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INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Problem Education is a very important aspect of our life.

No human beings are able to survive properly without education. By the means of education, only ones potential can be used to maximum extent. Through education only one can make separate identity. Education carves our way to civilization. People spend 16-20 years studying and going to school to attain education. Teachers and professors used different methods and equipment to conduct lectures and interact with students. One of the most common methods is lecturing using chalks and blackboards. From chalks and blackboards it then became marker and whiteboards. Most of the universities and colleges in the country prefer to use whiteboards than blackboards because of many different reasons. One of them is that whiteboards are neat to use than blackboards. Another reason is that it is easier to write and erase lectures. Inspired by the blackboards and whiteboards, the proponents decided to convert an existing whiteboard into a touch screen interactive whiteboard. An Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) is a piece of hardware that looks much like a standard whiteboard but it connects to a computer and a projector in the classroom to make a very powerful tool. When connected, the interactive whiteboard becomes a giant, touch-sensitive version of the computer screen.

Instead of using the mouse, you can control your computer through the interactive whiteboard screen just by touching it with a special pen (or, on some types of boards, with your finger).

Using special software included with the interactive whiteboard, you can also interact with images and text projected on the board: rearranging them, changing their size, color, etc. This offers a much more interactive experience than using a standard whiteboard or using a data projector alone. IWBs are used in a variety of settings, including classrooms at all levels of education, in corporate board rooms and work groups, in training rooms for professional sports coaching, in broadcasting studios and more. In this project, the proponents would like to concentrate on the cases of teachers, lecturers, presenters and even audiences such students having difficulty in taking down note while there is a discussion on going. Some students tend to copy lectures and computations without even understanding the topics being discussed. In lectures involving math equations and problem solving, effective discussion occurs when the teacher tends to give spare time for the students to do recitation and board works then explaining it in front of the class afterwards. Being left behind during the discussion is the most unlikely phase of being a student. Students tends to lose their focus during a lecture and what he/she does is to keep taking notes for him/her to study at home even without understanding the discussion taken in the class, which, in fact is not an effective strategy. When it happens that the teacher needs to erase earlier lectures to provide space for further lectures, students miss to take note of some part of the lecture written earlier. Sometimes, students would just ask their professor to stop for a while to copy lectures, which is just a waste of time.

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard


1.2 Overview of the Current State of the Technology 1.2.1 Related Studies Whiteboard A glossy usually white surface for non-permanent markings. Whiteboards are analogous to chalkboards, allowing rapid marking and erasing of markings on their surface. The popularity of whiteboards increased rapidly in the mid-1990s and they have become a fixture in many offices, meeting rooms, school classrooms, and other work environments. It can also be utilize as a computer images to a group of people. The whiteboard together with a non-permanent marker is the most common tool used for delivering classroom lectures in the country. [SPAR2011] Interactive Whiteboard Is a large interactive display that connects to a computer and projector. A projector projects the computer's desktop onto the board's surface where users control the computer using a pen, finger, stylus, or other device. The board is typically mounted to a wall or floor stand. They are used in a variety of settings, including classrooms at all levels of education, incorporate board rooms and work groups, in training rooms for professional sports coaching, in broadcasting studios and others. [JEFF2011] large screen to project

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard

1-3 Different Types of Interactive Whiteboard Resistive Membrane One type of whiteboard involves the user of "resistive membranes." Resistive membrane whiteboards consist of a flat projection surface comprised of two pieces of resistive material similar to vinyl. This creates a touch-sensitive surface that can be drawn upon by a finger or a stylus. Movement in the whiteboard is determined by location and pressure on the surface of the whiteboard, which is why both fingers and other hard objects will register movement. A resistive membrane projector can be cost effective at approximately $500 to $1,500 per unit, including software. The soft nature of the surface makes it more prone to damage or marking, however. As such, these types of whiteboards have fallen out of style, in favor of screens made from harder materials. [SMAL2010] Electromagnetic Interactive Whiteboard Electromagnetic boards work differently than resistive membranes. Rather than detecting pressure, these boards monitor electromagnetic fields. These fields are created by specially designed writing tools. One design of electromagnetic boards uses the frame to monitor the fields, while another uses a wire mesh embedded into the board itself. The whiteboard software registers the location of the field emitted by the stylus to determine what

