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Textile Wet processing Industries ; Important problems faced by the cotton knits processing Joint collobarative projects by CTF

and PSSGL ALOK , Welspun Introduction: It is widely recognized that India faces skill gaps on a large scale. India has a labor force of 405 million out of which only 5% has received formal vocational training. In comparison, Germany has a workforce that is 70%vocationally trained, Japan has raised that benchmark o 80% and Korea 95%. Even China has built 500,000vocational institutes compared to Indias 10,000 ITIs. In India, to fulfill the need for skilled labor, employers either end up spending a lot of resources on on-the-jobtraining or manage with sub-optimal skills. It is clearly evident that we would be left behind in the development race if the shortage of skilled man power continues. As per an estimate by Late Prof. C.KPrahlad, India will need 500 million skilled people to become a developed country in the next 15 years. Even though a number of NGOs and private organizations are working to bridge the gap, it remains huge both in terms of numbers and quality of vocational skill providers. The textile wet processing industry is mainly developed in cotton processing where as it has poor link in processing of the other fibers mainly due to the decentralized nature of the Industry. Investment in the Indian textile industry over the spectrum of Spinning; Weaving; Knitting; Dyeing & Finishing; and Garment manufacturing sectors will amount to US $ 31 billion over the next 6 years. Over 36% of this investment will take place in the Dyeing & Finishing sector. Therefore, the need to improve Productivity in the Dyehouse is more important than in any other sector The large scale manufacturing and growing demand for quality performance both in the domestic and International market has lead to the cut throat competition. This has hindered the growth of the decentralized sector in India . On the other hand in the organized sector even though we have imported technology there is acute shortage skilled manpower to manage large scale quality production. There is a necessity to upgrade of skills of the personnel from workers, supervisory to managerial category. In order to improve the value addition to all the textiles products from fibres, yarn, fabric and garment there is a need to adopt improved technology in the textile processing. As on today the industry managers are following old traditional practices in decentralized sector same practice is continued from one manager to another. Since the personnel involved in this trade is not qualified the present Technology is not adopted and practiced as per requirement in the processing of new and innovative ideas offered for various segments in the domestic and international market. Keepin in view these problems it is important to make and adopt improved technological developments in textiles processing world. At PSSGL we have state of art latest processing machineries to process yarn, knits and terry towels. The main aim of Centre for Textile function is to develop the ability of the technical person to work on the different section of the textile processing industry. Our aim is to bridge the gap between industry and education. Concept of work and learn is successfully adopted in PSSGL process house under one year In-plant training at PSSGL to give hands on exposure on

the Textile wet processing machineries. Keeping this view students were asked to do small projects work which they faced in in various production units.. Projects were identified by students themselves by studying data base of production schedule for a period of 2 months in various departments in which they were made to work. 8 problems were taken by students to Alok and welspun to do the work in their plant.

This paper looks at Dyehouse Productivity from a completely different angle: How can Dyehouse Productivity be improved?

What are the critical success factors? What are the typical problem areas? What improvements have been made in other countries? Who is setting a lead?

Industry participation in education (CTF & PSSGL MOU)


Advanced Diploma in textile Wet Processing (ADTWP) - Two year program.

See and learn & Work and learn Concept was implemented in curriculum of advanced diploma in wet processing(ADTWP) is two year program in which one year industrial training was given at PSSGL, Shirpur under work and earn and learn scheme of SVKM NMIMS University at Shirpur to train rural B.Sc Chemistry graduates. Classrooms are provided on production floor to tech theory and practical simultaneously to develop ability of technician to work on production floor under close supervision of experienced industry mentors working in PSSGL group. Our intention is to groom BSc graduate when they are in final year of BSc chemistry for textile wet processing course we are offering one year part time course advanced diploma in wet processing (ADD-ON) the course is conducted on Saturdays and Sundays for one year and 30 days In-plant training is provided at PSSGL to teach basic requirements of textile wet processing industry. Students who passed ADD-On course and BSc chemistry they are eligible to apply for two year program. We wish to bridge the gap between education Industry by Industry participation in education. IndustryInstitute interaction to formulate curriculum and project is mainly concerned to develop the ability of the students on the production floor, This way industry can groom the students for its requirements. Experienced Industry personnel mentoring students has been implemented with the help of PSSGL, ALOK and Welspun. Main idea is to develop hands on experiences on the production floor to equip technicians with through knowledge of present work practices to be followed in industry with reference to quality, productivity and in time delivery to the customer. PSSGL gave Rs.4000 /- stipend for period of one year.

Industry Mentors PSSGL Process House, Shirpur 1. Mr. M.S.Anjane Executive. Director PSSGL 2. Mr. M. Sayyeed GM PSSGL Dyeing 3. Mr. Vikas Kabule Lab manager 4. Mr. P. D. Deshpande Head-Towel Processing 5. Mr. Vinod Kumar K Head -Yarn Dyeing 6. Mr. Manish Jain Head-QA 7. Mr. Ravi Desai Head- Finishing 8. Mr. Rahul Trivedi Manager-Fabric Dyeing Industry Mentors Alok Industries Ltd, Vapi 1. Mr. S. S. Aaich CEO- Wet Processing 2. Mr. Sachin Jagtap Manager Knits Processing Industry Mentors Welspun India Ltd, Vapi 1. Mr. Rajnish Garg VP- Dyeing 2. Mr Gurvinder Singh Dy. Manager Processing 3. Mr. Arun Pratap Singh Sr. Manager Processing Lab Centre of textile Function Staff 1. Dr. P. P. Raichurkar Principal- CTF MPSTME NMIMS, Shirpur. 2. Prof. S. R. Kulkarni. 3. Prof. A.A. Bagwan. 4. Prof. Sachin Patil. 5. Prof. Tarkeshwari

BOARD OF STUDIES CTF MPSTME SVKMS NMIMS University


Sl. Name Organization Area of Specialization Brief Profile

Mr. M S Anjane

Dr D J Shah

Executive Director. Priyadarshini Sahakari Soot Girni Shirpur Dist Dhule Dean( In charge) Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering NMIMS Mumbai Group Chief Executive(Textiles) (Retired) Arvind Mills Ahmedabad CEO Gujarat Heavy Chemicals Limited VAPI President Human Resourse Raymond's Group President Ginni filaments MATHURA Arvind Head Spinning Intex, LalBhai Group, Ahmedabad Consultant Fact personnel, Ahmedabad Business Manager Arvind Mills Ltd. Ahmedabad Professor(Rtd) VJTI, Mumbai Founder Principal DKTEs Textile Institute, Ichalkaranji Consultant, Centre for Textile Functions Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering SHIRPUR. Advisor, Suits, Indore. Professor & Head - Textiles Osmania University, Hyderabad

Textile Technology, Textile Management. . Chemical Engineering. Education. Professional Management. Textile Technology, Technology Management

B Text and M Text Textiles(VJTI), EX- CEO Marol overseas, 30 years of experience in Industry at various levels of management. M.Chemical Engg PhD (Tech) DMS Ex Principal SBM Polytechnic, Mumbai Ex Principal DJ Sanghvi Engineering College, Mumbai. Total 25 years of experience. PhD in Textile university of Manchester (UMIST) 40 years of experience in industry/research/ teaching .Chairman of RAC ATIRA and CIRCOT. Worked as Textile Expert in Ninth Five Year Plan. Ministry of Textiles GOI, President of the Textile Association of India Mumbai. B.Sc (Tech) Textiles Chemistry, UDCT Matunga 25 years of rich experience In reputed Textile processing units like Bombay Dyeing & Welspun Terry Towels Post graduate in HR from Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, 35 years of experience in Business Management B.Tech Textiles (IITD) 30 years of experience in Research/ Industry, and 30 publications to his credit. M.Tech Textiles PhD (IITD) 12 years of experience in Research / Industry. B.Text, M Text Textile (VJTI) 35 years of experience in reputed Textile Industries. B.Sc, MBA 30years of experience in business development and managerial positions in leading textile Units. B.Text (VJTI), M S Textiles, 30 years of experience in Textile education, 7 years experience in composite mills. 30 publications in reputed journals and author of 4 Technical Books. M.Tech Textiles PhD (IITD) FIE, FTA. Retired Professor and Head Textile Department VJTI Mumbai, 32 years teaching and Research. Experience. Chartered Textile Engineer. 86 publications in reputed journals and author of 2 Technical Books M.Tech Textiles PhD (Anna University). 15 years of experience in Teaching. 66 Publications in reputed Textile journals

Dr P. R. Roy

Mr. P A Bhatt Mr. Marcel R Parker Mr. Avinash Gupta Dr. Milind K Bhortakke

Textile Chemistry. Economics, Human Resource Management Textile Technology Spinning Textile Technology Spinning Textile Technology Man power consultant in Textile Industry. Management expertProcess & Procedures

5 6

Mr. Rashmi Shah

Mr. S Sharma

10

Prof D B Ajgoankar

Textile Technology, Textile Education.

11

Dr H V Sreenivasamurth y

Textile Technology, Textile Management and Textile Education. Textile Technology, Textile Management.

12

Dr J Hayavadana

13

Dr P P Raichurkar

Principal and Convener Centre for Textile Functions Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management & Engineering SHIRPUR

Textile Technology, Textile Management.

M Tech Textiles PhD (Anna University). ExScientist-D KSSRDI, 25 years of experience in Industry/Teaching/R&D, 33 publications in reputed journals. Guided 2 students for award of PhD.

