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PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 3 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE 1

CHAPTER 3

MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE
MOMENTUM AND
IMPULSE
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 3 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 3 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 3 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 3 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE 1

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3  3.0 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE  3.1 Momentum and impulse  3.2 Conservation

3.0

MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE

3.1

Momentum and impulse

3.2

Conservation of linear momentum

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Learning Outcome: 3.1 Momentum and impulse At At the the end end of

Learning Outcome:

3.1 Momentum and impulse

AtAt thethe endend ofof thisthis chapter,chapter, studentsstudents shouldshould bebe ableable to:to:

DefineDefine momentum.

be be able able to: to:  Define Define momentum.  Define Define impulse  determine

DefineDefine impulse

determine impulse

UseUse

to:  Define Define momentum.  Define Define impulse  determine impulse  Use Use and

and use F-t graph to

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 3.1.1 Linear momentum,  p  is defined as the the product product

3.1.1 Linear momentum,

p

is defined as thethe productproduct betweenbetween massmass andand velocityvelocity.

is a vector quantity.

Equation :

p  = mv 
p 
= mv 

The S.I. unit of linear momentum is kgkg mm ss -1-1 .

The directiondirection ofof thethe momentummomentum is the samesame as the directiondirection ofof thethe velocityvelocity.

It can be resolve into vertical (y) component and horizontal (x) component.

 p
p
( y ) component and horizontal ( x ) component.  p θ θ θ 4

θ

θ

θ

4

p

p

x

p

y

=

p

p

cos

=

mv

mv

cos

sin

y

sin θ

=

=

p

x

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

 
 
 

3.1.2

Impulse,

J

Let a single constantconstant force,force, FF acts on an object in a short time interval (collision), thus the Newton’s 2 nd law can be written as

where

   dp F = F = = constant dt   J =
dp
F
=
F
=
= constant
dt
J
=
Fdt
=
dp 
=
p 
p 
2
1
p
: final momentum
2
p
: initial momentum
1
F
: impulsive force

is defined as thethe productproduct ofof aa force,force, FF andand thethe time,time, tt OR thethe changechange ofof momentummomentum.

is a vectorvector quantityquantity whose directiondirection is the samesame as the constantconstant forceforce on the object.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3  The S.I. unit of impulse is N N s s or kg

The S.I. unit of impulse is NN ss or kgkg mm ss 11 .

If the forceforce acts on the object is notnot constantconstant then

   t 2 J = Fdt = F dt av t 1
t
2
J
=
Fdt
=
F
dt
av
t
1

where

F av

: average impulsive force

Since impulse and momentum are both vector quantities, then it is often easiest to use them in component form :

considerconsider 2-D2-D collisioncollision onlyonly

J = ( F ) x av J = ( F ) y av J
J
=
(
F
)
x
av
J
=
(
F
)
y
av
J
=
( F
)
z
av

dt =

x p

dt =

y p

dt =

z p

2x

2 y

2z

p

1x

p

1y

p

1z

= m v = m v = m v ( u ) x x (
= m v
= m v
= m v
(
u
)
x
x
(
)
u
y
y
(
u
)
z
z

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3  When two objects in collision, the impulsive force, F against time, t

When two objects in collision, the impulsive force, F against time, t graph is given by the Figure 3.20.

F

FigureFigure 3.203.20

is given by the Figure 3.20. F Figure Figure 3.20 3.20 t t 1 2 0
is given by the Figure 3.20. F Figure Figure 3.20 3.20 t t 1 2 0
t t 1
t
t
1

2

by the Figure 3.20. F Figure Figure 3.20 3.20 t t 1 2 0 t Shaded

0

t

Shaded area under the F t graph = impulse
Shaded area under the F t graph = impulse

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Example 3.1 : A 0.20 kg tennis ball strikes the wall horizontally with

Example 3.1 :

A 0.20 kg tennis ball strikes the wall horizontally with a speed of 100 m s 1 and it bounces off with a speed of 70 m s 1 in the opposite direction. a. Calculate the magnitude of impulse delivered to the ball by the wall,

b. If the ball is in contact with the wall for 10 ms, determine the magnitude of average force exerted by the wall on the ball.

