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4.1 Dissipation Factor Quality Factor Because of the size of the waveguides Losses in the conducting walls of the guide Ground Spectral Analysis 50W 50 ohms RG-211A 300 ohms AWG#19 Quarter wave line 1.2 to 2.8 0.6 to 0.9 Facsimile Call waiting tone 10 pulses/sec VF repeaters Impedance matching ratio of coax balun Indicates energy loss in a capacitor Indicates energy loss in an inductor Why is it impossible to use a waveguide at low radio freq? What causes the attenuation present in waveguides?

Tx lines are either balanced or unbalanced with respect to ___ Method of determining the BW of any processing system Average power rating of RG-58 C/u RG-8A/u impedance Coax used for high temperatures 214-056 twin lead characteristic impedance (used in TV lead-in) Commonly used telephone wire Impedance inversion can be obtained in ______ Dielectric constants of materials commonly used in Tx lines Velocity factor of the materials used in Tx lines The transmission of printed material over telephone lines; Emission designation is F3C and A3E A continuous tine generated by the combination of 2 frequencies of 350Hz and 440Hz used in telephone lines Pulse dialing rate Are unidirectional amplifiers having 20-25dB gain placed about 75km apart used to compensate for losses along the telephone line Central switching office coordinating element for all cell sites that has cellular processor and cellular switch. It interfaces with telephone company zone offices, control call processing and handle billing activities Performs radio-related functions for cellular sites in cellular systems Out of band signaling between toll central offices (Bell system standard) Of SWR = infinite, what type of load the Tx line has? Standard tariff for flat rate telephone service beyond the normal flat rate in that area The published rates, regulations and descriptions governing the provisions of communications services for public use


Base station 3700Hz Purely reactive WATS Tariff

Varistor Electromagnetic receiver 0 to 4KHz 4KHz 300 3400Hz Basic voice-grade Tie trunk Trunk line 3dB 1897 G.122 1.7x10^-8 ohm-m Umbrella cells Adaptive array Completed Liable to radiate Quarter wave matching Quarter wavelength line The line behaves as a parallel tuned circuit in relation to the generator Parallel resonant circuit Series resonant circuit Infinite or an open circuit A high value of resistance Infinite transmission line Nitrogen Above 3Ghz 50ms

A component in the telephone set that has the primary fxn of compensating for the local loop length Type of receiver used in a conventional telephone handset Ideal passband of a voice-grade circuit using PTN Nominal voice channel BW Telephone channel band pass characteristic The minimum quality circuit available using the PTN Connects 2 private branch exchanges (PBX) Connects 2 central offices (CO) Power loss of a telephone hybrid First Strowger Step-by-Step switch was used in ________ CCITT recommendation for a preparation of loss plan, a variable loss plan and a fixed loss plan. Copper wire resistivity () Kind of ells appropriate for load management, fast moving mobiles and low usage areas In cellular networks, standard base station antennas are replaced by _________ The call is _____ when the calling party hears a busy tine on his telephone. Short-circuited stubs are preferred to open-circuit stubs because the latter are ______ One method of determining antenna impedance It is used as an impedance transformer If /4 Tx line is shorted at one end, ____

A shorted /4 line at the operating frequency acts like a ____ A shorted /2 at the operating frequency acts like a _____ The input impedance if a /4 short circuited transmission line at its resonant frequency is _____ A /4 line is connected to an RF generator and is shorted out at the far end. What is the input impedance at the line generator? Its feature is that its Zin is equal to the lines surge impedance Used to keep waveguide dry Waveguides becomes compulsory above _____ Echo suppressors are used on all communication systems

when the round trip time exceeds _____ Insertion of E and H probes into the waveguide Guide wavelength g Ways of coupling in and out of a waveguide

(in rectangular waveguides) it is the distance between 2 instantaneous consecutive positions of maximum field intensity; It is always greater then the o at the same frequency Are Tx lines which can convey electromagnetic waves only in higher order modes; Are hollow structures that has no center conductor but allows waves to propagate down its length; Used mainly for microwave Transmissions because no generators are powerful enough to excite them The outer conductor of the coax cable is usually grounded Amount of uncertainty in a system of symbols The twists in twisted wire pairs


At the beginning and at the end of the cable Entropy Reduced electromagnetic interference Inductance Coaxial

Loading means the addition of _____ Most commonly used Tx line for high frequencies; Medium least susceptible to noise; Most commonly used Tx line in TV systems Medium most widely used in LAN Not a common Tx line impedance A pattern of V and I variations along a Tx line not terminated in its characteristic impedance At very high frequencies, Tx lines act as ____ It is used in coaxial Tx line to prevent AC power supple voltage from being shorted by a balun or band splitter (in TVRO communications) means reducing the effects of noise on the TVRO signal Important quantities in describing waveforms Known as 1/10 of a Neper Advantage of a balanced transmission line Type of Tx line employed where balanced properties are required The ration between the energy absorbed by a surface to the total energy received by the surface The higher the gauge number of a conductor, _______

Twisted Pair 120 ohms Standing waves antennas DC Blocks Dithering Freq and Voltage dNp Low attenuation Parallel wire line Absorption coefficient The higher the Resistance and The smaller the

diameter /4 transformer Reflectance Sound level meter Sound Noy Phon Mel 1000 mels Sone Decibel Octaves Interval Pitch and loudness Pitch Loudness A short length Tx line used to reduce/eliminate standing waves Ration of reflected power to incident power

