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Norrs oN LA}ID Trrr,g A}ID DEEDS

Tar,x or Dpax Enuanoo Ds Los Alqesr,ust

//

The Torrens System was conceived in

Philippines.

irnorescriDt ible,

Its

purPoses are:

and iNnune

to

Australj.a and adoPted .in

make a. title

attacks.

the

indefeasible.

fron collatqral

of registration

TTAdvanLaqes

:

I. indefeasibiJ.ity after one

2.

inprescriptible

3. conclusive

year from entry of decree

{. illllunity

fror coll.tcral

attack

Bur reqistration

tsOa

node of acquirtnq tltle

.

-

Cabrra v.

CA, 267 SCRA

339 lrhere one co-oHner does not

regl'stration of

sign deed-.of sale,

entire lot

buyer cannot aPPly. fo!

Modes of

Acquisition

of

Property:

possession, succession,

i.e.,

10 years

donation, accretion,

in good faith

sale. and acquisitive

prescription,

and 30 years in bad faith.

As a general rule, once Iand is registered under the Torrens System and

;-Atificate of

t.itJ.e is issued, it

cannot be taken except if

the DeparEment of Agrarian Reform,

REGfSIRAETON -

I{ho Can Reqister:

under PD 1529

(Sec. 14)

taken by

l.

Those who by themselves or through their

have

been

in

open,

continuous,

predecessors-in-interes t

and

notorious

}ands.

.of

excl.usive,

possgssioq-and-eccuPation of. alienable

tn"(g!f&-cggj, 12, 1945 or earlier;

-

Sprtngsl,

if

void (Palono

v.

!A,

anc disPosable

0r{

g'olt

under a ucini fiae ciairn of ownarship si.nce June

255 SCRA 393]

@

(Tit',i Hot

is

of title

o,

OchFrl)

'(,qr/n|€R

\AiBrar ?rqc

,ltur\

land not ai.ienable as forest or park reservaEion.

land canndt b€ reglstered and. certiflcate

\ddr!"r (s

*:.

.4'tu@&,y#"Y":*:Yo,

,

,

.,

r. rno"

nrestripiion under the Provisions of existing Iawsi

have acquircd

r.0D ) 3. Those who

or{ncr.hin .'f nrlvate lands or abandoned

th. cxlttlng.

rlvcr bcds by-rlght-.of {accetalon-or.<corit19} 6nder

raHs;

I

pra-ba! l.vlct. notar bY

ortgln.l h.naout br!.d

oh t.It

ol

El on Juli

ot rr. rigi,

E .nd prc-b.r t.lt

Er on 2001.

--

opd.tcd on 2o0l b!!.d

on

t9 9q

NOTES ON LAND TITLES

by DEAN EDUARDO A. DE LOS ANGELES

(Ta1k of EA. 14 July 1993)

The Torrens System

PhiLippines.

inprescripLible, and

Its

was conceived in

purposes are:

to

AustraLia and adopted in

make a

tit.Ie

the

indefeasible.

irnmune f rom colLateral attacks. I ondwitT--

Modes of

AcquisiEion of

ProperLy: possession,

succession, donatj.on,

i.e

10 years i.n good

accietion, sale, and acquisltive plescription.

faith and

30 years in bad faith.

As a generaL rule.

a celtificace

once land is registeled under the Torrens system and

is issued. it

cannoE be Eaken except if

taken by

of titte

the Department of Aglarian Reform.

REGISTRATION -

under PD 1529

who can Registerr (sec. 14)

1- Those

who by themselves or tshrough their

in

open-

predecessors-in-intere$t

aRd notori

have been

possession and oc.upation of

conl'inuous. excl-usive.

ora htAi

alienable and disposable Iands of

the publi!--dogglin under a bona fide claim of ownership since June

12--l-93!-s!sErue!,

2. Those who

have

acquired

ownership of

private

prescri-ption under the

provisions of existlng lawsi

lands

by

3. Those

river

Iaws;

who have acquired ownership of private lands or abandoned

beds by right

of accession or accretion under the existing

4. Those who have

provided for by

of

land in

any other manner

A

corporat.ion

public

jure,

cannot

register

pubfic

land.

