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AC-DC Transmission

Devendra K.Bhingare

Lecturer

B.D.Collage Of Engg.SEVAGRAM

Email:-dk_bhingare@rediffmail.

Abstract- Long extra high voltage (EHV) ac lines cannot be

loaded to their thermal limits in order to keep sufficient

margin against transient instability. With the scheme

proposed in this paper, it is possible to load these lines very

close to their thermal limits. The conductors are allowed to

carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc

power flow does not cause any transient instability. This paper

presents the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into

composite acdc power transmission line to get the

advantages of parallel acdc transmission to improve stability

and damping out oscillations. Simulation and experimental

studies are carried out for the coordinated control as well as

independent control of ac and dc power transmission .No

alterations of conductors, insulator strings, and towers of the

original line are needed .Substantial gain in the loadability of the

line is obtained. Master current controller senses ac current and

regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that

conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit.

Index Terms-ac-dc transmission, zigzag transformer,

MATLAB 7, simulation, etc.

I. INTRODUCTION

transmission lines are ac with few HVDC links .The power

flow in ac lines is determined by Kirchoffs laws. This is in

contrast to HVDC links where power flow is regulated by

converter controls. The pure ac lines have the following

demerits.

The power flow in ac long lines is limited by stability

considerations. This implies that the lines operate at

power level much below their thermal limit.

The lack of fast control in ac lines implies that the

normal power flow in line is kept much below the

peak value, which itself is limited by stability (as

mentioned earlier). This margin is required to

maintain system security even under contingency

conditions.

The ac transmission system requires dynamic reactive

power control to maintain satisfactory voltage profile

under varying load conditions and transient

disturbances.

The increase in load levels is accompanied by higher

reactive power consumption in the line reactance.

Because of above-mentioned demerits of ac transmission,

faster dynamic controls are required to overcome the problem

of ac transmission system.

In recent years, environmental, right-of-way, and

cost concerns have delayed the construction of a new

transmission line, while demand of electric power has

shown steady but geographically uneven growth. The

power is often available at locations not close to the

growing load centers but at remote locations. These

locations are largely determined by regulatory policies,

environmental acceptability, and the cost of available energy.

The wheeling of this available energy through existing long

ac lines to load center has a certain upper limit due to

stability considerations. Thus, these lines are not loaded to

their thermal limit to keep sufficient margin against transient

instability .The present situation demands the review of

traditional power transmission theory and practice, on the

basis of new concepts that allow full utilization of existing

transmission facilities without decreasing system availability

and security .The flexible ac transmission system

(FACTS)concepts, based on applying state-of-the-art power

electronic technology to existing ac transmission system,

improve stability to achieve power transmission close to its

thermal limit [1][4]. Another way to achieve the same goal is

simultaneous acdc power transmission in which the

conductors are allowed to carry superimposed dc current along

with ac current. Ac and dc power flow independently, and the

added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability.

. Extra high voltage (EHV) ac line may loaded to a very

high level by using it for simultaneous acdc power

transmission as reported in references [5] and [6]. The basic

proof justifying the simultaneous acdc power transmission is

explained in reference [6]. In the above references,

simultaneous acdc power transmission was first proposed

through a single circuit ac transmission line. In these proposals

Mono-polar dc transmission with ground as return path was

used. There were certain limitations due to use of ground as

return path. Moreover, the instantaneous value of each

conductor voltage with respect to ground becomes higher by

the amount of the dc Voltage, and more discs are to be added

in each insulator string to withstand this increased voltage.

However, there was no change in the Conductor separation

distance, as the line-to-line voltage remains unchanged. In this

paper, the feasibility study of conversion of a double circuit ac

line to composite acdc line without altering the original line

conductors, tower structures, and insulator strings has been

presented. In this scheme, the dc power flow is point-to point

Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)

Copyright 2011 RG Education Society

ISBN: 978-981-08-7931-0

13

Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)

bipolar transmission system. Clerici et al. [7] suggested the

conversion of ac line to dc line for substantial power

upgrading of existing ac line. However, this would require

major changes in the tower structure as well as replacement of

an insulator strings with high creepage dc insulators. The

novelty of our proposed scheme is that the power transfer

enhancement is achieved without any alteration in the existing

EHV ac line. The main object is to gain the advantage of

parallel acdc transmission and to load the line close to its

thermal limit.