Instrument used to measure a weighted value of the SPL (sound pressure level) An aural sensation by pressure variations in the air which are always produced by some source of vibrations Unit of noisiness related to the perceived noise level The unit of loudness level of a sound Unit of pitch At a sensation level of 40dB, 1000 Hz tone is _____ Unit of perceived loudness Measure of the intensity of sound in comparison to another sound intensity Much of music is generally referred to in _______ Ratio of frequencies is termed as _______ Sound waves 2 main characteristics A subjective term which is dependent mainly on the frequency and also affected by the intensity Or Intensity; Is a subjective effect which is a function of the ear and brain; Loudness depends upon the energy of motion imparted to the vibrating molecules of the medium transmitting the sound; Affected by the distance between the listener and the source and its intensity varies inversely with the square of this distance The intensity needed to produce an audible sound varies with ________; The number of vibration or pressure fluctuations per second Two ways in which the frequency response of a loudspeaker can be varied when it is positioned near a wall An agreed set of empirical curves relating octave-band SPL to the center freq of the octave bands The freq of a free vibration The transmission of sound from one room to an adjacent room, via common walls, floors and ceilings A measure of threshold of hearing, expressed in dB relative to a specified standard of normal hearing


Hump and notch Noise rating values Natural freq Flanking transmission Hearing Level

330 m/s 341.8 m/s 5000 ft/sec Microphone transducer Diaphragm and Generating element Expense and fidelity; Complexity and ruggedness; Longevity Carbon microphone

Velocity of sound in air Velocity of sound at room temperature (T=17 deg celcius) Sound waves speed in water Converts acoustical energy 2 basic components of a microphone Kinds of generating elements

Operates on the principle that the electrical resistance of carbon granules varies as the pressure on the granules vary Operated by electromagnetic induction that generates an output signal voltage Will be damaged if exposed to high temp above 52 deg Celsius Most important specification of loudspeakers and microphones IS the bypassing of high audio frequencies A microphone characteristic that results in boost in bass freq for close microphone spacing Noise reduction system used for film sound in movies Is the sound energy per unit area at right angles to the propagation direction per unit time Speed that is faster than speed of sound Sound that vibrates at freq too high for the human ear to hear (over 20KHz) Crest to crest distance along the direction of wave travel Lowest freq produced by a musical instrument Tendency of a sound energy to spread When waves bend away from a straight line of travel, it is called _________ An undesired change in waveform as the signal passes through the device Distortion enhances intelligibility when an ______ is added; It is a class of signal processors Required time for any sound to decay to 60 dB; Time taken for the intensity of the sound energy to drop to one millionth of its initial value A thin springy sheet of bakelite or metal that permits the voice coil in a dynamic loudspeaker to move back and forth

Dynamic microphone Crystal microphone Frequency response Bass response Proximity effect Dolby Sound intensity Supersonic Ultrasonic Wavelength Fundamental Diffraction Refraction Distortion Exciter

Reverberation time


along the core of its magnet 10Hz to 20KHz 20Hz to 20KHz 5KHz to 10KHz 65 dB 90 to 85 95 to 100 dB 25 to 8000 Hz Flutter echoes WC Sabine Threshold of hearing 50 dB Noise H3E A3H A3E R3E J3E Bass freq range Audio freq range High freq range of audio signals dB SPL of a voice paging in an office dB SPL in a church with speech reinforcement only dB SPL in an auditorium with contemporary music If the sound waves are converted to electrical waves by a microphone, what is the frequency of the electric current? Rapid succession of noticeable echoes Laid the foundations of acoustic theory of buildings Minimum sound intensity that can be heard

The maximum sideband suppression value using filter system Is primarily high frequency spikes Transmits only one sideband; Single side band full carrier emission Transmits LSB and half of USB; Double sideband Full carrier emission; Standard way of designating AM Single side band reduced carrier emission Single side band suppressed carrier emission; AM system where if m is doubled, the antenna current is also doubled Independent sideband emission Vestigial sideband emission; Used in televisions Phase modulation emission Frequency modulation emission; Used in FM telephony Television Emission Used in facsimile Type of emission produced when a frequency modulated transmitter is modulated by a facsimile signal Type of emission produced when an amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated by a facsimile signal Type of emission when an amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated by a TV signal The difference between the RF carrier and the modulating signal frequencies Produces the sidebands on FM;

B8E C3F G3E F3E F3F F3C and A3E F3C A3C A3F LSB Baseband freq

An information signal that is send directly without modulating any carrier Spectrum analyzer Mixer Buffer Buffer amplifier Pulling Discriminator Carrier signal Center frequency Armstrong system Reactance modulator Direct FM Test instrument that displays the carrier and the sidebands amplitude with freq to freq Also called converter Stage in radio transmitter that isolates oscillator from the load Protects the crystal oscillator from pulling Refers to the change of the crystal oscillator frequency by loading Circuit used to detect frequency modulated signals It has a frequency of 20KHz and above; Has constant peak amplitude The freq of the unmodulated carrier in FM system One method of generating indirect FM One method of direct FM Varactor Diode FM Modulator; Reactance Modulator; Linear IC FM Modulator; PLL with VCO Varactor Diode PM Modulator; Transistor Modulator; Needed to generate a SSB or DSB signal; Outputs LSB and USB; The output is DSB; It suppresses the carrier; Device that is capable of causing freq translation; Can be used as a phase detector; Lattice modulator widely used balanced modulator; Product detector a balanced modulator used to demodulate a SSB signal First radio receiver Any device to be used as a freq multiplier must be _____ Used for frequency doubling Frequency division is useful in the implementation of _____ Not an advantage of SSB Effect of overmodulation in AM transmission Result of the gain level being too high for signals entering the modulator Modulation method used for CE configuration

Direct PM Balanced modulator Circuit

Crystal Radio receiver Non linear Push-Push amplifier Frequency synthesizer Better fidelity Interference to other radio services Distortion and splatter Base modulation and Collector modulation

Envelope Detector Rectification Distortion Coherent signal Frequency deviation Foster Seeley Discriminator Quadrature detector It is less sensitive to noise spikes; It is less sensitive to interference causing AM 3 components Continuous modulation Pulse modulation Coef of modulation Carrier shift The oscillator is crystal controlled AFC Better S/N ratio; Noise immunity; Capture effect Efficiency of utilized power Wider BW needed; Circuit complexity and cost AGC

