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Chemistry Form Five: Chapter 1 - Rate of Reaction

Rate of reaction = change of quantity in reactant or product per unit time. We usually use water displacement method to collect gas in school laboratory as shown below:

The reaction is fastest at the start when the reactants are at a maximum (steepest gradient) The gradient becomes progressively less as reactants are used up and the reaction slows down. Finally the graph levels out when one of the reactants is used up and the reaction stops. The amount of product depends on the amount of reactants used. The initial rate of reaction is obtained by measuring the gradient at the start of the reaction. A tangent line is drawn to measure rate of reaction at instataneous time

hemistry Form 5: Chapter 1 - Collision Theory


According to the collision theory, particles of reactant that achieve activation energy and collide with correct orientation will result in reaction. 1. Correct Orientation

Click on the diagram below to play!

2. Activation Energy

Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy that must be overcome by the colliding

particles so that the reaction can occur

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 1 - Effect of Concentration on Rate of Reaction


Experiment to show the effect of concentration on reaction rate

Sodium thiosulphate solution react with dilute sulphuric acid to form a yellow precipitate of sulphur. In this experiment, the time taken for the formation of sulphur to cover the mark 'X' until it disappears from sight can be used to measure rate of reaction.

As the concentration of sulphuric acid is increased, the rate of reaction between sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate increases.

Explanation using collision theory

When the concentration of the solution of a reactant increases, the number of particles per unit volume of the solution also increases. With more particles per unit volume of the solution of the reactant, the frequency of collision increases. This causes the frequency of effective collision to increase. Hence, the rate of reaction increases.

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 1 - Catalyst Affects the Rate of Reaction


Catalyst is a chemical substance that change the rate of chemical reaction. Characteristics of catalyst: Catalyst remains chemically unchanged during reaction. Its chemical composition still the same before and after reaction. Catalyst only change the rate of reaction.

Catalyst does not change the quantity of the product formed. Catalyst is specific in its action. Only a small amount of catalyst is needed to achieve a big increase in rate of reaction.

How catalyst increase the rate of reaction: When a positive catalyst is used in a chemical reaction, it enables the reaction to occur through an alternative path which requires lower activation energy. As a result, more colliding particles are able to overcome the lower activation energy.

This causes the frequency of effective collision to increase. Hence, the rate of reaction increases. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalyst of manganese (IV) oxide

hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 - Hydrogenation

Hydrogenation process is addition reaction to convert alkene becomes alkane. It converts unsaturated compound to saturated compound.

Ethene reacts with H2 at 180 C in the presence of nickel or platinum catalyst to produce ethane

Click on the diagram below to play!

Application of hydrogenation: Making Margarine


Vegetable oils often contain high proportions of polyunsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats (oils), and as a result are liquids at room temperature. That makes them messy to spread on your bread or toast, and inconvenient for some baking purposes. You can "harden" (raise the melting point of) the oil by hydrogenating it in the presence of a nickel catalyst. Conditions (like the precise temperature, or the length of time the hydrogen is passed through the oil) are carefully controlled so that some, but not necessarily all, of the carbon-carbon double bonds are hydrogenated. This produces a "partially hydrogenated oil" or "partially hydrogenated fat".

hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 - Manufacture of Ethanol (Hydration)


Ethanol is manufactured by reacting ethene with steam. The reaction is reversible, and the formation of the ethanol is exothermic.

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 - Dehydration of Alcohol

ALCOHOL -------> ALKENE


In the dehydration of alcohols, a molecule of water is eliminated from each alcohol molecule to produce alkene. There are two methods of dehydration:

a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated unglazed porcelain chips, porous pot, pumice stone or alumina (aluminium oxide). b) Ethanol is heated under reflux at 170 C with excess concentrated sulphuric acid.

School Laboratory Experiment

Alkene can be tested by decolourising brown bromine water or decolourising purple acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution.

hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 - Carboxylic Acid


Carboxylic acids are organic compounds which form an homologous series with the general formula of CnH2n+1COOH. Carboxylic acids are compounds which contain a -COOH functional group. Carboxylic acids are weak acid which ionize partially in water to produce lower concentration of hydrogen ions compare to strong acid.

Formula

Common Name

Source

IUPAC Name

HCO2H CH3CO2H CH3CH2CO2H CH3(CH2)2CO2H CH3(CH2)3CO2H CH3(CH2)4CO2H CH3(CH2)5CO2H CH3(CH2)6CO2H CH3(CH2)7CO2H CH3(CH2)8CO2H

formic acid acetic acid propionic acid butyric acid valeric acid caproic acid enanthic acid caprylic acid pelargonic acid capric acid

ants (L. formica) vinegar (L. acetum) milk (Gk. protus prion) butter (L. butyrum) valerian root goats (L. caper) vines (Gk. oenanthe) goats (L. caper) pelargonium (an herb) goats (L. caper)

methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid pentanoic acid hexanoic acid heptanoic acid octanoic acid nonanoic acid decanoic acid

hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 - Esterification


Esterification is a chemical reaction between carboxylic acid combines with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst (commonly concentrated sulphuric acid) to form an ester.

