it looks. Humour Try humour instead of anger to make the atmosphere less tense. Let head rule the heart Consider this statement: People can make me angry only if I allow them to; being angry flatters them, because you behave as per their expectations. 18

Instead tell yourself that you are thinking with your mind, and not with your emotions. Maintain anger diary Make entries of your anger behaviour in it as and when they occur. The entry should consist of a brief statement of a time when you were angry or disagreed with another person, what you did at that time, and the outcome. Analyzing this will help you to identify your pattern of thinking and behaving in situations which provoke anger and recognize new and acceptable ways of dealing with the situations. Diet control Certain foodstuffs like chillies, spices, salt, tea, coffee, pickles and very hot food. These are known to stimulate nervous system (Tomsik diet) and make us easily become angry and irritated. You need to eat more fruits, honey, milk, lemon and dry fruits (Sathvik diet). These foods have calming effect on nervous system so basically you need to have control on your diet. Relaxation exercises Follow a regular regime of exercise, yoga and meditation which will give you a sense of wellbeing and fill you with more of positive emotions which in turn reduces anger. Tolerant mindset Finally the best tool to control anger March 2006

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resulting in violence is to develop development . There is an urgent need forgive and forget attitude. to reduce violence in the school Time heals setting. If you are able to control your anger in The school authorities, teachers and the beginning, the intensity of the anger parents need to give extra attention to comes down as time passes. Dont this fact. The teachers to be educated take any hasty decisions at that in identifying early indicators of moment. Wait for time to solve the violence and to be prepared to handle problems. such situation at the earliest in a more Conclusion conducive way. Violence among children can be very Regular PTA meetings can help in this dangerous for their own overall regard. Gift Subscriptions In memory of late Shri P. Damodaran Naidu, a subscription for six months is gifted to Chintadripet Higher Secondary School, East Coovum River Road, Chintadripet, Chennai 600002 where he did his SSLC in the year 1960. On behalf of Dr R. Parthasarathy, HOD, Dept of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore, the journal is sent to: Madurai Institute of Social Sciences, Alagar Koil Rd., Madurai 625 007. Department of Sociology, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056. Department of Social Work, Mysore University, Mysore. Rajagiri College of Social Sciences, Kalamassery, Ernakulam 683104. School of Social Work, Roshini Nilaya, Mangalore. Dr T. K. Gowrishankar, MD DPM, former Director of Institute of Mental Health, Chennai 600010 gifts a subscription for Shri Ramakrishna Mission Higher Secondary School, T Nagar, Chennai 600017, where he did his schooling. Ms. Rajini Gopinath, Lecturer, Dept of Psychiatry, KMC, Manipal sends the journal for six months as gift to Mary Immaculate High School, Wilson Garden, Bangalore:560027. The greatest epitaph a man can have is when he gives everything that is in him to do the job he has before him. That is all you can ask of him and that is what I have tried to do. Harry Truman, 33rd US president Journal of School Social Work March 2006 19

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Combating Teenage Stress Dr Latha K S* Rajini Gopinath** Teenagers are like miniature adults, parents and teachers and may experience stress everyday family financial problems and can benefit from learning stress Some teenagers become overloaded management skills. Most of them are with stress. If they are unable to cope in the high school and would be facing adequately it might lead to anxiety, multiple stress besides those related withdrawal, aggression/anger, physical to their academics. Most teens illness, or poor coping skills such as experience stress when they perceive drug and/or alcohol use. a situation as dangerous, difficult, or When we perceive a situation as painful and they do not have the difficult or painful, changes occur in our minds and bodies to prepare us to resources to cope. Some sources of stress for respond to danger. This fight, flight, or freeze response and is characterized teenagers might include: by faster heart and breathing rate, school demands and frustrations negative thoughts and feelings increased blood to muscles of arms about themselves inferiority or low and legs, cold or clammy hands and feet, upset stomach and/or a sense self esteem impending dread. changes in their bodies problems with friends and/or peers The same mechanism that turns on the stress response can turn it off. As soon at school unsafe living environment/ as we decide that a situation is no longer dangerous, changes can occur neighborhood conflicts between parents, in our minds and bodies to help us relax and calm down. This relaxation separation or divorce of parents chronic illness or severe problems response includes decreased heart and breathing rate, and a sense of well in the family being. Teenagers who develop a death of a loved one relaxation response and other stress moving or changing schools management skills taking on too many activities having too high expectations
Focus
* Dr Latha K S, Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576104 ** Rajini Gopinath, Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576104