Content
1. Colour Bleeding Problems in Cotton Yarn Dyed Fabrics Dyed with Reactive Colours & Some Remedial Measures. Khushal patil 2. Reproducibility of Lab to Bulk in Fabric Dyeing for Reactive Dyes on RFT Principle Nilesh Jadhav 3. Study the effect of material to liquor ratio in yarn dyeing Sandip D Patil, 4. Study the value loss in processing of knits and measures to improve it Sandip G Patil, 5. Lab to bulk reproducibility of terry towel in reactive dye Shyamkant Sonawne, 6. Study Effect of Different Parameters in Heat Setting of Lycra Fabric and Other Quality Yogesh B Patil, 7. Problem & remedies in viscose lycra processing Yogesh S Patil 8. Study the effect of different softener on fabric characteristics Swati S. Patil,

Colour Bleeding Problems in Cotton Yarn Dyed Fabrics Dyed with Reactive Colours & Some Remedial Measures. Khushal Patil, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil*
Abstract:

Many textile industries face general problem of fabrics color bleeding or tinting on the adjacent ground. If we have to deliver these fabrics as per standard quality requirements, it is necessary to study the root cause of bleeding in yarn dyed fabrics. Keeping the above facts in mind the experiment was designed to find out the important process parameter and in which there is minimum bleeding & required to dye cotton with reactive dyes. The present study includes effect of pH, temperature, hardness of water on bleeding behavior of dyes. From investigation it may be concluded that washing of yarn dyed fabric should be done at pH range of 6 to 7 and below 600C, and water used of 30 ppm. Key word: Reactive dyes, pH, temperature, time, bleeding etc. Introduction: In varieties of fabrics, yarn dyed fabrics (knitted or woven) have an important place. But general problem with these fabrics is the bleeding of color or tinting on the adjacent ground. If we have to deliver these fabrics as per standard quality requirements it is necessary to study the root causes of bleeding in yarn dyed fabrics with the remedies. Textile process house losses 8 to 10% production due to the bleeding of color of yarn dyed fabric. In this project it is aimed to study behavior of bleeding of color of yarn dyed fabric.

*Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

These are three stages in manufacturing yarn dyed fabrics. 1. Dyeing of yarn. 2. To make fabric from dyed yarn. 3. To process and finish the woven fabrics. So, for bleeding 1 & 3 stages are to be considered. Dyeing of yarn:1. Improper dye fixation. 2. Improper neutralization. 3. Improper washing off. These are some of the causes for bleeding of fabrics. During washing of fabric there is a chance of bleeding due to variation in water quality. The important points to be considered for washing are; 1. pH of water used. 2. Hardness of water. 3. Time & temp profile. 4. Long time storage before drying. Cross staining-color migration Present investigations show the effect of time, temperature, pH on bleeding behavior of substrate. Keeping the above facts into consideration our experiment was designed to find out the important process parameter in which there is minimum bleeding & important process parameters required to dye cotton with reactive dyes.

Material & Methods

The collect database from PSSGL, Shirpur dye house where chances of bleeding behavior of dyed yarn are more in dark shade, the selected shade shows more bleeding behavior which are represented in table. SR.NO 1 LOT NO. 6977/76 SHADE GREEN % SHADE 7.1 COMBINATION OF RECIPE

N.YELLOW F4G=2.773% N.BLUE FNR=0.77% TURQUOISE CLB= 3.572%

6803

RED

6.5

N.YELLOW S3R= 1.365% N.BLUE FNR=0.0315% RED S2B =5.250%

6658

NAVY

6.1

YELLOW FN2R=0.1550% RUBY S3B=1.545% N.NAVY SGI=4.120%

6558

VIOLET

YELLOW FN2R=0.0578 % RUBY S3B=3.720% N.DK.BLUE SGL=1.440%

6379

DK BROWN

5.1

N.YELLOW S3R= 2.5225% N.DEEP RED=1.3219% DK.BLUE SGL= 1.4962%

12286

AQUA

3.6

N.YELLOW F4G=0.1920% N.BLUE FNG=0.127% T.CLB=3.300%

6486

T.blule

3.60

N.YELLOW F4G=0.06% N.BLUE FNR=0.200% T.CLB=3.413%

In order to study bleeding behavior of yarn dyed fabric, prepared 7 x 7cm strip size of yarn dyed fabric by using small knitting M/C with bleach white & colour yarn obtained from commercial manufacturing unit PSSGL, Shirpur & commercial dyes also procured from PSSGL The specimen size is 7 x 7cm prepared on small knitting M/C in two colours, i.e. white/red & combination of Red, T.blue, Aqua, Brown, Violet, and Navy colour. Then testing is carried out at a temperature 60, 70, 80, 90, & 1000 C with different pH level 6.0, 7.5, 8.5 & 11.0, different time at 30,40,50 & 60 min & different water hardness at material to liquor ratio (MLR) is 1:15 & then auxiliary is used as follows, Wetting agent Stain removal = 0.5gpl. = 0.5gpl. Lubricating agent = 1.0gpl. Tested all sample of each shade & dried into the oven Dyeing Procedure Dark shade dyeing 1. Above is added in stock tank along with glaubers salt, stirred well and transferred to the main KIER. Run the m/c at 60c for 20 minute. Mean while colour solution will be properly dissolved, transferred to the addition tank and readily available for dosing. [The operator will check the filter paper of the dye solution and after confirmation from the supervisor the dye solution will be transferred to main vessel]. 2. Then colour dosing takes place for 20 minute at 60c. After dosing, m/c will run for 20 minute. Mean while the alkali will be dissolved and readily available in addition tank.

After salt holding time the alkali dosing starts and continues for 20 minutes. Then m/c will run at 60c for 50-60 minutes, depends upon the depth of shade. (Check the pH before drain). 3. After wards the dye bath gets drained and fresh cold water will be filled in the m/c. now the cold wash will be running for 10 minutes and drained. Again cold wash then neutralize [mean while stock tank will get filled with water and required quantity of acetic acid and core alkali neutralizer will be added in this tank and mixed well.] Bath gets transferred to main KIER from stock tank. 4. Neutralization at 50c for 15 minutes (Soap is added in stock tank in water and temperature raised to 80c). Drain the neutralization bath. Soaping bath transferred to main KIER and run at 98c for 10 minutes (Stock tank filled and heat to 80c) Drain the bath at high temperature. 5. This process repeated again & hot water transferred to main vessel and hot wash done at 80c for 10 minutes. This process repeated for one or two times till the wash water gets cleaned from the hydrolyzed dyes. Then the main vessel opened and sample is prepared from one cheese dried. 6. And the shade is checked against the standard. If the shade is found ok, then the finishing chemicals and acetic acid added into the addition tank stirred well and transferred to main vessel. 7. Run the m/c at 50c for 20 minutes. Drain the bath squeeze & unload.

Result: Given table shows the different parameter of washing yarn dyed fabric and its effects on yarn dyed fabrics

Conclusion: A] Above yarn dyed fabric show bleeding at higher alkaline condition & high temperature of washing condition for these combinations of shade. The most important factor of bleeding is pH & temperature of water during washing time. Therefore during washing of yarn dyed fabric need to maintain proper pH i.e. 6.0-7.0 & temperature below 600 C to avoid the bleeding of yarn dyed fabric.

B] The result of present investigation summaries as follows, as per as concerned with this study following mention properties analyzed. 1. pH of water 2. Hardness of water 3. Temperatures 4. Drying after different time gap. 1) PH of water Reference to above present investigation it is on that the selected dark shade bleed at different pH. In pH 9-11 it is found that more bleeding effect take place. While minimize bleeding at pH is 6-8. 2) Hardness of water Referenced to above present investigation it is on that the selected drake shade bleeds at 300ppm of water hardness and as such no bleeding in 30ppm of water hardness. 3) TemperatureReference to above present investigation it is on that the selected dark shade bleed at higher temperature (90-1000C) While as such no bleeding in 600C. But especially brown shade bleeds at 800C. 4) Pressure and time effect Referenced to above present investigation it is found that selected dark shade specially brown and violet shade bleed at 370c for 18hrs. i.e. there is effect duration before drying pressure on the fabric in trolley this study show that dye combination in brown and violet shade show bleeding under late drying. Possible reason could be color migration.

Reproducibility of Lab to Bulk in Fabric Dyeing for Reactive Dyes on RFT Principle
Nilesh Jadhav, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil* Abstract: Dyeing is a complex process, where number of variables is involved. Dyeing process is broadly governed by fabric type, dye type, machine type, MLR time, temperature, pH of the fabric and liquor, type of auxiliary used etc. Any minor variation in any of these variables causes problem in dye reproducibility, though it is possible to achieve reproducibility in dyeing results. By standardizing each and every variable we can achieve consistent reproducible results and satisfy customer needs by making their process proficient. Obtaining RFT, following are important aspects of dyeing needs to be concentrated. Lab procedure must be reproduced or

correlated with bulk system. Dyeing process must be standardized; Data base loaded on to computer should be updated. In this project we study process control parameter to achieve RFT. While working on this project we take parameter in account like hardness of water, whiteness of RFD, residual peroxide, MLR and carry over factor. Key words: hardness of water, carry over factor, specific gravity etc Introduction: The reproducibility of lab recipe in bulk production is an important aspect. But many a times it is not possible to get lab to bulk reproducibility of shades. Considering present competition in global and Indian market, this condition should be changed. For this following factors should be changed. To collect the database of every day to day production of dyed shades. The database given us guideline to set the process and avoid the problems in future. This also gives us information about variation in parameters from lab to bulk. Hence it is necessary to develop database in proper documented system and communicated. *Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

The possible factors that affect lab to bulk reproducibility may be machine, working condition and operatives. Even minor changes in parameters produce major effect on reproducibility. Hence proper documentation and communication to all

the levels from top to bottom should be developed. Present project works deals with collection of data for same critical shades and study the process parameters and come to the conclusion on various factors that affect reproducibility for lab to bulk.