Most commonly used amplitude demodulator Envelope detection is concerned with the process of ___ Diagonal clipping in envelope detection will result in ____ Has the same Frequency and Phase (but not in amplitude) A louder sound, when generating the modulating waveform for FM, will cause a greater ____ A circuit that demodulates the frequency-modulated signal Requires that the inputs are coherent Ratio detector is superior to Slope detector because

A single tone amplitude modulated wave has _____ A kind of modulation which the modulated wave is always present Type of modulation in which no signal is present between pulses Decribes the amount of amplitude change present in an AM waveform Type of amplitude distortion introduced when the + and alternations in the AM modulated signal are not equal Advantage of PM over FM frequency modulation A disadvantage of direct FM is the need for Advantage of FM over AM

Disadvantage of FM over AM

Its function is to maintain the sound volume level of a voice receiver nearly constant for a large single strength range Reduces impulse noise in receiver If the freq of each component in a signal spectrum in increases by the same fixed amount, this is known as _____ A frequency synthesizer that contains a single crystal is

Noise Blanker Frequency translation and up-conversion Indirect Synthesizer

described as a ________ TRF receiver Receiver in which all RF amplifier stages require manual tuning of the desired RF; Disadvantage is that it has BW variations over the tuning range Doesnt have a modulator; An RF amplifier will not be found on every superheterodyne receiver Ratio of the superheterodyne receiver response at the desired fc (carrier freq) to that at the fsi (image freq) The limiting condition for sensitivity in a communications receiver Refers to the condition where the signals from a very strong station are superimposed on other signals being received An effect which, the modulation of an unwanted signal is transferred to the desired carrier; The modulation of an unwanted signal is heard on the desired signal Can be reduced by installing a filter at the receiver 2 AM transmitting antennas are close together, as a result, the 2 modulated signals are mixed in the final RF stage of both transmitters. What is the resultant effect on the other station? Motorboating (low freq oscillations) can be stopped by ____ Leads should be kept as short as possible in radio circuit so that ____ The # of voice transmission that can be packed into a given freq band for amplitude compandored SSB systems over conventional FM-phone systems Prevents the generations of spurious oscillations Ability of a communications receiver to perform well in the presence of strong signals outside the band of interest Common to both AM and FM receivers

Superheterodyne Receiver Image rejection ratio Noise floor of the Rx Cross modulation interference Cross modulation

Intermodulation interference

Connecting a C between the B+ and the lead ground Stray coupling is minimized 4

Neutralization Blocking dynamic range

RF amp; IF amp; AF amp; Mixer IF amplifier Filter ringing

Determines a communication receivers sensitivity Occurs during CW reception if too narrow a filter BW is used in the IF stage of a receiver

Undesired signals will reach the audio stage 3000 Hz

The undesirable effect of using too wide a filter BW in the IF stage of the receiver In a narrow band FM system, the deviation ratio is commonly 1 and the highest audio freq is generally limited to ____ Refers to the reduction of the Rx Gain caused by the signal of a nearby station Tx in the same freq band Reduces Rx desensitizing

Desensitizing Ensuring good RF shielding between Transmitter Presence of a strong signal on a nearby frequency BW and NF FM receiver

Cause of Rx desensitizing

2 factors the determines the receiver sensitivity Contains limiter stage, discriminator and de-emphasis circuits; The limiter stage prevents any amplitude modulation of the IF signal; The limiter stage rids FM of noise The degree of selectivity desirable in the IF circuitry of a SSB receiver Most amp to break down in a radio circuit performs rectification and filtering in the receiver Ratio of PEP-to-average power during a modulation peak in a SSB phone signal In most mixers, the oscillator freq is higher than the carrier freq on the input signal The BW occupied by the carrier, both sideband and the harmonics A way of eliminating auto interference to radio reception Generates an output whose freq differs from the IF by 1KHz; Demodulates SSB or CW signal Same as Linear mixing Mixing for freq conversion is done with a circuit called _____ Suffers most from selective fading Is the reception blockage of 1 FM phone signal by another FM phone signal A negative half of the AM wave is supplied by a ______ in a diode modulator

2.4 KHZ Resistor AM detector Approx 2.5 to 1 Higher BW of emission and Occupied BW Installing resistive spark plugs BFO

Am modulation Linear Summing FM and double side band AM Capture effect Tuned Circuit

By having the carrier vary a resistance Variable resistance

Can produce AM Amplitude modulators that vary the carrier amplitude with the modulation signal by passing it through an attenuator network is the principle of ________ Most widely used amplitude modulator Produced AM at very high frequencies In a diode ring modulator, the diodes acts like a ___ The principal circuit in the popular 1496/1596 IC balanced modulator The AM signals generated at a low level may only be amplified by what type of amplifier? Most commonly used filter in SSB generators

Diode detector PIN diode Switch Differential amplifier Class C Crystals PCM Quantization noise Quantizing noise

Quantizing noise happens in _____ Due to the approximation of the quantized signals Noise occurring in the presence of signal resulting from a mismatch between the exact value of an analog signal and the closest available quantizing step in a digital decoder Noise from random acoustic or electric noise that has an equal energy per cycle over a specified total freq band Is measured on a circuit when it is correctly terminated but does not have any traffic An electric noice produced by the thermal agitation of electrons in conductors and semiconductors; Most internal noise comes from this type of noise Noise produced by lightning discharges in thunderstorms; Also known as static noise; Not a great problem above 30MHz; Primary cause is lightning; Type of noise that becomes a great importance/concern at high frequencies Noise consisting of irregular pulses of short duration and relatively high amplitude Is usually from transmission over power lines and by ground waves Noise originating from outside the solar system Noise coming from stars and sun Noise that occurs via capacitive or inductive coupling in a cable