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feel less helpless and have more choices when responding to stress. Role of Parents Parents of teenagers can: Watch if stress is affecting their health, behaviour, thoughts, or feelings. Listen carefully to teenagers and watch for overload of stress Learn and model stress management skills. Support their involvement in sports and other pro-social activities. Role of Teenagers to reduce stress Exercise and eat regularly. Have a regular routine. Avoid procrastination. Avoid excess caffeine intake which can increase feelings of anxiety and agitation. Avoid drugs, alcohol, tobacco and pan masala. Learn relaxation exercises (abdominal breathing , muscle relaxation techniques, yoga and meditation). Develop assertive skills. State feelings in polite firm and not overly aggressive or passive ways: For example I feel angry when you yell at me, Please stop yelling. Rehearse and practise situations which cause stress. For example taking a speech class if talking in front
References:

of a class causes anxiety. Learn practical coping skills. For example, break a large task into smaller and more attainable tasks. Decrease negative self talk. Challenge negative thoughts about yourself with alternative neutral or positive thoughts. My life will never get better can be transformed into I may feel hopeless now, but my life will probably get better if I work at it and get some help. Learn to feel good about doing a competent or good enough job rather than demanding perfection from yourself and others. Take a break from stressful situations. Activities like listening to music, talking to a friend, drawing, painting , writing, long walks or spending time with a pet can reduce stress. Build a network of good and trusting friends who help you cope in a positive way. By using these techniques, teenagers can manage stress. If a teenager talks about or shows signs of being overly stressed, consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist or a qualified mental health professional may prove helpful.

http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/helpingteenagerswithstress.htm

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The Need for Friendship Nirmala B P* Udaya Kumar G S** Krishna Reddy N*** Introduction acceptance. More the number of Peer group is a major source of friends, the merrier is their future, since strength and status for children. They relationships provides the foundation form bonds of friendship with their for our lives. It is very important for us classmates at school, playground, to learn how to build a strong neighbourhood and close relatives. relationship and not reconcile for a They borrow class work during their weaker one. absence due to sickness/ tour; they Tips for good friendship exchange information about day-to- Commitment to one another over day activities at school; they prepare time. together (combined study) for various Trust and loyalty to one another. exams; practice for dance/ music/ Not giving up old friends for the sake sports competitions. These activities of new ones. enable children to develop strong Not divulging the secrets of your bonds of friendship. Children build friend and using them only with her/his rapport not only with their friends but consent. also with their entire family and Deep and honest concern for one neighbourhood. anothers well-being. Strengthening ties Respecting the values of others. Sharing their experiences and Tolerating differences. exchanging food items during lunch Being open and honest. hour foster their friendship. Children tie Working at the relationship. wrist bands- friendship bands or Remember: If you want a friend, be a Rakhi to their classmates and get gifts friend. and sweets. Warning signs of artificial friendship Children by nature are not islands. Pitting one against another for selfish They crave for love, affection, and gain.
Focus
* Dr Nirmala B P, M.S.W., M.Phil (PSW), Ph.D. Psychiatric Social Worker, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore-560 029 ** Dr Udaya Kumar G S, M.S.W., M.Phil (PSW), Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore-560 029 *** Dr Krishna Reddy N, M.S.W., M.Phil(PSW), Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore-560 029