They can only lease it.

land.

EXCEPT

so the tiue

must

y.-

But a

if

corporation can seek the

land is

registrati.on of a pri-vate

held by an individuaL from June 12, 19{5 or earlj.er.

ipso

Note, however,

the land becomes private.

that regisEratron only confirms title

reserved

be valid.

tE.9.

registered already

IE .Lanq ls

as t.ownsrte, rE canno! be acqu.r.recl even r-I

of

man.

Ehere is

no

because a t.ownsit.e i-s outside the comnerce

Registratsion cannot validate a claim if

therefore, VOID.

valid

ti t1e -

Possession, to

ripen

conuinuous since June

naEerial and not casual

inEo ownership, must be

open, actual,

and

L2, 1945 or earLier and must be physical and

(e.9., going to the properEy once a year.)

€o, Ao,

A Eorest land is a

the governmen! can

lands.

non-regiscrable

ofI

Iand.

I

a forest

Mere palment.

taxes is

coupLed rrith possession

in Ehe concept of

1

- 4dmi i.

tLPrF )

6s t4W

onlv Ehe executive brarich of

into

noE

5

ienable

rt

t

must

aL

an owner.

Not rcgithallc:

laktt , tovl lanlt

<}y,tkt I fotcthotv hndt ,

rydaim(a 1 Milit471

rYtLnAliont t Pabl;c Flazq

tertwnot

t(]6

1

fi

(9 t{ergt{b

fi.g o

es@,l

accretion

-

idpercePt ible, / (b)

occurs rrhele

(a)

the

deposiE is

gradua.L/ and

madc through effects of

current oi water, and

it. Those lrho have acquired ownershlp of

provided for by Law. z

land l.n any

'/

tr{'nJ'

7lA corporallon cannot register tpublic land.

/

But a corporation

ipso jure,

They can onl.y Iease it.

is a philippine

1945 or earlier,

may acguire private land provided it

from June 12,

corporation and at Least 60t of capital stock own by FiLipinos. Note:

if public land is held by an individual

the land becoroes private.

Note

land ls

res€rved as

te,

It

register€d already bccause a toxnsita ts outrlde thc c

therefore, VOID. Rglstration cannot vall.date a cl.iD if

vcJ'lq

f,IE.Le.

to

crcc of

nan, no ?g$ctfnop 1

there is

al

coql 4 o*.,

r,.J,4l.-,

_i.lr"r+.f

r)4

Possession, to

ripen into

oi{nershlp, nust be open,

actual,

and

conlinuous since June 12, 19a5 or earlier and rnust be

rnaterial .and not casual

(e.9., golng to the ploperty once

A Forest land is

a

the government can

lands.

Mere paynen-E

coupled uj.th possession IN

lelrable land.

fl, a forest

Only

land

physlcal .ndr\

a .vear.l

''

the execuEive branch

of r) tt{<

into allenable aoricultural

ii

Gnd taxes Is no:mE;

the concept of an owner/

nust ue trueP

1. survey -

results ln

survey plan to

be signed by a

engl.neer and approvcd by

thc dtrcctor of Lands.

2. Eile

appl.ication for registratlon with R?C where land l-s

situated:

cF;.

r,tr

geodetic t

hf{

actua.Ily-

'.r/. $

t

?o{.

3.

a.

.

'

;.

b.

identify bisis

land -

of orinershlp.

ownersz

identify

c. identify

identify

' e. identify

adjacent

d.

occupants,/tenahts,

encunbrancegt

.Settlng of lnttl'al lca.rlpg.

.Arblicatlon/Porting

rl,thout

Juilsdlctlon,

(Bust prcc.d. lnitlat

h€allng otharxlr€ court

5. oppocttor-{1{,ca-+jjflca.oppoal,ulor on or bcloid hcarlng.

6. otlnt*1re,

eourti.-lrsuac-.-ordir .ot

.

