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Succeeding with Technology, Second Edition

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Chapter 5 Telecommunications, Wireless Technologies, and Computer Networks

Review Questions
1. Communication takes place between sender and receiver by way of a signal that travels through a communications medium. An analog signal continuously changes over time while a digital signal has a discrete state - either high or low. When developing a network, the selection of media depends on the environment and use of the network. Fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, twisted-pair cable. Advantages of fiber-optic cable: speed, small size and high reliability. A major disadvantage of fiber-optic cable is its cost. If companies require high-speed transmission over large geographic regions, then a communications satellite would be an obvious choice. Problems such as the curvature of the earth, mountains, and other structures that block the line-ofsight microwave transmission make satellites an attractive alternative. Manufacturers are installing Bluetooth chips in a wide variety of communications and computer appliances to allow device-to-device connections. In contrast, Wi-Fi focuses on connecting devices to a network and the Internet. Bluetooth devices can communicate directly with each other, whereas Wi-Fi devices communicate only through the nearest access point or hot spot. Wi-Fi has much faster data transfer speeds than Bluetooth. Special devices, such as routers or gateways, are required to connect networks that use different standards. Privacy activists are concerned about the ramifications of leaving RFID tags embedded in merchandise after the purchase. It may be possible for someone to point an RFID reader at a residence and effectively take inventory of all items within the home.

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10. The purpose of a firewall is to filter the information coming onto a network to protect the network computers from hackers, viruses, and other unwanted network traffic. 11. Distributed computing refers to computing that involves multiple remote computers that work together to solve a computation problem or perform information processing. 12. Local resources are the files, drives, and perhaps a printer or other peripheral device that are accessible to the workstation on or off the network; local resources are part of the workstation or connected directly to the workstation. Network resources, also called remote resources, are resources that the workstation can access only while connected to the network; network resources exist on other nodes. 13. When choosing a cell phone service, there are three primary decisions to make: choose a carrier, choose a plan, and choose the phone, features, and services you want. 14. Network types, in order of size, include: Global area network (GAN), wide area network (WAN), metropolitan area network (MAN), local area network (LAN), and personal area network (PAN). 15. Ethernet is the most widely used network standard for private networks.

Succeeding with Technology, Second Edition

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16. The Internet is a public network that serves the information needs of the global population. An intranet uses the protocols of the Internet and the Web (TCP/IP and HTTP, along with Internet services such as Web browsers) within the confines of a private network 17. In addition to requiring sophisticated equipment and software, global area networks must meet specific national and international laws regulating the electronic flow of data across international boundaries, often called transborder data flow. Some countries have strict laws restricting the use of telecommunications and databases, making normal business transactions such as payroll costly, slow, or even impossible. Other countries have few laws restricting the use of telecommunications or databases. Other governments and companies can avoid their own countrys laws by processing data within the boundaries of countries, sometimes called data havens, that have few restrictions on telecommunications or databases. 18. Advantages and disadvantages of GSM network cell phone systems: Advantages Provide better international coverage Disadvantages Do not support analog networks, which may mean spotty coverage if you travel to rural areas in the United States

Provide more talk time on a battery charge (5 hours) Provide more features across more handsets and more innovative designs Are more portable due to a subscriber identity module (SIM) that contains subscriber information, address book, and other personal information that can be easily transferred to other phones

19. To set up a wireless home network you need a wireless access point and a network adapter. 20. Add-on cell phone services include text messaging, picture and video messaging, instant messaging, push to talk, e-mail, and Airfone.

Discussion Questions
21. Negative effects of insufficient bandwidth include: the creation of bottlenecks and the inability to provide multimedia services. 22. Advantages: One can create a personal area network at home or on the road with Bluetooth-enabled devices such as keyboard, mouse, scanner, PDA, laptop, cell phone, etc. This network can automatically help synchronize notes, calendar, address book and also print pictures, receive emails, access cell phones messages, etc. It can even help consumers pay bills with credit card through Bluetooth cash register if a Bluetooth PDA stores the card information. Source: http://internet.about.com/library/aa_bluetooth1_081402.htm 23. With a client/server network, resources such as files and databases can be centrally located. 24. As a system administrator, you would most likely be responsible for enabling mobile computing and telecommunication. Most companies prefer that you work onsite.

Succeeding with Technology, Second Edition

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25. The ability to work in teams is a basic requirement for system administrators. A computer network assists team members by allowing them to share information.

Try It Yourself
1. Solutions may be similar to the following: Location of the Lab: New York campus Network manager: A. Brown Local Resources Personal files Scanner Internet Explorer 2. Network Resources Printers Netscape Navigator Internet Information Services

Activities not allowed on the Georgia Tech Network include: Authorized users may not use computing resources for unauthorized monitoring of electronic communications. Users are prohibited from using, inspecting, copying, storing, and redistributing copyrighted computer programs and other material, in violation of copyright laws. Harmful activities are prohibited. Examples include IP spoofing; creating and propagating viruses; port scanning; disrupting services; damaging files; or intentional destruction of or damage to equipment, software, or data. Deliberate attempts to degrade the performance of a computer system or network or to deprive authorized personnel of resources or access to any Institute computer system or network are prohibited. Users are prohibited from attempting to circumvent or subvert any systems security measures.