Material and Method Material For study of lab to bulk reproducibility the material required is, Sample dyed in laboratory, whose recipe is given to dyeing department for bulk dyeing. Sample of dyed fabric, dyed in bulk with given recipe. Method Check the parameters of RFD fabric and water before dyeing starts like pH, hardness, residual peroxide, whiteness index, etc. Check the process of RFD fabric as well as dyeing as per standard. p H, salt and alkali

concentration, temperature, etc. Compare the dyed sample from lab and bulk dyeing with spectrophotometer. The following factors that is readily manageable,
SR. NO. Factors 1 Water Hardness 2 Weighting of substrate 3 Moisture content of substrate 4 Weighting of chemicals and dyes 5 Moisture content of dyes 6 Dye Standardization Water quality for processing Variation tolerance <2 ppm <0.5% <0.5% <0.5% <3.5% <2.5%

SR. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Properties Colour Turbidity pH Total alkalinity (ppm) Dissolved solid (ppm) Total hardness(ppm) Iron (ppm) Copper (ppm) Manganese (ppm)

Limits Transparent Clear 7.0 to 7.5 65 150 30 0.1 0.02 0.02

Experimental work: Experiment carried out 1. Effect of various parameters on dyeing. 2. Effect of carry over factor on dyeing. 3. Effect of alkali concentration on dyeing. 4. Effect of MLR on dyeing by measuring specific gravity. Effect of various parameters on dyeing: In this experiment we study effect of parameter whiteness index, residual peroxide in dye bath, and quality of water in lab scale also in bulk scale.

Effect of carry over factor to maintain dyeing liquor in lab as well as in bulk production:Lab:Before the lab sample dyeing the RFD fabric is dip in water and then squeeze manually. This sample content some amount of water in it. This water always takes in to account in dyeing MLR. From 10 lab samples, it was found that water retention in fabric is 150% instead of 120%. Water retention in fabric depends upon manual squeezing. Bulk:After RFD process in Bulk the RFD fabric content around 350% of water. So always calculate this 350% water carry over in RFD before starting dyeing and its MLR. If we are not calculating this carry over factor it will affect shade depth. This experiment carried out on 80 Kg sampled dyeing M/c, Results shows that after RFD these is 350% water carry over on fabric.

Effect of Alkali concentration on dyeing Experiment carried out to study of different concentration of salt and soda, amount of alkali in reactive dyeing affects on shade reproducibility. Dyeing is carried out on same shade but at 5 different sets of salt and alkali. Table shows result of dyeing.

Effect of MLR on dyeing by measuring specific gravity Reference to first experiment based on material to liquor ratio, the dye bath is set with calculated amount of dye solution and using MLR 1:8 and procedure followed by calculated amount of salt

solution and soda added in regular interval of time after dyeing the sample undergoes with washing & sopping to obtain bulk reproducibility, treatment in laboratory. In order to obtain same shade in bulk reproducibility .experiment planed with m/c.lot in soft flow m/c and calculated amount of dye, salt & soda add with regular interval of time in order to obtain correct shade we take 500 ml of dye bath water from dye bath, if bath lab & bulk dye bath specific gravities are same then shade obtain need not any addition process. This experiment replicates for seven different colors. Table shows difference between standard MLR of process and actual MLR of process by measuring specific gravity.

Conclusion 1. Whiteness of RFD fabric affects shade reducibility. If minimum whiteness factor is not maintained than much difference in delta E values of dyed shade. Therefore it is necessary to maintain minimum whiteness index level of RFD fabric before dyeing in light shade. (Ref.Table No.1 and 2)

2. Hardness of water used for dyeing affect the shade reducibility. Water of here hardness shows shade variation in medium shade. (Ref.Table No.3 and 4)

3. Residual peroxide in pretreated fabric also causes of shade variation, more quantity of residual peroxide shows much variation in delta E values. (Ref.Table No.7 and 8) 4. Carry over factor of water also important for RFT reducibility. If carry over water is not accounted properly during bulk and lab dyeing, it shows shade variation particularly in red self shade and navy combination. (Ref.Table No.9) 5. The concentration of salt and soda ash during dyeing with reactive dyes has much affect on shade reproducibility. At sufficiently high concentration there is very less change in delta E value i.e. result of reproducibility are OK. (Ref.Table No.10) 6. MLR also causes shade variation. When MLR is reduced the shade shows darker tone. So get bulk reproducibility proper MLR should be maintained. (Ref.Table No.11)

Study the effect of material to liquor ratio in yarn dyeing


Sandip D Patil, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil* Abstract: Material to liquor ratio is most important feature of package dyeing typically machines with MLR from 1:4 to 1:10 are commonly used however it is always preferred a machine with lowest possible liquor ratio, without affecting the quality of dyeing. As MLR increases the depth of the shade decreases and due to this dE is increases and strength of the shade decreases. To achieve right first time dyeing for such typical shade MLR should taken more than optimum value but due to this dE increases and strength decreases but this problems can avoided by increasing depth of shade. Key words: MLR, delta E etc.

Introduction Material to liquor ratio is most important feature of package dyeing typically machines with MLR from 1:4 to 1:10 are commonly used however it is always preferred a machine with lowest possible liquor ratio, without affecting the quality of dyeing. The liquor ratio of the machines is reduced by reducing length of the pipe lines in the system, by modifying the carrier shape, by modifying and relocating the heat exchangers, air pad system and automatic liquor ratio adjustment and using internal pumps. When using the machines with variable loading and air pad technology the liquor ratio can be maintain even at partial or half loading. Role of MLR with relate to following Quality Energy saving Costing Ecology

*Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

Quality minimum possibility of faulty dyeing no re-dyeing due to this % RFT increases and it also helps to improve quality of dyeing

Energy saving less water is used to carry out dyeing less steam energy is consume less electricity is required for processing, it leads into overall energy saving

Costing less amount of chemicals and auxiliaries used less amount of dyes, salt, alkali are used

less labor is required less water, steam, electricity consume results into cost saving

Ecology less load of waste water on ETP it requires less recycling cost due to less wastage it does not affect environment

Hence by using lower MLR there are many advantages like in improving quality of dyeing; in energy saving, carryout dyeing in less cost and it is eco -friendly process due to this lowest possible MLR is used.

Materials and method Material Yarn count - 30CH Dyes - reactive Machine HTHP Rota dyeing m/c Method 1. Take 5gm of RFD yarn sample 2. Weighing of chemicals auxiliaries dyes and salt as per MLR in automatic dispenser m/c 3. Taking this dye bath into dye pot and put yarn sample into it. 4. Start the program at 400c and raise the temperature to 600c in 10min. 5. Run the program at 600c for 30min then add the first installment of alkali and run for 10min 6. If there is dark shade add the caustic with 2 nd installment of alkali and run the program for 40min 7. After completion of program remove the dyed yarn sample and give cold wash following with acid wash 8. Then soaping is carried out at 900c for 10min 9. Remove the sample and dry.

Result Shade 1 MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Green Y.F4G-0.70 Bl.FNG-0.66 TCLB-0.072 STRENGTH 100 Delta E 1:12 Green Y.F4G-0.70 Bl.FNG-0.66 TCLB-0.072 99.76 0.63 1:18 Green Y.F4G-0.70 Bl.FNG-0.66 TCLB-0.072 98.17 1.41

Shade 2 MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) khaki Y.FN2R-0.55 R.FN2BL-0.54 Bl.FNR-0.37 STRENGTH 100 Delta E 1:12 khaki Y.FN2R-0.55 R.FN2BL-0.54 Bl.FNR-0.37 95.06 0.66 1:18 khaki Y.FN2R-0.55 R.FN2BL-0.54 Bl.FNR-0.37 90.50 0.93

Shade 3 MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Navy Y.FN2R-0.195 Ruby S3B-0.675 NAUY SGISTRENGTH 100 Delta E 1:12 Navy Y.FN2R-0.195 Ruby S3B-0.675 NAUY SGI96.45 0.42 1:18 Navy Y.FN2R-0.195 Ruby S3B-0.675 NAUY SGI91.21 0.96

Shade 4. MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Dk. violet Red WNN-2.10 Dk.Bl.SGL-1.76 STRENGTH 100 Delta E 1:12 Dk. violet Red WNN-2.10 Dk.Bl.SGL-1.76 98.71 0.30 1:18 Dk. Violet Red WNN-2.10 Dk.Bl.SGL-1.76 93.07 0.96

Shade 5. MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Blue Y.FN2R-0.046 Red FN2Bl-0.0066 Bl.FNG-1.20 STRENGTH 100 Delta E 1:12 Blue Y.FN2R-0.046 Red FN2Bl-0.0066 Bl.FNG-1.20 98.61 0.42 1:18 Blue Y.FN2R-0.046 Red FN2Bl-0.0066 Bl.FNG-1.20 94.31 0.92

Shade 6 MLR SHADE 1:6 (STD) Orange 1:12 Orange 1:18 Orange

RECIPE

Y.S3R-1.38 Red WNN-0.59 Bl.FNR-0.012

Y.S3R-1.38 Red WNN-0.59 Bl.FNR-0.012 97.72 0.32

Y.S3R-1.38 Red WNN-0.59 Bl.FNR-0.012 92.54 0.81

STRENGTH 100 Delta E

Shade 7 MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Prvn Y.FN2R-0.13 Ruby S3B-1.27 Dk. Bl.SGL-1.00 STRENGTH Delta E 100 1:12 Prvn Y.FN2R-0.13 Ruby S3B-1.27 Dk. Bl.SGL-1.00 98.62 0.56 1:18 Prvn Y.FN2R-0.13 Ruby S3B-1.27 Dk. Bl.SGL-1.00 94.99 1.21

Shade 9 MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Red Y. S3R- 1.61 Red WIN-4.12 DEEP RED SB-0.85 1:12 Red Y. S3R- 1.61 Red WIN-4.12 DEEP 0.85 STRENGTH 100 Delta E 95.26 0.51 89.18 0.89 RED 1:18 Red Y. S3R- 1.61 Red WIN-4.12 SB- DEEP RED SB-0.85

Shade 10 MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Iron grey Y. FN2R- 0.30 Red FN2BL-0.43 BL. FNR-0.52 STRENGTH 100 Delta E 1:12 Iron grey Y. FN2R- 0.30 Red FN2BL-0.43 BL. FNR-0.52 97.98 0.54 1:18 Iron grey Y. FN2R- 0.30 Red FN2BL-0.43 BL. FNR-0.52 93.25 1.09

Shade 11 MLR SHADE RECIPE 1:6 (STD) Black BLACK R- 4.00 BLACK G -2.00 1:12 Black BLACK R- 4.00 BLACK G -2.00 1:18 Black BLACK R- 4.00 BLACK G -2.00

STRENGTH 100 Delta E

94.25 0.74

88.20 1.49

Graphical representation of dE and strength


1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
MLR 1:12 dE MLR 1:18 dE

102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82

MLR 1:12 stregnth MLR 1:18 stregnth

Conclusion As MLR increases the depth of the shade decreases and due to this delta E is increases and strength of the shade decreases. The reason for this is due to the reacting behavior of reactive dyes with water. This group of dyes reacts with water and forms hydrolyzed dye and quality of water also plays major role in reactive dyeing, so we need to use the water at minimum possible level to avoid the hydrolysis of dyes which will give more chance to react with cellulose. As a result of low MLR dyeing we can achieve the following benefits 1. Maximum RFT results. 2. Minimum failure in processing. 3. Higher profitability 4. Minimum pollution to the environment.