Ecncrlt;fefauft

opporlto!. attends _the .hcaring

'thc

.

couri nai grant

opposlELon, thc coort

b.ut ho.docs not fllc

lf

it

ttrat.

irr",

'

.

cxrcinclon but

r,lll

ordcr '.

.p.otial.daf.ulti

&,

if

tt"

gpposttlon,

-iit[

rro

'r.

Ocular

Then the

inspection

court

will

-

improvements,

prepare

a report,

Iots owners. adjacent owners.

B. Hearing/Trial - the applicant must prove three things:

a. proof of

proof

publication. (Jurisdictional matter,

b. of ownership

c. proof of identity of land

Oppositors can

rebuttal

evidence.

introduce

evidence

to

support opposition

9. Decision - three situations:

a. court dccLd€s in favor of applicant

b. courE dccldar la

Lvor

of opposltor/s

nobody

c. court dls[lssas case because

proves outctship

10. Court irsues order for a Decree.

lt.Issuano€ of a Decre,

l2.Regist€r of

/

// Deeds i.",r.r'Origirral Cu.tific

.

M.

RE},TEDIES

1. Frotl an Order of Defautt

a- before decisLDn - flte

the

grorrnd' of

neglLgence.

b. after

a motion to llft

fraud, accident, ll.stakc

order of default on

and excusable

declsion - petition

for

rel.Lef ort the grounds of

fraud, acc!.dent, listate

and negligence

2. Froo a Dcclrion

a. The losing party Eay file

must be flled

the declsl-on becomes

a notion for

reconsiderttlon on

to Larlevj.dence.

the ground that the decision

It

is contrary

t{lthin 15 days froB beeeipt, otherwise, '

fLna1.

b.

?.t

file

a motion for a new t.rial.

If

denied, the party nay still

appeal.

the notion for a new triaL is

3. Fror a

15 days.

Pinal .rudgrent - decision becomes final after the lapse of

llhere a decree has not

yet b.en ir"o"a,

the Iosing party

nay file

petition for relief

of fraud, accident, mistake and excusable negligence. It

verified anci filed

entry of decision.

under rule 38 of the Rules of Court on the grounds

60 days fron notice but no more

musL be

than 6 nonths from

a

- Failure

to

intentional

omission

of applicant to disclose the

application for

Iand

is not given notice of

actua.L physical possession of

registration, as a result

actull

property in

of r,hich such person

fraud.

proceedings, arcunts to

(Ertrr.trll.c fraud uhcle it

prfi.Irlf,s a party froo havlng a talal.,

(Roras v. C'l, 2?O SCRA 209r.

ffi

rrsrD'

/

n

\

thc loslng party r.y filc

thc lostng

on

party

th qround

r.y rilc

ymry,

a

a

\

il,-_'-i-i

r#&tni,,n

"d;d^/

f

z ff::Hlr3i

pet

Lt.Lort for revlew

under Sec. 32. PD LS29

;il'":: ll,i'.:.iT

r,1'; ;'.,".?Jl'j[

[#*"1'. t:j#:"il

ol d.prl.vatlon

+ust bg f[ed. utthlp I vegr frog tsqp?gsg ol ttlo-.9e.crec prolidgd theF'Jl'r{ttl lrL ({rt4

Prrce for the land'

,1".'rY.11f"""",S"#y":lli - ffii.

t'

5oF/r .F"

:r,,

I

.,

-

/

qffiffillr=iiffi

?*,lryLry

\rttUc (lgY

qmls:idffi'n,

.

,--,^^ i.a /

t il:L^

v^r,ar t

11/-?'jtrgt,

\"-/

t1ai

ftlw

4'flrnl <frarr

l.lataibttt

\

:m,LxlJf-'ffi;iiffl;

d:":I3-:t-t':d.}T:1"-

h€

r

nay

-

rccorc!

ari".""ty

thc lands

of actual fraud

th€re

is

.

ir

EDru

-Ll -i.""a 'rhers

fraud

./

ire

wll tfitv,ttt,

-t

c,.-

T^q

t

f inl'i.i]ii::fi.E'".1",'#"1'"'"'.,J:i,r"i::"

li-i[i;"'l"le,?"'ff&"::""