SolutionSolution ::

0.20 kg

m

1

=

u

v

1

1

=

=

100 m s

1

11
11
wall on the ball. Solution Solution : : 0.20 kg m 1 = u v 1

70

11 1 m s
11
1
m s

Wall (2)

v

2

= u

2

=

0

8

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Solution Solution : : a. From the equation of impulse that the force

SolutionSolution ::

a. From the equation of impulse that the force is constant,

J = dp =

J = m

1

(

v

p

1

2

u

1

p

)

1

Therefore the magnitude of the impulse is 3434 NN ss.

b. Given the contact time,

J

=

F

av

dt

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Example 3.2 : F ( kN ) 18 0 0.2 1.0 1.8 Figure

Example 3.2 :

F(kN)

18 0 0.2 1.0 1.8
18
0
0.2
1.0
1.8

FigureFigure 3.213.21

t(ms)

An estimated force-time curve for a tennis ball of mass 60.0 g struck by a racket is shown in Figure 3.21. Determine a. the impulse delivered to the ball, b. the speed of the ball after being struck, assuming the ball is being served so it is nearly at rest initially.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

3 SolutionSolution :: m = 60.0 10 kg
3
SolutionSolution ::
m =
60.0
10
kg

a. From the force-time graph,

J = area under the F t graph

b. Given the ball’s initial speed,

u = 0

J = dp = m(v

u)

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Exercise 3.1 : 1. A steel ball with mass 40.0 g is dropped

Exercise 3.1 :

1. A steel ball with mass 40.0 g is dropped from a height of

2.00 m onto a horizontal steel slab. The ball rebounds to a

height of 1.60 m. a. Calculate the impulse delivered to the ball during impact. b. If the ball is in contact with the slab for 2.00 ms, determine

the average force on the ball during impact. ANS.ANS. :: 0.470.47 NN s;s; 237.237. 11 NN

2. A golf ball (m = 46.0 g) is struck with a force that makes an angle of 45with the horizontal. The ball lands 200 m away

on a flat fairway. If the golf club and ball are in contact for

7.00 ms, calculate the average force of impact. (neglect the

air resistance.) ANS.ANS. :: 293293 NN

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Exercise 3.1 : 3. FigureFigure 3.223.22 A tennis v = 28 m s

Exercise 3.1 :

3.

FigureFigure 3.223.22
FigureFigure 3.223.22

A tennis

v = 28 m s 1 strikes a wall at a 45angle and rebounds with

ball

of

mass, m = 0.060 kg

and

a

speed,

the

same speed at 45as shown in Figure 3.22. Calculate

the

impulse given by the wall.

ANS.ANS. :: 2.42.4 NN ss toto thethe leftleft oror 2.42.4 NN ss

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 3.2 Conservation of linear momentum 3.2.1 Principle of conservation of linear momentum 

3.2 Conservation of linear momentum

3.2.1 Principle of conservation of linear momentum

states “InIn anan isolatedisolated (closed)(closed) system,system, thethe totaltotal momentummomentum ofof thatthat systemsystem isis constantconstant.” OR WhenWhen thethe netnet externalexternal forceforce onon aa systemsystem isis zero,zero, thethe totaltotal momentummomentum ofof thatthat systemsystem isis constantconstant.”

