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SHELL TO TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

STUDENT NAME : HITESH B PARMAR

COURSE CODE : BMEP-001 PROGRAM CODE ENROLMENT NO : BTME : 100005965

STUDY CENTER : 0974p RESIDENT/ CORRESPONDS ADDRESS : 231 SAHAKAR NAGAR, NEAR SWATI SOCI, NEW SAMA ROAD, VADODARA -390008 E-mail id: parmarhitesh1988@gmail.com CONTACT NO : 9727072675

1) TITLE OF PROJECT:TO STUDY SHELL TO TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

2) OBJECTIVE OF STUDY:A drum used to transfer or exchange heat is known as heat exchanger. A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes and is suited for a higher pressure application. As its name implies this type of heat exchangers consist of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with the bundle of tubes inside it one fuel runs through the tubes and the flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer the between the two fuels. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle may be and may be composed by several types of tubes plain longitudinally finned etc. Surface condenses is the commonly used term for a water cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power station. In a thermal power plant the primary purpose of is a to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as a steam condenset). So that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. Shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanges design most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries in other chemical process.

In todays modern world, it is primary need for Petrol, Diesel & various petrochemical products. It is difficult to think of life without petrochemical products. These products reaches passing through refineries & petrochemical plants after various processes. It means, the process industries becomes the primary requirements. These process industries (e.g. Refineries, cracker plants, hydrocarbon product processing) use Heat exchanger .Heat exchanger is good transferring heat one liquid to other liquid at various temperatures.

Heat exchanger is used to contain a multiple thing including air, water, chemicals, and fuel. They are used in paper and pulp, energy, food, chemical industries. Heat exchanger is designed with great care because rapture of a Heat exchanger means an explosion which may cause loss of life and property.

Definition of heat exchanger:-

Thermal System of heat exchanger The purpose of a heat exchanger is to transfer energy from one fluid to another. Many different types of heat exchangers exist to accommodate different fluid properties. One of the simplest designs is the concentric tube heat exchanger used for heat exchange between two liquids. A device used for transferring or exchanging heat energy between two fluids is known as Heat Exchanger. This heat exchange can be exchange heat either by direct or indirect method:In the direct methods heat transfer between two fluids takes place without mixing. Two fluids are separated by a metallic or non-metallic surface, through which heat transfer takes place generally perpendicular to flow direction. Effectiveness of heat exchanger:-

Effectiveness = Where, to ti Ti

to ti
i

ti

Cold fluid temp. range = Inlet temp. diff . of hot & cold fluid

= = =

Cold fluid outlet temperature Cold fluid inlet temperature Hot fluid inlet temperature

Define Heat Duty Of Heat Exchanger:Heat duty of a heat exchanger is defined as the heat that is transferred from hot fluid to cold fluid per unit time.

Define Capacity Ratio of Heat Exchanger:Ti To Temp. range of hot fluid t o t i Temp. rangeof Cold fluid

R= Where, to ti = Ti To

= Cold fluid outlet temperature Cold fluid inlet temperature = Hot fluid inlet temperature = Hot fluid outlet temperature

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat exchangers can be classified by different methods

Function: Process function such as re - boiler, condenser, cooler, heat recovery, steam generators etc. Design of heat exchangers is done based on a number of internationally acclaimed codes like ASME Section VIII (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York) and TEMA standards (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association INC. New York) Following types of heat exchangers are commonly manufactured:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. FIXED TUBE-SHEET HEAT EXCHANGERS FLOATING HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER U-TUBE HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGER PLATE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

The wide range of heat exchangers falls in this class. It consists of number of parallel tubes enclosed in a relatively close fittings cylindrical shell. One fluid flows inside the tube and is called the tube side fluid and the other flows outside the tube in the shell called as shell side fluid. Flow paths: Co-currents, counter current cross flow etc The function of the steam generator is to transfer the heat from the reactor cooling system to the secondary side of the tubes, which contain feed water. As the feed water passes the tube, it

picks

up

heat

and

eventually

gets

converted

to

steam.