-'

Qr't1pq.rights

I

I

'

oyeE the propeity beiause of extrinsic fraud or breach of trust,

there is no rPv'.,lWqffiHIrT"9

provrded

;"-*;1";-

rs:

#^ :o '-!s'rv'ae:

rr l"*

-t

isi'

\t*

1

- L-

.b,,

("ir$,

-

-r

::'I:-:f'::

:{

or breach of trust,

1. lrithin

a

ii.

y€ars

need to annul a fraudulent'ieed (i.e.

docuinent or

cont

ract

)

-

i;':;;'':#;";;"ff

within 10 years froo breach of dn inpltea tg6t

agglieved pirty is not l.n . Iross€sslon oi. tana/foggg

?cos',

,t

^

-^.

ilXllili'l? 1'";:"Tffi

JO T.n/

iii. at any tine il not .transfcred to

glE:fc-.als.&y

ElI'c

so

fllc ao

!.tt!.-. fc' rlLl

dauaEbs.

".e

r!

ictlon

'@l

-

.old to IPy, tbc osly r.r.dy. to!.ttr. loll,rs p.*,

for du.gGr

o'laEGt

(ibt-th

agt1nlE !nc.

{.id

@,

:5dot,-GC

IrGrPacral4I-J

ttrc' tllEE

trr to

I

lcEl.on-tor

,loG

rlthb

tand,

at

.l! ltrtP'i'*a

awarded wtren there" ls rola{tu&-rdcprtvatlon .of .

the party

d.p{lvGd, raineriyahda

negllganoe of

acitl.on- l.

t.:.'di.it-.-por.lb}€.

flled wlthin four yeara.

If

the perpetrator of fraud is insolvent che

the Assurance

Fund

acti,on for damages against

thrrc ls no negligence and breach of trust.

Iosing party may file

within

5

an

years provided

z NOTE:

/ lnnocant purchaser for value/

- no notice of flaw or claim of other

- pays a full and fair

-

price, ltt t*

'

must examlne the seller' s

(Islamic

person odlzt fu f*V.r\

yrllt \

dupllcate certificate

of tit.Ler'

Directorate v. CA, 2'r2 SC&A 254)

As a general rule, a final decislon with publlcation binds all

in

rcr,

!l

thGrcfore, bind! th€ xholG rorld.

b. Gytctad./ouat.d

by r

squattGrsl c.n

parties

PGrlooa (otryosltor! rnd

of

t

o$Grrl,on fro!

r.aa xrlt

court.

calr Gvlct th. p€r'on tbru a rrrlt of posrcsslon. hJt lf

aftcr thc lcsuance of

sult. ,

a pcrroD cntGrr batolra tha l'ru!!E!

th.

ot.thc dacrGc, thG orrnar

llla

a pcrron Gnt.r8

rn

GJGctaant

dccrcc) tha ffitcr rt3t

.Certificate of Title

An Orlglnal certificate of Tltle

reglstered under

original

which is

registered owner.

the Hith

Torrens

ls evidence of tltlc,

is

that the land is

Systen. It

lssued in two coples: one

for

the

the Register of Deeds and one duplicate

conflicting certificates - prior title

prevails unless defectlve

1. toeadnentg (ir.,.lot)

AEencb€nts can be done sunoarily

- reglstcrGd

inccrtl.fLertG

htcrGrt

("b"l4l

- no serl.ous disputc

- does not aaount to

But if

under Sec.

108 of PD L52e1,

or

th6ra

tarllnatcr

_l.a erro!

Ulrf t )

as to error or change of status.'

reopenlng

of innocent purchasery

- does not itnpalr rights

there Ls.a rubatantlal changc'' i.n the OCt 6r the change is

reglstratlon proceedLng./

dlsputed, the parcy must go thru the ordlnary

E. q.

chans6 rron. :ididtrSiil}S 'jao

'suruarlly

u. dcsrdaa

thls ts

under Sec. i08. because

flle ah ordtiriry procbedLng.

-

cannot bc 'ohanggd

a. rubstantlal .

