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The Afro-Asiatic Languages

Classification and Reference List


Roger Blench 8, Guest road, Cambridge CB1 2AL United Kingdom Tel/ fax 00-44-(0)1223-560687 Email: r.blench@odi.org.uk

CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT Cambridge, 22 August, 2000 This is a preliminary list circulated to interested researchers, with a view to establishing a standard order and system of data entry and presentation of lexical data. The present version of the list has benefited from the comments of a number of scholars, in particular Giorgio Banti, Vclav Blaz&ek, Hal Fleming, Dick Hayward, Hermann Jungraithmayr, Rudolf Leger, Alan Kaye, Naima Louali, Fabrizio Pennachietti and Helmut Satzinger to whom I am grateful. Nonetheless, there are still many problems and I would be grateful for further additions and emendations. All comments should be sent to the address above. In many cases the status of individual lects is unknown. This presentation usually follows the sources in presenting members of a cluster or chain of languages as lects. A problem is created by epigraphic languages, which change over time. I hope to present these languages in chronological trees in a future version.

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Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Family I. OMOTIC North

Branch/Group Ometo

Subgroup North

Language Wolaitta (=Welamo) Dache Dorze Laha Gamo Gofa Kullo-Konta Malo Oyda Ganjule Zala Balta? Gidicho Kachama Dokka Doko-Dolo Misketto (=Basketto) Gatame (=Haruro) Zayse Koorite (Koyra) (=Badittu) Maale Ch'ara Benc Non Mer She Yem (=Yemsa) Kafa Mocha Shinasha (=Bworo) Amuru ? Anfillo Guba? Wambera ? Dizi Nayi (=Na'o) Sheko

Lects/Dialects

Highlands Lowlands Kucha

East South Unclassified Gimira Yem Kefoid

Zergula

Fofa Toba Bonga Manjo

Dizoid

Jeba Adikas Dorsha Bulla (=Daan) of Bambeshi of Didessa

Mao

Mao Hozo Sezo Ganza ? Hamer Aari -1-

South (=Aroid)

Karo Banna Bako Biyo

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Galila Gozza Laydo Seyki Shangama Sido Ubamer Zeddo Unclassified II. CUSHITIC Beja Agaw (=Central) Southern Northern Western Northeastern Eastern Highland Beja (=Bedauye) Awngi Kunfl Kemant Qara Xamir Xamta Bilin Burji Sidamo Darasa Gedeo Kambata Hadiyya Unclassified Agamja Maraqo Shashago Yaaku Dihina Dobase Gaba ? Gawwada Gergere Gollango Gorrose Harso Tsamako Afar Hadareb Bisharin Hadendowa Dime Bosha

Kambata T . mbaro (=Qabena) Alaba Leemo Libido Soro

Yaaku-Dullay

Yaaku Dullay

Lohu Mashole

Lowland

Afar-Saho

Saho -2-

Northern Central Aussa Baadu Asawurta etc.

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Minifire etc. Irob Omo-Tana Macro-Somali Sam Somali1 Dasenech Elmolo Arbore Bayso Rendille Aweer (=Boni) North-Central Benaadir Northern Southern Ashraaf Maay (=Jabarti) Digil Jiiddu Yibir ? Midgaan? Girirra Western Shewa Eastern Southern

Northern Darood Lower Juba Abgaal Ajuraan Gaaljacal Xamari Bimaal Shingaani Lower Shebelle Northern Buur Hakaba Southern Garre Tunni Dabarre

Unclassified Oromoid

Maca Tuulama Arsi Harar Ajuran Borana Gabra Garreh Munyo Orma Sakuye Waata

Konsoid

South

Rift

East

Bussa (=Mossiya) Mashile Turo Gato D'iraassh (Gidole) Konso Asax Kw'adza

1 The classification of Somali generally follows Lamberti (1984) although I am aware that this is controversial and a different view is

presented in Ehret and Nuuh Ali (1984)

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Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

West

Unclassified III. CHADIC 1. West Hausa

Iraqw Gorowa Alagwa (=Wasi) Burunge Boon (ex Lamberti) Dahalo Ma'a Hausa Gwandara