II. SIMULTANEOUS AC-DC POWER TRANSMISSION

Fig.1 depicts the basic scheme for simultaneous acdc

power flow through a double circuit ac transmission line. The

dc power is obtained through line commutated 12-pulse

rectifier bridge used in conventional HVDC and injected to

the neutral point of the zigzag connected secondary of

sending end transformer and is reconverted to ac again by

the conventional line commutated 12-pulse bridge inverter at

the receiving end. The inverter bridge is again connected to

the neutral of zig-zag connected winding of the receiving

end transformer. The double circuit ac transmission line

carriers both three-phase ac and dc power. Each conductor of

each line carries one third of the total dc current along with ac

current. Resistance being equal in all the three phases of

secondary winding of zigzag transformer as well as the three

conductors of the line, the dc current is equally divided among

all the three phases. The three conductors of the second line

provide return path for the dc current. Zig-zag connected

winding is used at both ends to avoid saturation of transformer

due to dc current. Two fluxes produced by the dc current

(Id/3)

Figure1. Basic scheme for ac-dc transmission

Flowing through each of a winding in each limb of the

core of a zig-zag transformer is equal in magnitude and

opposite in direction. So the net dc flux at any instant of time

becomes zero in each limb of the core. Thus, the dc saturation

of the core is avoided. A high value of reactor Xd is used to

reduce harmonics in dc current. In the absence of zero

sequence and third harmonics or its multiple harmonic

voltages, under normal operating conditions, the ac current

flow through each transmission line will be restricted

between the zigzag connected windings and the three

conductors of the transmission line .Even the presence of

these components of voltages may only be able to produce

negligible current through the ground due to high value of

Xd. Assuming the usual constant current control of rectifier

and constant extinction angle control of inverter [4], [8][10],

the equivalent circuit of the scheme under normal steady-state

operating condition is given in Fig. 2. The dotted lines in the

figure show the path of ac return current only. The second

transmission line carries the return dc current Id, and each

conductor of the line carries(Id/3) along with the ac current

per phase Vdro & Vdio are the maximum values of

rectifier and inverter side dc voltages and are equal

to(32/) times converter ac input line-to-line voltage. R, L,

and C are the line parameters per phase of each line. Rcr, Rci

are commutating resistances, and, are firing and extinction

angles of rectifier and inverter, respectively. Neglecting the

resistive drops in the line conductors and transformer

windings due to dc current, expressions for ac voltage and

current, and for active and reactive powers in terms of A, B,

C, and D parameters of each line may be written as

Es=AER+BIR (1)

Is=C.ER+DIR (2)

PS+JQS=-ES.ER*/B*+D*ES

2

./B* (3)

PR+JQR=-ES*ER/B*+A*ER

2

./B* (4)

Neglecting ac resistive drop in the line and transformer,

the dc Power Pdr and Pdi of each rectifier and inverter may be

expressed as

Pdr=Vdr.Id (5)

Pdi=Vdi.Id (6)

Reactive powers required by the converters are

Qdr=Pdr. tanr (7)

Qdi=Pdi . tani (8)

Total active and reactive powers at the two ends are

Pst=Ps+ Pdr & Prt=PR+ Pdi (9)

Qst=Qs+Qdr &Qrt=QR+Qdi (10)

Transmission loss for each line is

14

Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)

PL=(PS+Pdr)(PR+Pdi) (11)

Ia being the r ms ac current per conductor at any point of

the line, the total r ms current per conductor becomes

I = [Ia

2

+ (Id /3)

2

]

1/2

Power loss for each line is PL=3I

2

R

the net current through the conductor equal to its thermal limit

Ith= [Ia

2

+ (Id/3)

2

]

1/2

(12)

Let Vph be per-phase rms voltage of original ac line. Let

Va also be the per-phase voltage of ac component of composite ac

dc line with dc voltage Vd superimposed on it. As insulators remain

unchanged, the peak voltage in both cases should be equal

Vmax=2Vph=Vd+2Va (13)

Electric field produced by any conductor possesses a dc

component superimpose on it a sinusoid ally varying ac component.