Study the value loss in processing of knits and measures to improve it


Sandip G Patil, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil* Abstract: Value loss means missing of any property of material which is related to comfort, value addition, dimensional property, weight loss more than optimum value, low moisture content in fabric, bursting strength of material, shade variation during processing. Uses of unnecessary chemicals or wastage of chemicals or use the more amount of chemical than that is required is also taken into consideration of value loss. Out of this area of value loss, this project study aimed at weight loss in processing at the stage of pretreatment, heat setting, compacting and moisture content considered at these stages. This study gives effect of processing on yarn count, RKM, CSP. Key words: value loss, moisture content etc. Introduction: Knitted fabric during processing under go treatment like scouring, bleaching, dyeing, heat setting, softener application, relax drying, sanforising. These processes are carried out to impart particular property related to that process like scouring for absorbency, bleaching for whiteness, etc. At the dye house in busy schedule of production all these treatments are done, but the property related to that treatment is completely obtained or partially obtained is not checked for every lot and fabric undergo further treatment. Moisture in knitted fabric observed low as compared to standard moisture value during dispatch. Due to this some amount of fabric extra dispatched, therefore an attempt made in this project I am trying to reduce the process loss by increasing moisture content of knitted fabric there by increasing the value of fabric. Decrease in whiteness index of OBA treated fabric after dryer and compactor. Wet processing of knitted fabrics, often causes distortions in the fabrics like creases and wrinkles. In knitted fabric, all types of shrinkage takes place when the moisture content is below 50 %.the loop length is only main factor influencing the dimensional properties of the knitted *Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

fabrics. Loop length and fiber diameter significantly affects the Spirality in the fabric. Increase in loop length and fiber diameter increases the angle of Spirality, which is commonly observed in the knitted fabrics. Yarns of different counts knitted to same loop length display different physical properties such as drape, openness, permeability, handle, etc. Compaction is carried out as a measure of increasing the dimensional stability and much attention have been given in the assessment of shrinkage and progressive shrinkage properties. Positive feeders are often employed to ensure much closer tolerances between feeders in respect of course length. The weight (GSM) of the fabrics is determined by two factors that interact in the knitted fabric, i.e. the loop size and the yarn size. The cover factor, i.e. space occupied by the knitted loop is given by the ratio of area covered by yarn in one loop and area of one loop. During the compaction process, the increases in courses per unit length results in decrease in Wales per unit length, resulting in a relative dimensionally stable structure.

Material and methods: Material:For the study of weight loss in pretreatment:Quality 1*1 Rib Count 30s CH Dia/gg 30/18 GSM 185 S.L. 2.75

2*2 Rib Single jersey 2trd fleece 3trd fleece

30s CH 20s CH 30s CH 40D ly 30s CH 30s CH 10s CH 30s CH 40s CH

30/18 26/24 30/24 30/20

130 150 250 255

2.70 3.30 2.90/1.30 2.8/14.11/15.1

Piquet Interlock Methods:Moisture content =

30/18 30/24

150 155

3.10 3.05

original wt. dry wt. X 100 Original wt.

Moisture regain =

original wt. dry wt. X 100 Dry wt.

During testing of moisture in sample oven temperature should be set at 1100c as recommended by A.S.T.M.

Procedure for pretreatment:Process is combined scouring and bleaching M/c specification Name: Thies soft flow winch dyeing m/c Parameters: MLR: 1:6 Hardness: less than 50 ppm pH of fabric: 6.5-7 Pretreatment: Total liquor in m/c

1.5gpl-wetting agent 0.25gpl-stabilizer 1.0gpl-deminaralizer agent 0.5gpl-sequestering agent 2.0gpl-lubricating agent 0.1gpl-defoamer 700c S.T. M/C Fabric load

Caustic soda-3gpl 700c A.T.-m/c

Run for 5min at 700c

H2O2 = 2gpl 780c Addition Tank-m/c

Run for 20min at 1100c Rinsing cooling

Drain

Neutralization for 10min at 550c A. Acid 0.7gpl

Peroxide killing for 10min at 550c Peroxide killer 0.7gpl

Drain

RFD complete

Results: Quality 1*1 Rib 2*2 Rib Single jersey 2th fleece 3trd fleece Piquet Interlock Grey wt (kg) 0.340 0.275 0.305 0.360 0.430 0.265 0.360 RFD Wt (kg) 0.295 0.255 0.280 0.340 0.415 0.245 0.335 %wt. loss 13 7.2 8.19 5.5 3.4 7.5 6.9 Whiteness index 71.18 63.31 69.30 63.21 65.96 65.56 69.76 Absorbency Within second Within second Within second Within second Within second Within second Within second

Inference From above study it is clear that for optimum weight loss in pretreatment (completely remove hydrophobic impurities) holding time at 1100c should be depend on fabric construction i.e. for fabric having courser count or compact structure holding time should be more as compare to fabric having finer count or less compact structure.

Study of weight loss in heat setting and moisture content of fabric Quality (kg) Grey Weight % moisture Weight (kg) 34s CH 20D ly s/j 24s CH 20D ly s/j 50s CH 20D ly s/j 30s CH 20D ly 1x1 rib 30s CH 20D ly s/j Inference In heat setting weight loss observed up to 5% to 7%, but if moisture regain of grey fabric is taken into consideration then weight loss in heat setting should be 2.5-3.5%. Weight loss in compactor: Weight loss on compactor observed only in single jersey fabric with or without containing Lycra. Loop length and fiber diameter significantly affects the Spirality in the fabric. Increase in loop length and fiber diameter increases the angle of Spirality, which is commonly observed in the knitted fabrics and due to this spirality in the open tube knitted fabric at selvage end curling occur and to remove it gumming and cutting is carried out on compactor. Quality 30 CH S/J Dia/gg 30/28 140 5.60 129.80 4.13 7.28 180.57 177.49 399 391 5.47 6.09 6.30 5.30 171 168 382 370 % moisture 4.10 3.25 5.17 3.90 5 5.25 4.26 5.23 Heat setting % weight loss

Stitch length 2.65 Trimming loss 11.695 kg. Study of moisture content and moisture regain Following value of moisture content and moisture regain is calculated after conditioning samples at 65% relative humidity and 220c temperature for 48 hrs. Quality 3trd fleece 2trd fleece 24 CH SJ 20s CH PQT 26 CH 1x1 RIB 30 CH 2x2 RIB 40 CH Interlock 24 CH SJ 20s CH PQT 26 CH 1x1 RIB 30 CH 2x2 RIB 40 CH Interlock 3trd fleece 2trd fleece Inference After dyeing yarn become finer in light shade and there are minor cases where yarn count increases after dyeing in case of dark or extra dark shade. After dyeing in most of the cases RKM value increases but decrease in RKM observed in yarn dyed with dye combination having BLUE FNG. Core alkali pH is also play the role to decrease in RKM value. Condition Grey Grey Grey Grey Grey Grey Grey RFD RFD RFD RFD RFD RFD RFD Before wt. 5.32 3.32 5.03 4.96 5.15 4.78 5.06 3.30 4.46 3.29 2.66 3.12 3.47 4.27 After heating wt.(gm) 4.95 3.10 4.66 4.60 4.80 4.45 4.68 3.12 4.21 3.10 2.50 2.94 3.26 4.00 Moisture content 6.95 6.62 7.35 7.25 6.79 6.90 7.50 5.45 5.60 5.77 6.01 5.76 6.05 6.32 Moisture regain 7.47 7.09 7.93 7.82 7.29 7.41 8.11 5.76 5.93 6.12 6.4 6.12 6.44 6.75

Conclusion: In processing of knitted fabric reprocessing is region for value loss. To minimize value loss right first time dyeing is necessary. Optimum value of RFD weight loss is 6-7%. Above and below this value, RFD weight loss gives improper pretreatment of fabric leads to create problems in dyeing and there may be the chances of value loss in fabric.

Moisture content of finished fabric observed low as compare to standard moisture content of fabric. As knitted fabric sold on weight, extra fabric is dispatched due to low moisture content. Except the conditioning there is no way to increase moisture in fabric.