Examples of Esters

methyl butanoate (apple) : methan +butanoic ol acid CH3OH

methyl butanoate (ester)

+wate r

+ + C3H7COOH C3H7COOCH3 (ester) H2O

ethyl methanoate (rum essence) : ethan +methanoic ol acid C2H5O + HCOOH H ethyl methanoate (ester) +wate r + H2O

HCOOC2H5 (ester)

ethyl butanoate (pineapple) : ethan +butanoic ol acid ethyl butanoate (ester) +wate r + H2O

C2H5O + C3H7COOC2H5 C3H7COOH H (ester)

pentyl ethanoate (banana) :

pentan +ethanoic ol acid

pentyl ethanoate (ester)

+wate r + H 2O

C5H11O + CH3COOC5H11 CH3COOH H (ester)

pentyl butanoate (apricot) : pentan +butanoic ol acid pentyl butanoate (ester) +wate r + H 2O

C5H11O + C3H7COOC5H11 C3H7COOH H (ester)

octyl butanoate (orange) : octano +butanoic l acid octyl butanoate (ester) +wate r + H 2O

C8H17O + C3H7COOC8H17 C3H7COOH H (ester)

methyl ethanoate (solvent) : methan +ethanoic ol acid CH3OH methyl ethanoate (ester) +wate r

+ + CH3COOH CH3COOCH3 (ester) H 2O

ethyl ethanoate (solvent) : ethan +ethanoic ol acid ethyl ethanoate (ester) +wate r + H2O

C2H5O + CH3COOC2H5 CH3COOH H (ester) Esterification by refluxing

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 - Redox Reaction

Redox reactions are chemical reactions involving oxidation and reduction occurring simultaneously. Oxidising agent is the substance that causes oxidation. Reducing agent is the substance that causes reduction.

Oxidation involves loss of electrons and increase in oxidation number. Reduction involves gain of electrons and decrease in oxidation number. Example:

The magnesium's oxidation state has increased from 0 to +2 , it has been oxidised. Magnesium acts as reducing agent. The hydrogen's oxidation state has decreased from +1 to 0 , it has been reduced. The hydrogen ion acts as a oxidising agent. Click on the diagram below to play!

There is no change in oxidation number. Therefore, this is not a redox reaction.

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 - Rules of Oxidation Number


There are several rules for assigning the oxidation number to an element. Learning these rules will simplify the task of determining the oxidation state of an element, and thus, whether it has undergone oxidation or reduction. 1. The oxidation number of an atom in the elemental state is zero. Example: Cl2 and Al both are 0 2. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to its charge. Example: In the compound NaCl, the sodium has an oxidation number of 1+ and the chlorine is 1-. 3. The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers in the formula of a compound is zero. Example: the oxidation numbers in the NaCl above add up to 0 4. The oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is 1+, except when hydrogen forms compounds called hydrides with active metals, and then it is 1-. Examples: H is 1+ in H2O, but 1- in NaH (sodium hydride). 5. The oxidation number of oxygen in a compound is 2-, except in peroxides when it is 1-, and when combined with fluorine. Then it is 2+. Example: In H2O the oxygen is 2-, in H2O2 it is 1-. 6. The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers in the formula for a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge on that ion. Example: in the sulfate ion, SO42-, the oxidation numbers of the sulfur and the oxygens add up to 2-. The oxygens are 2- each, and the sulfur is 6+.

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 - Conversion of Iron (II) to Iron (III) and Iron (III) to Iron (II)

Conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+


Oxidising agent : bromine water Reducing agent : Fe2+ ions Oxidation half equation: Fe2+ ions lose electrons and are oxidized to Fe3+. The presence of Fe3+ ions is confirmed by the formation of brown precipitate with excess of NaOH solution. Fe2+ --------> Fe3+ + e

Reduction half equation: Bromine molecules which give bromine water its brown colour gain electrons and are reduced to colourless bromide ions. Br2 + 2 e -------> 2 Br-

Overall ionic equation: 2 Fe2+ + Br2 2 Fe3+ + 2 Br-

Observation: Brown bromine water decolourises. The solution changes colour from pale green (Fe2+) to yellow (Fe3+).

Conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+

Oxidising agent : Fe2+ ions Reducing agent : zinc Oxidation half equation: Zinc atoms lose their electrons and are oxidized to zinc ions, Zn2+. Zinc powder dissolves in iron (III) chloride. Zn -------> Zn2+ + 2e

Reduction half equation: Fe3+ ions accept electrons and are reduced to Fe 2+. The presence of Fe2+ ions is confirmed by the formation of green precipitate with excess of NaOH solution. Fe3+ + Overall ionic equation: 2 Fe3+ + Zn ---------> 2 Fe2+ + Zn2+ e Fe2+

Observation: Zinc powder dissolves into solution. The solution changes colour from brown (Fe3+) to pale green (Fe2+).

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 - Redox Reaction in Displacement of Metal


Reactivity Series of metals Most reactive K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Pb [H] Cu Ag Least reactive Example of displacement reaction: Displacement of metals from solution is a redox reaction whereby a less reactive metal ion is displaced from its salt solution by a more reactive metal. As a result, the less reactive metal ion is deposited as a solid metal while the more reactive metal dissolves in the solution. The general formula for a displacement reaction is: M (s) + Xn+ (aq) -----> Mn+ (aq) + X (s) where metal M is the more reactive than metal X.

Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq)

----->

FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)

Iron displaces copper from the solution because it is more reactive than copper metal. Iron, being more reactive, loses its electrons readily. The electrons are transferred from the iron atoms to the copper(II) ions in the solution. Copper(II) ions are reduced to copper metal and iron atoms become oxidised to iron (II) ions. Iron acts as reducing agent whereas copper (II) ions act as a oxidising agent. Oxidation reaction: Fe (s) -----> Fe2+ (aq) + 2eReduction reaction: Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- -----> Cu (s) Overall Redox reaction: Fe (s) + Cu2+ (aq) -----> Fe2+ (aq) + Cu (s)

hemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 - Rusting of Iron

Rusting is a corrosion of iron. For iron to rust, oxygen and water must be present. In the presence of acids and salts, rusting occurs faster because these substances increase the electrical conductivity of water, making water a better electrolyte. Oxygen acts as the oxidizing agent and iron acts as the reducing agent .

The surface of iron at the middle of the water droplet serves as the anode at which oxidation occurs. The iron atoms lose electrons to form iron (II) ions. The electrons flow to the edge of the water droplet where there is plenty of dissolved oxygen. The iron surface there serves as cathode at which reduction occurs. Oxygen gains the electrons and is reduced to hydroxide ions.

The iron (II) ions produced combine with the hydroxide ions to iron (II) hydroxide. The Fe(OH) 2 is then
further oxidized by oxygen to form iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3 known as rust

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 - Redox Reaction in Electrochemistry Reaction


More electropositive metal undergoes oxidation reaction by releasing electrons and act as a reducing agent. Less electropositive metal undergoes reduction reaction by gaining electrons and act as a oxidising agent. Electrons flow from more electropositive metal to less electropositive metal.

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 4 - Exothermic and Endothermic Reaction


Chemical energy is needed to transform a chemical substance into a new product through chemical reaction. Therefore, breaking or formation of chemical bond involves energy, which may be either absorbed or released from a chemical reaction. To break the chemical bond, energy from surrounding is absorbed resulting decrease of temperature of surrounding. To form the chemical bond, energy from reaction is released to the surrounding resulting increase of temperature of surrounding.

Exothermic Reaction Chemical reaction that gives out heat to the surroundings. Temperature of the surroundings increases. The total energy of reactants is more than total the energy of products. Bond formation releases more energy than is required in the bond breaking.

Endothermic Reaction Chemical reaction that absorbs heat from the surroundings. Temperature of the surroundings decreases. The total energy of reactants is less than the total energy of products. Bond breaking requires more energy than the energy that is released during bond formation

Examples: Combustion of fuel, burning of metal, neutralization, respiration, rusting of iron, reaction of a reactive metal with acid, reaction of alkaline metals with water, Haber process, freezing, condensation, dissolving alkali or concentrated acid in water, dissolving anhydrous salts in water.

Examples: Thermal decomposition of nitrate or carbonate salts, reaction of acid with hydrogen carbonate, photosynthesis, melting, boiling, sublimation, dissolving ammonium or potassium salts in water, heating of hydrated salt.

Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 5 - Making of Soap

Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. Soaps are prepared by hydrolyzing fats or oils under alkaline condition. This reaction is called saponification.

The fats or oils are hydrolysed first to form glycerol and fatty acids. The acids then react with an alkali to form the corresponding sodium or potassium salts. The soap formed can be precipitated by adding sodium chloride. This is because sodium chloride lowers the solubility of soap in water. The glycerol and excess sodium hydroxide solution are removed by rinsing the soap formed with water.

Soaps feel slippery and form lather when they are shaken with water.