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Not keeping up their words or through a rapid physical, intellectual, easily flaunting empty promises. emotional and psychological growth. Lack of loyalty to the group. In this state of constant flux a child Being inaccessible or escaping may feel helpless, vulnerable and during crisis or difficult situations. unable to deal with lifes demands in Lack of trust. a rapidly changing background of an Lack of commitment. unhearing and ever-demanding adult Giving up values in order to please world. They could land themselves others. in what is now called future shock Pressurizing the friend to or chronic anxiety. In such compromise on his/her own situations an understanding peer standard. group will emotionally enrich them Considering material wealth or toward positive mental health. comfort as the parameter for In short, congruence in thought, word developing friendship. and deed, sincerity in approach and Unhealthy accommodation or an unwavering committmnet to the competition. values cherished by the society will Conclusion attract like-minded friends and We are living in a world that is dissuade insincere ones. changing at an astounding rate. Likewise a developing child passes New Arrivals
The following books were received for review: Title of the Book: Write Your Future Price: Rs. 65.00 This useful book deals with preparing an impressive CV. Title of the Book: You Are Next! Price: Rs. 65.00 This book provides a detailed description of various skills required to succeed in inteviews and to convert job opportunities to job offers. Publisher: Seasons Publishing, 14, CIT Colony, First Cross St., Mylapore, Chennai 600004. Phone: 52136667. seasons publishing@vsnl.net. Both the books were written by Shri Purnachander A, a Social Work Faculty member in Mar Gregorios College, Muggapair West, Chennai 600037. He organizes career guidance workshops, parent-education programmes, career counselling and is also a case manager in a private psychiatric clinic. The above is only a curtain-raiser. Full-fledged review will be published shortly. Editor

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The Need for Sex Education Kumudha R* Bhavani Sankari T** Introduction and fourteen years for girls and in Primitive tribes as well as the modern Indian conditions it is reported even as ones have for centuries recognized early as eight years. puberty as a time of importance in the The following are the physical changes life span of any individual. It is that occur during puberty: customary for them to observe various Changes in body size. rites in recognition of the fact that as Changes in body proportions. their bodies undergo natural changes Development of sex organs children are maturing from childhood (Primary). to adulthood. In most cultures, both Enlargement of breasts, hip, the boys and girls are subjected to appearnce of pubic hair (secondary). ritualistic processes in this regard. The following physiological changes Puberty and menstruation also occur: Puberty is one of the two periods in the The sex organs start developing. life span of the women, characterized The harmonal activities increase. by rapid growth and marked changes The girls concern in body proportions. The first is the first The first experience of menstruation twelve months in the life of a child and produces a feeling of anxiety which the second is puberty. The main soon surrounds all sexual emotions. criteria of puberty for girls are A coarse jibe, an obscene joke or a menarche or the first menstruation, salacious picture can set the but it is neither the first nor the last of imagination on fire and activate the the physical changes that occur during slumbering volcano of sex, spewing its puberty. When menarche occurs the powerful lava far and wide, especially sex organs and secondary sexual in the case of boys. This may be less characteristics have all started to so in the case of girls, but is develop. nevertheless present. Physical and physiological changes It can be a frightening experience for The age of puberty is between twelve many girls to menstruate without any
Focus
* Kumudha R is Lecturer, Department of Social Work, SMS College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, 642 010. * Bhavani Sankari T is Lecturer, Department of Social Work, SMS College ofArts and Science, Coimbatore, 642 010.

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knowledge of why they do so. They may imagine that they are ill or that they have done something wrong/ sinful and that this is the punishment. These are not healthy feelings if they persist too long. These make the girls conscious of themselves, their bodies and make them imagine all sex related functions as shameful, disgusting and fearsome. Effects The physical changes of puberty affect the school-going children internally as well as externally. There is no doubt that the girls physical, psychological and social well-being are affected too. These effects are normal and transitory but the impact on the behaviour, attitude and personality is permanent. Securing measure -- Sex education If education has any purpose at all, it is surely to pass on to the youngsters the benefits of the experience of the race to spare the child the ordeal of learning by trial and error, which is expensive and painfully erratic. During the puberty period, the sex drive is more due to the secretion of sex harmones and it is considered as highrisk age. The girls are eager to get information because of the physical
References:

and physiological changes. Sex education is the only healthy source to avoid unfounded fears concerning sex acquired from unhealthy and ignorant peer sources. This is especially necessary if the mother and other female relatives cannot prepare the girl for the puberty-related developments. Counsel from a lady doctor can help a great deal. Suggestion Since parents and teachers hesitate to talk about this issue the schools can make arrangements to teach the students through doctors, as part of the curriculum within the school premises itself. School counsellors, especially school social workers, can handle this issue in the life skills education programme. The girl children should be taught good-touch and bad-touch at an early age and be encouraged to report to parents or teachers, any untoward incident without fear of repraisal. parents would do well to calmly enquire the reason for any sudden change in the mood of the child. Caution should be the watchword.