Each conductor is to be insulated for Vmax ,but the line-to line

voltage has no dc component and .VLLmax =6 Va Therefore

conductor-to-conductor separation distance of each line is determined

only by rated ac voltage of the line.

Allowing maximum permissible voltage offset such that the

composite voltage wave just touches zero in each every cycle;

Vd = Vph/2 and Va = Vph/2 (14)

The total power transfer through the double circuit line before

conversion is;

P'total 3Vph

2

Sin1/X (15)

X is the transfer reactance per phase of the double circuit line and

o1 is the power angle between the voltages at the two ends. To keep

sufficient stability margin, o1is generally kept low for long lines and

seldom exceeds 30 . With the increasing length of line, the load

ability of the line is decreased.[4] An approximate value of

o1 may becomputed from the load ability curve by knowing the

values of Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) and transfer reactance

X of the line.

P'total=2.M.SIL (16)

Where M is the multiplying factor and its magnitude decreases

with the length of line. The value of M can be obtained from the

load ability curve. The total power transfer through the

simultaneous ac-dc line is

Ptotal = Pac + Pdc = 3Va

2

Sin

2

/X + 2VdId (17)

The power angle 2 between the ac voltages at the two ends

of the simultaneous ac-dc line may be increased to a high value

due to fast controllability of dc component of power. For a

constant value of total power, Poc may be modulated by fast control

of the current controller of dc power converters.

Approximate value of ac current per phase per circuit of the

double circuit line may be computed as;

IaV (Sin/2)/X (18)

The on-line dc current order for rectifier is adjusted as

Id=3Ith*Ia* (19)

III. SYSTEM MODEL & CASE STUDIES:

COMPUTATIONS AND SIMULATION

The network shown in Fig. 1 was studied using

MATLAB- 7. A synchronous machine is feeding power to

infinite bus via a double circuit, three-phase, 400-KV, 50-Hz,

450-Km ac transmission line. The 2750-MVA(5* 550), 24.0-

KV synchronous machine is dynamically modeled, a field

coil on d-axis and a damper coil on q-axis, by Parks

equations with the frame of reference based in rotor [4].

It is equipped with an IEEE type AC4Aexcitation system.

A. AC Configuration Only

The loadability of Moose (commercial name), ACSR,

twin bundle conductor, 400- kV, 50-Hz, 450-km double

circuit line has been computed. The parameters of the line are

z = 0.03252 + j0.33086 /km/ph/ckt

y = j3.33797 x10

-6

S/km/ph/ckt.

Current carrying capacity of each sub conductor =0.9kA

,Ith = 1.8 kA/circuit, SII = 511.0 MW/ckt.; H = 1.1, from

loadability curve X =74.4435 /ph Using (15)(18), the

computed power at receiving end and conductor current is

P'total = 1124.00 MW; 1 30;

Iph/ckt = 0.803 kA;

B. Conversion of the Conventional Double Circuit AC

Line Into Composite ACDC Power Transmission

Line

Using equation (12-14)

Va= 120 kV/ph (208 kVLL);Vd = 160 kV;

The above ac voltage Va has been increased from 115.473

to120 kV, and Vd has been decreased from 163.328 to 160.0

kV to have zero crossing in voltage wave. (Iph/ckt )is

1.7744 kA.