Thermal Noise /White Noise/ Gaussian Noise/ Johnson Noise White noise Thermal Noise

Atmospheric noise

Transit time noise Impulse noise Man-made noise Cosmic Noise Space noise Crosstalk noise

Miscellaneous noise

Crosstalk due to incomplete suppression of sidebands or to intermodulation of 2 or more freq-multiplexed channels which is unintelligible is classified as ____ Large emission of hydrogen from the sun that affects communications The total noise power present in a 1Hz BW Not a way of reducing noise Form of interference caused by rain or dust storms Industrial noise freq Reference noise temp Reference noise level (relative to 10^-12) Standard for crosstalk limits Standard for intermodulation rates on PCM audio channels Reference freq of CCITT phospohometric noise measurement A device that measures the internal VOC of an equivalent noise generator having an impedance of 600 ohms and delivering a noise power to a 600 ohm load Unit noise power of psophometer Noise-improvement-factor External noise fields are measured in terms of ____ The difference between signal strength at a given point and a reference level A practical dBrn measurement will almost always be a ____ number Noise can be reduced by ____ Noise at the input of the receiver can be as high as ____ Contributes most of the noise in a receiver Transistor with the lowest noise figure in the microwave region; Most commonly used in the microwave freq due to its low noise char The solar cycle repeats the period of great electrical disturbance approx every ___

Solar flare Noise density Increasing channel BW Precipitation static 15 to 160 MHz 17 deg Celsius / 290 K -90 dBm CCIT G. 151 CCITT Rec. G. 172 800 Hz Psophometer

pWp Nif Peak values Level Positive Narrowing the BW uV Mixer MESFET

11 years

Field strength James clerk Maxwell Transequatorial propagation UHF and VHF Amount of voltage induced in a wave by an electromagnetic wave Profounded electromagnetic radiation theory Is best during afternoon or early evening Most affected by knife edge refraction

Kennely-Heaviside Layers D layer E layer

D,E,F layers Layer that reflects very low freq waves and absorbs medium freq waves (RL,AM) Layer used for high-freq day time propagation; Layer that aids MF surface-wave propagation a little and reflects some HF waves in daytime Layer that does not appear at night; Reaches a height of 255 km at night Different grouping of electromagnetic spectrum Fading due to interference between direct and reflected rays The highest freq that can be sent straight upward and be returned back to earth In troposhepric scatter propagation, the attenuation is dependent on ___ Applies to troposcatter propagation; Defined as the fluctuations in the signal strength at the Rx Tropospheric scatter is used with freq in the following range Means of beyond the LOS propagation of UHF signals; It is where 2 directional antennas are pointed so that their beams intersect at the troposphere Super refraction; Occurs in troposphere Layer of warm air trapped above cool air Absence of reception Sudden ionic disturbances If the Tx power remains constant, an increase in the freq of the sky wave will Radiowave that is far from its sources is called ____ A fixed point in an electromagnetic wave VHF ship station transmitters must have the capability of reducing carrier power to ____ How does the BW of the transmitted signal affect selective fading A wide-BW communications systems in which the RF carrier varies according to some predetermined sequence Speed of electromagnetic waves travel in freespace Are very reliable and are used for some types of services High freq waves Best solution to ship to ship fading;

F2 layer Band Reflection Multipath Critical freq Scatter angle Fading UHF Troposcatter propagation Ducting Duct Shadow zone SID Lengthen the skip distance Plane wave Wavefront 1W It is more pronounced at wider BW Spread spectrum communication Approx 300M m/s VLF waves Affected by the solar cycle Freq diversity

2 or more Rx are used using a single antenna; Space diversity 2 or more antennas are used separated by several wavelengths; Best solution to fading Range of microwave freq more easily passed by the atmosphere than the others The absorption of a radio wave by the atmosphere depends on _____ When a beam of light enters one medium from another, a quality that never changes is its As electromagnetic waves travels in free space, this can happen to them Highest freq can be found here Shortest wavelength Quality in sound that corresponds to color in light Is the splitting of white light into its component colors in refraction Minimum illumination recommended for reading Microwave signals propagate by way of the ____ Ionosphere causes radio signals to be ___ The solid angle subtended by a hemisphere about its center is ____ Uses surface wave propagation The type of radio wave responsible for long-distance communication by multiple skips is the _______; ____ gets in contact with ionosphere and reflected by it LOS communications is not a factor here; Ionosphere has the greatest effects on this range of freq Ground wave is most effective in _____

Window Their freq Frequency Attenuation X-rays Blue Pitch Dispersion 8000 lx Direct wave Refracted 2 sr ELF, VLF, MF Sky wave

HF (3 Mhz to 30 Mhz) MF (300Khz to 3 Mhz) Discone antenna Bay UHF and VHF Critical phased array Antenna Antenna array Dipole antenna

Has vertical polarization; Radiation pattern is omnidirectional A section which would be a complete antenna by itself Range of freq where most omnidirectional horizontally polarized antennas are used It is where the current ratios of 2 or more elements must be held at 5% and the phase angle at 3% Device that converts high freq current into electromagnetic wave An antenna with a number of /2 antennas on it; An underground antenna near the ground acts as a ______ Radiation pattern in bidirectional; Antenna that is not grounded at one end