Elizabeth B Hurlock, (2002): Developmental Psychology, Publisher, Place. Mathew K R, (2004): Sex Education in Child Development, Publisher, Place. www.healthlibrary.com/sub-directories Amrita Lakshmi L et al. (2005): Carefulness Cautiously Cultivated, Journal of School Social Work, Vol II Issue 06, November 2005, pp 15-19, Chennai.

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Focus

Student-Friendly Schools: A Check List Dr Parthasarathy R* positive mental health are held. 10.Mental health related topics Incorporated in parentteacher student meetings. 11.Drama/ skit, role play depicting problems of students and their coping strategies are encouraged. 12.Periodical health check-ups in the campus. 13.High risk groups identified by each subject-teacher and remedial action taken. 14.Telephone counselling services to students and helplines are available. 15.Team-work among students encouraged. 16.Regular pre- and post-exam counselling is offered to students, especially for academically weaker ones. 17.Community resources are mobilized to help the needy students. 18. The students are encouraged to write diary and to share their problems with their close friends. 19.Addition of literature on mental health in the library. 20.Relevant movies/ videos related to student mental health are screened. 21.Lectures / seminars on counselling / life skills are organized. March 2006

Each and every school tries its best to provide facilities and provisions to facilitate the learning potentials of the students and their psycho-social competence. Following are the facilities which are expected to create congenial climate for school children for their over-all development. Student-friendly schools 1.Teachers are oriented / sensitized to common emotional problems of students. 2.At least a few teachers are trained in counselling skills and offer services to the needy. 3.A full-time/ part-time counsellor is available in the campus 4. A grievance box is kept in the campus. 5.A small group of students is assigned to a teacher who interacts with them frequently. 6. Mental health surveys are organized or self-administered check list offered to all students. 7.Mental health day/ celebrations held. 8.Student leaders/ volunteers are trained in mental health and/or suicide prevention work. 9.Elocution, essay writing, painting competitions related to promotion of

*Dr. R. Parthasarathy, M.A., D.P.S.W., Ph.D. is Professor & Head, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore 560 029. rpsarathy@nimhans.kar.nic.in

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22.Students visit to counselling centres and institutes of mental health organized. 23.Students oriented to examination preparation and effective study habits. 24. Self-help groups with specific purposes formed. 25.Unruly ragging / teasing prevented. 26. Opportunities for co-curricular activities like sports, recreations and picnics provided. 27.Training in yoga / meditation. 28.Life skills education to students. 29.Linkage established with mental health centres and professionals. 30.Students are given pre-marital counselling/ adolescent education.

31.Teachers are informed about major changes in the home situation of students. 32.Teachers are supported in the development and use of nonaggressive styles of discipline. 33.Steering committees are formed to monitor these activities. Award three points for each suggestion already implemented. Award two points for each suggestion being implemented. Ifthe schoolis planning to implementgive one point. Higher the score secured, better is the student-friendly nature of the school.

The forthcoming issues will focus on the following topics: Month Focus Special Editor Apr 06 Study Skills Mrs. Revathy, Chennai May 06 Disaster and Children Dr. K. Sekar, NIMHANS Jun 06 Self-actualization: Need of the Hour Dr. R. D. Vaghani, Rajkot Jul 06 Counselling -----------------------------Aug 06 Leadership Dr. K. A. Selvaraj, Bangalore Sep 06 Teachers: Makers of Modern India -----------------------------Oct 06 Gandhian Values Dr. S. S. Sharma, Rajkot Nov 06 Nurturing the Gifted A formal letter
awaited

Dec 06

Children with Disability

Ms. Shivani Mishra, Gujarat.