2.! typoiirphlcal crrog - ch.ng.

SGrnas. -

frd

'.rolguln Bc€crnas' to riroiquln

3. change froa iSed Cande,. narrled. to Ana santos' to 'Sed Cande.-

'

'If

idfe obrcts,. Scc." 1O8 ls not appltcable. :It nult go

fulI-blown hbarlng.

thru

e'

[1,,

2. Reconstitution

ff a duplicate OCa is lost, one nay file

the

reconstitution.

the tltle

an action for replacement. If

for

an ectl,on for

orlginal

ocf

If

is

lost,

one nay fll.

a title

has been reconstitutad, rnyone deallng wlth

dac!6d an IP.v.

must exercLse extlaoldlnary dlllgcncc. to bc

Petition must

nocify occupant.s, adJacent

orners and adverse clainants

Otherxl.se, reconstituted

by publication, p6sting and personal notices.

title

is void.

where brother-in-Iaw

for reconstitution, obtalns reconstituted

pretends to be the regist€red

owner of land, fLles

and nortgages to

certlflcate

another, mortgagee has no better right than [ortgagor esPecially uhele

trua rcgistercd oHner stlll

tras copy of hi!- fC! (lorret v. Ca, 185 SCRA

16? I

3. Doub]'e Satre

A sale aftects thlrd

bqr€r ln good falth

Art. 15{,a of the clvll

vho flrst

Notlce of adverse clain is a Deasur€ designed to protect th€ interest

persons only frou dat€ of registlatlon.

Code, orncrcblp- pa.a€8 to

Onder

records the &lG 1n rcglltry of propGrty.

of a person over a plece of land and serves as a warolng to third.

persons dealing with sald property that soneone is claiming an interest

tlrereon. (sajonas v. CA, 258 SCRA 79).

under rlhom the atleged rLght of

But notlce must state hon and

(Lozano v.

cLalloant acgulred.

Ballesteros, 1.95

SCP,A 681).

Adv€rse cl.all[ effectlve once entered in

(Galcla v. CA, 95

day book even Lf 6wner'a dupllcato not surreDd€red.

scRA 380'

,st BsBQIrENf

'.REGISiIRtrEIO}f tr.e., the -L.d is already tlrled and

:

of voluntari talnlrctlona

(stlc,

rortgage,

owncr's

entered in day book AND reglatrant turrend€rs

llou dcsl xlth ltt

Note: lhere is r€gtstntion

etc.l once deed

dupllcate certifLcat6 and pays . fees

I

lIoltqage'

-. leE$tratlon fcrJeri wfilur{ '

[-rr{ fu uatkog

-r,r.tedf,4-l

.trtchlkJ

b1,,

'., n".

bhcr€ is

a

lis

pendcnr

annqtated ac the rback.of. Ehq title.,

tC1^rl&^ti& Nk-e_)

.of an acrton may take rlnE.

filino;

GEATN.OE TT.![I.E

an

this ir

.iaeptton to the civil

lau doctrl,nc that th6 strcal c.nnot

d,he rcucr ha! no tltle,.

ths

be. Ngbcr than th€ rourcc, l. e. , oven if

buyer can hava tl.tle.

t1tle.

So forged document can be the root of a valld

The partles who forged the deed and sinulated the signatures of. other

partles are

serve as a

Ln bad faith and the forged decd is a nulllty

(Reyes v. CA, 258

SCRA 651)

just title

and cannot

Eraqrl'e I 1.

x- reglstercd

I

oPner of ?gt 123a5

to

goes to OS, so glvcs tltlc

entrusted

forgds X's

g-ok d

I frLcnd.-Y

I

'Y-

by sl,gnature in deed of sale

X

of land ln Yrs favor, y gets tqf 123a6

frou Regl.ster of Deeds

(Y ls

a

forger, therefore, y has a

void tl.tle)

- Y aells

land to Z as IPV

Z regist€ls

Iand and gets TCt 12347

Z.has a v.ll.d- tltle

TIILE

VALID

e rA.";'.