Yagi Uda Elementary doublet Broadside antenna Marconi antenna

Antenna that doesnt use the ground Antenna which is 1/10 wavelegth long An antenna array which is highly directional at right angles to the plane of the array Antenna that radiates an omnidirectional pattern in the horizontal plane with vertical polarization; Length = /4; Maximum current is found at the base of the antenna; Not a wideband An antenna with very high gain and very narrow BW An open-ended slot antenna Non resonant antenna; A properly terminated antenna; Used primarily for skywave propagation Antenna that is best excited from a waveguide Antenna that is not properly terminated Must have minimum of 3 number of turns Has a bidirectional radiation pattern in the horizontal plane Antenna that provides maximum radiation to all surrounding points in the horizontal plane Voltage nodes are located at the feedpoints; Current nodes are located at the ends Antenna made up of a number of full wavelenths A must for vertical antennas Is the horizontal pointing angle of an antenna Very low signal strength in antennas Measurement of a unilateral antenna properties of directivity; Is the angle between the half power radiation points Used in antennas to increase effective height; Improves radiation efficiency All elements in a beam ________ antennas are in line Must be mounted on top of a structure not les than 30 cm above the highest point Estimated medium wind loading in the Phil for antenna tower design Improves antenna directivity; Gives the antenna unidirectional properties; Increases the antennas power gain (for a Hertz Dipole) Comparing the signal strength arriving at the driven element from the desired direction to the signal strength reaching the driver from the opposite direction Shortening effect of an antenna that makes it appear as it

Parabolic Dish antenna Notch antenna Rhombic antenna

Horn antenna Resonant antenna Helix antenna Vertical loop antenna Vertical /4 antenna Half wave antenna Long-wire antenna Good grounding Azimuth Null BEAMWIDTH

Top loading Collinear Lightning Rods 200 kph Parasitic element

FB ratio

End effect

were 5% longer Low pass filter Increases antennas effective length Decreases antennas effective length Stacking antenna elements Driven element BW increases Wave straps in the antenna circuitry Trap antennas 300 ohms Antenna efficiency Directivity gain Location of antenna wrt to nearby objects Protection of personnel working underneath Prevent re-radiation of the LO Diplexer Long periodic 10 to 1000uW 1000 to 3000 HZ 250 to 500 Hz Volt unit meter 300 to 3400 Hz 4000 Hz 1300 ohms 0.51 dB/1000ft Loss: 3dB/15ft -42 to -52 volts 3W 825 to 845 MHz 870 to 890 MHz Are harmonic suppressors connected to an antenna Add inductor in series Add capacitor in series ______ in a transmitting system will increase field strength at the Rx and increase the directivity of the Tx antenna; Increases sensitivity to weak signals The element fed by the transmission line; /2 is its electrical length in an HF beam antenna If the antenna is shortened through the use of loading coils Eliminates strong interference from one particular station by the use of this Disadvantage is that it will radiate harmonics The input terminal impedance at the center of a folded dipole = (radiation resistance / total resistance ) x 100% Ratio of max radiation intensity to average radiation intensity Factors that determine the radiation resistance of an antenna Reason for using metal counterpoise when antenna is false Reason for using antenna coupler Antenna coupling unit Useful as a multiband HF receiving antenna

Typical speech power Max intelligibility for voice freq is located between Max voice energy is located between Device used to measure speech volume Standard freq BW for voice transmission Standard voice channel spacing Resistance limit for #2 crossbar exchange in US AWG#26 RG-58 cable Telephone set voltage sent by CO Typical power output of a cellular phone Cellular phones transmit in the band from ______ Cellular phones receives in the band from ______

890 915 MHz 45 MHz 30 KHz 825.015/870.015 MHz 666 80 km 13 miles 50 dB 12KHz Large service area Full duplex Half duplex Radiotelephony Singing Roaming

The mobile-to-base frequency assignment for GSM System Frequency separation between the transmit/receive channels Frequency separation between the recieve/receive channels Channel 1 Transmit/Receive frequency # of transmit/receive channels in the cellular system The transmission range of cellular telephony Range of cellular CDMA System Sensitivity of a cellular receiver Freq deviation of cellular telephone system Not an advantage of cellular telephony A cellular phone operates in FD Radio communications between points using a single share freq Type of communication when the human voice and music are transmitted Caused by excessive + feedback; Echo that is completely out of control The signal quality of the calls is constantly monitored by the base station, when the quality if the calls drops below a certain specified level, the base requests the MTSO to try and find a better cell site Time it takes a facsimile to transmit a standard page A kind of recording used by facsimile Distortion in facsimile Causes a herringbone pattern in facsimile Converts electric signals to audio signals Converts 2wire to 4wire A circuit usually in the subscriber loop, between the telephone set and the CO Is used between serving CO for long distance connections with one paro being used for each direction of transmission A 2wire or 4wire communication circuit between the customers premise and the CO Physical connection between the tel set and the switching equipment Connects 2 COs Linking point between a cell phone and a regular telephone; All of the base stations are linked together by _____ which serves as the CO and management node for the group; Master control center for cellular telephone system;

25 second Electrolytic recording Skewing Crosstalk Acoustic coupler Hybrid circuit 2wire circuit 4wire circuit Local loop Subscribers loop Trunk line MTSO

Controls the power of a cellular radio Cell site Janyes maximum entropy principle Discrete channel 1.88 1.90 GHz 12 120 1983 1000 6000 Hz 100,000 Digital-AMPS (D-AMPS) 416 Numeric Assignment Module Private Automatic Branch Exchange Pilot carrier signals Loop extender 12 First selector Section Small area Cell splitting Circle Repeater 60 degrees Hailing channel Erlang Erlang B Erlang C Provides interface between the mobile tel switching office and the mobile units ____ of a data reduction says that when reducing a set of data into the form of an underlying mode, one should be maximally non-committal wrt the missing data Combination of modulator, channel and detector Freq of DECT # of simultaneous calls DECT system can support # of simultaneous calls DECT radio transceiver can assess at a given time Cellular mobile system was first operated in ______ TACS is a cellular system with ____ channels SAT (Supervisory Audio Tone) freq is _____ System capacity of AMPS The voted cellular digital standard # of channels for Band A and for Band B in D-AMPS NAM PABX Signals designed to keep the receivers and transmitters aligned A device that increases the battery voltage on a loop and extends its signaling range Under ordinary circumstances, the CCIITT recommends that the # of circuits in tandem must not exceed _____ Responds to the request if a subscriber by sending a dial tone The other name of class2 office in the NA switching plan A cell in the cellular tel system means ____ Single cell subdivided into smaller cells First cell shape Each cell contains a ____ Beamwidth of the reflector of the Rx antenna in the base station Or Calling channel Is equal to the # of simultaneous calls originated during a specific hourly period The traffic model about blocked calls clear condition specified blocking probability The traffic model about blocked calls delay condition specified delay probability


