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Electric Power Transfer Enhancement Using

AC-DC Transmission
Devendra K.Bhingare
Lecturer
B.D.Collage Of Engg.SEVAGRAM
Email:-dk_bhingare@rediffmail.

Abstract- Long extra high voltage (EHV) ac lines cannot be
loaded to their thermal limits in order to keep sufficient
margin against transient instability. With the scheme
proposed in this paper, it is possible to load these lines very
close to their thermal limits. The conductors are allowed to
carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc
power flow does not cause any transient instability. This paper
presents the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into
composite acdc power transmission line to get the
advantages of parallel acdc transmission to improve stability
and damping out oscillations. Simulation and experimental
studies are carried out for the coordinated control as well as
independent control of ac and dc power transmission .No
alterations of conductors, insulator strings, and towers of the
original line are needed .Substantial gain in the loadability of the
line is obtained. Master current controller senses ac current and
regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that
conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit.
Index Terms-ac-dc transmission, zigzag transformer,
MATLAB 7, simulation, etc.

I. INTRODUCTION

In the present power system, vast majority of


transmission lines are ac with few HVDC links .The power
flow in ac lines is determined by Kirchoffs laws. This is in
contrast to HVDC links where power flow is regulated by
converter controls. The pure ac lines have the following
demerits.
The power flow in ac long lines is limited by stability
considerations. This implies that the lines operate at
power level much below their thermal limit.
The lack of fast control in ac lines implies that the
normal power flow in line is kept much below the
peak value, which itself is limited by stability (as
mentioned earlier). This margin is required to
maintain system security even under contingency
conditions.
The ac transmission system requires dynamic reactive
power control to maintain satisfactory voltage profile
under varying load conditions and transient
disturbances.
The increase in load levels is accompanied by higher
reactive power consumption in the line reactance.
Because of above-mentioned demerits of ac transmission,
faster dynamic controls are required to overcome the problem
of ac transmission system.
In recent years, environmental, right-of-way, and
cost concerns have delayed the construction of a new
transmission line, while demand of electric power has
shown steady but geographically uneven growth. The
power is often available at locations not close to the
growing load centers but at remote locations. These
locations are largely determined by regulatory policies,
environmental acceptability, and the cost of available energy.
The wheeling of this available energy through existing long
ac lines to load center has a certain upper limit due to
stability considerations. Thus, these lines are not loaded to
their thermal limit to keep sufficient margin against transient
instability .The present situation demands the review of
traditional power transmission theory and practice, on the
basis of new concepts that allow full utilization of existing
transmission facilities without decreasing system availability
and security .The flexible ac transmission system
(FACTS)concepts, based on applying state-of-the-art power
electronic technology to existing ac transmission system,
improve stability to achieve power transmission close to its
thermal limit [1][4]. Another way to achieve the same goal is
simultaneous acdc power transmission in which the
conductors are allowed to carry superimposed dc current along
with ac current. Ac and dc power flow independently, and the
added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability.
. Extra high voltage (EHV) ac line may loaded to a very
high level by using it for simultaneous acdc power
transmission as reported in references [5] and [6]. The basic
proof justifying the simultaneous acdc power transmission is
explained in reference [6]. In the above references,
simultaneous acdc power transmission was first proposed
through a single circuit ac transmission line. In these proposals
Mono-polar dc transmission with ground as return path was
used. There were certain limitations due to use of ground as
return path. Moreover, the instantaneous value of each
conductor voltage with respect to ground becomes higher by
the amount of the dc Voltage, and more discs are to be added
in each insulator string to withstand this increased voltage.
However, there was no change in the Conductor separation
distance, as the line-to-line voltage remains unchanged. In this
paper, the feasibility study of conversion of a double circuit ac
line to composite acdc line without altering the original line
conductors, tower structures, and insulator strings has been
presented. In this scheme, the dc power flow is point-to point
Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)
Copyright 2011 RG Education Society
ISBN: 978-981-08-7931-0
13
Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)
bipolar transmission system. Clerici et al. [7] suggested the
conversion of ac line to dc line for substantial power
upgrading of existing ac line. However, this would require
major changes in the tower structure as well as replacement of
an insulator strings with high creepage dc insulators. The
novelty of our proposed scheme is that the power transfer
enhancement is achieved without any alteration in the existing
EHV ac line. The main object is to gain the advantage of
parallel acdc transmission and to load the line close to its
thermal limit.