VOI D

VAI,ID

X returns and asks Y

for tr.tlc and learns tlre salc of land to Z.

x .

caaaot recoyer fror Z biicluso ar, bot$aeD,.trro pcrronr, the ooa. rtro

. c.ur.d tb.

X 1,, to ttl.

los! :nd rho l,r .doad

ncAllgGnt rurC rutf.r.

ffGrcdy of.

an acEton ag.l,nst y for danag.r. But lf

X can rccovGr fro[

z. -

Z h.s not yGt ,.

obtained tltlG,

P-?-rle 12

-l

,(

Y -

- owns ?CT 123,t5

hisrepresents

I

.

to Z that he j.s X and sells the land to Z

I

z -

lf

z gers title,

,Lo

TcT 12347 )

Jlad

Lirl.e is voID;.

2 is.ncgllgdnt

ttrc'rcaiatircd

tic. prtcc

.

bscause he hbc thg-el$ty-

,oit thglz rh. scll.r

z.

ii

llso t!

or.D!r, thdref-ore, l$t-Xii iidcbvcr lue pr9f,6*y trq

. ol

Y dld not gct rny'tltl.

'tfta proPorty fr-trcplofoorly -loy. ,/t tcc.'-Lt-t^-. ob.Le{'G-tael. ,lnc.

ln hlj n'ane, th.r.foro, 4 has no Litlc also.

T,,

E:qauple * 3

Y for'ges the deed of sale but doGS not rGglster It

Y shbrrs to.Z.

Z buys., Y

tG!

decd o! titlc

to get a nev

X

A!

tittc.

la t.vor. of'z.

cen iecorcr th6

propcrty. f!o! Z bGc.usa thrrc ts no chali ot tltl

,,! tb.

btr,e.n 2 p€rsonr. tha ottg xho should shoulder tha lqr!

ls ncgllg.nt.

a

valld tltle

In thls .r.!plc.

Z'i!

tltlc.

on. rrho

ncgllgent. 'Not. th.t X ru.t hsy.

b€ NO chaln of

but land ls

in th€ fl,rst plac., othorHise, ttrer. can

Note furthet that lf

there is no 'chaln of tttl

mortgaged, X can recover from Z but must respect the nortgage,

, gaer-.ot}-€brin- of -Titls

Duran .v. fAC

r38 SCRA a89

for thG O.S. Latcr, a dccd ot salc i{as

rcglstcrcd. Clrcc's

lclrtlad abont thl.s, she

wrota tba rcglrter of, dcedr thlt sha nevc! GxacutGd tha daad ol aalc to

her [othcr,

mth.r thcn Drtgagcd thc lgts.

Clrc! oHncd tro tots.

m&

ShG lcft

ln frvor ot Circr'!

DothGr, phich dGGd lr.r

Bllen ClrcG

In the Eeantl.ne, th6 Boltgagee has toreclosed.

ln

t{hen

lts

Cl.rce'r -lother failed to redce!, thc lortgagae obtaln.d tltle

nane. Clrce claimed her slgnature ln the

deed rras a forgeri

HELD: Ilh.lle Article 2085 of the Civil

nortgagor of the land to make the mortgaqe

Code requr.ros ounership by the

vaLid, lnsotar as third

is

thc cortlficate of

Clrce did

parties are concerned, circe's Dother was the reglsteled owner. It

a.general rul€ tbat there is no

titl€.

duty

to look beyood

The Dortgagee is in good falth.

It acguLred tltle.

not even intervene in

the foreclosure sale.

She was negligent.

Tinio-Obsequio v. CA, 230 SCRA 550

It

root of a valld title

h.s b.cn consl.stcntltT hcld. that a forgad .dcad c.tr

whcn an lnnocent

lcgrUy bs the

purchascr for yalu6 ,.nt!rven€s.

authority of the

noB valldato

A'de€d of sale execuEed by an lryostor vLthouE thc

otrnar of Eh. land sold ir a nulllty,

and regLstratloD rill

lrh.t -othcrt,lrc-ig. an.-lnvalt d docrncnt.