Articles, together with bibliography in proper form, may please be sent by post as paper copy (or as soft copy in floppy) to: The Editor, Journal of School Social Work, 8 (New 14), Sridevi Colony, 7th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083. Articles may also be sent in simple text/ unformatted word file through email to jssw.india@gmail.com (or) jssw@mail.com. Journal of School Social Work March 2006 27

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School Mental Health: An Overview of the American Standards Hemanth Roche J* providers of mental health services.As Why mental health in schools? A variety of psycho-social and health Burns and her colleagues report from problems affect learning and the study of childrens utilization of MH performance in many ways. The services in western North Carolina, youngsters who internalize the the major player in the de facto system problem perform poorly at school and of care was the education sector are punished which is a common more than three-fourths of children correlate of school failure. So, school receiving mental health services were policy makers attempt to deal with seen in the education sector, and for problems that interfere with schooling many this was the sole source of care. by psychological and social service Advancing mental health in schools programmes in the schools. Over the Though mental health activity is going past 20 years increasing linkages on in schools there is a great deal to between schools and community be done to improve what is taking service agencies are forged to place. With specific respect to mental enhance the well-being of young health in schools, it has been stressed that initiatives must connect in major people and their families. ways with the mission of schools and School-linked servoces As a result more recently, initiatives integrate with a restructured system of for community schools and youth education support programmes and development has emerged with services. emphasis on increasing students Mental health resources assets and resiliency and reducing risk From our perspective, policymakers factors to enhance mental health in and practitioners are deprived of schools. Some directly support school information that is essential in programmes and personnel; others determining equity and enhancing connect community programmes and system effectiveness as there has been no comprehensive mapping and personnel with schools. no overall analysis of the amount Early intervention Available research suggests that for some youngsters schools are the main *Hemanth Roche JMSW MA(Psy) Counsellor, Don Bosco Anbu Illam, Coimbatore.
Focus

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of resources used for efforts relevant to mental health in schools or of how they are expended. In USA, currently there are about 90,000 public schools in about 15,000 districts. Thus, efforts to advance mental health in schools also must adopt effective models and procedures for replication and scale-up. Strategic approaches There is a need, however, for increased emphasis on strategic approaches for enhancing policy and practice. To these ends, the Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA (1) highlights the need for a broad perspective in thinking about and justifying mental health in schools, (2) promotes a basis for operationally defining mental health in schools, (3) proposes an integrated framework for promoting healthy development in ways that can expand the impact of mental health in schools, and (4) pursues a wide variety of strategies designed to advance the field. Ending the marginalization Mental health in schools must be understood as essential to addressing barriers to learning and we will need to stress the importance ofschoolcommunity-home collaborations in weaving together the resources for comprehensive approaches. Guidelines for mental health in

schools General domains for students mental health Ensuring academic success and also promoting overall development and resilience. Addressing barriers to student learning and performance. Providing social/emotional support for students, families, and staff. Barriers to student learning Addressing common educational and psycho-social problems. Countering external stressors like hostile and violent living conditions. Teaching, serving, and accommodating disorders/disabilities. Facilities for individuals, groups, and families Assessment for initial screening of problems. Referral, triage, and monitoring/ management of care. Direct services and instruction to foster safe and caring climates. Coordination, development, and leadership related to school-owned programmes, services, resources, and systems. Consultation, supervision, and in service instruction with an inter disciplinary focus. Enhancing connections with and involvement of home and community March 2006 29

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resources. Nature of interventions Primary prevention. After the onset of problems. Interventions for severe, pervasive, and/or chronic problems. Quality of intervention Systems and interventions are monitored and improved. Programmes and services constitute a multifaceted continuum. Interveners have appropriate knowledge and skills for their roles and functions. School-owned programmes and services are coordinated and integrated to home and community resources. Programmes and services are integrated with instructional components at schools Programmes and services are available, accessible, and attractive. Empirically-supported interventions are used when applicable. Differences like diversity, disability, developmental levels, strengths, weaknesses among students/families are appropriately accounted for. Legal considerations like mandated services, mandated reporting and its consequencesare appropriately accounted for. Contexts for intervention are appropriate (office; clinic; classroom; 30