Lab to bulk reproducibility of terry towel in reactive dye


Shyamkant Sonawne, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil* Abstract: Dyeing is a complex process, where number of variables is involved. Dyeing process is broadly governed by fabric type, dye type, machine type, MLR time, temperature, pH of the fabric and liquor, type of auxiliary used etc. Any minor variation in any of these variables causes problem in dye reproducibility, though it is possible to achieve reproducibility in dyeing results. By standardizing each and every variable we can achieve consistent reproducible results and satisfy customer needs by making their process proficient. Obtaining RFT, following are important aspects of dyeing needs to be concentrated. In this project we study process control

parameter to achieve RFT. While working on this project we take parameter in account like hardness of water, whiteness of RFD, residual peroxide, MLR and carry over factor. Lab procedure must be reproduced or correlated with bulk system. Dyeing process must be standardized; Data base loaded on to computer should be updated. Key words: hardness of water, carry over factor, specific gravity etc Introduction: Textile industry is one of the oldest and largest organized industries in India. Textile industry has not kept pace with the times and hence industry not emerges as a world quality produce. Our share in world trade is only about 2% or even less. Recent economic reforms and liberalization have necessitated the Indian industries to face and outstand of stiff global competition. In order to service in the world market our industry need not only to cut down on cost by way of increased efficiency, capacity. Furthermore to withstand stiff competition at an international level not only consistent quality and quality supply but along with it Right First Time is right every time approach will definitely play a significant role. Besides increasing demand for quality processing of new and products like denim, hosiery, terry towel. And ready made garment etc. poses fresh challenges and to meet the same technological advances round the world will play a vital role in shaping the destiny of the industry in our country. An attempt is made in this investigation mainly aimed at Right First Time approach in lab to bulk reproducibility. *Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

Why reproducibility in dyeing is difficult to achieve? Is it possible to achieve reproducibility? Dyeing is a complex process, where number of variables is involved. Dyeing process is broadly governed by fabric type, dye type, machine type, MLR time, temperature, pH of the fabric and liquor, type of auxiliary used etc. Any minor variation in any of these variables causes problem in dye reproducibility, though it is possible to achieve reproducibility in dyeing results. By standardizing each and every variable we can achieve consistent reproducible results and satisfy customer needs by making their process proficient

EXPERIMENT In order to study Right First Time we plan four experiments. 1. Effect of change in MLR on shade depth & bulk reproducibility 2. Effect of specific gravity of salt in dye bath. 3. Effect of water quality on lab to bulk reproducibility. 4. Effect of bulk factor. 5. Effect of dyes consumption on bulk reproducibility. METHODOLOGY :( In order to study RFT):Terry towel obtained from commercial manufactures and commercial available dyes as Red, Blue, yellow and combination shade. In order to obtain correct RFT, four experimental are carried out in laboratory as well as in bulk reproducibility. EFFECT OF CHANGE IN MLR ON SHADE DEPTH:-

Comparison of 1:8 Vs 1:9 MLR by Spectrophotometer: --Sr. no. 1 DYES In % YFN2R = 0.5 SALT/ SODA 40 16 40 16 40 16 40 16 40 16 40 16 40 16 Delta E 0.85 Decision Warm Sample is Darker More-Yellow More-Red Lighter More-Green More-Blue Lighter More-Green More-Yellow Darker More-Red More-Blue Darker More-Green More-Yellow Lighter More-Green More-Yellow Lighter More-Green More-Yellow Strength 9.10%

RFNR = 0.5

0.98

Warm

14%

BFNR=0.5

0.71

Pass

8%

RFNR = 0.25 BFNR=0.25 BFNR=0.25 YFN2R = 0.25 RFNR = 0.25 YFN2R = 0.25 RFNR = 0.16 BFNR=0.16 YFN2R = 0.16

0.76

Warm

7.70%

1.03

Fail

12%

1.09

Fail

10.50%

0.75

Warm

6%

Conclusion: -From above table it was observed that if Bulk MLR changes 1:8 to 1:9 leads to affect on shade depth, causes unmatching of shade with standards. Method of to check actual MLR by Specific gravity of salt in dye bath:Liquor ratio in Processing : To maintain Standard MLR in processing is very important ,it should be check in the time of dyeing by calculating specific gravity of salt after complete addition of salt by run back dye liquor. Procedure: -

Take 500ml liquor of dye after both installment of salt from run back of machine. Take this liquor in measuring cylinder without foam. Check the temperature of liquor. Instantly dip the hydrometer in cylinder and see the reading. By this reading of specific gravity of salt calculate salt gpl and actual MLR by graph of specific gravity Vs salt conc. (gpl) at different temp. Observation: -Specific gravity of salt = 1.06 at 450c Concentration of salt by using graph = 78gpl. Standard concentration of salt = 80gpl. Calculation:Total amount of liquor up to salt addition = (X/Y) * 1000 Were X = Actual conc. of Salt (Kg) Y = Specific gravity of salt in gpl. Experimentation:Batch Wt. 1256 Kg. MLR 1:6. Conc. Of salt Use = 20gpl. (150.60Kg) Conc. Of Soda ash use = 10gpl.(75.36Kg) Specific gravity of salt = 19gpl at 450c. Actual conc. of Salt (Kg) = 150.72 gm. Formula - (X/Y) * 1000 = (150.72/19)*1000 = 7931.51 liter (up to addition of salt) = 7931.5+375 liter (soda ash) = 8306.5 liter (up to addition of soda ash) = 6.6liter MLR Experiments replicates for seven batchesSr. no. Batch no. Batch wt.(kg) Actual salt(gpl) 1 2 50877 50478 1256 505 20 60 Specific of (gpl) 19 59 Actual con.of Actual MLR Calculated MLR Actual amount liquor(liter) 1:6 1:6 1:6.6 1:6.8 7536 3030 Calculated of liquor (liter) 8306.5 3431.3 con. Of gravity Shade Sliver.

salt salt (kg) 150.72 181.8

3 4 5 6 7

50884 50442 51034 51097 50904

892 1200 1200 1225 1238

10 40 20 60 30

10 39 19 62 30

53.5 288 144 441 222.8

1:6 1:6 1:6 1:6 1:6

1:6.5 1:6.5 1:6.8 1:6.3 1:6.4

5352 7200 7200 7350 7482

5801 7784 8129.9 7813 8026

Conclusion: - From above table it was found that, shade produced are of acceptable quality but slightly changes in MLR leads to affect shade depth. TO STUDY EFFECT OF WATER HARDNESS AND TDS ON SHADE DEPT: Material 100% cotton zero twist towel RecipeMLR 1:8 Fabric weight -5gm Dyes Yellow FN2R 0.5 % Red FN2 BL 0.5 % Blue FNR 0.5% Salt 40gpl Soda 16gpl For spectrophotometer analysis Sample dyed with 30 TDS ,5ppm hardness of water consider as standard sample and against that compare selected shade with different hardness and TDS TDS/Hardness Sam 460/65 Sam 330/25 Sam 120/25 Sam 450/125 Sam 460/5 CMC DE 0.82 0.45 0.41 1.32 1.89 Pass/ fail Warm Pass Pass Fail Fail lightness -0.78 darker -0.13 darker 0.08 lighter 1.21 lighter -1.55 darker chroma -0.05 saturated -0.42 saturated -0.35 saturated 0.52 saturated -0.88 saturated less -0.63 more red less 0.21 green more -0.07 more red more hue less 0.27 green less -0.12 more red more

Conclusion: - From above table it was found that, shade produced in less than 330 TDS &less than 30 Hardness is better to increase lab to bulk reproducibility. Effect of Bulk factor:Co-relation between lab to bulk ( bulk factor )When we take recipe from lab to bulk production the shade developed in bulk is not accurate or same with lab shade there may always some difference in shade depth for avoiding this always final confirmation of shade recipe developed in bulk sample machine before bulk production and calculated bulk factor .This experiment replicate for twelve shades. Bulk factor bulk factor changes due to change in dye %, & change in MLR when take in bulk production. Here we summarized dyeing result for 3 shades as shown in table.
LAB Sr.N o. TF NO. Sam ple Recipe In % Shade Conc. S/S/C Whiten ess Index/P H ML R ML R/ B.N o. Whiten ess Index/P H Con c. S/S/ C BULK Recipe In % Sam ple Remark

YFN2R=0.9 6 1:8 DRSB=1.50 BLFNR=0.2 0 Bargandey 60 0. 6 7

60

YFN2R=0.9 6

1:7

DRSB=1.50 BLFNR=0.2 0

3.50%Lig hter

Dyed 678

5 0.5 1658

0.5

Moe Red More Blue

RFT

RFD

72.53 6.6

68.98 6.8

YFN2R=0.0 041 RFN2BL=0. 0015

20

20

YFN2R=0.0 041 RFN2BL=0. 0015

2.05%Lig hter More Green More Blue

Ivory

8 1:8 0. 4 1:7

Dyed

7 678 1698

RFT

RFD

71.1 6.8

70.23 6.7

RFN2BL=0. 06

20 0. 4 3

20

RFN2BL=0. 06

2.41%Dar k

Dyed

BLFNG=0.0 8 BLFNR=0.0 062

Sky Blue

1:8

1:7

BLFNG=0.0 8 BLFNR=0.0 062

More Red MoreYello w

682

1703

RFT 71.9 RFD 6.5 70.21 6.7

Conclusion: - From above tables, it was found that, any lab recipes taken in bulk production, changes in MLR 1:8 to 1:7, gives correct RFT (For 12 shades). Effect of Dyes Consumption on Bulk Reproducibility:- Experimentation of 100 samples from bulk, industries understand that reproducibility of Red is 5 % more, yellow reproduces 5% less, blue reproduces as it is than lab recipes. These changes are taken in to consideration while obtaining sheds in to bulk. This experiment replicate for twelve shades. EXPERIMENTAL TEST IN MILL:-BULK FACTER

SR BNO M/C. .N O

SHADE

CUSTMER

LAB RECIPE BULK RESIPE REMA DYE % SALT/ CHANG IN SALT/ RC SODA DYE % SODA

/COS 1 1589 1400K g RFN3GL=0.2 5 5% Decrees Same 0.33% Increase 0.2% Increase 0.2% Increase 5% Increase 5% Decrees 0.024% Increase 5% Increase 5% Decrees Same 5% Increase 5% Decree Same 5% Increase 5% Decrees Same 5% Increase 4% Decrees Same 5% Increase 5% Decrees Same 5% Increase Slate Coles T YFN2R=0.615 60 5% Increase

/COS T 60 5 0.5 80 15 1 80 5 1 60 5 0.5 8 5 RFT RFT RFT RFT

1503

80Kg

Black

Coles

8 BLFNR=1.558 0.5 BlackR=3.285 80 NSGI=3.78 5

1507

1050K g

Espresso

Coles

YFN2R=0.378 1 YS3R=2.35 80 RS3B=1.627 NSGI=1.70 5 1

1503

700Kg

Slate

Coles

YFN2R=0.648 60 RFN3GL=0.2 5 9 BLFNR=1.675 0.5 YFN2R=0.058 10 9 RFN2BL=0.08 10 5 BLFNR=0.047 -

Signal Add.