II. SIMULTANEOUS AC-DC POWER TRANSMISSION

Fig.1 depicts the basic scheme for simultaneous acdc
power flow through a double circuit ac transmission line. The
dc power is obtained through line commutated 12-pulse
rectifier bridge used in conventional HVDC and injected to
the neutral point of the zigzag connected secondary of
sending end transformer and is reconverted to ac again by
the conventional line commutated 12-pulse bridge inverter at
the receiving end. The inverter bridge is again connected to
the neutral of zig-zag connected winding of the receiving
end transformer. The double circuit ac transmission line
carriers both three-phase ac and dc power. Each conductor of
each line carries one third of the total dc current along with ac
current. Resistance being equal in all the three phases of
secondary winding of zigzag transformer as well as the three
conductors of the line, the dc current is equally divided among
all the three phases. The three conductors of the second line
provide return path for the dc current. Zig-zag connected
winding is used at both ends to avoid saturation of transformer
due to dc current. Two fluxes produced by the dc current
(Id/3)



















Figure1. Basic scheme for ac-dc transmission

Flowing through each of a winding in each limb of the
core of a zig-zag transformer is equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction. So the net dc flux at any instant of time
becomes zero in each limb of the core. Thus, the dc saturation
of the core is avoided. A high value of reactor Xd is used to
reduce harmonics in dc current. In the absence of zero
sequence and third harmonics or its multiple harmonic
voltages, under normal operating conditions, the ac current
flow through each transmission line will be restricted
between the zigzag connected windings and the three
conductors of the transmission line .Even the presence of
these components of voltages may only be able to produce
negligible current through the ground due to high value of
Xd. Assuming the usual constant current control of rectifier
and constant extinction angle control of inverter [4], [8][10],
the equivalent circuit of the scheme under normal steady-state
operating condition is given in Fig. 2. The dotted lines in the
figure show the path of ac return current only. The second
transmission line carries the return dc current Id, and each
conductor of the line carries(Id/3) along with the ac current
per phase Vdro & Vdio are the maximum values of
rectifier and inverter side dc voltages and are equal
to(32/) times converter ac input line-to-line voltage. R, L,
and C are the line parameters per phase of each line. Rcr, Rci
are commutating resistances, and, are firing and extinction
angles of rectifier and inverter, respectively. Neglecting the
resistive drops in the line conductors and transformer
windings due to dc current, expressions for ac voltage and
current, and for active and reactive powers in terms of A, B,
C, and D parameters of each line may be written as
Es=AER+BIR (1)
Is=C.ER+DIR (2)
PS+JQS=-ES.ER*/B*+D*ES
2
./B* (3)
PR+JQR=-ES*ER/B*+A*ER
2
./B* (4)
Neglecting ac resistive drop in the line and transformer,
the dc Power Pdr and Pdi of each rectifier and inverter may be
expressed as
Pdr=Vdr.Id (5)
Pdi=Vdi.Id (6)

Reactive powers required by the converters are
Qdr=Pdr. tanr (7)
Qdi=Pdi . tani (8)
Total active and reactive powers at the two ends are
Pst=Ps+ Pdr & Prt=PR+ Pdi (9)
Qst=Qs+Qdr &Qrt=QR+Qdi (10)
Transmission loss for each line is
14
Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)
PL=(PS+Pdr)(PR+Pdi) (11)
Ia being the r ms ac current per conductor at any point of
the line, the total r ms current per conductor becomes
I = [Ia
2
+ (Id /3)
2
]
1/2