The Shell and Tube is the most common type of heat exchanger used in the process, petroleum, chemical industries, it contains a number of parallel utubes inside a shell. Shell Tube heat exchangers are used when a process requires large amounts of fluid to be heated or cooled. Due to their design, shell tube heat exchangers offer a large heat transfer area and provide high heat transfer efficiency. DESIGN PARAMETERS OF HEAT EXCHANGER:-

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER COLUMMS:-

From the above introduction, it is becomes transparent that Reactors are required for refineries & process industries. There are various types of pressure vessel defined based on type of construction & manufacturing methods. SINGLE WALL VESSEL:-

These are the vessel made of carbon-manganese steel or alloy steels having single wall. These vessels generally work as lower pressure & temperatures. As they at lower pressures, the thickness required to withstand the pressure is less & can be achieved with normal plate rolling mills. This type of vessel is preferred in industries as it is easier to manufacture & cheaper in cost.

MULTIWALL VESSEL:-

Fertilizer plants use the vessels like Ammonia converter Baskets. These vessels are working at very high pressure and temperature, which in turn raises the requirement of very high thickness. It is difficult to roll such a high thickness & weld as pressure joint. In such cases, the technology used for manufacturing is opting for Multiwall vessel. These vessels are manufactured based on simple principle of shrinkage with of help of temperature variation. In this method, the shell are made with small thickness in form of rings in such a way that these rings can fit within another with close tolerances. The outer ring is heated which allows expansion of that ring to higher diameter. The lower diameter ring is inserted within red hot outer ring & allowed to cool to normal temperature. As the temperature goes down, the outer ring shrinks & fits with inner rings. Generally there are more than 3 to 4 Vessel wall i.e. rings. Finally the higher thickness is achieved with multiwall, & therefore these vessels are called as Multiwall vessel. It should be noted that now-a-days, such vessel are obsolete due to difficult manufacturing & lot of heat treatment involved with very high accuracy. These multiwall vessels are now replaced by use of special alloy steel having chromium & Vanadium. CLAD VESSELS & OVERLAYED VESSELS:-

These vessels are specially designed for corrosive services. The reactors which process corrosive fluids are handled in Stainless steel environment. Clad vessels are manufactured out of clad plates. Elaborating little more, clad plates are the plate having Alloy steel plate & Stainless plate rolled together at higher temperature which allows bonding. The thickness of alloy steel plate is much higher than SS plate because of the strength is given by outer Alloy steel & corrosion resistance is provided by SS inner layer.

The manufacturing sequences are similar like single wall vessel with a difference of extra care during rolling of clad plate having SS buffed surface inside. Another option for such corrosive services is carrying out Stainless Steel overlay inside the Allo y steel shell after rolling to required diameter. This is more time consuming method as it requires generation of a complete layer of SS inside shell. On the other hand, this much cheaper than Clad Vessels. Overlayed vessels are now-a-days preferred much over clad vessel by Modern Process Licensors like IFP.

3) OPERATIONAL METHODOLOGY OF SHELL TO TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER: Shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanges design most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries in other chemical process. Two type of heat exchanger in shell and tube heat exchanger one phase (liquid or gas) on each side can be called one - phase or single - phase heat exchanger. Two phase heat exchanger can be used to heat exchanger liquid to boil it into a gas (vapor) some times called a boiler or cooled a vapor to condense it into a liquid (called condenser). With the phase changes usually occurring on the shell side boiler in steam engine locomotive are typically large, usually cylindrically shell and tube heat exchanger. In the large power plants with steam driven turbines, shell and tube surface condenser are used to condense the exhaust steam exiting the turbine into condensate water which is recycle back to me turned into steam in the steam generator. Heat exchanger is suited in higher application in industries. This type of heat exchanger consist of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tube inside it one fluids runs through the tubes and the other fluids flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle and may be composed by a several types of tubes, plain longitudinally finned etc. Its used in large chemical processes, thermal power station and oil and gas refineries. Our project made by help organizational help of supervisor internet for refresh matter. Additional reference: Book of thermal engineering & panchal C; B & embert analysis of Exxon crude-oil-slipstream enclosing data proc of fouling mitigation of industrial heat exchanger equipment, San Luis Obispo, California USA in 1995.