1508

80Kg

Stone

Coles

1427

500Kg

Dp.Ocea n

WUSA

8 YFN2R=0.069 40 RFNR=0.067 BLCD=1.0 5 0.5 80 5 3

40 5 0.5 80 5 3 60 5 2 40 RFT RFT

1480

900Kg

Buoy red WUEA

YFN2R=0.95 RFNR=3.012 BLCD=0.209

RFT

1590

1500K g

M.Navy

WUSA

YFN2R=0.224 60 RFN3GL=0.4 58 NSGI=2.35 5 2

1520

750Kg

Egg Plant

WUSA

YFN2R=0.149 40

RFNR=1.0 NH4G=0.78 10 1334 1050K g RS3B=1.58 NSGI=1.68 11 1317 1400K g Stone Coles Espresso Coles YS3R=2.35

5 1.5 80 5 1

5% Decrees Same 5% Increase 5% Decrees 0.024% Increase 5% Increase 5% Decrees Same 5% Increase 5% Decrees Same

5 1.5 80 5 1 10 10 80 5 1

RFT

RFT

YFN2R=0.058 10 9 RFN2BL=0.08 10 3 BLFNR=0.047 -

RFT

12

1083

700Kg

Chocolat e

Coles

8 YS3R=1.19 RFN3GL=0.7 19 DKBLSGL=1. 06

80 5 1

RFT

Conclusion: - Experimentation of 100 samples from bulk, Welspun industries understand that reproducibility of Red is 5 % more, yellow reproduces 5% less, blue reproduces as it is than lab recipes. These changes are taken in to consideration while obtaining sheds in to bulk.

Water quality and standard textile process water: Water contamination constantly varying so check it timely, is water treatment effective? Is water free from vegetable suspended solid and other mineral impurities? Hardness contaminants in dye house water can adversely effect level dyeing shade reproducibility and wash of performance Quality Colour pH Hardness Suspended matter Organic load Residue on ignition Required Transparent 6-8 Max. 5*dH <1 mg / l <20 mg / l <50 mg / l

Iron Manganese Copper Nitrite Nitrate Free CO2

<0.1 mg / l < 0.05 mg / l <0.1 mg / l <50 mg / l < 5 mg / l 0 if possible (risk of corrosion)

Carry over factor to maintain dyeing liquor in lab as well as in bulk production:Lab:Before the lab sample dyeing the RFD fabric is dip in water and then squeeze manually. This sample content some amount of water in it. This water always takes in to account in dyeing MLR. From 10 lab samples, it was found that water retention in fabric is 150% instead of 120%. Water retention in fabric depends upon manual squeezing. Bulk:After RFD process in Bulk the RFD fabric content around 350% of water. So always calculate this 350% water carry over in RFD before starting dyeing and its MLR.If we are not calculating this carry over factor it will affect shade depth. This experiment carried out on 80 Kg sampled dyeing M/c, Results shows that after RFD these is 350% water carry over on fabric. Following table give the cost effect of non conformance of dyeingProcess RFT Single addition Multiple addition Striping & redyeing Cost 100 100 135 206 Productivity 100 80 46 48 Profit 100 48 -45 -375

# Benefit of right first time Financial 1) Lower cost per batch 2) Increased out put 3) Improved profit margin Non financial Enhanced customer service Improved quality of goods Reduced effluent load

Conclusion:Wet processing of textiles constitutes innumerable steps leading to finished product, each having a number of complex variables and every lot is like a new lot and much depends on the well-trained manpower and modern machines and technology. However, developments are taking

place at a rapid pace to satisfy the customer with quality product and competitive price. Though underlying principle for developments is satisfying customer needs, much emphasis is being paid for conserving water and energy and simultaneously being environment friendly. This in turn will impart cost competitiveness. Developments need to focus on minimizing water pollution and air pollution and possibly through on use of biodegradable chemicals preferably from renewable sources. Wet processing of textiles is the most complex stage in the manufacturing of fabric requiring immense personal attention and knowledge having potential for true value addition. It is challenging task to attain desired appearance, feel and functions right first time at competitive cost with the best of quality. The high performance standards expected by the present day consumer are to be met with while adhering to the eco-norms is the need of the day for survival and growth. Obtaining RFT, following are important aspects of dyeing needs to be concentrated. Lab procedure must be reproduced or correlated with bulk system. Dyeing process must be standardized. Accuracy of weighting and measuring at lab and bulk scale. Dyestuff used should be compatible, robust and stable when applied. Data base loaded on to computer should be updated Lab dyeing equipments with sophisticated and multi product injection are availed. Used standard operating procedure (SOP). Proper control of machine parameter.

Study Effect of Different Parameters in Heat Setting of Lycra Fabric and Other Quality
Yogesh B Patil, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil* Abstract: This project deals with the optimum heat setting of lycra blended fabric i.eto achieve the best set of parameter in Order to give perfect dimension stability to lycra blended knitted fabric. During

heat setting process continuous running fabric on stenter machine any minute change in the only one parameter (like, change overfeed, temperature) and result in vast variation in fabric quality. Key words: heat setting of lycra, over feed, temperature for heat setting etc. Introduction In Lycra blended fabric heat setting is a critical process. During heat setting process continuous running fabric on stenter machine any minute change in the only one parameter (like, change overfeed, temperature) and result in vast variation in fabric quality. This project deals with the optimum heat setting of lycra blended fabric i.eto achieve the best set of parameter in Order to give perfect dimension stability to lycra blended knitted fabric. LYCRA is a registered trademark used for DuPonts elastane fibres. Elastane is a generic term, like polyamide or polyester. It defines a manmade fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a synthetic chain polymer containing at least 85% segmented polyurethane. LYCRA in the stretch fabric is knitted or woven under tension. When relaxed, it trends to compact the fabric length and width to a jam point. The hard fibre buckles when the fabric is jammed, and it limits the extension of the fabric when it is being stretched. Elastic fabrics are very often required wider and lighter than their width and weight at Jam point.

*Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

Method & material:a) Material 1) QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM 2) QUALITY DIA/GG - 34*40LY fleece 30/24 2.85 250 240 G.WIDTH - 34 F.WIDTH - 64 30/28 G.WIDTH - 32 F.WIDTH - 62

- 34*20LY S/J

S.L G.GSM F.GSM b) Method Heat setting

3.0 200 18

dyeing

finishing

During heat setting process continuous running fabric on stenter machine any minute change in the only one parameter (like, change overfeed) and result in vast variation in fabric quality. Then fabric passes through the dyeing& finally finishing. Study of different process parameter during heat setting and finishing process: A) QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed (%) Temperature ( OC) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( cm) Fan ( %) Before width ( cm) After width (cm) Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Spirality (%) B) QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed Temperature (%) ( OC) - 30*20LY S/J 30/28 2.9 195 200 Stenter (H/S) Stenter( soft) 50 160 15 1ST6 ; 2nd 3 172 95 163 171 190 -7.5*-1.5 0% Compactor 40 160 10 1950 MM 167 168 190 -4 * -3.0 0% G.WIDTH - 35 F.WIDTH - 66

45 185 8 (45sec) 3 175 90 165 168 195 241 L = -4.5* W= 0.0 2%

- 34*20LY S/J 30/28 2.85 170 180 Stenter 45 185 (H/S)

G.WIDTH -33 F.WIDTH - 64

Stenter( soft) 50 140

Compactor 30 160

Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Spirality (%) C) QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed (%) O Temperature ( C) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Spirality (%) D) QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed ( %) Temperature ( OC) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan ( %) -

8 3 169 90 162 165 170 206 L= +2 W = -1.5 4%

18 1ST 6 ; 2nd 3 165 90 160 164 182 -

10 1890MM 164 165 185 -3 * -2 3%

40*20LY S/J 30/28 2.75 150 160 Stenter (H/S)

G.WIDTH - 30 F.WIDTH 60

Stenter( soft) 40 160 16 1ST6 ; 2nd 3 158 90 152 155 160 -10.5*-3.0 1% G.WIDTH - 34 F.WIDTH - 64

compactor 50 160 20 1875MM 152 153 161 -5 *-3.5 1%

50 185 9 3 163 901ST 155 160 150 183 L= +2.0* W= -2.5 2.9%

- 34*20LY S/J 30/28 3.0 200 180 Stenter 35 185 10 3 169 90 (H/S)

Stenter( soft) 50 140 18 1ST6 ; 2nd 165 95

Compactor 40 160 25 2050MM -

Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage Spirality

( %) (%)

160 167 200 210 L= -1.5*W=-3.0 7%

158 165 180 -10 * -4 1%

162 163 181 -5 *-3.5 3.7%

E)

QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM -

- 34* 34*40LY fleece 30/24 2.85 245 250 Stenter (H/S)

G.WIDTH F.WIDTH

- 33 - 62

Parameter Overfeed (%) Temperature ( OC) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Spirality (%) F) QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed (%) Temperature ( OC) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm -

Stenter( soft) 45 160 20 1ST6 ; 2nd 160 95 150 157 255 -9.0*-4.5 1%

Compactor 40 160 20 1980mm 157 160 247 -4.5*-4 1%

37 185 7 3 161 90 155 158 245 284 L= +0.5* w= -1.5 2%

- 34*40LY fleece 30/24 2.85 250 240 Stenter 37 185 8 3 161 90 150 157 250 (H/S)

G.WIDTH - 32 F.WIDTH - 62

Stenter( soft) 55 160 7 1ST6 ; 2nd 160 90 154 157 -

Compactor 45 160 25 2100 155 160 -

After gsm Shrinkage Spirality

(%) (%)

280 L =0 * W =-2.0 0

245 -

240 -3 * -5 0

To study variation of temperature during heat setting process A) QUALITY DIA/GG G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed (%) O Temperature ( C) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Finishing process QUALITY DIA/GG G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed (%) Temperature ( OC) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Spirality (%) - 34*20DLY S/J 30/28 177 G.WIDTH - 32 F.WIDTH - 65 S.L - 2.20 - 34*20DLY S/J 30/28 177 G.WIDTH - 32 F.WIDTH - 65 S.L - 2.20