Karshi Cancara Toni Gitata Koro Nimbia inc. Mupun inc. Doka Kofyar Mernyang Doemak Kwagallak Bwol Gworam Jipal

Bole-Angas

Angas

Angas Mwaghavul (=Sura) Cakfem-Mushere Miship (Chip) Jorto Kofyar cluster

Gerka Ron

Bole

North

Goemai Koenoem Pyapun Tal Montol Yiwom Bokkos Daffo-Butura Sha Kulere Karfa Shagawu Fyer Tambas? Mundat? Karekare Gera Geruma Deno Bure Kubi Giiwo Galambu Daza Bole -4-

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

South

Bade/Warji

Bade group

Warji group

Ngamo Maagha (=Maaka) eele Pali Kwaami Pero Piya-Kwonci Kholok Nyam Goji (=Kushi) Kutto Tangale Dera (=Kanakuru) Bade &uwai Ngizim Auyok Shira Teshena Diri Pa'a Warji Vinah (=Kariya) Mburku Miya Zumbun Siri Ciwogai Bolu Geji Zaranda Zul Baram Dir Buli, Langas (=Lundur) Polci Zeem, Danshe Lushi Lukshi Durr-Baraza Zumbul Wandi Dot Zakshi, Boto Zari (=Kopti) Sigidi Zaar Zangwal -5-

South Bauchi Zaar group Barawa cluster

Geji cluster Polci cluster

Zeem cluster Das cluster

Zari cluster Saya cluster Guruntum

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Boghom

Unclassified 2. Central Tera

Bura-Higi

Bura

No data Higi

Tala Ju Guruntum-Mbaaru Boghom Kir-ala Jum Mangas Jimi Luri Poki Tera Pidlimdi (=Hinna) Jara Ga'anda Gabin Boga Ngwaba Hwana Bura-Pabir Kyibaku (=Chibbuk) Nggwahyi Huba (=Kilba) Putai Margi Babal South Margi Kofa Kamw (= PsikyE, Higi) Hya (=GhyE?) Bana Bacama Bata (=Gbwata)

PsikyE ZlN Wula

Bata (=Gbwata)

Zumu Malabu Koboci Wadi Ribaw Demsa Garoua Jirai Gude (of Mubi) Gude Drbs Uroovin (=Fali of Vimtim) Bahuli (=Fali of Bahuli) Madzarin (=Fali of Muchella Uramwiin (Fali of Bagira)

Tsuvan Sharwa Gude Fali cluster

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Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Ulan Mazhilvn (Fali of Jilbu) Jimjimn (=Jimi) Gudu Holma Njanyi Yedina South Msr (=Kousseri) Mser Kalo Gawi Huluf Kabe Maslam Sahu Douguia Dro Malgbe Mara Bodo Digam Mpad Shoe Wulki

Yedina Mandage

North

Lagwan (=Logone) Afa Maslam Malgbe (=Gulfey)

Mpad

Unclassified Daba group North South

Jilbe Buwal (=Gadala) Gavar (=Kortchi) Besleri (=Hina) Daba

Besleri J Nj N Gamdugun Daba Mazagway (=Musgoy) Nive Pologozom Tpala (=Kola) Wandala Mura Malgwa (=Gamergu) Kamburwama Masfeima Jampalam Zlogba Mazagwa Gwanje

Mbdam Wandala-Mafa Wandala East Wandala

Central West -7-

Glavda (=Glvaxdaxa) Parkwa (=Podoko) Gvoko Guduf-Gava

Guduf

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Gava Cineni Cikide Dghwe e Xdi (=Hide, Tur) Mabas Vemgo Lamang

Taghwa (=Zldv) Ghumbagha Ghudvn Vizik (?) Plasla (=Gwendele) Ndreme (Vame) Mbrem (VameMbreme) Dmwa Hurza

Mafa

Sukur Northeast

Woga Sakwun (=Sukur) Plasla

Northwest South a)

Mbuko Gaduwa Matal (=Muktele) Wuzlam (=Ouldm) Muyang Ma a Mlokwo Zlgwa-Minew Gemzek &ugwr Merey Mikere Giziga N. Giziga S. Mofu N. Mofu S. Mbazlam (=Baldamu) Cuvok Mefele Shgule Mafa

b)

c)