A drum used to transform or exchange heat is known as heat exchanger. Shell & tube heat exchanger widely used in industry both for cooling & heating large scale industrial processes. In thermal power plants the primary purpose of airs to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water ( referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. Methodology for heat exchanger is as below Plate identification & material identification. Plate marking operation done and edge breaking and pre-punching operation done. Groove is made on plat as per drawing then the plate is to be rolled on rolling machine as per requirement. Then plate rolled and welds tacking then welding done on roll plate this is called shell. Then one & different shell made it & jointed through smaw and saw welding and creating the c seam welding. Then as per drawing nozzle set up tube sheet marking (in a plant and drilling as per drawing. Then its set up is done with shell (the groove of tube sheet and shell is made earlier). Now is welding is carried out & tube insertion log attach sliding saddle has been done by welding and then job is going to in blasting and then job is go to painting and then job is ready.

3) THE EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION FROM THE STUDY: Our project guide Haresh sir guided how to make a heat exchanger. He gives the information about fabrication sequences, material selection, planning and organization ISO standerd and ASME code welding to other documentary work has been done in production in Akshar engineering works. So we would include whole fabrication sequences in the Akshar engineering works.

Other information we are collecting on internet and other reference book as a thermal engineering material logy. Use organization help of supervisor or internet references.

4) LIST OF ACTIVITIES TO CARRIED OUT TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT:(WITH THE HELP OF BAR CHART SHOWING THE TIME SCHEDULE)

PROJECT TIME DURATION

PROJECT COMPLETION HYDROTEST BLASTING AND PAINTING CLASSIFICATION & WORKING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING DEVELOP DRAWING AND BOM DETAILS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER INTRODUCTION BASIC INFORMATION DAYS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Series1 Series2

Days

INTRODUCTION BASIC INFORMATION

DETAILS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

PROJECT TIME DURATION DEVELOP GENERAL CLASSIFICATION DRAWING CONSTRUCTION & WORKING AND BOM AND WORKING

Series

10

15

20

5) PLACES/LABS/EQUIPMENTS & TOOLS REQUIRED & PLANNING OF ARRANGEMENTS: Place:1) Akshar engineering works savli, Baroda. 2) WORKSHOPE, FISICAS LAB 6) LABS/EQUIPMENTS: Computers centre, library, TUBE SHEET 230 OD * 10 THK, SA 516 GR 70 MTR 2 QTY, SHELL 219 OD * 7 THK * 470 L, MTR SA 106 GR B 1 QTY, LUG PLATE 80 * 90 * 10THK, SA 516 gr 70- 2 QTY, PLATE 80 OD *10 THK, SA 516 gr 70 meter 2 QTY, TUBE OD 31.8 * 6.35 THK * 60 L, MTR SA 210 GR A1 2 QTY, TUBE OD 31.8 * 6.35 THK * 35, MTR SA 210 GR A1 2 QTY, TUBE OD 31.8 * 6.35 THK * 496, MTR SA 210 GR A1 16 QTY, PLATE 190 * 100 * 10 SA 515 GR 70 2 QTY, PLATE 190 * 130 * 10 SA 515 GR 70 2 QTY.

7) PLANNER:AS PLANNED BY SUPARVISOR AND COORDINATORS & GUIDE HELP 8) PROBLEMS ENVISAGED IN CARRYING OUT THE PROJECT, IF ANY NIL