In a Closed system,

F

= 0

From the Newton’s second law, thus

F =

dp

dt

= 0

dp = 0

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Therefore  p = constant then p x constant = p y constant

Therefore

 p = constant then p x constant = p y constant =
p = constant
then
p
x constant
=
p
y constant
=

According to the principle of conservation of linear momentum, we obtain

TheThe totaltotal ofof initialinitial momentummomentum == thethe totaltotal ofof finalfinal momentummomentum

OR p  = p  i f
OR
p 
= p 
i
f

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Linear Linear momentum momentum in in one one dimension dimension collision collision Example

LinearLinear momentummomentum inin oneone dimensiondimension collisioncollision

Example 3.3 :

u = 3 m s B B
u
=
3 m s
B
B

1 u

6

m s

A

=

A
A

FigureFigure 3.143.14

1

Figure 3.14 shows an object A of mass 200 g collides head-on with object B of mass 100 g. After the collision, B moves at a speed

.

of 2 m s ::SolutionSolution

-1

to the left. Determine the velocity of A after Collision

m

u

A

B

= 0.200 kg;

v

=

1

;

3 m s

m

B

B

=

p

i

=

=

0.100 kg;

2 m s

p

f

1

u

A

=

6

m s

1

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Linear Linear momentum momentum in in two two dimension dimension collision collision Example

LinearLinear momentummomentum inin twotwo dimensiondimension collisioncollision

Example 3.4 :

u m 1 1
u
m 1
1
m 2
m 2
 50  m v 1 1
50
m
v
1
1

Before collision

FigureFigure 3.153.15

After collision

A tennis ball of mass m 1 moving with initial velocity u 1 collides with a soccer ball of mass m 2 initially at rest. After the collision, the

tennis ball is deflected 50from its initial direction with a velocity v 1

as shown

u 1 = 20 m s 1 and v 1 = 4 m s 1 . Calculate the magnitude and

direction of soccer ball after the collision.

in

figure 3.15. Suppose that m 1 = 250 g, m 2 = 900 g,

17

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

1 m = 0.250 kg; m = u = 20 m s 1 2 1
1
m
=
0.250 kg;
m
=
u
=
20 m s
1
2
1
SolutionSolution ::
1
u
=
0;
v
=
4 m s
;
0.900 kg;
=
θ
5
0
2
1
1
From the principle of conservation of linear momentum,
p 
= p 
i
f

The x-component of linear momentum,

m u

1

1x

p

ix

+ m u

2

2x

p

=

= m v

fx

+ m v

2

1

1x

2x

;

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Solution Solution : : The y-component of linear momentum, p  iy =

SolutionSolution ::

The y-component of linear momentum,

p

iy

=

p

fy

0 =

 

1

1

y

+

m v

2

2

y

(

v

2x

)

2

+

(

v

2 y

) 2

 

1

v

2 y

=

 

v

2x

m v

tan

Magnitude of the soccer ball,

v

2

=

  v 2x m v tan Magnitude of the soccer ball, v 2 = Direction of

Direction of the soccer ball,

θ

2

=

tan

1

0.851

0.851 4.84

4.84

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Exercise 3.2 : 1. An object P of mass 4 kg moving with

Exercise 3.2 :

1. An object P of mass 4 kg moving with a velocity 4 m s 1 collides elastically with another object Q of mass 2 kg moving with a velocity 3 m s 1 towards it.

a. Determine the total momentum before collision.

b. If P immediately stop after the collision, calculate the final velocity of Q.

c. If the two objects stick together after the collision, calculate the final velocity of both objects.

ANS.ANS. :: 1010 kgkg mm ss 11 ;; 55 mm ss 11 toto thethe right;right; 1.71.7 mm ss 11 toto thethe rightright

2. A marksman holds a rifle of mass m r = 3.00 kg loosely in his hands, so as to let it recoil freely when fired. He fires a bullet of mass m b = 5.00 g horizontally with a velocity 300 m s -1 . Determine

a. the recoil velocity of the rifle,

b. the final momentum of the system.

ANS.ANS. :: 0.50.5 mm ss 11 ;; UU think.think.