Survey of Recent Cas6s on Irand Iitle.

and .Deedg

.

RegistraEion

is

not

equival€nt of title.

fatth. ba i

Under the Torrens

$ystem,

registrati,oo only

itri.iano.

entitlod-

gives. v.Udlty

.bad

to.tho trenrfcr or cr€atos a. llen upqn

iertlftcate

df tlr.l;.ls

noE

used.

.1s a

rhould b.

Such

A haldcE ln

to' Elre prot€clion . of lar,

(I€r

for thcr lar. cannot - bo"

ot

title

rltctd'for'fraud,

,lny llan

incorporated in or c.rricd ovcr to tb6 Dc c€rtl,flcate oJ tl,tle.

v. l,tlnlpon, 38l.SCRA 788).

.nnotat.d on prcvious c.rtlflcatcs

llen ls lnsepar.blG fron the propcrty as lt

Condo Corp.

v. ortLgas center, 382 scR.A 222).

'

1.3 a rlght Ln reB. ( Padcon

It reguires more than a

on its

'face

(Alvarico v. sola,

party's bare

allegation to dateaE the OCT which

of regularliy of issuance.

enjoys the Legal presumpti,on

383 SCRA 2321.

A privat. individual Day not brlng.n actLon for rcvGrsion (id.)

'

I

V

tllstortcaUy, ' landt r€clatr€d^ by,{ovcarEot arG Dot.availabl for r.lG

to priQtc

lerdr retaLn th.ir

p.rtlcs

ur[l't.

otb.r .li.nablG pubuc . Iands -

ncl.ircd

inhrrcnt potctrtlal ar .rG.t lor. prrblla

urc.or lxrbl,'c

rcrelce (Chavez v. PEA, 38{ SCnA 152,,

Juriaprudence holding that

certlficate

ol

tlt!,e

the

thG grant oC patent or

lssuance ot

donatn

aLlenable lahd aC the-' publlc

a_u-to.Eatically become3 privale land cannot apply to goverruoqnt

entities llke PEA. (Id. )

units anC

Such

Iands must. be transferred to

guatilieA'., private.,- partie& or

of public Iands befor€ .these

(fd.l

goverment-ut't)lt.ler

Iands can becooe

not-tasked to dispose

private or patrl-nonial lands

A buildinq in good falth is

l.nd he ls bulldlng on ls hls,

one l{ho builds with

the bollefs that the.

(Orguiol.a v. CA, 386 SC&A 30f).

An .ction to gulet tltle

tbe tltle

CiFt,

nay be brought rrhen

theE6 exlsts a ctoud on

(Gapacan v.

to real prop€Ety or rny lntGrcst thcracm.

387 SCRA 383).

Orrce a .parcel,- ot

landa

ls lneluded within a xaterahGd rarrvation duly

a-"FQrlrybtosr- arlscs- that thq,'

-'Lnd 18:

t-r!Al*9.Ogblfi

-,

. 1s

_cstrblished by . Er€cartlv€ ProclaDat,lon, .

.#eont{rrr€r-to-baprrFoFruch-rer.rritdon

'uirirl'l:iclcErrEaird-corrl.nclng

eyidedcs-of-subsequents-declbsslflcatlbn

shot{n. (Cor.Iado v. CA, 390 SCRA 313).

fhe rLght of

propertle3 ragLs.tered and whlch aie

leversion gr

reconvayance .to.- the

not

'oov6!Gd

State

,of

.

.pubUc

.pllvat€

capabtc of

gpproplietion -/

do6s not.praicrlbe lld.)

wltn pr6perty

Percoac dealing

ar.

by a hoireaa;.calij,tlcatc of

tr.tle,

.DIr.x8.{o )h. t ct-^t tba &ltlG. (O. Lon v. C.lalo, 391 SCRA 752).'