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard


happens on the screen. A normal finger or pointing device will not work with these boards. These boards are more reliable than membrane boards, because there is less delay between user input and software reaction. Also, the hard surface resists damage from hard finger or stylus use. Electromagnetic boards usually cost around $1,500 to $3,000 for software and unit bundles, not including projection hardware. [SMAL2010] Laser Scanners A third design uses laser light, rather than pressure or electromagnetic detectors. Lasers and laser scanners are mounted along the frame of the board. The writer uses a special, reflective felt stylus on the board. This stylus reflects laser light back to the frame and denotes the position and writing action of the stylus. These are the most expensive boards available, due to reliability. Also, the cost of a special stylus can range in excess of $100. Laser units are highly accurate and responsive, while often allowing you to use the board both as a marker board and as an interactive whiteboard that can record and store your writing made in marker, as well as monitoring the use of the interactive stylus. [SMAL2010]

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard


Rear versus Short-Throw Projection Whiteboards also differ in terms of projection capabilities. Short-throw projection boards come equipped with a small projector, usually attached to the frame of the board, that leans over the board and externally projects back onto the board's surface. Rear projection uses an extremely short-throw lens mounted behind the screen, which projects images into a special arrangement or mirror. The projections then appear on a transmission screen. Short-throw typically must be mounted on a wall, while rear projection can work within special cabinets or TV stands. [SMAL2010]

Optical Interactive Whiteboards Use an infrared light and a triangulation algorithm to determine the location of a marker on the board. With this system, any kind of material can be used on the whiteboard surface. [SMAL2010]

Ultrasonic-Based Interactive Whiteboard Use ultrasonic sound to triangulate the marker's position. Ultrasonic sound is emitted by the stylus whenever it is pressed against the board's surface. Microphones located at different positions along the board pick up the sound and triangulate the position. [SMAL2010]

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard


Analog Resistive Interactive Whiteboards Utilize have two sets of resistive materials on their surface. These two surfaces generate electricity upon contact so the position of the stylus can be determined. Any type of marker can be used for this type of interactive whiteboard. [SMAL2010]

1.2.2 Related Literature

Low-Cost Multi-point Interactive Whiteboards Using Wiimote Johnny Chung Lee, a researcher at Microsoft Applied Sciences designed an Interactive Whiteboard using Wiimote. Wiimote or Wii Remote is the primary controller for Nintendos Wii console. A main feature of the Wii Remote is its motion sensing capability, which allows the user to interact with and manipulate items on screen via gesture recognition and pointing through the use of accelerometer and optical sensor technology.

Since the Wiimote can track sources of infrared light, it can track a custom pen have an IR LED in the tip. Mr. Lee used Vishay TSAL6400s LED running at 100mA. The system functions as a mouse pointer, it tracks the IR light emitted by the pen. The cursor follows the position of the IR light and clicks any items on the screen. This function enables the user to manipulate items on the windows or draw in drawing programs like in Microsoft Paint. [LEEJ2007]

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard


Design and Implementation of a Wireless Laser Pointer

A group of Electronics Engineering students from FEU- East Asia College designed and implemented a wireless laser pointer that functions as a mouse pointer, a push button device and as the right/left click of a computer mouse.