Power loss for each line is PL=3I
2
R
the net current through the conductor equal to its thermal limit
Ith= [Ia
2
+ (Id/3)
2
]
1/2
(12)

Let Vph be per-phase rms voltage of original ac line. Let
Va also be the per-phase voltage of ac component of composite ac
dc line with dc voltage Vd superimposed on it. As insulators remain
unchanged, the peak voltage in both cases should be equal
Vmax=2Vph=Vd+2Va (13)
Electric field produced by any conductor possesses a dc
component superimpose on it a sinusoid ally varying ac component.
Each conductor is to be insulated for Vmax ,but the line-to line
voltage has no dc component and .VLLmax =6 Va Therefore
conductor-to-conductor separation distance of each line is determined
only by rated ac voltage of the line.
Allowing maximum permissible voltage offset such that the
composite voltage wave just touches zero in each every cycle;
Vd = Vph/2 and Va = Vph/2 (14)
The total power transfer through the double circuit line before
conversion is;
P'total 3Vph
2
Sin1/X (15)
X is the transfer reactance per phase of the double circuit line and
o1 is the power angle between the voltages at the two ends. To keep
sufficient stability margin, o1is generally kept low for long lines and
seldom exceeds 30 . With the increasing length of line, the load
ability of the line is decreased.[4] An approximate value of
o1 may becomputed from the load ability curve by knowing the
values of Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) and transfer reactance
X of the line.
P'total=2.M.SIL (16)
Where M is the multiplying factor and its magnitude decreases
with the length of line. The value of M can be obtained from the
load ability curve. The total power transfer through the
simultaneous ac-dc line is
Ptotal = Pac + Pdc = 3Va
2
Sin
2
/X + 2VdId (17)
The power angle 2 between the ac voltages at the two ends
of the simultaneous ac-dc line may be increased to a high value
due to fast controllability of dc component of power. For a
constant value of total power, Poc may be modulated by fast control
of the current controller of dc power converters.
Approximate value of ac current per phase per circuit of the
double circuit line may be computed as;
IaV (Sin/2)/X (18)
The on-line dc current order for rectifier is adjusted as

Id=3Ith*Ia* (19)
III. SYSTEM MODEL & CASE STUDIES:
COMPUTATIONS AND SIMULATION
The network shown in Fig. 1 was studied using
MATLAB- 7. A synchronous machine is feeding power to
infinite bus via a double circuit, three-phase, 400-KV, 50-Hz,
450-Km ac transmission line. The 2750-MVA(5* 550), 24.0-
KV synchronous machine is dynamically modeled, a field
coil on d-axis and a damper coil on q-axis, by Parks
equations with the frame of reference based in rotor [4].
It is equipped with an IEEE type AC4Aexcitation system.
A. AC Configuration Only
The loadability of Moose (commercial name), ACSR,
twin bundle conductor, 400- kV, 50-Hz, 450-km double
circuit line has been computed. The parameters of the line are
z = 0.03252 + j0.33086 /km/ph/ckt
y = j3.33797 x10
-6
S/km/ph/ckt.
Current carrying capacity of each sub conductor =0.9kA
,Ith = 1.8 kA/circuit, SII = 511.0 MW/ckt.; H = 1.1, from
loadability curve X =74.4435 /ph Using (15)(18), the
computed power at receiving end and conductor current is
P'total = 1124.00 MW; 1 30;
Iph/ckt = 0.803 kA;
B. Conversion of the Conventional Double Circuit AC
Line Into Composite ACDC Power Transmission
Line
Using equation (12-14)
Va= 120 kV/ph (208 kVLL);Vd = 160 kV;
The above ac voltage Va has been increased from 115.473
to120 kV, and Vd has been decreased from 163.328 to 160.0
kV to have zero crossing in voltage wave. (Iph/ckt )is
1.7744 kA.