- 180 Stenter (H/S) Stenter(H/S) 45 195 10 3 165 90 160 166 177 208 -2.5 *-4.5

45 185 10 3 165 90 160 165 177 218 L =+3* W =-1.5

- 180 Stenter (H/S) Stenter(H/S) 55 140 10 3 167 90 162 166 177 165 0 Compactor 60 160 7 1950 166 165.5 170/172 -0.5*-5.5 0

45 185 6 3 165 90 160 165 177 208 L = -2.5 W = -4.5 0

To study the variation of over feed during heat setting process A) QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed (%) Temperature ( OC) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Finishing process QUALITY DIA/GG S.L G.GSM F.GSM Parameter Overfeed (%) Temperature ( OC) Speed ( m/min) Pressure ( bar) Expander width ( mm) Fan (%) Before width After width Before gsm After gsm Shrinkage (%) Spirality (%) - 34*40LY fleece 30/24 2.90 250 240 Stenter 40 185 8 3 158 90 142 157 290 +1.0*-2.5 0 (H/S) Stenter(soft) 45 160 10 1ST6 ; 2nd 1600 95 154 160 260 -4.5*-0.5 0.5 Compactor 10 160 10 1850 154 156 275 -0.5*-2.5 0 G.WIDTH F.WIDTH 32 62 34*40LY fleece 30/24 2.90 250 240 Stenter (H/S) Stenter( H/S) 40 185 8 3 158 90 142 157 290 +1.0*-2.5 G.WIDTH - 32 F.WIDTH - 62

30 185 8 3 158 90 142 157 250 274 L= -1.5* w= -2.5

Conclusion A Particular quality Lycra /cotton blend heat set perfectly on single set of parameter.

If particular parameter changes slightly like over feed, temperature during heat setting process (other parameter are constantant) an then achieved result of lot GSM, Shrinkage, Spirality Of fabric. Ex. variation of overfeed during heat setting process. Table1. Overfeed GSM Shrinkage Spirality 30% 274 L=-1.5*w=-2.5 0% 37% 281 +1*-3.0 0.5% 40% 292 +1*-2.5 0.5%

Ex. variation of temperature during heat setting process. Table2. Temperature GSM Shrinkage spirality width 1850c 218 L=+3*-1.5 3% 165 1950c 208 -2.5*-4.5 0% 166/167.5

Table 3. Effect on fabric of heat-set temperature Property Stability Shrinkage Whiteness Flatness Width Lubricant spots Temp increase Increases Decreases Decreases Increases Increases Increases

Problem & remedies in viscose lycra processing


Yogesh S Patil, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil* Abstract: Viscose lycra knitted fabric processing has lot many challenges problem are always there with viscose lycra wet processing this project under taken keep in mind the of wet processing industries trail taken in such manner to solve the problem associated with viscose lycra processing such as patchy dyeing, rope mark, stitch damage during dyeing, crease mark. Experiment done on heat setting parameter and different dyeing method for viscose lycra processing. The conclusion of project answer many questions of viscose lycra processing but not all this was just as effort made to face challenges regarding viscose lycra processing.

Key words: Heat setting, isothermal dyeing process, migration process etc. Introduction: Process optimization in viscose Lycra knitted fabric. In textile market demand of viscose Lycra are very large for apparel purpose & ladies garment. In present content knitted fabric are having much more demand & value the other apart from cotton knitted fabric viscose with stretchable material Lycra knitted fabric having a growth in demand. But has compared to cotton processing viscose lycra knitted fabric processing has lot many challenges problem are always there with viscose lycra wet processing this project under taken keep in mind the of wet processing industries trail taken in such manner to solve the problem associated with viscose lycra processing such as patchy dyeing, rope mark, stitch damage during dyeing, crease mark. The conclusion of project answer many questions of viscose lycra processing but not all this was just as effort made to face challenges regarding viscose lycra processing.

*Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

Experimental work:Experiment on heat setting with verity of fabric 1. Dwell time 2. Temperature 3. Over feed 4. Chain setting Experimental on various dyeing method. Exhaust a) Isothermal process b) Migration process Comparative analysis of dyed shade To check - Evenness of dyed fabric Rope mark Crease Material & method :-

Following quality are used for the experimental work 34s*20d vis.lycra S/J 30s*20d vis.lycra S/J 40s*20d vis.lycra S/J The heat setting parameters of viscose lycra fabric Quality 34s*20d vis.lycra S/J 30s*20d vis.lycra S/J 30s*20d vis.lycra S/J 40s*20d vis.lycra S/J Bef. Width cm 162 170 170 165 Aft. Width cm 165 172 173 170 Req. width cm 165 172 173 170 Chain seeting cm 165 172 172 170 Bef. GSM cm 225 200 190 190 Aft. GSM 210 210 200 195 Req. GSM 200 200 180 180 O/F % 30 40 33 45 Seed mt/min 10 10 30 14 Set temp.0c 195-200 195-200 195-200 195-200

STUDY THE VISCOSE LYCRA PROCESSING IN MILL A) Quality- Viscose Lycra 30x20 D S/J Shade- Black Heat Setting Parameter Speed 14mtr/min Temperature 1950c (In all chambers) Chain width 170cm Over feed 45% Final width 170cm GSM 195 Chemical RK 4gpl ACA 4gpl (stain removal) (lubricating agent)

DYEING PROCESS (Isothermal) Machine parameter Reel speed 240mtr/min Pump speed 70 % RECIPEMaterial to liquor ratio 1:6 DemineralizationBAIVIN PE 0.5gpl (lubricating agent) FELOSAN RGN 0.5gpl (wetting agent ) HEPTOL EMG 0.5gpl (deminaralizing agent)

PretreatmentBAIVIN PE 1.5gpl FELOSAN RGN 0.5gpl HEPTOL B-81 0.4gpl SODA ASH H2O2 6.0gpl 2.0gpl (lubricating agent) (wetting agent (sequestering /leveling /stabilizer) (scouring agent) (oxidising agant)

ACETIC ACID 0.2gpl (nuralising agent) METAXIL VSB 0.25gpl (core nuralising agent) CATALYSE BF-SP 0.5gpl (H2O2 killer) RFD process:

CHECK POINT Fabric pH Hardness Absorbency Residual H2O2 6.2 less than 50ppm within a sec. - nil MLR 1:10

DYEING RECIPE HEPTOL B-81 BAIVIN PE 1gpl 0.5gpl

((sequestering /leveling /stabilizer ) (lubricating agent)

RAMAZOL YELLOW 3RSA 0.18900% RAMAZOL RGB Red RGB 0.27600% Black Black GSR 4.50000% G.SALT (30%) 24gpl G.SALT (70%) 36gpl SODA ASH (40%) 8gpl SODA ASH (60%) 12gpl

ACETIC ACID SARAQUEST MPP BAIVAN PE ACETIC ACID

0.5gpl 1gpl (core nuralising agent) - 0.5gpl - 0.3gpl

DYEING PROCESS:

Axillaries , B color , C -1 salt , D -2 salt , E 1 soda , F- 2 soda G acid , H- Sopping FINISHING SETTING: Machine speed 20m/min Temp. -1600c Chain width 174cm Overfeed 45% GSM - 176 g Fan - 1400rpm Final width 173cm Folding report: Shade is not ok, it gives reprocess. It gives rope mark & minor patchy ness B) QUALITY- Viscose Lycra 30x20 D S/J SHADE- KHAKI HEAT SETTING PARAMETER Speed 15mtr/min Temperature 1900c (In all chambers) Chain width 170cm Over feed 43% Final width 173cm GSM 200 Fan Speed 1800rpm

CHEMICALS RK 4gpl ACA 4gpl (stain removal) (lubricating agent)

DYEING PROCESS (Isothermal) Machine parameter (m/c-250) Reel speed 240mtr/min Pump speed 70 % RECIPEMaterial to liquor ratio 1:6 DemineralizationBAIVIN PE 0.5gpl FELOSAN RGN 0.5gpl HEPTOL EMG 0.5gpl PretreatmentBAIVIN PE 1.5gpl FELOSAN RGN 0.5gpl HEPTOL B-81 0.4gpl SODA ASH 6gpl H2O2 2gpl ACETIC ACID 0.2gpl METAXIL VSB 0.25gpl (core nuralising agent) CATALYSE BF-SP 0.5gpl (H2O2 killer) (deminaralizing agent) (wetting agent) (sequestering /leveling /stabilizer (lubricating agent) (wetting agent) (deminaralizing agent)

RFD PROCESS

CHECK POINT Fabric pH 6.0 Hardness Less than 50ppm Absorbency Within a sec. Residual H2O2 - Nil DYEING RECIPE Material to liquor ratio HEPTOL B-81 1gpl BAIVIN PE 0.5gpl LEVAGOL CFTR 1.6gpl LAVAFIX CA Amber CA 0.45600% LAVAFIX CA fast red CA 0.3600% LAVAFIX CA Blue 0.4000% G.SALT (30%) G.SALT (70%) 10gpl 15gpl 1:10

SODA ASH (40%) 6gpl SODA ASH (60%) 9gpl ACETIC ACID 0.5gpl SARAQUEST MPP 1gpl BAIVAN PE 0.5gpl ACETIC ACID -0.3gpl DYEING PROCESS:

MLR

1:6 1:7 1:6

Axillaries , B color , C -1 salt , D -2 salt , E 1 soda , F- 2 soda G acid , H- Sopping

FINISHING SETTING: Machine speed 15m/min Temp. -1500c Chain width 180cm Overfeed 50% GSM - 172 g Fan - 1800rpm Final width 172cm Folding report: Shade is not ok, it gives reprocess because, and some problem is observed i.e. -patchy ness -rope mark -vertical line C) QUALITYSHADE- BLACK DYEING PROCESS (Isothermal) Machine parameter Reel speed 240mtr/min Pump speed 70 % RECIPEMaterial to liquor ratio 1:6 100 %Viscose 30s S/J