15

Proc. of the International Conference on Science and Engineering (ICSE 2011)

TABLE I COMPUTED RESULTS

The conductor current 0.805246 kA is mu

thermal limit 1.8kA.The proposed composite

scheme shown in Fig. 1 can be simulated in stea

as a real system using MATLAB software p

shows the simulated graphs of active power tr

ac-dc transmission. Pdc_loss includes line lo

current and converter losses. Pac_ loss is line

current only. The total power Pr at receiving en

net power transfer after subtracting all losse

breakers, transformers, etc. It has been o

computation that the maximum power transfer

transmitted by composite acdc line occurs at p

60. The same amount of power transfer throug

double circuit line would require a power an

which is beyond the safe limit for power angle.

Figure2. Active power flow through ac-dc trans

Parameters

Power Angle()Degree

30

0

45

0

60

0

75

ac Power (MW)

3Va

2

Sin2/X

290

410

502.61 560.6

ac current Ia(kA)

Ia=V(Sin/2)/X

0.4166

0.6122

0.805 0.98

Dc current

Id(kA)Id=

3(Ith*Ia* )

1/2

5.253 5.078 4.829 4.529

Dc power

Pdc=2Vdi*Idi(M

W)

1684.8

1624.9

1545.5 1144

Ptotal =

Pac + Pdc

1971

2034

2048 2010

The stability of the power

Fig.3. The corresponding conductor

1.7744 kA.

Figure3. Power a

uch below the

e acdc power

ady-state mode

package. Fig.2

ransfer through

oss due to dc

loss due to ac

nd is the actual

es like circuit

observed from

of 2062.0 MW

power angle of

gh conventional

ngle of 73.68,

smission

CONCLUSIO

The feasibility to convert ac

composite acdc line has been

particular system studied, there is su

83.45%) in the loadabilty of the line.

thermal limit with the superimposed d

flow does not impose any stability pr

parallel acdc transmission is obtaine

may modulate ac power flow. The

modification in the size of conducto

towers structure of the original line. T

and dc voltage components of the c

are 1/2 and 1/2 times the ac vol

respectively.

REFERENCE

[1] H. Rahman, B. H. Khan, Power Upgra

Combining ACDC Transmission,

POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 1, FEB

[2] K. P. Basu & B. H. Khan, Simultane

Inst. Eng. (India) J.-EL, vol. 82, pp. 323

[3] H. Rahman and B. H. Khan, Enhanced p

transmission of AC-DC: a new FACTS

Eng. Conf. Power Electronics, Machines,

31Apr. 2 2004, vol. 1, pp. 186191.

[4] P. S. Kundur, Power System Stability

Graw-Hill, 1994.

[5] N. G. Hingorani, FACTSflexible A.C.

Inst. Elect. Eng. 5th. Int. Conf. A.C. D.C.

U.K., 1991.

[6] K. P. Basu, H. Rahnan, Feasibility St

Circuit ac Transmission Line for Si

Transmission, IEEE PEDS 2005

[7] A. Clerici, L. Paris, and P. Danfors, HVD

line to provide substantial power upgradin

Del., vol.6, no. 1, pp. 324333, Jan. 1991.

[8] L. K. Gyugyi et al., The unified power fl

to power transmission control, IEEE T

2pp. 10851097, Apr. 1995.

5

0

80

0

6

571.55

8

1.035

9 4.418

4.

1413.7

0

1985

system is shown the

r current (Iph/ckt) is

angle

ON

transmission line to a

demonstrated. For the

ubstantial increase (about

. The line is loaded to its

dc current. The dc power

roblem. The advantage of

ed. DC current regulator

ere is no need for any

ors, insulator strings, and

The optimum values of ac

converted composite line

ltage before conversion,

ES

ading of Transmission Line by

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON

BRUARY 2007

eous ac-dc power transmission,

35, Jun. 2001.

power transfer by simultaneous

S concept, in Proc. Inst.Elect.

, Drives, Edinburgh, U.K., Mar.

and Control, New York: Mc-

. transmission system, in Proc.

. Power Transmission, London,

tudy of Conversion of Double

imultaneous ac-dc Power

DC conversion of HVAC

ng, IEEE Trans. Power

low controller; a new approach

Trans. Power Del., vol. 10, no.

16

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