20

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

3. 1.20 kg 1.80 kg
3.
1.20 kg
1.80 kg
Before 0.630 m s -1 1.40 m s -1
Before
0.630 m s -1
1.40 m s -1

After

FigureFigure 3.163.16

In Figure 3.16 show a 3.50 g bullet is fired horizontally at two blocks at rest on a frictionless tabletop. The bullet passes through the first block, with mass 1.20 kg, and embeds itself in the second block, with mass 1.80 kg. Speeds of 0.630 m s 1 and 1.40 m s -1 , respectively, are thereby given to the blocks. Neglecting the mass removed from the first block by the bullet, determine a. the speed of the bullet immediately after it emerges from the first block and .b. the initial speed of the bullet ANS.ANS. :: 721721 mm ss 11 ;; 937.4937.4 mm ss 11

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Exercise 3.2 : 4. A ball moving with a speed of 17 m

Exercise 3.2 :

4. A ball moving with a speed of 17 m s 1 strikes an identical ball that is initially at rest. After the collision, the incoming ball has been deviated by 45from its original direction, and the struck ball moves off at 30from the original direction as shown in Figure 3.17. Calculate the speed of each ball after the collision.

FigureFigure 3.173.17
FigureFigure 3.173.17

ANS.ANS. :: 8.808.80 mm ss 11 ;; 12.412.4 mm ss 11

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 3.2.2 Collision  is defined as an an isolated isolated event event in

3.2.2

Collision

is defined as anan isolatedisolated eventevent inin whichwhich twotwo oror moremore bodiesbodies (the(the collidingcolliding bodies)bodies) exertexert relativelyrelatively strongstrong forcesforces onon eacheach otherother forfor aa relativelyrelatively shortshort timetime.

Two types of collisions :

ElasticElastic collisioncollision

InelasticInelastic (non-elastic)(non-elastic) collisioncollision

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Elastic Elastic collision collision  is defined as one one in in which

ElasticElastic collisioncollision

is defined as oneone inin whichwhich thethe totaltotal kinetickinetic energyenergy (as(as wellwell asas totaltotal momentum)momentum) ofof thethe systemsystem isis thethe samesame beforebefore andand afterafter thethe collisioncollision.

Figure 3.18 shows the head-on collision of two billiard balls.

Before collision

At collision

After collision

m u 1 1 11
m u
1
1
11
m u 2 2 22
m u
2
2
22
At collision After collision m u 1 1 11 m u 2 2 22 m v
m v 1 1
m v
1
1
11 22
11
22
11
11
m v 2 2 22
m v
2
2
22

FigureFigure 3.183.18

24

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3  The properties properties of of elastic elastic collision collision are a. The

The propertiesproperties ofof elasticelastic collisioncollision are

a. The totaltotal momentummomentum isis conservedconserved.

p  = p  i f
p 
= p 
i
f

b. The totaltotal kinetickinetic energyenergy isis conservedconserved.

K = K i f
K
=
K
i
f

OR

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 m u + m u = m
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
m u
+
m u
=
m v
+
m v
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Inelastic Inelastic (non-elastic) (non-elastic) collision collision  is defined as one one in

InelasticInelastic (non-elastic)(non-elastic) collisioncollision

is defined as oneone inin whichwhich thethe totaltotal kinetickinetic energyenergy ofof thethe systemsystem isis notnot thethe samesame beforebefore andand afterafter thethe collisioncollision (even(even thoughthough thethe totaltotal momentummomentum ofof thethe systemsystem isis conserved)conserved).

Figure 3.19 shows the model of a completelycompletely inelasticinelastic

collisioncollision of two billiard balls.

Before collision

At collision

After collision (stick together)

m u 1 11
m u
1
11

1

11 22 11 22
11
22
11
22
u 2 = 0 22 m 2
u
2 = 0
22
m
2

v

collision (stick together) m u 1 11 1 11 22 11 22 u 2 = 0
collision (stick together) m u 1 11 1 11 22 11 22 u 2 = 0

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3  Caution:  Not Not all all the inelastic collision is stick stick

Caution:

NotNot allall the inelastic collision is stickstick togethertogether.

