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One Hundred Years of US Intervention

by Zoltan Grossman SOUTH DAKOTA ARGENTINA CHILE HAITI IDAHO HAWAII CHICAGO NICARAGUA CHINA KOREA PANAMA NICARAGUA CHINA 1890 (-?) 1890 1891 1891 1892 1893 (-?) 1894 1894 Troops Troops Troops Troops Troops Naval, troops Troops Troops 300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee. Buenos Aires interests protected. Marines clash with nationalist rebels. Black revolt on Navassa defeated. Army suppresses silver miners' strike. Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed. Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed. Month-long occupation of Bluefields. Marines land in Sino-Japanese War Marines kept in Seoul during war. Marines land in Colombian province. Marines land in port of Corinto. Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies. Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base. Seized from Spain, occupation continues. Seized from Spain, still use as base. Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake. Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur. Battle over succession to throne. Marines land at port of Bluefields. Army occupies Coeur d'Alene

1894-95 Naval, troops 1894-96 Troops 1895 1896 18981900 18981910 (-?) 18981902 (-?) 1898 (-?) 1898 (-?) 1898 (-?) 1898 1899 (-?) 1899 1899Troops, naval Troops Troops

PHILIPPINES

Naval, troops

CUBA

Naval, troops

PUERTO RICO GUAM MINNESOTA NICARAGUA SAMOA NICARAGUA IDAHO

Naval, troops Naval, troops Troops Troops Troops Troops Troops

1901 OKLAHOMA PANAMA HONDURAS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC KOREA CUBA NICARAGUA HONDURAS PANAMA NICARAGUA HONDURAS CHINA CUBA PANAMA HONDURAS NICARAGUA MEXICO DOMINICAN REPUBLIC COLORADO MEXICO HAITI DOMINICAN REPUBLIC CUBA WORLD WAR I 1901 Troops

mining region. Army battles Creek Indian revolt. Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914. Marines intervene in revolution. U.S. interests protected in Revolution. Marines land in Russo-Japanese War. Marines land in democratic election. "Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up. Marines land during war with Nicaragua Marines intervene in election contest. Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto. U.S. interests protected in civil war. Continuous occupation with flareups. U.S. interests protected in civil war. Marines land during heated election. Marines protect U.S. economic interests. 10-year occupation, fought guerillas Americans evacuated during revolution. Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo. Breaking of miners' strike by Army. Series of interventions against nationalists. 19-year occupation after revolts. 8-year Marine occupation. Military occupation, economic protectorate. Ships sunk, fought Germany for 1

1901-14 Naval, troops 1903 Troops

1903-04 Troops 1904-05 Troops 1906-09 Troops 1907 1907 1908 1910 1911 Troops Troops Troops Troops Troops

1911-41 Naval, troops 1912 1912 1912 Troops Troops Troops

1912-33 Troops, bombing 1913 1914 1914 Naval Naval Troops

1914-18 Naval, troops 1914-34 Troops, bombing 1916-24 Troops 1917-33 Troops 1917-18 naval, troops

1/2 years. RUSSIA PANAMA HONDURAS YUGOSLAVIA GUATEMALA 1918-22 Naval, troops 1918-20 Troops 1919 1919 1920 Troops Troops/Marines Troops Five landings to fight Bolsheviks "Police duty" during unrest after elections. Marines land during election campaign. intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia. 2-week intervention against unionists. Army intervenes against mineworkers. Fought nationalists in Smyrna. Deployment during nationalist revolt. Landed twice during election strife. Marines suppress general strike. Marines stationed throughout the country. Warships send during Marti revolt. Army stops WWI vet bonus protest. Hawaii bombed, fought Japan, Italy and Germany for 3 years; first nuclear war. Army put down Black rebellion. Soviet troops told to leave north. Response to shoot-down of US plane. Bombers deployed as show of strength. U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war. Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift. evacuate Americans before Communist victory. CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.