Maroua Dogba Tchr Lulu Muturwa Mijivin Duvangar Durum Wazang Gudur Mokong Zidim Mefele Sirak Muhura West Central East (Soulede, Roua)

d)

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Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

East-Central

Kaa Munjuk

Mida'a

Ka a (=Gidar) Muzuk (=Musgum) Mpus Beege (=Jafga) Vulum (=Mulwi) Mbara Jina

Lam

Majra 3. Masa North Masa

Jina Muxule Sarassara Sede Majera Kajire-'Dulo Hwalem Gumay Bayga Yagwa Domo Marao Walia Gizay = Guisey Bongor Hara Bugu um

Masa

Zumaya MuseyAzumeina

Musey (=Banana)

Zumaya Jaraw-Domo Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-BeremGunu Pe-Holom-Gam Marba Kolong Lew Zime Bero Zamre

Azumeina South Zime Peve-Ka o Peve

Lam 4. East A Branch

Peve Tari Lame Batna Cimiang Dzpaw (=Lam) Sorga-Ngete He e-Rong Sibine (=Sumrey) Tumak Mawer Ndam Sarwa Gadang Mod -9-

Sibine

Ndam Ndam Dik

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Nancere

Miltu Mire Nancere Lele Tobanga Gabri S. cluster Kimr Kaba Lai Kera Kwang

Buruwa Darbe Moonde Kimruwa Bordo Tchr-Aiba Aloa Cakin-Ngam Mobu Modgel ? Doliki Gugiko Mezimko Mokilko Moriko Seginki Migama Doga Gamiya Garawgino Jekkino Bigawguno Nalguno 'Oboyguno ?Jonkor BourmaTaguil Mogum Abu Deia Mogum Melfi Kofa Monjul

Kwang

B. Branch

Mokilko

Mokilko

Dangla

Dangla Birgit Migama Bidiya

Jegu Mogum Mubi Masmaje Kajakse Toram Sokoro Mahwa Barain Saba Kujarke Ancient Egyptian Demotic Coptic -10-

Sokoro

Sokoro Bedanga

Unclassified IV. Egyptian

Kujarke (?) Buso ?

Achmimic

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Bohairic Fayyumic Lycopolitan Old Coptic Saidic V. Semitic East Central Aramaic Old Aramaic Achmenaean Middle Aramaic West East Eblaic (?) Akkadian Deer Alla Ugaritic

Assyrian Babylonian Yaudic Assyrian Tel Fekkeriye Nabatean Palmyrean Syriac Talmudic Hatrean Mandaean Malula Baxa ubbadiin Turoyo Sureth Jewish dialects neo-Mandaean Classical Hebrew Hebrew Phoenician Punic Neo-Punic Classical Arabic Eastern Arabic Western Arabic Chadian Arabic Shuwa Arabic

Neo-Aramaic

West Central East

Canaanite

Hebrew Phoenician

Arabic

Arabic*

South Semitic

Epigraphic

Modern Arabian

Maltese Jakati Epigraphic South Arabian Sabaean Minaean Qatabanian Hadramautic S. Soqotri Mehri Bat .h . ari H . arsu#si Ho#byo#t -11-

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Jibba#li (=Shahri) Ethio-Semitic Geez Tigre Tigrinya Amharic Argobba Harari Gafat East Gurage

Kurya Murya islands

Selt .i Wolane Zway Caha Endege Ennemor Ezha Gyeto ?Mesmes Soddo Gogot Muher Msqan

Ulbarag .nnqor Azrnt-Mugo Gura Ennr Mgr ?Gumr

West Gurage

North Gurage Gurage unclass. VI. Berber Guanche East Numidian Berber Eastern

Twareg

Western Northern Atlas Kabyle Zenati

Guanche East Numidian (=Old Libyan) Siwa Awjila Sokna Ghadames Zurg (=Kufra) Fezzan Tmessa Al-Fojaha Tawellemet Abalagh (=East) West Tayir t Ingal . Gofat Tamesgrest Azerori Tafaghist Tahaggart (=Ahaggar) Ghat Zenaga Tachlit (=Shilha) Tamazight Kabyle Riff cluster

