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University of Žilina, Faculty of Civil Engineering Department of geodesy

Navstar(Gps) vs Glonass.

Student: Zifceac Iaroslav

26 hours (11 h 16 m) 12. Global coverage for each system is generally achieved by a satellite constellation of 20– 30 medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites spread between several orbital planes. Several countries including France and Japanare in the process of developing regional navigation systems.430 mi) Period 11.000 kilometres (12.A satellite navigation or sat nav system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage.97 hours (11 h 58 m) 11.150 km (13.180 km (12. scheduled to be fully operational by 2020 at the earliest.130 km (11. only the United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS are fully globally operational GNSSs.000 mi)). but use orbital inclinations of >50° and orbital periods of roughly twelve hours (at an altitude of about 20. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system or GNSS.540 mi) 19. The actual systems vary.220 km (14. Receivers calculate the precise time as well as position. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude. latitude. System GPS GLONASS COMPASS Galileo Political entity United States Russian Federation China European Union Coding CDMA FDMA/CDMA CDMA CDMA Orbital height 20. The European Union's Galileo positioning system is a GNSS in initial deployment phase.63 hours (12 h 38 m) 14.140 mi) 23. and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites. which can be used as a reference for scientific experiments.08 hours (14 h 5 m) Evolution per sidereal 2 day 17/8 36/19 17/10 . China is in the process of expanding its regional Beidou navigation system into the global Compass navigation system by 2020.890 mi) 21. India is also building the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System which will be operational by 2014. As of April 2013.

and each GPS receiver uses these signals to calculate its three-dimensional location (latitude. and altitude) and the current time.561098 GHz (B1) 1. The U.26852 GHz (B3) Status Operational Operational.100 km altitude with a 64.2276 GHz Around (L2 signal) 1. Air Force develops. 30 medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites 4 test bed satellites in orbit.57542 GHz 1. the receiver must be in the range of at least four satellites.300 GHz (E6) 1. and a user segment (US). 20 additional satellites planned In preparation GLONASS is a global satellite navigation system.246 GHz (SP) 1.589742 GHz (B1.602 GHz (L1 signal) (SP) Frequency 1.S. These are the space segment (SS). three of which will be used to determine the user's location and the fourth to synchronise clocks of the receiver and the three other spacecraft. with 8 evenly spaced satellites on each.8 degree inclination and a period of 11 hours and 15 minutes.559–1. . A fully operational constellation with global coverage consists of 24 satellites. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space. maintains.164–1. The current GPS consists of three major segments. longitude. 22 operational satellites budgeted Around 1. providing real time position and velocity determination for military and civilian users. CDMA in preparation 15 satellites operational.1.20714 GHz (B2) 1.592 GHz (E2-L1-E11) 1.Number of At least 24 satellites 31. including 24 operational 1 in preparation 2 on maintenance 3 reserve [6] 1 on tests 5 geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites. The satellites are located in middle circular orbit at 19. To get a position fix. GLONASS' orbit makes it especially suited for usage in high latitudes (north or south).215 GHz (E5a and E5b) 2) 1. The constellation operates in three orbital planes. where getting a GPS signal can be problematic. and operates the space and control segments.260–1. while 18 satellites are necessary for covering the territory of Russia. a control segment (CS).

commercial.95) for latitude and longitude were 4. Civilian GLONASS used alone is therefore very slightly less accurate than GPS. and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service. On high latitudes (north or south). the same time precisions of GPS navigation definitions were 2.The space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the payload adapters to the boosters required to launch them into orbit. Accuracy according to Russian System of Differentional Correction and Monitoring's data.S.00—8.38 m with mean number of navigation space vehicles (NSV) equals 7— 8 (depending on station).76 m with mean number of NSV equals 6—11 (depending on station). precisions of GLONASS navigation definitions (for p=0. and tens of millions of civil. GLONASS' accuracy is better than that of GPS due to the orbital position of the satellites . In comparison. an alternate master control station.46—7. The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U. and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service (see GPS navigation devices). as of 2010. The control segment is composed of a master control station.