PretreatmentBAIVIN PE 1.5gpl FELOSAN RGN 0.5gpl HEPTOL B-81 0.4gpl SODA ASH H2O2 6gpl 2gpl

ACETIC ACID 0.2gpl METAXIL VSB 0.25gpl CATALYSE BF-SP 0.5gpl Ram Diagramme:-

CHECK POINT Fabric pH 6.0 Hardness Less than 50ppm Absorbency Within sec. Residual H2O2 - Nil DYEING RECIPE Material to liquor ratio - 1:10 HEPTOL B-81 1gpl BAIVIN PE 0.5gpl FELOSAN RGN 0.5gpl RAMAZOL YELLOW 3RSA 0.5280% RAMAZOL RGB ULTRA CARMIN 0.5500% RAMAZOL BLACK GSA 3.400%

G.SALT (30%) 18gpl G.SALT (70%) 27gpl SODA ASH (40%) 8gpl SODA ASH (60%) 12gpl ACETIC ACID 0.6gpl DEKOL FBSN 1 gpl ACETIC ACID -0.3gpl DYEING PROCESS: MLR - 1:6 MLR -1:7 MLR - 1:6

A-Axillaries , B color , C -1 salt , D -2 salt , E 1 soda , F- 2 soda G acid , H- Sopping FINISHING SETTING: Machine speed 17m/min Temp. -1600c Chain width 180cm Overfeed 44% GSM - 152 g Fan - 50% Final width 185cm Result:After dyeing shade is not ok it gives addition. Folding report: Shade is ok,

Some more quality also observed are summarized as follows. QUALITY SHADE 30X20D viscose ly s/j Red 30X20D viscose ly s/j Hot pink PROCESS REMARK Isothermal Topping Isothermal Vertical line, rope mark, patchy (reprocessed)

30s viscose s/j Black (100%) 30X20D viscose ly s/j Khaki 40X20D viscose ly s/j Iron 40X20D viscose ly s/j Black 30s viscose s/j Khaki 40X20D viscose ly s/j Blue 30X20D viscose ly s/j Hot pink 30sviscose s/j Khaki

Isothermal RFT shade ok Isothermal Rope mark & patchy (reprocessed) Isothermal Rope mark & patchy (reprocessed) Isothermal Shade problem (addition) Isothermal Vertical line, rope mark, patchy (reprocessed) Isothermal Dk. Line, shade is not ok Isothermal Shade is ok Vertical line problem (acceptable) Isothermal Shade is ok ,vertical line rope mark & patchy problem

Conclusion: Many of the cases viscose lycra processing the patchy shade is observed. The dark shade like brown, khaki, iron is critical because more patchy shade & rope mark observed than the pestle shade. In viscose lycra the amorphous region is very high as compared to the cotton there for the affinity of reactive dyes is also high .Hence these properties of dyes & viscose fiber sudden exhaustion responsible for patchy shade. Avoid these problem some special types of retarding agent & leveling agent is added in the process may be patchy shade is reduced. The temp. is also important factor for even dyeing of viscose lycra fabric if proper combination of reactive dyes is not selected then at temperature of 60 0c & 800c create the problem for uniform dyeing.

The addition of salt transfer is replaced by dosing process. Hence the rate of exhaustion dyes is decreased than the regular exhaustion. Therefore the unleveled dyeing is controlled. For rope mark :The carefully loading in the m/c like without twist loading in to the vessel the then chances of rope mark & crease mark decreases.

Study the effect of different softener on fabric characteristics


Swati S. Patil, P.P. Raichurkar, M. Sayyed, S.R. Kulkarni, Sachin Patil* Abstract:
Textile industry is a very broad & diversified market. Thousands of formulated textile auxiliaries are produced to provide process ability of fibers &webs as well as desired quality of final finished fabric. Softness has always been an important aspect in textile finishing & became even more important with the advent of synthetic detergents in the industry. Due to the removal of natural fats waxes which had given the natural softness & smoothness, the usage of lubricant at end of the finishing process became necessary. Softeners are broadly used on textiles with a specific hand or softness (soft fluffy-dry, smooth or greasy). Negative effects of common softeners are mainly reduced absorbency & yellowing. Hydrophilicity, non yellowing & softness can be achieved by the selection of specific surfactant whose performance is pre determined by the chemical structure of its raw materials. Further beneficial properties for softeners are the slip effect, based on lubrication, which reduces fiber to fiber to metal friction. Softening agents are represented by various chemistries such as fatty acid amides, imidazoline quats, amidoamine quats, ester quats & silicone quats, as well as non substantive polyether & alkyl / polyether siloxanes the oleo chemical derivatives are either animal or vegetable based.

Key words: PH, Hardness of water,Softness. Introduction:

Softeners can be broadly classified roughly into two important groups: Non permanent softeners which can be removed fairly easily by simple washing and permanent softeners, which exhibit a distinctively fair amount of softness even after repeated washing. Requirements for softness -High softening performance -Hydrophylicity or hydrophobic character -Non yellowing -Anti static effect -Substantively or non substantivity These classes of softeners are based on fatty acid derivates. They are mainly consist of relatively small molecules with a molecular weight of less than 1000. A typical example as which shows a cationic fatty acid amide, characterized by linear, saturated fatty radicals. Being a fatty acid derivative, they provide hydrophobic effect and impart good softness on relatively all types of fibers. If the production starts within isomeric form of the fatty acid with a branched form. Within the family of non permanent softeners, is amphoteric softener.

*Centre for textile functions (CTF), NMIMS University Shirpur campus, shirpur Dist- Dhule, Maharashtra

The positive charge of the central nitrogen atom is confronted with the negative charge of the carboxylic group. In a neutral aqueous solution the two charges block each other & the product appears non ionic. In an acid medium the cationic group is activated & in an alkaline medium, anionic group is activated. By the ionic nature, the molecular structure, & molecular weight, the essential properties of the softener such as yellowing, softness can be controlled.

Experimental Work Material: Scoured bleached 100% cotton Single jersey. Wt. of fabric- 30gm. MLR-1:10 Dyes: Cibacron FN series Dyeing: Dyeing carried out in a HTHP beaker dyeing machine. Application method: Padding method. Chemical: Silicon softener pH of original chemical: 6-6.5 pH of water:7 pH after addition of acetic acid:5.5 Mangle pressure: 5kg/cm2 Speed setting of mangle: 120mts/min. Solid content: 25.78%

Cationic softener pH of original chemical: 7-7.5 pHofwater: 7 pH after addition of acetic acid:5.5 Mangle pressure: 5kg/cm2 Speed setting of mangle: 120mts/min. Solid content: 22.89% Evaluation:
Softness of fabric check by hand feel. Softness grade given the fabric in following way.

Experiment I In this experiment cationic and silicone softener are applied on fabric and effect of it on fabric is observed with respect to whiteness index. Table 1.1 Application of softener 24 SIJ fabric

Sr. No.

Softener Cationic softner cone. Softness Softness WI. 3 3 4 4 5 63.93 63.58 63.44 63.47 63.02 1 sec 1.22 sec 1.32 sec 2.05 sec 2.21 sec

Silicone softner Absorbency WI. Absorbency 3 3 4 4 5 63.82 63.92 63.78 63.62 63.82 1.11 sec 1.22 sec 1.30 sec 2.49 sec

I. 2. 3. 4. 5.

10 gpl 20 gpl 30gpi 40 gpl 50 gpl

3.51 ec

Result & Discussion: Increase the softness of fabric with increasing concentration of softeners but gives adverse effect in whiteness. As cationic softener shows yellowness on fabric as compared to silicone softner. This is due to vulnerability of amine groups to atmospheric oxygen. Amines are attacked by oxygen & modified into nitro groups i.e. azo group formation which is strong chromophore for yellow & brownish rang of visible light.

Experiment II In this experiment cationic and silicone softener are applied on fabric and effect of it on fabric is observed with respect to absorbency.

Table 1.2 Application of softener on RFD 24 S/J fabric Sr. No Softener conc. 1 2 3 4 5 10gpl 20 gpl 30 gpl 40 gpl 50 gpl Cationic softener Softness 3 3 3 4 5 WI. 64.72 64.65 64.61 64.51 64.23 Absorbency 1.23sec. 1.31 sec. 1.52 sec. 1.88 sec. 2.30 sec. Silicone softener Softness 3 3 3 4 5 WI 64.72 64.65 64.61 64.51 64.23 Absorbency 1.89sec. 2.30 sec. 3.58 sec. 4.09 sec. 9 sec.

Result & Discussion: Silicone softener gives better effect in softness with slight change in WI. But it also imparts highly water repellent property to the fabric due to the presence of silicone compound group which gives water repellent to the textile material.

Experiment III In this experiment cationic and silicone softener are applied in combination on fabric and effect of it on fabric is observed with respect to whiteness index, absorbency. Table 1.3 Application of (cationic +silicone) softener on RFD 24 S/J fabric (WI. =72.35)

Sr. No

Softener conc.

(Nysil +Ultrasil AMX) Softness WI. 73.38 72.89 72.43 72.37 72.32 72.19 Absorbency 1.17sec. 1.25 sec. 1.40 sec. 2.01 sec. 2.10 sec. 2.57sec.

1 2 3 4 5 6

10gpl 20 gpl 30 gpl 40 gpl 50 gpl 60 gpl

3 3 4 4 5 5

Result & Discussion: Combination gives better result in softness, WI, absorbency. In cationic softener yellowness occurred due to their cationic nature while silicone softener slight water repellency observed so maintaining both property & costly effective combination of cationic and silicone gives better result.

Conclusion: Softener imparts soft handle, supple & smoothness property to t ,e fabric Softness of fabric increases with the increasing the concentration of softener. Increase the softness of fabric with increasing concentration of softeners but gives adverse effect in whiteness. Cationic softener gives yellowness to the fabric as compared to silicone softener. As concentration of silicone softener increases absorbency of fabric decreases as compared to cationic softener. Both cationic and silicone softener are applied in combination then WI, absorbency, softness are not affected.