The device is an enhanced version of a PowerPoint clicker combined with a common mouse pointer to create a wireless mouse that is meant to be used with a projected screen. The major components of the device are webcam, laser pointer, clicking and receiving devices, and a computer whose screen is magnified using a projector. The goal of the project was to design a system that functions as a computer mouse with the use of wireless laser pointer that will serve as the mouse cursor and a push button device that will serve as the mouse buttons. The project is a combination of circuit fabrication, image acquisition and analysis, and mouse driver manipulation, all controlled by a GUI software that manages the function of all device inputs. The hardware is capable of two functions while the laser pointer accomplishes one objective. The software links both of these data contributions together, analyzes the resulting command, and then executes the directive, which becomes noticeable on the projected screen with almost no lag time.

The project created a system that consist an ordinary laser pointer and a push button device which will function as a computer mouse. The projects approach was to use a transmitter that will perform the basic mouse functions. The receiver is then connected to the computer in order to identify what mouse function was performed as desired by the user. [CFMP2010]

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard


Digital Pen & Mouse EPOS Enabled Digital Pen & Mouse is a multi-purpose PC peripheral that provides a more personal touch to everyday computing. Intuitive and accurate, it doubles as both a digital pen and a mouse. Users can capture and display handwritten notes and drawings on a computer, transform handwritten notes to text with handwriting recognition software, enjoy full mouse functionality, and share hand drawn/written files via email and messaging applications - all without the need for special paper or tablet. One simple click of a button on the digital pen provides instant mouse functionality. Easy to use and ergonomic, users can point and click on icons, 'drag and drop' files and scroll up and down inside documents - as they would with the traditional mouse. As the Digital Pen & Mouse works on regular paper, it can be enjoyed by users of any age for a wide range of scenarios including handwritten email and instant messaging, e-learning software, design and animation, digital form filling, and more. The Digital Pen & Mouse enables users to enjoy Windows Vista functionality in its entirety by turning the computer into a Tablet PC. Capabilities include personal note taking, email signing, handwriting recognition, handwritten email composition, and pen flick navigation. [EWDP2007]

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard


Boogie Board LCD Writing Tablet The Boogie Board tablets LCD writing surface captures every stroke without paper or special writing instruments. The writing surface is pressure sensitive, displaying different line thicknesses based on the amount of pressure you apply. The Boogie Board tablet requires no software or other complex actions. Simply apply pressure with your instrument to create an image and erase. Write or draw with just about any non-marking, non-scratching instrument even finger nails to create different visual effects, patterns. [BOBO2008]

1.3 Project Rationale The proponents proposed and implemented this project to improve the use of the original whiteboard, the interactive whiteboard allows everything displayed on the whiteboard to be captured and saved as an image file which can be uploaded to a class website and later retrieve by the students for them to study at home or during free hours. The ability to use the electronic pen on the board makes it possible to customize the Power point slide presentation, allowing real time encircling and underlining important/key words during discussion and allowing the interaction between the lecturer and the audience making the presentation more alive.

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To the Teachers Most of the time, teachers have their own way of teaching. They have their own style on how to deliver the topic in the class. They use chalkblackboard method, Manila paper or cartolina presentation, and marker-onwhiteboard method. With the feature to capture the teachers whiteboard notes, as well as his/her students contribution, the SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard can help the teacher to make refinement on the lesson plans and extend the student learning.

To the Students Students can fully participate in class without worrying about taking down notes or whether the professor might erase what she\/he have written, allowing the students to focus and to fully pay attention to the subject matter discussion.

To the Proponents To make a project like SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard is a good and big opportunity to learn how to improve the way of teaching in modern time. It will also develop the knowledge and skills of the proponents in using microcontroller-based project.

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To the Future Researchers This kind of technology can be applied to any kinds of study. This can give the future researchers the idea to enhance their future projects. This project can give them a good example on how to improve the creativity for teaching and the collaboration between the students and the teachers.

To the STI College Global City SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard will be typically use by the teachers in teaching. Since the school have the ability to share this project not only to the professors inside the campus but also outside, they can make or share this subject to improve the creativity of teaching to interactively participation of the students while discussion.

SOW: Synergistic Optical Whiteboard

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