WEST VIRGINIA 1920-21 Troops, bombing TURKEY CHINA HONDURAS PANAMA CHINA EL SALVADOR WASHINGTON DC WORLD WAR II DETROIT IRAN YUGOSLAVIA URUGUAY GREECE GERMANY CHINA PHILIPPINES PUERTO RICO 1922 Troops

1922-27 Naval, troops 1924-25 Troops 1925 Troops

1927-34 Troops 1932 1932 Naval Troops Naval, troops, bombing, nuclear Troops Nuclear threat Nuclear threat, naval Nuclear threat

1941-45 1943 1946 1946 1947

1947-49 Command operation 1948 Nuclear Threat

1948-49 Troops/Marines 1948-54 Command operation 1950

Command operation Independence rebellion crushed in

Ponce. Troops, naval, 1951-53 bombing , nuclear (-?) threats 1953 1954 Command Operation Nuclear threat U.S./So. Korea fights China/No. Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, and against China in 1953. Still have bases. CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah. French offered bombs to use against seige.

KOREA

IRAN VIETNAM

GUATEMALA

1954

Command CIA directs exile invasion after new operation, bombing, gov't nationalized U.S. company nuclear threat lands; bombers based in Nicaragua. Nuclear threat, troops Troops, naval Nuclear threat Nuclear threat Troops Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; Marines evacuate foreigners. Marine occupation against rebels. Iraq warned against invading Kuwait. China told not to move on Taiwan isles. Flag protests erupt into confrontation. Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; one million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in l968 and l969. Military build-up during guerrilla war.

EGYPT LEBANON IRAQ CHINA PANAMA

1956 l958 1958 l958 1958

VIETNAM

Troops, naval, l960-75 bombing, nuclear threats 1962 l961 l961 l962 l964 l965 Command operation

LAOS CUBA GERMANY CUBA PANAMA INDONESIA DOMINICAN REPUBLIC GUATEMALA DETROIT

Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails. Nuclear threat Nuclear threat, naval Troops Command operation Alert during Berlin Wall crisis. Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union. Panamanians shot for urging canal's return. Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup. Marines land during election campaign. Green Berets intervene against rebels. Army battles Blacks, 43 killed. After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.

1965-66 Troops, bombing l966-67 Command operation l967 Troops Troops

UNITED STATES l968

CAMBODIA OMAN LAOS SOUTH DAKOTA MIDEAST CHILE CAMBODIA ANGOLA

l969-75 l970 l971-73

Bombing, troops, naval

Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.

Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion. U.S. directs South Vietnamese Command invasion; "carpet-bombs" operation, bombing countryside. Command operation Nuclear threat Command operation Troops, bombing Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas. World-wide alert during Mideast War. CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president. Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash. CIA assists South African-backed rebels. Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution. Two Libyan jets shot down in manoeuvres. Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash. CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbour mines against revolution. Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim positions. Invasion four years after revolution. Manoeuvres help build bases near borders. Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf. Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't. Army assists raids on cocaine region. US intervenes on side of Iraq in war. Two Libyan jets shot down.

l973 1973 1973 l975

l976-92 Command operation Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Naval jets Command operation, troops Command operation, naval Naval, bombing, troops

IRAN

l980

LIBYA

l981

EL SALVADOR

l981-92

NICARAGUA

l981-90

LEBANON GRENADA HONDURAS IRAN LIBYA BOLIVIA IRAN LIBYA

l982-84

l983-84 Troops, bombing l983-89 Troops l984 l986 1986 Jets Bombing, naval Troops

l987-88 Naval, bombing 1989 Naval jets

VIRGIN ISLANDS PHILIPPINES

1989 1989 1989 (-?) 1990

Troops Jets

St. Croix Black unrest after storm. Air cover provided for government against coup. Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed. Foreigners evacuated during civil war. Iraq countered after invading Kuwait. 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel. Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; no-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south, large-scale destruction of Iraqi military. Kuwait royal family returned to throne. Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising. U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction. NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro. No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs. Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup. Marines at Rwandan Hutu refugee camps, in area where Congo revolution begins. Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners. Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners. Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant. Attack on former CIA training

PANAMA

Troops, bombing

LIBERIA

Troops

SAUDI ARABIA

1990-91 Troops, jets

IRAQ

1990-?

Bombing, troops, naval

KUWAIT LOS ANGELES

1991 1992

Naval, bombing, troops Troops Troops, naval, bombing

SOMALIA

1992-94

YUGOSLAVIA BOSNIA

1992-94 Naval 1993-? Jets, bombing

HAITI

1994-? Troops, naval

ZAIRE (CONGO) 1996-97 Troops

LIBERIA ALBANIA

1997 1997

Troops Troops

SUDAN AFGHANISTAN

1998 1998

Missiles Missiles

camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies. IRAQ 1998-? Bombing, Missiles Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions. Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo.

YUGOSLAVIA

1999

Bombing, Missiles