home). Outcome evaluation Short-term outcome data Long-term outcome data Reporting to key stakeholders and using outcome data to enhance intervention quality. Over the years, most (but obviously not all) schools have instituted programmes designed with a range of mental health and psychosocial concerns in mind. And, there is a large body of research supporting the Delivery mechanisms and formats The five mechanisms and related formats are: 1. School-financed student support Services (SFSSS) Most school districts employ pupil services professionals such as school psychologists, counsellors, and social workers to perform services related to mental health and psycho-social problems . 2. School-district mental health unit A few districts operate specific mental health units that encompass clinic facilities, as well as providing services and consultation to schools. The format for this mechanism tends to be centralized clinics with the capability for outreach to schools. 3. Formal connections with community mental health services Increasingly, schools have developed March 2006

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connections with community agencies, often as the result of the school-based health center movement, school-linked services initiatives, full service schools, family resource centers and efforts to develop systems of care wraparound services for those in special education. Four formats have emerged: Co-location of community agency personnel and services at schools partly financed by community health organizations. Formal linkages with agencies to enhance access and service coordination for students and families at the agency, at a nearby satellite clinic, or in a school-based or linked family resource center. Formalpartnerships between a school district and community agencies for provision of MH services. Contracting with community providers to provide services. 4. Classroom-based curriculum and special pullout interventions Most schools include specific instructional activities designed to promote healthy social and emotional development and/ or prevent psycho-socialproblems.Three formats have emerged: Integrated instruction. Specific or special intervention. Curriculum approach to enhance positive development and to prevent

problems. 5. Comprehensive, multifaceted, and integrated approaches A few school districts have begun the process of addressing barriers that interfere with students having an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Efforts to move toward clear and connected approaches are likely to be enhanced into systems of care and the growing movement to create community schools. Three formats are emerging: Mechanisms to coordinate and integrate school and community services. Initiatives to restructure student support programmes and services and integrate them into school reform agendas. Community schools. Conclusion To sum up, advancing mental health in schools is much more than expanding services and creating full service schools. It is about establishing comprehensive, multifaceted approaches thathelp ensure schools are caring and supportive places that maximize learning and well-being and strengthen neighbourhoods, students and their families. A great deal can thus be learnt from the American model.

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Journal of School Social Work English Monthly Registered with Registrar of Newspapers for India under No. TNENG/2004/14389 Postal Registration TN/CC/(S) Dn/47/ 06 - 08 Licensed to post under WPP No. TN/CC(S) Dn /34/06-08 Posted at Chennai Egmore RMS/1 Patrika Channel on the last day or the first day of the month. Statement about ownership and other particulars about newspaper Journal of School Social Work to be published in the first issue every year after the last day of February 1. Place of publication 8, Sridevi Colony, 7th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083 2. Periodicity of its publication Monthly 3. Printers Name T. Rajaguru Nationality Indian Address TRK Press, 39, Saidapet Rd, Vadapalani, Chennai 600026 4. Publishers Name P. Jayachandran Naidu Indian 8, Sridevi colony, 7 th Avenue, Ashok Nagar,Chennai 600083 5. Editors Name P. Jayachandran Naidu Nationality Indian Address 8, Sridevi colony, 7 th Avenue, Ashok Nagar,Chennai 600083 6. Names and addresses of individuals who own the newspaper and partners or shareholders holding more than one per cent of the total capital. P. Jayachandran Naidu 8, Sridevi colony, 7 th Avenue, Ashok Nagar,Chennai 600083 I, P. Jayachandran Naidu., hereby declare that the particulars given above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief. Date: 01. 03.and 2006owned by P. Jayachandran NaiduSignature of Publisher Published . Published from Nationality Address

FORM IV

8, Sridevi Colony, 7th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083 and printed by T. Rajaguru at TRK Press, 39, Saidapet Road, Vadapalani, Chennai 600026 Ph: 24894778 Mobile: 9840602325 Editor: P. Jayachandran Naidu. Journal of School Social Work 32 March 2006

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