.buycrc or Dortgages, arc not.-regulrad- to -go bayond what

llcre . adyeree;*poroeroion' for

tuta.tlcally--.ntitil9-

l.od^.il-tiq*raa9

charrctGa' of

.-

a

p.'alrd--r

'- I ! ! btn

&.rl

r.odld

tha. po.r6!!oE to

'

th6 rtghc-.e-'r.9ltE.a;pubtlc

,llft1t hs h.s co. cr&rblfuh.*tre.d{cpoer}le.a.cC-rJJae.bl?

thG--larld by. a .po!{t}s.-.{c! .of . govBrnBent such a9 a

executlve

order; an . adrlnlgtratlvd .actLon,

pr"sldentfal. proclanatlon,.

,

,1,,

.

act

or

Evcn.

aft.r

reyersion Lf

thc-. laprc.

of

on

y€ar, ths . Statc

ray

brlng (Id.l

publlc lanC'has been fraudulent'ly

granted.

acdlon for

t{heh a pafty. has aotual' knorl'€dge ot

lupel

-the

a

.facts and cl'rcu!s!.nc63

lnqulryl rciylng

-9n

that t'ould

t!? fa9€ of

t"aionably .cautiou!.Ean to D.t

titlG-is-nots

cnough. (ilaawan con. Rural Bank

v. cA, 395 scRA {3)

CancellaEion of titles.

case cannot be ProPerly disDissed on the ground

and pcndlng of . dr[.g. c.sc.

an

attack.

of torur shoPplng Prcdl.c.t.d on flllng

(UP v.

/

sus!, 99? SCRA 365)

JA runcy

of l.nd tubr.ct of an .PPllcadon for rGgl'rtr.tl'on is

collateral

erscati.l- rcqulrl,tc. (Dollno v. C'A, aol Sc&A 695!

/

,/e

""rt1fl.""t1on

of

tltlG

cannot b. subJct of

(Anlcete r,. Balanon, 102 SCRA 51{)

/O,rnership is not the sane at OcT. The latler

o$hershlp. (Erman v. Ernan, 103 scnA 1931

ie only the evidenc€ ot

An .a;tion is an. attack on a title

nulllfy

the titlc

pursuant to

xhtch the tltle

ollect oe an action ls

Lts

enforcedent. (Id. )

when the obJect of the action l

to

and thus challenge the judglDent or proceeding

xas decreed. The attack

Ls dlrect when the

judgnent or enjoin

to atrnul of set aside such

A eorDt6r-cla{n can be considsred a dLr6ot atta€k qn th€ tltle.

(Id.)

\/thc oc-year peri,od docs. not atPly Hhao th.

thc

pcroon sccklng annulEnt of

(Id.l

no mosent because

dstalca, o! €rror ot Lts

tltl,.

AbscncG of opt ositton froE govertuent agencl'es ls of

or r.-eonyalfilnc. ls !,n posscrrion of tha lot.

by th€ oolsston,

statG cannot -bc. oJtoPP€d

offlcf. als and agents'. (Rbpubllc

?. Lac, {o5 scRA 291)

/eclassi fication

vrequirer

of

forest land and conversion inEo alienable Iand

(Id.)

an express and Positiv act from the goveinment.

no'-iaria-ecc can

.1!ruo;rcol''''Yotd"lo! tnlstt en 'll!ee6n!.,,?u!dl!d'e'.fo8

(Id.l.

valuc has Lntervened.'

M /il

the free' that

dDi.itttarcd' .ortgagc.,itld

th.

orlgtnr}': omqa

iOt

.(t orlca, 'h.& tnorl.dg. of -

'thr

5ir!B

'rdcoDd

.

corrrtlttrtc--Lctui}!"radtfcd. to

!.h.4

lDitg.gG. (@nz.tcs l, .b

reglstor€d hls

oE-pr.o4.th.C-tho.l.tt

tlli

slgbtr

tho notlcc of

actur!,lurorbdgc

: .o! . Ils

(conzalos, rho

ot--cuctr - unirghtcrd-. Drtgag

pandcnt do.t not d.fr.t

fha.rubdeqocn!-r.tutdt.tton

of

thc Drtg.g.G

'Dortgad. rhcn

lls.'pcndcnc r.r

not.yet.

iho .derlv€s hls llghts.

aDDotat€d or the fioN! th6 mortgagea.

pulchaser