Violations of authorial integrity, including plagiarism, invasion of privacy, unauthorized access, and trade secret and copyright violations, may be grounds for sanctions against members of the academic community. Source: http://www.security.gatech.edu/policy/usage/policy.html#2.1 The purpose of a network usage policy is to promote the efficient and lawful use of computer network resources. 3. Solutions may be similar to the following: Carrier T Mobile Plan Name Basic Whenever Minutes 300 Weeknight Minutes None Weekend Minutes Unlimited Price per Month $29.99 Services Call waiting Caller ID Conference calling Detailed billing Customer care Directory Assistance Emergency calls VoiceMail with paging 3-way calling 411 Connect Basic Voice Mail Call Forwarding Call Waiting Caller ID/Caller ID Blocking New Every Two No Answer/Busy Transfer

Verizon

Americas Choice

450

Unlimited

Unlimited

$39.99

Succeeding with Technology, Second Edition TXT Messaging

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The computing environment at Pace University offers a host of services including free web access, e-mail accounts and self-paced documentation. At each computer resource center, you have access to Pentium computers, laser printers, color scanners, and a full complement of software, including the Microsoft Office Professional Suite. Solutions may be similar to the following:

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Ethernet Network
Three10/100 Fast Ethernet Adapters 1 10/100 Fast Ethernet Hub (4 port) Three 50 foot Category 5 (Cat5) RJ-45 cables Cost: $134.31 Data transfer rate: 100 Mbps 6.

Wireless Network
802.11b wireless access point Three 802.11b wireless network adapters (USB)

Cost: $263.47 Data transfer rate: 11 Mbps

Bluetooth is a short-range radio technology aimed at simplifying communications among 'Net devices and between devices and the Internet. The operating range is much shorter, but Bluetooth promises some real advantages, now that the gadgets are finally hitting the market. Bluetooth-equipped cell phones, for example, will work as modems for Bluetoothequipped computers. Bluetooth-equipped radios can wirelessly feed Bluetooth-equipped headphones (although decent fidelity remains a distant dream). Bluetooth should allow your digital camera to send photos to your computer without so much as a cable. Advantages: Easier to use and cheaper than WiFi, Bluetooth may be destined to become the network of choice for a huge variety of gadgets: computers, phones, appliances, thermostats, and a lot of stuff yet to be invented. Disadvantages. Slow connection speed, shorter range. Source: https://www.nmefcu.net/Articles/297.asp Security experts in the U.K. have discovered serious flaws in some Bluetooth-enabled phones, prompting one supplier of the vulnerable phones, Nokia Corp., to recommend precautionary measures. "We have developed a tool that allows us to connect to a number of Bluetooth-enabled phones and download all sorts of confidential information, such as address books, calendars and other attachments without going through the normal pairing, or handshaking, process between devices," said Adam Laurie, technical director and co-founder of A.L. Digital Ltd. in London. "In fact, we have been able to obtain this confidential data without giving users any indication whatsoever that an intrusion is taking place." A.L. Digital has discovered security flaws in four Nokia phone models: 6310, 6310(i), 8910 and 8910(i). Janne Ahlberg, manager of technology platforms at Nokia, confirmed that these models are susceptible to potential attacks. Users of these phones in public places, he recommended, should either switch their phone to the "non-discoverable" or hidden mode, making them invisible to others, or turn off the Bluetooth functionality completely. Users should also check that their Bluetooth "pairings," or approved connections with trusted partners, are correct. Source: http://www.infoworld.com/article/04/02/11/HNbluetoothcracks_1.html

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Solutions may be similar to the following: Top Vulnerabilities to Windows Systems W1 Internet Information Services (IIS) W2 Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) W3 Windows Authentication W4 Internet Explorer (IE) W5 Windows Remote Access Services

Top Vulnerabilities to UNIX Systems U1 BIND Domain Name System U2 Remote Procedure Calls (RPC)

Succeeding with Technology, Second Edition U3 Apache Web Server U4 General UNIX Authentication Accounts with No Passwords or Weak Passwords U5 Clear Text Services

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Source: http://www.sans.org/top20/

Virtual Classroom Activities


8. Solutions may be similar to the following: Does the college provide public computer labs? i. Yes Are the dorms networked? i. Yes How can notebook computers be connected to the campus network? i. Through the use of cables How many computer labs are available? i. Two on each campus How many computers are in each lab? i. Approximately 95 Benefits of a home computer network include: Fast access to academic resources Fast software downloads Shared internet access in your home (wired or wireless) Shared files between computers Shared printer for multiple computers Relatively easy to setup and maintain

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Teamwork
10. Solutions may be similar to the following:

Wireless Network
802.11g wireless access point Four 802.11b wireless network adapters (USB)/ PC card Wireless access point router Cost: $388.00

11. To view samples of network usage policies, students can be encouraged to visit the following site: http://www.brookdale.cc.nj.us/content.php?ID=275