Shawiya Tidikelt Tuat Tariifit (=Riff)

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Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Mzab-Wargla

East Zenati

Ghmara Tlemcen Sheliff Basin Gurara Mzab Wargla Ghardaia Tugurt Seghruen Figig Senhaja Iznacen Tmagurt Sened Jerba Tamezret Taujjut Nefusi Zrawa

*Arabic. Numerous lects have been described for Arabic. For a more comprehensive listing see Ethnologue. Queries: Ongota. (Gemu-Gofa, Ethiopia). This may possibly be Afroasiatic but it is better to regard it as unclassified. See Fleming et al. (1992). Omotic Bosha. This language is elsewhere listed as unclassified, but Ethnologue says it is a lect of Kafa. Ganza. This language is spoken in Eastern Sudan and only 49 words have been recorded. Bender (1990) argues the case for its Omotic affiliation. Guba, Wambera listed only in Ethnologue. Cushitic Alaba. A language related to Highland East Cushitic cited by Haberland & Lamberti (1988). Boon. Not the same as Boni. A language spoken in Somalia. Lamberti (1986) has recorded fragmentary materials making final classification impossible. Dahalo. Recent work has suggested that this language might be East Cushitic or even another branch of Cushitic (Vclav Blaz&ek, p.c.) Maa. Arguments over this language continue since the claim by Mous that it is a register and that Maa contains many Eastern as well as Southern Cushitic lexical items. Yibir, Midgan. These lects, spoken respectively by magicians and hunters among the Somali are said to differ substantially in lexicon from standard Somali. Whether this differentiation is in the nature of a code or these represent distinct languages remains unknown. For description see Kirk (1905). -13-

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft

Chadic Luri. This language, spoken in Bauchi State, Nigeria, has been recorded as Chadic (unclassified) (Crozier & Blench, 1992). In the light of its geographical position it is presumably West Chadic, although no information is available to confirm this. Poki. A language mentioned by Campbell & Hoskison (1972) in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Another language mentioned in this report, Dulbu, is in fact Jarawan Bantu, not Chadic. Pali. A language presumably of the Bole-Tangale group recently reported by Rudolf Leger. Kofa. This language, spoken near Song in Nigeria, is said to be related to Bura, but no data is available. Jilbe. An unclassified language of the Mandage (Kotoko) group recently reported. Lame. There appear to be two different but related languages with this name. The more well-known one is here given the name Dzpaw as the head-name. Zumaya. (Masa, Chadic) This language is known only from a few words recorded from the last speaker. It was apparently part of the Masa group. Buso. Only mentioned in Ethnologue. Kujarke (E. Chadic) is very remote fom other languages in this group and may be another type of language with a high proportion of Chadic loanwords (see Doornbos and Bender, 1983). Kofa. (E. Chadic). A language mentioned by Alio and Jungraithmayr as related to Bidiya. Kwang. Wagner and Vanderkooi (1992) report that Ngam and Tchaguine are essentially the same lect, and that Modgel is simply a village name, in contrast to earlier sources. Berber Guanche. The Berber affiliation of this extinct language is questioned by some scholars. Selected Sources: Crozier, D. and Blench, R.M. 1992. Index of Nigerian Languages. Second Edition. SIL, Dallas, Texas. Fleming, H.C., Yilma, A., Mitiku, A., Hayward, R., Miyawaki, Y. Mikesh, P. and Seelig, J.M. 1992. Ongota or Birale: a moribund language of Gemu-Gofa (Ethiopia). Journal of Afroasiatic Languages, 3,3:181-225. Grimes, B.F. (ed) 1992. Ethnologue. SIL, Dallas. Kirk, J.W.C. 1905. A Grammar of the Somali Language with examples in Prose and Verse and an account of the Yibir and Midgan dialects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Wagner, S. & Vanderkooi, M. 1992. Rapport sur une Enqute Sociolinguistique parmi les Kwang du Tchad. ms. SIL, NDjamena.

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