In fact, inelastic collisions include manymany situationssituations in which the bodiesbodies dodo notnot stickstick

The propertiesproperties ofof inelasticinelastic collisioncollision are

a. The totaltotal momentummomentum isis conservedconserved.

p  = p  i f
p 
= p 
i
f

b. The totaltotal kinetickinetic energyenergy isis notnot conservedconserved because some of the energy is converted to internalinternal energyenergy and some of it is transferred away by means of soundsound oror heatheat. But the totaltotal energyenergy isis conservedconserved.

E = E i f
E
= E
i
f

OR

K i = K f + losses energy
K
i
=
K
f + losses energy

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Example 3.5 : Ball A of mass 400 g and velocity 4 m

Example 3.5 :

Ball A of mass 400 g and velocity 4 m s -1 collides with ball B of mass 600 g and velocity 10 m s -1 . After collision, A and B will move together. Determine the final velocity of both balls if A and B moves in the opposite direction initially SolutionSolution ::

mm AA == 0.40.4 kg,kg, uu AA == 44 mm ss -1-1 ,, mm BB == 0.60.6 kg,kg, uu BB == -10-10 mm ss -1-1 ,,

inelasticinelastic collisioncollision Before collision

After collision

u A AA
u
A
AA
u B BB
u
B BB
AA BB
AA
BB

v = ?

p

i

= p

f

u A AA u B BB AA BB v = ? p  i = p

By using the principle of conservation of linear momentum, thus

m u

A

A

+

m u

B

B

= (

m

A

+

m

B

)

v

28

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Solution Solution : : v = m u A A + m u

SolutionSolution ::

v =

m u

A

A

+ m u

B

B

m

A

+ m

B

Final velocity of both balls is - 4.4 m s -1

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Example 3.6 : A ball A of mass 1 kg moving at a

Example 3.6 :

A ball A of mass 1 kg moving at a velocity of 4 m s -1 collides with ball B of mass 2 kg which at rest. Calculate the velocity of both balls after collision if the collision is an elastic collision. SolutionSolution ::

Given m A = 1 kg, u A = 4 m s -1 , m B = 2 kg,

u B = 0 m s -1 , elastic collision

1

u

0

A u

=

ms BB
ms
BB

B

AA
AA

Before collision

v B = ? AA BB
v
B = ?
AA
BB
v A = ?
v
A = ?

After collision

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Solution Solution : : Apply principle of conservation of momentum, m u A

SolutionSolution ::

Apply principle of conservation of momentum,

m u

A

A

+ m u

B

B

1(4)

+

2(0)

= m v

A

A

=

1(

v

A

)

+

v

A

=

4- 2 v

B m s

+ m v

B

B

2(

v

B

)

1 …… (1)

Apply principle of conservation of kinetic energy,

1

2

m

A

m

(

A

u

A

(

u

)

A

2

)

=

2

=

1

2

m

m

A

A

(

(

v

v

A

A

)

)

2

2

+

1

2

+ m

B

m

B

(

v

B

(

v

)

B

2

)

2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

SolutionSolution :: 2 2 2 1(4) = 1( v ) + 2( v ) A
SolutionSolution ::
2
2
2
1(4)
=
1(
v
)
+
2(
v
)
A
B

16 = v

A

2 2

+ v

B

……… (2)

Substitute equation (1) into equation (2)

16 =

16

8

=

=

(4

4(2

2(2

2

v

B

)

2

+

v

B

)

2 +

2

v

B

2 v

B

v

B

)

2 + v

B

2

2

2

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 Solution Solution : : 8 v B = 3 v B 2 Substitute

SolutionSolution ::

8

v

B

=

3

v

B

2

Substitute

v

B

=

2.67

v

A

= 4 - 2 (2.67)

ms

1

into equation (1),

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3 THE END… Next Chapter… CHAPTER 4 : Forces 34

THE END…

Next Chapter… CHAPTER 4 : Forces
Next Chapter…
CHAPTER 4 :
Forces