The traffic model about blocked calls held condition specified the held probability at the a time period equal to an average holding time A method of expressing the amplitudes of complex nonperiodic signals such as speech ___ is a voice operated device that inserts a high loss in the opposite direction of transmission of the talking party ___ is the picking up of the same station at 2 nearby points on the receiver dial The type of connector arrangement wherein a customer may move to another location and still retain the same tel number Most commonly used light sensor in modern fax machines In FM Fax, the frequencies for B&W are ____ respectively Modulation used by Group2 Fax Modulation used by Group3 Fax Transmission speed of Group4 Fax Most widely used fax standard Most fax printers are of which type? The one who set up facsimile standards Type of graphics commonly transmitted by radio fax The system used by PCN (Pesonal Communications Network) Refers to - load connected to the output end of a transmission line

Volume Echo suppressors Double spotting TPS

CCD 1500 and 2300 HZ Vestigial sideband AM QAM 56 Kbps Group3 Fax Thermal CCITT Satellite weather photos Modified GSM Termination

Optical Fiber Transducer 2520 KHz 2728 KHz 600 300 Hybrid Data Not suitable for CSMA Operation Used to convert time varying electrical quantity to an appropriate form U600 BW L600 BW AT&T Master Group CCITT Master Group Refers to the combined digitally encoded signals transmitted with FDM signals as one composite baseband signal Transmit frequency-division-multiplexed VB signals over a coax up to 4000miles Guard Band between supergroup 18 and supergroup D25 A radio channel is composed of ___ The transparency mechanism used with SDLC is called ____

L carrier system 56KHZ 1800 VB Channels Zero bit insertion

2B + D 64 Kbps 16 Kbps 3 SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) Terminal Adapters 213 to 552 KHz; BW = 240 KHz Bipolar Interfaces the Digital Terminal Equipment to analog communications channel DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)

Equation that defines the composition of an ISDN basic access line Data rate of ISDN basic B Channel Data rate of ISDN basic D Channel # of channels on which different operations can occur simultaneously on one ISDN basic access line A digital network where voice, video, text and data are multiplexed into a single network for processing and are transmitted prior to use Non-ISDN equivalent can be connected to ISDN line by the use of ____ Baseband freq of standard FDM basic supergroup What is the Transmission signal coding for T1 carrier? Purpose of the data modem

The LCU (Line control Unit) operates on the data in digital form and is therefore called ____; A system that performs // to serial and serial to // conversion of data link; Ethernet is baseband system using CSMA/CD operating at ____ Before attempting to transmit data, each station has to listen to the channel; With ____, a station monitors the line to determine if the line is busy A type of digital encoding technique used to detect collision in CSMA/CD Mechanism used by the station to gain access to LAN Signaling method relating to a multiplicity of circuits is conveyed over a single channel by labeled messages Is data communications network designed to provide 2way communications between a large variety of data communications terminal equipment within a relatively small geographic area Interconnects LAN having identical protocols at the physical and data link layers Interconnects LAN having identical protocols at the physical and network layers Interconnects LAN that has totally different protocols and format

10Mbps CSMA/CD

Manchester Channel Accessing Common Channel Signaling LAN

Bridge Router Gateway

Parallel Data Serial Data Parallel transmission 1500m Packet Switching Message Switching Baseband Tx

All bits in a character can be sent/received simultaneously. The bits in a character which are send/received one at a time Also called parallel by bit; Also called serial-by-character; Use of coax cables in interconnecting networks is limited to an overall length of ____ Hold and forward network Store and forward network Uses TDM; Transmission where the data are inputted directly on the cable (data on cable); Medium is a single channel; Uses FDM; Transmission where the data are inputted inside the carrier wave (data on carrier); Medium is a multiple channel Reason why FDM is being replaced by TDM

Broadband Tx

Noise is amplified with voice when an FDM system is used Quadrature multiplexing Start/stop mode

The process that uses the orthogonality of sines and cosines that makes possible to transmit and receive to different signals simultaneously on the same carrier freq Is the mode of transmission in public data network in which data are transferred from source to the network then to the destination in an asynchronous data format Amplitude shift keying is also known as _____ Circuit the performs the inverse mapping and delivers to the user destination, a reproduction of the original digital source output The type of encoding used in the Tx of data on an ISDN line between a customers premises and a carriers central office A source code whose average word length approaches the fundamental set by the entropy of a discrete memory source Code that used three unequal length symbols, dot, dash and space to encode a character Developed the fixed-length binary code for telegraphy Inventor of the PCM for digital encoding of speech signals Year where computers and terminals start communication with each other over long distances Year ISO (International Standardization Organization)

On/Off Keying Source Coding

2B1Q Encoding

Huffman Code

Morse code Emile Baudot Alex Reeves 1950 1983

adopted the 7layer OSI (Open System Inteconnection) model ISO 7809 A standard that combines previous standards 6159 and 6256 and outlines the class of operation necessary to establish the link level protocol Store and forward Multiple Access Network Digital switching concepts that can handle more channels Who promulgated communications-related military standards (MIL-STD) Error control used in high freq radio data transmission Electronic industry association A communications network designed for transferring data from one point to another RS-232 is normally an interface between DTE and DCE, what is its signal rate? Accepts commands from the terminal via RS-232 interface Used by slow speed modems Rs-232 has ____ number of PINS Most significant advantage of modular switch over timeand-space switch The overlapping of the original spectrum and the first translated component The highest theoretical freq that can be processed at a sampling rate without aliasing Basic speed of a digital system Disadvantage of PCM systems and digital transmission systems in general