15
Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)
TABLE I COMPUTED RESULTS


The conductor current 0.805246 kA is mu
thermal limit 1.8kA.The proposed composite
scheme shown in Fig. 1 can be simulated in stea
as a real system using MATLAB software p
shows the simulated graphs of active power tr
ac-dc transmission. Pdc_loss includes line lo
current and converter losses. Pac_ loss is line
current only. The total power Pr at receiving en
net power transfer after subtracting all losse
breakers, transformers, etc. It has been o
computation that the maximum power transfer
transmitted by composite acdc line occurs at p
60. The same amount of power transfer throug
double circuit line would require a power an
which is beyond the safe limit for power angle.


Figure2. Active power flow through ac-dc trans
Parameters
Power Angle()Degree
30
0
45
0
60
0
75
ac Power (MW)
3Va
2
Sin2/X

290

410

502.61 560.6
ac current Ia(kA)
Ia=V(Sin/2)/X

0.4166

0.6122

0.805 0.98
Dc current
Id(kA)Id=
3(Ith*Ia* )
1/2

5.253 5.078 4.829 4.529
Dc power
Pdc=2Vdi*Idi(M
W)

1684.8

1624.9

1545.5 1144
Ptotal =
Pac + Pdc

1971

2034

2048 2010
The stability of the power
Fig.3. The corresponding conductor
1.7744 kA.

Figure3. Power a
uch below the
e acdc power
ady-state mode
package. Fig.2
ransfer through
oss due to dc
loss due to ac
nd is the actual
es like circuit
observed from
of 2062.0 MW
power angle of
gh conventional
ngle of 73.68,

smission

CONCLUSIO

The feasibility to convert ac
composite acdc line has been
particular system studied, there is su
83.45%) in the loadabilty of the line.
thermal limit with the superimposed d
flow does not impose any stability pr
parallel acdc transmission is obtaine
may modulate ac power flow. The
modification in the size of conducto
towers structure of the original line. T
and dc voltage components of the c
are 1/2 and 1/2 times the ac vol
respectively.
REFERENCE

[1] H. Rahman, B. H. Khan, Power Upgra
Combining ACDC Transmission,
POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 1, FEB
[2] K. P. Basu & B. H. Khan, Simultane
Inst. Eng. (India) J.-EL, vol. 82, pp. 323
[3] H. Rahman and B. H. Khan, Enhanced p
transmission of AC-DC: a new FACTS
Eng. Conf. Power Electronics, Machines,
31Apr. 2 2004, vol. 1, pp. 186191.
[4] P. S. Kundur, Power System Stability
Graw-Hill, 1994.
[5] N. G. Hingorani, FACTSflexible A.C.
Inst. Elect. Eng. 5th. Int. Conf. A.C. D.C.
U.K., 1991.
[6] K. P. Basu, H. Rahnan, Feasibility St
Circuit ac Transmission Line for Si
Transmission, IEEE PEDS 2005
[7] A. Clerici, L. Paris, and P. Danfors, HVD
line to provide substantial power upgradin
Del., vol.6, no. 1, pp. 324333, Jan. 1991.
[8] L. K. Gyugyi et al., The unified power fl
to power transmission control, IEEE T
2pp. 10851097, Apr. 1995.
5
0
80
0
6

571.55
8

1.035
9 4.418
4.

1413.7
0

1985
system is shown the
r current (Iph/ckt) is

angle

ON
transmission line to a
demonstrated. For the
ubstantial increase (about
. The line is loaded to its
dc current. The dc power
roblem. The advantage of
ed. DC current regulator
ere is no need for any
ors, insulator strings, and
The optimum values of ac
converted composite line
ltage before conversion,
ES
ading of Transmission Line by
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
BRUARY 2007
eous ac-dc power transmission,
35, Jun. 2001.
power transfer by simultaneous
S concept, in Proc. Inst.Elect.
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16