PRNET TMS DCA ARQ EIA PDN (Public Data Network) 20 Kbps Smart mOdems FSK 25 Flexible size Aliasing Folding freq 64 Kbps Large BW is required; Requires ADC, DAC; Incompatible with existing analog facilities PCM System Quantizing noise

A digital transmission system Present in PCM systems; The difference between the original and reconstructed signal Steps to follow to produce a PCM signal

Sampling; Quantizing; Coding 1200 Kbps Data in video Much better noise immunity Dynamic range Polling

CCITT V.26 Modems has a modulation rate of ____ Not a hybrid data Advantage of PTM over PAM The ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smallest possible magnitude that can be decoded by the DAC A transmission system for a multidrop system;

When one station is designates as a master and the rest of the stations are considered as slaves, message handling is _____; Is an invitation by the primary to the secondary equipment to transmit a message; Echoplex Line protocol Agreed upon in advance between sender and receiver ASCII Mode of transmission that achieves less than Full duplex but more than half duplex Rules governing the transmission of digital information Codes must be ___

Has 132 chars including 32 control chars; Has 7 bits; Means terminals using asynchronous transmission in ASCII; Most widely used data communications code Character code that is used without parity; 8 bit character code SYN Character of EBCDIC code Fixed length 5 char code; Requires shift characters to provide sufficient combinations; Is concerned with the boundaries between characters A packet format has an error detecting code at the ____ Is less efficient but simpler Hardware used when the host computer and the terminal are in separate locations; Referred to as a DCE (digital communications equipment); Equipment that interfaces the DTE to the analog Tx line A device that connects 2 DTEs directly by emulating the physical connections of a DCE 2400 bps 2400 4800 bps 9600 bps Is the data communications hardware that assists the host computer in handling input and output tasks D to A synchronous modems send signals to the ____; The D to A converter in a synchronous modem sends signal to the ____; Provides post equalizations to the received analog signal; The receive equalizer in a synchronous modem is called

EBCDIC 32H Baudot code

Framing The end of packet framing Asynchronous Transmission Modem

Null modem Low speed modems Medium speed modems High speed modems Front end processor Equalizer

Adaptive equalizers

____; The D to A converted in a synchronous modem is called ___; Amplitude delay Line equalizing D to A converter Compromise in equalizer settings typically affect ____ A means of improving the quality of a private line ckt by adding amplifiers and equalizers to it Input for a PCM decoder circuit is a series of bits; Output for a PCM decoder circuit is a parallel output of binary coded signals Binary codes are transformed in modems into ____ Best type of data communications test equipment Which computer terminal can be programmed to perform new functions The # of bits that are zeros on each symbol when one is transmitting odd-parity coded symbols A digital modulation technique that results in 2 different frequencies representing binary 1 and 0; Used by Bell 103/113 series for full duplex, 2 transmission speeds of 1 to 300 bps Defined as the figure of merit to express degree of modulation in an FSK modulator ___ is a network operation system with several buildings in compound Alternative way of digitizing analog signals 1 bit = ____ Rate of change at the input of the modulator Prints 1 char at a time Strikes a ribbon against the paper to produce character images Character oriented protocol Start of bisync Protocol for packet switching network When asynchronous data are used with synchronous modems With _____, each character is framed between a start and stop bit; 0 start bit; 1 stop bit; It is a character oriented protocol With ___, rather than frame each character independently with a start and stop bit, a unique synchronizing char called SYN is transmitted at the beginning of each message Characters that must be transmitted other than the data

Gray code Protocol Analyzer Intelligent terminal Unknown FSK

H-factor Novell Netware Delta modulation 3.32 dits Bit rate Serial printer Impact printer Bisync STX X.75 Isosynchronous transmission Asynchronous data

Synchronous data


are called ____ Flag field Flag 01111111 CRC-16 Activate RLSD low band channel DISC Start/stop mode Used to achieve character synchronization in SDLC Denotes the start and end of a data link frame Go ahead sequence In USA, it is the most common CRC cocde Training sequence (a bit pattern used to synchronize the receive modem) accomplishes one of the ff fxns Channel in the 103 modem that occupies a passband from 300 to 1650 Hz A command that places a secondary station in the normal disconnect mode A mode of Tx in public data network in which data are transferred from source to the network to the destination in an asynchronous data format CSMA/CD CSMA/CA Token passing for Bus Topology How many OSI layers are converted under the X.25 standard Technique involving signaling by both ends of a link to ensure correct data transfer Found in the Tx section in a synchronous modem Is a method of flow control An example of outband signaling is _____ CCITT standards that refer to various aspects of ISDN I-series that describes what an ISDN is CCITT standard concentrating on data communications over the telephone network A recommendation which allows a synchronous modem to be used to transmit asynchronous characters without error control A CCITT recommendation which gives definition for the interchange circuits of DTE and DCE Defines a 2400-bps, PSK, half duplex, modem operating at 1200 bauds Describes the interconnection between PDNs and PSTNs Standard for the 7layer model of OSI Examples of standards for interfaces between terminals and modems Western Electric 2911 modem operates with a carrier frequency of Occurs when 2 successive pulses have the same polarity and are separated by a zero level

IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.4 IEEE 802.5 3 Handshaking Scrambler XON/XOFF CTS I series I.120 V series V.14

V.24 V.26bis V.100 X.200 RS-232, RS-350, RS449, V.21, V.24 1800 Hz Bipolar Violation

Flow control Buffering XMODEM ZMODEM DEREP-RB Computer data Bus Applicationindependent interfaces Cable TV system Fiber optic Tx PBX Digital PBX Telephone 1,0 Noise VRC LRC QAM XNOR Redundancy Balanced demodulators 30 stations per segment Logical RADAR ADF DME EADI SONAR Terrestrial Flight Telephone system 1300 HZ 43,500 MHz K x 4000 miles

Process of starting and stopping the terminal output to avoid loss of characters by the receiving stage Temporarily storing data to allow for small variations in device speeds Popular PC protocol Protocol that adjusts its block size based on the lone error rate Not a common DNA Repeater Data communications refers to the transmission of ____ Fastest LAN topology Characteristic of LAN Not a LAN Cannot be provided in a broadband LAN A small telephone switching system that can be used as a LAN A LAN architecture that can be expanded to the greatest total system BW Not primarily a type of data communications Mark frequency, space frequency Cause of errors in data transmission Other name for parity Produces BCC (block check char) Combination of ASK and QPSK Not a part of QAM modulator Not commonly used method of error detection A basic modulator/demodulator circuit in PSK Limitations of 10Base2 network Not an important char of the physical layer CHAPTER 9 Radio detection and ranging Automatic direction finder Aircraft navigation system that determines the time-tostation (TTS) or time-to-go (TTG) Electronic altitude and director indicator A shipboard equipment which measures the distance between the ships bottoma dn the ocean floor An inflight system that allows passengers to make tel calls, send faxes, and play computer games etc RF carrier of the middle marker is ____ Freq a radio altimeter operates on Re used in communications design

The pulse width Space diversity

IF Bandwidth is inversely proportional to ____ Method applied to reflective path to reduce fading; ____ transmission means transmitting and receiving on 2 or more antennas operation on the same frequencies Method applied to overcome multipath fading of microwave system over water; Method where the signal in transmitted on 2 different freq over the same path; Wire used to reduce skin effect Consists of electron gun, helix and collector; Advantage over Klystron for microwave amplification is wider BW; Used at freq in the order of 8000 MHz The electron beam in a TWT is density modulated by the _____ Major advantage of a helix traveling wave tube Attenuators purpose in TWT Replaces TWTs in high power amplifiers At what position is the input signal inserted into a TWT In radar set receivers, an AC AFC system may be used to ______ Most widely used radar transmitter component; Most common application is in radar; Is only used as a oscillator; A high power microwave pulse of the order of MW can be generated by a _____ Used as a oscillator; Low power Gunn diodes are replacing _____ In a klystron amplifier, velocity modulation of the electron beam is produced by the ____ Sets up the operating frequency of klystrons and magnetrons; A half wavelength, close section of a waveguide that acts as a // resonant circuit is knows as a ____; Is equivalent to an LC resonant circuit Not a microwave tube (TWT, Klystron and Magnetron) Does not ordinarily operate with reverse bias Low power radar transmitters and receivers use which component?; A popular microwave oscillator Widely used in frequency multipliers

Freq diversity

Litz wire TWT (traveling wave tube)

Helix Wide BW Prevents oscillations Klystrons At the cathode end of the helix Maintain the desired klystron frequency Magnetron

Reflex klystron Catcher cavity Cavity resonators

CRT Tunnel Diode Gunn diode

Varactor and step recovery diode

Hot carrier diode Attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen 60 GHz 183 GHz 10 GHz Slow fading

A popular microwave mixer diode Considered as atmospheric attenuation

Freq where oxygen causes excessive attenuation Freq where water causes excessive attenuation Rainfall becomes an important factor in fading of radio waves at frequencies above ___ Attenuation that occurs over many different wavelengths of the carrier; Not due to multipath; Causes multipath or frequency selective fading Causes intersymbol interference (in microwave Tx that uses digital radio) Theoretically, electromagnetic radiation field strength varies in inverse proportion to the square of the distance but when the atmospheric attenuation effects and the absorption of the terrain are taken into account, the attenuation can be as high as the inverse ____ power of the distance The CCIR hypothetical reference circuit covering a distance of 2500 km consists of how many hops Are transmission lines which convey electromagnetic waves in highest freq; They act as a highpass The lowest frequency the waveguide operates Introduces magnetic field into the waveguide Advantage is that it shortens the waveguides length As the value of k increases, ____ happens

Large reflector Delayed Spreading 6th

54 Waveguides

The cut-off freq if a waveguide Probe Periscope antenna Flattening of equivalents curvature (EC) Towards the earth Phased array PPI

If k-factor is greater then 1, the array beam is bent ____ A radar antenna using multiple dipoles or slot antennas in a matrix with variable phase shifters is called an ____ Most common radar display; Has an aquadag coating on the inside of the tube (to act as a second anode) The display on the PPI scope of a radar set will have greater intensity under the following conditions: Most radar antennas use ____

Both lower antenna rotation speed and higher pulse repetition Horn and parabolic reflector

Horn antenna Antenna directivity Spark gap Doppler effect 0.6 Infinity Baseband repeaters Decrease in resonant frequency PCBs High loss Mobile radio 1GHz to 100GHz Higher cost equipment Greater Tx distances LF band

Most widely used microwave antenna The ability of a radar to determine the bearing of a target Component in a duplexer that protects the receiver from the higher transmitter output Measures speed; The freq changes; The optimum clearance from an obstacle in a microwave system is accepted as ____ of the first fresnel zone radius The microwave beam curves the same than that of the earth when the value of the correction factor k equals ____ An active microwave radio repeater that can provide drops and inserts Decreasing the volume of a cavity causes a __________ Stripline and microstrip transmission lines are usually made with ____ Coax cable is not used for long microwave Tx because of its ____ Not a common microwave application Range of microwave frequencies Not a disadvantage of microwave A main advantage of microwave LORAN-C operating freq lies on the ____